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DROP CREDIT POLICY A REPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO STUDENTS' UNION LOCAL 98, CANADIAN FEDERATION OF STUDENTS MARCH 2013


QUESTIONS? PLEASE CONTACT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO STUDENTS' UNION 12 HART HOUSE CIRCLE TORONTO, ONTARIO M5S 3J9 T: 416.978.4911 F: 416.978.2018 e: vpua@utsu.ca

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TABLE OF

CONTENTS SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................................4 PURPOSE & BACKGROUND....................................................................................................................5 INVESTIGATION OF NORTH AMERICAN UNIVERSITY PRACTICES..................................6 SUMMARY OF UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRACTICES.........................................................8 PROBLEMS WITH THE CURRENT APPEALS PROCESS...........................................................9 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHANGE................................................................................................10 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................................13 APPENDIX.......................................................................................................................................................14 CITATIONS.......................................................................................................................................................18

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SUMMARY OF

RECOMMENDATIONS 1. CONTINUE TO ALLOW STUDENTS TO MAKE MULTIPLE COURSE ATTEMPTS 2. IF A SECOND OR SUBSEQUENT ATTEMPT AT A COURSE REFLECTS A HIGHER ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: • ELIMINATE THE FIRST ATTEMPT FROM THE STUDENTS' TRANSCRIPT • USE THE SECOND ATTEMPT IN THE cGPA CALCULATION 3. ALLOW STUDENTS TO APPLY THIS POLICY THREE TIMES OVER THE COURSE OF THEIR UNDERGRADUATE CAREERS 4. MAKE THE PROCESS SIMPLE AND EASY TO ACCESS THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS 5. PROVIDE ACADEMIC APPEALS AND DROP CREDIT POLICY INFORMATION TO STUDENTS UPON ENROLMENT IN COURSES THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS 6. DEVELOP A UNIVERSITY-WIDE PRACTICE FOR MAKING MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS AT COURSES

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PURPOSE The University of Toronto Students’ Union Executive Committee has developed this report after receiving a mandate to do so from our membership. This report is a review of policies and practices related to the exclusion of course attempts from cumulative grade point averages (cGPA) at 17 North-American institutions similar to the University of Toronto. This document is meant to start a discussion amongst students' unions at the University of Toronto about what type of policies would better reflect students' academic acheivements, in recognition of the fact that failure to achieve academically can be linked to unique personal hardships that students may be facing. We hope to recommend the adoption of studentfriendly policies that reflect the realities that students face.

BACKGROUND As it stands, students at the University of Toronto who repeat courses and earn an improved mark will not have the improvement reflected in their cGPA calculation1. This practice is of concern to students. Repeating courses creates financial burdens, which can exacerbate hardships that led to the student’s poor academic performance in their first attempt. Students are concerned that the lack of a ‘second chance’ policy at the University of Toronto fails to acknowledge true academic potential and achievement. Through this report, we hope to highlight a variety of practices and polices that embody a spirit of fairness.

1 University of Toronto. (2012, March 19). Rules and Regulations. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from Faculty of Arts & Science: http://www.artsandscience.utoronto.ca/ofr/calendar/Rules_&_Regulations.html

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INVESTIGATION OF

NORTH AMERICAN UNIVERSITY PRACTICES THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO STUDENTS’ UNION REVIEWED 18 NORTH AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES TO IDENTIFY COMMON PRACTICES. THE FOLLOWING IS A SNAPSHOT OF PRACTICES BROADLY UNDERSTOOD TO BE ACADEMIC SECOND ATTEMPT POLICIES AND PRACTICES.

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COURSE ATTEMPT

POLICIES & PROCEDURES AT SELECT NORTH AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS1

INSTITUTION

PERMITTED TO REPEAT A COURSE LEADING TO A DEGREE MORE THAN ONCE

AMOUNT OF TIMES A COURSE CAN BE REPEATED BEFORE IT NO LONGER IS CONSIDERED TO BE A COURSE LEADING TO A DEGREE

DO THE OUTCOMES OF ALL COURSES TAKEN REMAIN ON THE STUDENT’S TRANSCRIPT?

IS THE AVERAGE OF ALL COURSE ATTEMPTS USED TO CALCULATE THE CGPA?

IS THE LATEST ATTEMPT USED TO CALCULATE CGPA?

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

Implemented at the division level

N/A

N/A

N/A

No

BROWN

In exceptional cases

N/A

No

No

In exceptional cases

COLUMBIA

Yes

N/A

Yes

N/A

N/A

CORNELL

Implemented at the faculty level

N/A

Yes

Yes

N/A

DARTMOUTH

No

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

HARVARD

Yes. Policies implemented at the faculty level

N/A

Yes

No

No

PRINCETON

Only if the first attempt resulted in a failing grade

N/A

Yes

N/A

N/A

PENN STATE

Yes

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

YALE

Some courses qualify for multiple attemps

N/A

Yes

No

Yes

MCMASTER

Yes

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

YORK

Yes

N/A

No

No

Yes

QUEEN’S

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

Highest mark used

WATERLOO

Yes. Policies implemented at the faculty level

N/A

Yes

No

No

CARLETON

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

Yes

TRENT

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

Highest mark used

RYERSON

Yes

2

Yes

No

Yes

WILFRED LAURIER

Yes

2

Yes

No

Yes

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Yes. Policies implemented at the faculty level

N/A

Yes

N/A

N/A

1 SEE APPENDIX ON PAGE 14 FOR MORE INFORMATION

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SUMMARY OF

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO PRACTICES

The Governing Council of the University of Toronto has no policy in place regarding institutional practices for multiple course completion attempts. Instead, the University of Toronto has a decentralized, faculty-initiated academic appeals process to investigate causes of poor academic performance. The appeals process differs from division to division, but follow guidelines as set out by Governing Council policy, which include1: •

"Divisional processes should provide that students commencing a divisional appeal do so by a written notice that states the nature and grounds of the appeal, and which includes copies of any documents relied upon in support of the appeal."

•

"Divisional processes should ensure that the student has the right to a hearing before the divisional appeals committee in person, with or without counsel or other advisor, and to call evidence and present argument in person or by counsel."

•

If the faculty appeals board denies the appeal, students may appeal to the Governing Council Academic Appeals Committee as the final step in the appeals process. An individual with legal training chairs the Committee and at this level, and the guidance received is more formal. Students are recommended by the Committee to seek legal assistance at this level, although this is not mandatory. Students may bring witnesses and hire a legal advisor for the hearing. The committee meets infrequently and final decisions may take anywhere from a few months to the better part of a year to be made.

1 University of Toronto. (2005, December 12). Policy on Academic Appeals Within Divisions. Retrieved Jaunuary 28, 2012, from Office of the Governing Council: http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/appeal.htm

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PROBLEMS WITH THE CURRENT

APPEALS PROCESS The Governing Council at the University of Toronto does not currently have a campus-wide policy that addresses student concerns about reattempting courses leading to a degree. In contrast to a number of similar academic institutions, the University of Toronto permits faculties to determine practices concerning multiple course attempts, and the Academic Appeals process to adjudicate on cases initiated by students. This is concerning as University of Toronto students may experience radically divergent standards in place at each faculty. By not having a centrally-sanctioned set of practices, the faculties of the University of Toronto are left to their own devices to define limitations. The permissibility of multiple course attempts, the effects of repeated courses on students' Cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA), and the exclusion of course evaluations from the transcript are issues of concern for students. Current practice provides faculties with jurisdiction over academic matters that ought to be governed centrally. Students whose academic performance is negatively impacted by personal circumstances must petition in order to repeat a course. The petition process can be both cumbersome to navigate and lengthy. Students can wait from seven days to several months to complete the petition process. The petition exists as a means by which exceptional cases can be adjudicated. It is our opinion that institution-level academic policy ought to, where possible, be adopted to set clear, easy to access, institutional practices. Further, the petition and appeals processes are a source of anxiety and frustration for many students as they are lengthy and difficult to navigate. Students are often unsure of how to best draft an appeals letter, or what information to include in their petition. The process is simply too bureaucratic and daunting. Awaiting a decision at all levels of the process can induce anxiety in students who already are already overwhelmed. At a time when mental health is a critical concern among university students, the university must do all that they can to alleviate these concerns.

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RECOMMENDATIONS FOR

CHANGE

The University of Toronto Students’ Union recommends that the University of Toronto adopt what is commonly known as a “Drop Credit” policy. In particular, the University of Toronto Students’ Union recommends that the Governing Council do the following:

1. CONTINUE TO ALLOW STUDENTS TO MAKE MULTIPLE COURSE ATTEMPTS 2. IF A SECOND OR SUBSEQUENT ATTEMPT AT A COURSE REFLECTS A HIGHER ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: • ELIMINATE THE FIRST ATTEMPT FROM THE STUDENTS' TRANSCRIPT • USE THE SECOND ATTEMPT IN THE cGPA CALCULATION 3. ALLOW STUDENTS TO APPLY THIS POLICY THREE TIMES OVER THE COURSE OF THEIR UNDERGRADUATE CAREERS 4. MAKE THE PROCESS SIMPLE AND EASY TO ACCESS THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS 5. PROVIDE ACADEMIC APPEALS AND DROP CREDIT POLICY INFORMATION TO STUDENTS UPON ENROLMENT IN COURSES THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS 6. DEVELOP A UNIVERSITY-WIDE PRACTICE FOR MAKING MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS AT COURSES

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1. CONTINUE TO ALLOW STUDENTS TO MAKE MULTIPLE COURSE ATTEMPTS Academic performance is tied to realities that extend beyond the borders of our campuses. Academic performance has been linked to household education levels, socioeconomic status, mental health and factors which are external to the student and their institution. By continuing to permit students to repeat courses, the university implicitly acknowledges that individual circumstances can have a negative impact on academic performance. Multiple course attempts are a means of ensuring students with extenuating circumstances can progress in their academic careers.

2. IF A SECOND OR SUBSEQUENT ATTEMPT AT A COURSE REFLECTS A HIGHER ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: • ELIMINATE THE FIRST ATTEMPT FROM THE STUDENT'S TRANSCRIPT • USE THE SECOND ATTEMPT IN THE cGPA CALCULATION Academic success ought to be formally recognized. If a student has demonstrated a particular level of academic achievement and potential in a course, their efforts should be reflected in their academic transcript. The cGPA and the transcript are the records of formal recognition of academic achievement. By committing to reflect the improvement of performance on both students’ cGPAs and transcripts, the University would honour its commitment to recognizing academic achievements. It would also help to ensure that students are not penalized for extenuating circumstances and individual hardships.

3. ALLOW STUDENTS TO APPLY THIS POLICY THREE TIMES OVER THE COURSE OF THEIR UNDERGRADUATE CAREERS Students will respect this policy and apply it with care if there are limits placed on its use. We recommend that three applications of this policy be provided to students over their entire academic career to ensure fair use of the policy. Without limitations, students who can afford to retake courses could abuse this policy and improve their cGPA and transcripts substantially. The limit of three attempts makes the policy flexible to accommodate for students with ongoing extenuating circumstances negatively impacting academic performance.

4. MAKE THIS PROCESS SIMPLE AND EASY TO ACCESS THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS Application of this policy should focus on neutrality and accessibility. It should be passive, non-confrontational, or anxiety-inducing for the student. Applying for a replacement course should be as simple as applying for a course through ROSI or NGSIS. By using the systems already in place such as ROSI or NGSIS, the Governing Council would avoid the pitfalls of implementing a complex, intimidating application procedure which replicates the length, frustration and anxiety associated with the current Academic Appeals process.

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5. PROVIDE ACADEMIC APPEALS AND DROP CREDIT POLICY INFORMATION TO STUDENTS UPON ENROLMENT IN COURSES THROUGH ROSI OR NGSIS From our research and interactions with our members, we have learned that students are generally uninformed about the appeals process. Typically, students only come to know the appeals process some time after an academic issue arises. By promoting the policy through an online student registration system, every student would be aware of the policy and and would be more likely to understand and not misuse it. Actively providing knowledge of the policy through ROSI, and eventually NGSIS, will be effective. All students will interact with the online registration system multiple times throughout an academic year. By proactively providing information on the policy, all students can be expected to be aware of it.

6. DEVELOP A UNIVERSITY-WIDE PRACTICE FOR MAKING MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS AT COURSES The Governing Council at the University of Toronto does not have an institutional-wide policy that addresses student concerns regarding course reattempts leading to a degree. Students may experience divergent policies at each faculty. Standard practice across faculties would facilitate academic fairness for all students. Other post-secondary institutions investigated in our report have established standard, institutional-wide practices.

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CONCLUSION Academic forgiveness policies support students in extenuating circumstances. Across universities in North America, institutional-wide academic forgiveness policies are the standard. By implementing similar policies, the University of Toronto would align itself with peer North American institutions. The Drop Credit policy is necessary. The academic record should reflect performance fairly and equitably across the University. Students are often negatively impacted by circumstances outside of their control. In resolving their personal hardships, students should not have to face additional barriers from their university. The Drop Credit policy supports students with extenuating circumstances such as mental health concerns, or family emergencies by affording them the academic flexibility necessary to ensure academic success in times of distress. By adopting the Drop Credit policy, Governing Council would be demonstrating its support for students at-risk before they slip through the cracks.

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APPENDIX

1. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculties of the University of Toronto establish their own policies and procedures regarding course repeat. The Faculty of Arts and Science permits course repeats only for instances when a student has achieved > 50% in the course and when academic performance falls below a requisite level to continue in a limitedenrolment program. Course repeat requests are handled by the college registrar as outlined by the Faculty of Arts and Science. The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering permits course repeats for first-year students whose academic performance per semester falls between particular levels. Further, the faculty sets limits on how many courses can be repeated. Information for other faculties are described in the chart below (University of Toronto, 2012, 2013): FACULTY:

MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS PERMITTED?

CAP ON MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS?

DETAILS

MUSIC

Yes, but may not repeat any course in which they have already obtained a mark of 50% or higher.

Only one attempt permitted

The following are excerpts from the 2012-13 Faculty Calendar: "Passed Courses May Not Be Repeated Students may not repeat any course in which they have already obtained a mark of 50 per cent or higher." "The Two-Strikes Rule... Any music course that is failed by a student can be repeated only once. Failure on a second attempt results in automatic suspension for a period of twelve months, regardless of the student's standing in a year. Upon readmission, the student has one opportunity to successfully complete the previously failed music course.."

OISE

No course repeat policies or procedures are publicly available.

PHARMACY LAW DANIEL’S FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE NURSING OISE MUSIC FACULTY OF KIN AND PHE NURSING

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2. BROWN UNIVERSITY An excerpt from the Office of the Registrar: “Unless specifically mentioned as an exception in this announcement, any course already completed for credit (either at Brown or through transfer credit) may not be repeated (Brown, 2013)". 3. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Course repeats are permitted. In order to have grade changes reflected on the transcript, students must have the updated mark approved by the appropriate office(s). Undergraduate students must have course repeat grades approved by the relevant department and the academic advising center. Once approved, the grade change will be reflected on the student’s transcript (Columbia, 2013). 4. CORNELL UNIVERSITY The following are excerpts from the Courses of Study Policies and Procedures webpage: “If a course is repeated, both courses and both grades are included in the official transcript.” “…both grades are included in the calculation of the GPA (i.e. if a course is repeated, the second course does not replace the first course on the official transcript (Cornell, 2011)." 5. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE According to the Office of the Registrar Course Election Reference Guide, undergraduate students may not repeat courses if they were successful in their first attempt (Dartmmouth, 2013). 6. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Students who wish to repeat a course for which they have received a passing grade may do so. The second iteration of the course and its grade will appear on the transcript in brackets and will not count in any way toward degree requirements, determination of honors, or grade point average. Students are normally allowed to repeat failed courses for both grade and credit. Note, however, that the failing grade received when the course was taken the first time remains a permanent part of the College record (Harvard, 2013). 7. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY An excerpt from Princeton’s Academic Standing and Regulations: “While the grade of F in a course normally does not mean that the particular course must be repeated, there are several instances in which a failed course must be retaken and successfully completed. This is the case for a foreign language course taken to complete the language requirement; for the courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and computer programming that are part of the B.S.E. degree requirements; for specific courses needed as prerequisites to enter a department or program; and for any course the successful completion of which is required of the concentrators in a given department. If a student chooses or is required to repeat a failed course, the failing grade remains on the transcript (Princeton, 2013).” 8. PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY Excerpt from University Undergraduate Advising Handbook: “When a course has been repeated, all of the credits and grades earned are included when calculating the student's grade-point average. However, the course counts only once as a graduation requirement (Pennsylvania State, 2013).” Excerpt from the Senate Policy: 47-80 Repeating Courses: “A student may repeat a course in which a grade of D or F was received. A course in which a grade of C or better was obtained also may be repeated if written evidence of consultation is obtained from the student's adviser and a copy is submitted to the Office of the University Registrar. Any course repeated under this policy may be counted no more than once as a graduation requirement. Under this policy both grades are included in the computation of the grade-point average (Pennsylvania State, 2007).” 9. YALE UNIVERSITY Excerpt from Registration and Enrollment in Courses – repeated enrollment in the same course: “Courses may not be repeated for credit, except for courses marked "May be taken more than once" or "May be repeated for credit." In such cases, the repeated course earns no additional distributional credit. On some rare occasions, a student may take the same course over again, or may take a course with the same content as another course the student has already passed. In such cases, the student receives credit

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for the course only once. Should a student take the same or an equivalent course twice, each course with its grade appears on the transcript. The student receives course credit for the higher grade if one is earned; in such an event, course credit is not given for the lower grade. Note, however, that both grades are included in the calculation of a student's grade point average (GPA) and in the calculation for General Honors (Yale, 2013).” 10. McMASTER UNIVERSITY Excerpt from University Regulations: “Students may repeat courses that have been failed or for which credit has been obtained a number of times, with the exception of the students in the Faculty of Business who may only repeat courses which they have failed. The grades for all attempts appear on the transcript and enter into the computation of the Cumulative Average. However, only one successful attempt will enter into the computation of credit earned towards your degree (McMaster, 2008).” 11. YORK UNIVERSITY Excerpts from the Policies, Procedures and Regulations webpage: “… (a) Students are allowed to repeat a passed or a failed course once for academic degree or certificate credit. Students should note that course availability and space considerations may preclude the possibility of repeating a course in the session they choose. (b) When a student is allowed to repeat a course for academic degree or certificate credit, the second grade will be the grade of record and the only grade calculated in the student’s grade point average (Major, Cumulative, Sessional and Overall). A course can be credited only once towards satisfaction of degree or certificate academic credit requirements. (c) The record of both the first and second time the course was taken will appear on the student’s transcript, with the first course designated as ‘No Credit Retained’. (d) The restrictions regarding repeating a passed or failed course also apply to cross listed courses and course credit exclusions.” Furthermore, York University allows course repeat registration to occur online through the normal course registration process without seeking permission (York, 2006). 12. QUEEN’S UNIVERSITY Excerpt from the Faculty of Arts & Science Academic Regulations and University Procedures Regulation 21: “A student may retake a course … but the total number of course completions shall in no case exceed the maximum permitted under Regulation 20ci. Each course counts only once in the program for the degree. Each failure counts in the total number of failures permitted. When a course is retaken, the attempt with the higher mark will count toward the degree program. However, both entries will continue to appear on the student's transcript.” Furthermore, Regulation 20ci states: “Students who have either 1) accumulated 6.0 or more failures or 2) have not passed 15.0 credits, including a minor concentration, with a 60.0 per cent average, in 22.0 attempts (including transferable courses taken and failed in another university, faculty or school before transfer to the Faculty of Arts and Science), will be required to withdraw for a minimum of three years. (Queen's, 2013)” 13. UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Course repeat policies and procedures are specific to each faculty. Excerpt from the Faculty of Arts Academic Regulations: “When a course is repeated, the two grades are not averaged together. Rather, both grades are entered with all other grades in calculating the student's cumulative overall average. A failed course may be repeated once. A passed course may not be repeated except under exceptional circumstances, and then only once and only under all the following conditions: if the student's academic advisor recommends the repetition, if, in the event that the course in question is not within the student's major, the department offering the course also recommends the repetition, and if the Arts Examinations and Standings Committee approves the petition for repetition

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of the course in advance of registration for the repetition.

Only one of the two attempts will count for credit towards the degree. In instances where a student repeats a successfully completed course that has subsequently been cleared (given credit but grade does not count in average), the second instance will not receive credit and will not count in average” The Faculty of Engineering outlines terms and conditions for repeating academic terms, and not standalone courses (Waterloo, 2013). 14. CARLETON UNIVERSITY Excerpt form the Student Academic Success Centre webpage: “When you repeat a course, the original course attempt and grade are bumped out of your degree and are moved to a section of your audit called “COURSES SET ASIDE”. Both grades will always appear on your transcript, but only the most recent grade will be included in your audit and your CGPA calculation. The advantage of repeating and completing a course with a better grade is that the old grade will no longer count towards your CGPA(s). However, if after repeating the course you earn the same or a lower grade, the most recent grade (even if it’s lower) will be used in your CGPA (Carleton, 2013).” 15. TRENT UNIVERSITY Excerpt from the Undergraduate Academic Advisor’s Frequently Asked Questions Website: “Can I re-take a course that I passed if I’m not happy with the grade? Yes, you can repeat any course regardless of the grade you received. All attempts will remain on your academic record, but no more than one will be assigned credit. The attempt with the highest grade will be used to determine your cumulative average (Trent, 2013).” 16. RYERSON UNIVERSITY The following is an excerpt from the Ryerson Student Guide 2012-2013: “The grade earned for a repeated course is substituted for the previous grade in calculating subsequent grade point averages even if the later grade is lower, but both attempts are recorded on the transcript. A passing grade in either of the attempts will be used to fulfill graduation requirements. No course can be repeated more than twice. (i.e., enrolled initially, repeated once, repeated twice = three enrollments) (Ryerson, 2012).” 17. WILFRED LAURIER UNIVERSITY The following Is an excerpt from Laurier’s Academic Advising Frequently Asked Questions webpage: ”Students may retake up to 2.0 credits and have the new grade replace the old grade in the GPA calculation. The failure will remain on your transcript. No course may be attempted more than twice (Wilfred Laurier, 2013).” 18. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC faculties decide course repeat procedures. The following is an excerpt from the Faculty of Arts Academic Regulations webpage: “A student who has passed a course is permitted to repeat it for a higher standing. Students who are repeating a course which they have passed must be aware that credit will not be awarded for it again and the previous grade will not be replaced.” Further, the Faculty of Science forbids course repeats where a student has passed a science course without exception (British Columbia, 2012).

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CITATIONS

1.

University of Toronto. (2005, December 12). Policy on Academic Appeals Within Divisions. Retrieved Jaunuary 28, 2013, from Office of the Governing Council: http://www. governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/appeal.htm University of Toronto. Academic Appeals Process Flowchart. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Office of the Governing Council: http://www.adfg.utoronto.ca/Assets/ ADFG+Digital+Assets/ADFG/ADFG+Digital+Assets/Academic+Appeals/PDF+-+Academ ic+Appeals+Process+Flowchart.pdf?method=1 University of Toronto. Office of Appeals, Discipline and Faculty Grievances. "Resources and Important Links". Retrieved January 28, 2013. http://www.adfg.utoronto.ca/processes/ acappeals/resources University of Toronto . (2012, March 19). Rules and Regulations. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from Faculty of Arts & Science: http://www.artsandscience.utoronto.ca/ofr/calendar/ Rules_&_Regulations.html University of Toronto. (2012). 2012-2013 Calendar. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering: http://www.apsc.utoronto.ca/Calendars/2012-2013/ OLC-Engineering-2012-2013.pdf

2. Brown University . (n.d.). Office of the Registrar. Retrieved January 23, 2013, from http:// www.brown.edu/Administration/Registrar/guidelines/courses/index.html#repeated 3. Carleton University. (n.d.). Audit FAQs. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from Student Academic Success Centre: http://www1.carleton.ca/sasc/advisingcentre/audit/audit-faqs/ 4. Columbia University. (2013). Grade Changes. Retrieved 02 17, 2013, from University Registrar: http://registrar.columbia.edu/content/grade-changes 5. Cornell University. (2011). Policies and Procedures. Retrieved 02 28, 2013, from Courses of Study: http://courses.cornell.edu/content.php?catoid=12&navoid=2080#Scholastic_ Standards 6. Dartmouth College. (2013, February 21). Course Election Reference Guide: Students. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from Office of the Registrar: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~reg/ guides/csel/csel_student.html 7. Harvard University. (n.d.). Student Handbook. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from Faculty of Arts & Sciences: http://static.fas.harvard.edu/registrar/ugrad_handbook/current/chapter2/ repeating_courses.html 8. McMaster University. (2008). Unversity Regulations. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from FullTime Undergraduate Calendar: http://registrar.mcmaster.ca/calendar/2012-13/pg121.html 9. Pennsylvania State University. (n.d.). 47-00, 48-00, and 49-00 Grades. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from University Faculty Senate: http://www.calendar.ubc.ca/vancouver/index. cfm?tree=12,197,282,54 10. Pennsylvania State University. (2007, July). Repeating Courses. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from University Undergraduate Advising Handbook: http://dus.psu.edu/handbook/ repeat.html 11. Princeton University. (2013). Academic Standing and Regulation. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from Undergraduate Announcement 2012-2013: http://www.princeton.edu/ua/sections/9/

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12. Queen's University. (n.d.). Academic Probatino and Requirements to Withdraw. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from Faculty of Arts & Sciences: http://www.queensu.ca/calendars/ artsci/Regulation_20____Academic_Probation_and_Requirements_to_Withdraw.html 13. Queen's University. (n.d.). Retaking Courses. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from Faculty of Arts & Sciences: http://www.queensu.ca/calendars/artsci/Regulation_21____Retaking_of_ Courses.html 14. Ryerson University. (n.d.). Course Repeats. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Ryerson Student Guide 2012-2013: http://www.ryerson.ca/studentguide/AcademicMatters16.html 15. Trent University. (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from My Academic Advisor: http://www.trentu.ca/advising/faq_coursequestions.php#courserepeat 16. University of British Columbia. (n.d.). Academic Regulations. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Vancouver Academic Calendar 2012/13: http://www.calendar.ubc.ca/vancouver/ index.cfm?tree=12,197,282,54 17. University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Arts Academic Regulations and Advice. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Undergraduate Studies Academic Calendar: http://ugradcalendar.uwaterloo. ca/page/ARTS-Course-Selection 18. University of Waterloo. (n.d.). Bachelor of Applied Science and Bachelor of Software Engineering Specific Degree Requirements. Retrieved Janurary 28, 2013, from Undergraduate Studies Academic Calendar: http://ugradcalendar.uwaterloo.ca/page/ ENG-Examinations-and-Promotions-Rules 19. Wilfred Laurier University. (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Dean's Office/ Academic Advising: http://www.ryerson.ca/studentguide/AcademicMatters16.html 20. Yale College. (n.d.). Registration adn Enrollment in Courses. Retrieved January 19, 2013, from Yale College: http://yalecollege.yale.edu/content/registration-and-enrollmentcourses 21. York University. (2006, June 26). Policies, Procedures and Regulations. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from York University Secretariat: http://www.yorku.ca/univsec/policies/ document.php?document=92

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A REPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO STUDENTS' UNION LOCAL 98, CANADIAN FEDERATION OF STUDENTS MARCH 2013


Drop Credit Lobby Document 2013