DELEGATE HANDBOOK Otago Uni Model Security Council THE UNIVERSITY OF OTAGO 6 August 2011 www.unyouth.org.nz
ABOUT UN YOUTH NZ Delegate Handbook
CONTENTS ABOUT UN YOUTH NZ ABOUT THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TIMETABLE OF EVENTS GUIDE TO SECURITY COUNCIL THE DAY OF THE EVENT THE BACKGROUND: THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM ARE THE STEPS ENOUGH? THE QUESTION: THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM RULES OF PROCEDURE
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Otago Uni Model Security Council 16 July 2011 University of Otago Dipti Manchanda COORDINATOR Designed by JY Lee NDT ART AND GRAPHIC DESIGNER
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United Nations Youth New Zealand (UN Youth) serves as the youth arm of the United Nations Association of New Zealand, a member of the World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA). WFUNA has consultative status to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Despite only being in existence since 1999, UN Youth creates an amazing opportunity for youth (aged 25 and under) to express themselves, learn about the United Nations and provide positive solutions for what is, ultimately, their future. UN Youth is the organiser of a growing number of events throughout New Zealand, at both a secondary and tertiary level. UN Youth also facilitates delegations to overseas conferences including Australia, Europe and Asia.
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ABOUT THE SE
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The United Nations Headquarters in New York
E UNITED NATIONS ECURITY COUNCIL The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorisation of military action. Its powers are exercised through United Nations Security Council Resolutions.
There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting of five permanent members with the power of veto (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) and ten elected non-permanent members with two-year terms. The current non-permanent members are: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Colombia, Gabon, Germany, India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal and South Africa. At this conference, Pakistan will also have representation on the Security Council as an observer state.
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TIMETABLE OF EVENTS 6 AUGUST SATURDAY 9.00
Opening Speeches - UN Youth New Zealand - Professor Kevin Clements, National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies Director
Rules of Procedure explanation
Resolution - THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM LUNCH (Not provided) LUNCH
Resolution Close-of(Continued) debate Clean-up
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GUIDE TO MODEL S BEFORE THE EVENT
You should do some research on your assigned country so you know where they stand on the resolution. Below is a starting point for understanding your assigned country a little better. This is not intended to be a comprehensive framework of all you need to know, but a brief at-a-glance summary of some key points. Be sure to have information about how your country feels about the resolution topic as well. Full
Capital: ______________________ Languages: _________________________ Currency: ___________________ Regional Grouping: _________________ Neighbouring countries: __________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Current governing party: _________________________________________ Name of current leader: __________________________________________ Population: _______________ Gross Domestic Product: _________________ Main
Main industries: _________________________________________________ Ethnic
Religious composition: ___________________________________________ Memberships:
________________________________________________________________ Important Events: Date Event OUMSC | 8
SECURITY COUNCIL HOW MUCH WILL I BE EXPECTED TO KNOW? The short answer to this is that there will always be someone who knows more and someone who knows less than you do. Make sure you have done enough research to know whether you support the resolution or not, and some reasons why you do, or donâ€™t.
SOME GOOD RESEARCH RESOURCES INCLUDE: CIA FACTBOOK
UNITED NATIONS WEBSITE
BBC WEBSITE COUNTRY PROFILES
REMEMBER: You are representing the government of your country, which may be quite different from representing the views of the people of that country, or your own views. OUMSC | 9
Y OF THE EVENT VENUE:
The Model Security Council is being held in the Moot Court, which is on the 10th floor of the Richardson Building at the University of Otago. If you have trouble finding the correct location or get lost, you can contact Dipti on 0277103685 or Sarah on 0212132292. The Richardson Building is identified on the campus map below:
The registration cost is $30 per participant. This was paid on registration.
Business attire, or national dress.
A lunch at Korea House is included in the registration fee. Feel free to bring any other snacks you may need.
THINGS TO This delegate booklet, research youâ€™ve done, pens and paper. You may also bring a laptop, but note that the Moot BRING: Court does not have reliable internet access.
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According to documents published by Wikileaks earlier this year, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, known as the architect of the 9/11 attacks, revealed during an interrogation at Guantanamo Bay that if Osama bin Laden were to be captured or killed al-Qaeda would detonate a “weapon of mass destruction” in Europe, creating a “nuclear hellstorm”. The detonation of a single nuclear bomb could kill hundreds of thousands. World leaders are increasingly recognising the risk of nuclear terrorism, identified by President Obama as the greatest threat to our security. Though the threat of nuclear terrorism has played on the minds of the United Nations since the days of the Cold War, world leaders are becoming increasingly concerned at the prospect of a range of groups, including al-Qaeda, obtaining nuclear weapons.
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Western Sahara Landscape - UN Photo
F NUCLEAR TERRORISM The United Nations has already taken steps to try to mitigate this risk. The 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism: Criminalises nuclear terrorists Promotes cooperation within and between nations to prevent, investigate and punish any act of nuclear terrorism Encourages those member states with nuclear technology to confirm its safety with the International Atomic Energy Agency alises nuclear terrorists
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ARE THE STEP Radioactive material continues to be smuggled across Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Leaked documents suggest that al-Qaeda now has access to such material and has successfully recruited scientists to its organisation.
Pakistan and India are two states who have declared that they have nuclear weapons but not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Since the capture and killing of Osama bin Laden, the credibility of the Pakistani governmentâ€™s commitment to combating terrorism has been questioned. It is believed that Pakistan may have around 80 warheads.
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PS ENOUGH? Pakistanâ€™s political stability is another matter of concern. There has beenOHSMSC great | 15 debate about whether the desirability of offering assistance to the Pakistani military.
It should be noted that some equipment used to protect nuclear weapons can also be used to deploy them.
Would the Pakistani regime be further undermined?
Would such assistance be consistent with the NPT, or encourage nuclear testing?
Given Pakistanâ€™s rivalry and strained relationship with India, another nuclear power, how would India react to such assistance?
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THE THREAT OF NU
THE QUESTION The United Nations Security Council, Recalling the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1970, Further recalling the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 2005, Noting the impact of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Commending steps taken by member states to protect both nuclear and nonnuclear weapon stockpiles, Recognising the prevalence of cross-border security threats, Encouraged by international cooperation to address global security issues, Alarmed by the illegal trade of arms and the use of arms and weapons by militant groups, Further alarmed by the prospect of such groups obtaining nuclear technology,
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UCLEAR TERRORISM 1.
Urges member states to cease the development and production of nuclear weapons;
Reaffirms the right of member states to use and develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes;
Encourages member states to cooperate with one another in promoting domestic, regional and global security;
4. Demands a reduction in aid to and trade with member states taking inadequate measures to combat militant groups, or are considered sponsors of such groups, as determined by the Security Council;
Endorses the assistance of member states known to possess nuclear weapons, particularly Pakistan, in their efforts to protect nuclear sites through a. The sharing of technology b. Financial assistance c. Military assistance d. Any other such support as these states request;
Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
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MODEL SECURITY COUNCIL RULES OF PROCEDURE SECTION A: GENERAL Rule 1: These Rules of Procedure shall apply throughout all meetings of the Security Council at the Otago Model Security Council 2008. Rule 2: The working language of the Conference shall be English. Rule 3: The permanent five members are as follows; China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States of America. These shall have the power of veto on substantive matters only. Rule 4: Notes will only be passed during periods of Formal Debate or Moderated Caucus. Notes may not be frivolous or irrelevant. All notes must state clearly both to whom it is addressed and who it is from. Conference Assistants, Chairpersons or other representatives of the Secretariat may intercept and/or read any note. No delegate except that to whom it is addressed may read a note.
SECTION B: VOTING Rule 5: Each member of the SC shall have one vote. Observer members may vote on procedural matters. Rule 6: Decisions of the SC on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members. All votes on motions, amendments and any other matter outside of adopting resolutions shall be procedural. Delegates may only vote for or against procedural matters. All procedural votes shall prima facie be by placard-vote. Rule 7: If a procedural vote is equally divided and a simple majority is required, a recount shall be called. If the recount is equally divided, the procedural vote shall be taken as having failed. Rule 8: When a delegate is for whatever reason unable to remain in the Security Council Chamber for a substantive vote, he or she may submit a proxy vote in writing to the Director. Rule 9: Delegates may elect to vote for, against or abstain on substantive votes. All substantive votes shall be by roll-call. Substantive matters require an affirmative vote of nine members of the Security Council to pass, including an affirmative vote or abstention from the five Permanent Members. The Chairperson shall read out the voting countries in alphabetical order. When a delegate’s Member State is read out, he or she shall reply with ‘yes’, ‘no’, or ‘abstain’. OUMSC | 18
SECTION C: CHAIRPERSON Rule 10: Each session of the Security Council shall have one Chairperson Rule 11: Role of Security Council Chairperson A: The Chairperson of the Security Council shall be responsible for facilitating debate amongst delegates, implementing and enforcing these Rules of Procedure, and communicating information to and from the Secretariat. B: The Chairperson of the Security Council may: open and close each session at his or her discretion; propose any motion listed under these Rules of Procedure; draw up, open and close Speakers’ Lists; rule upon matters of procedure; distribute materials; censure delegates and exercise all other powers necessary to enforce these Rules of Procedure. C: The Chairperson shall endeavour to ensure that all delegates are accorded fair and reasonable opportunities to speak. Where appropriate, the Chair may accord precedence to delegates who have not yet spoken. The Chair may also accord precedence to delegates representing Member States with special or particular relationships to the issue under debate. D: The Chair may censure any delegate he or she reasonably believes is knowingly acting in disregard of these rules of procedure or otherwise acting against the best interests of the Conference and Security Council. E: The Chair’s rulings are final and absolute.
SECTION D: DEBATE Rule 12: At the beginning of the day’s debate, the Chair shall invite delegates to introduce their countries’ position on the issue in their Opening Statements of Position. Each statement shall be restricted to one minute in length. Delegates will be called in alphabetical order by the Chair to give these statements. Non-permanent and observer members may abstain from doing so. Rule 13: Substantive debate shall be divided into three categories: 1) Moderated Caucuses; 2) Un-moderated Caucuses; 3) Formal Debate. Rule 14: Moderated Caucuses must be initiated by motion. At the initiation of a Moderated Caucus, the Chair shall specify to all delegates: 1) The topic of the Moderated Caucus; 2) The duration of the Moderated Caucus; and 3) The time limit for individual speeches within the Moderated Caucus. Rule 15: Speakers shall remain at their seats within the Security Council Chamber throughout the Moderated Caucus. Speakers shall stand only when recognised by the Chair. No Speakers List shall be drawn up. The Chair shall, at the completion of each speech, call for those wishing to speak to raise their placards and then recognise one such delegate, who shall then stand and speak. All speeches shall be made through the Chair. If the Moderated Caucus was initiated by a motion from the floor, its Proposer shall have first speaking rights. OUMSC | 19
Rule 16: Moderated Caucuses shall be specifically focused upon one issue within the scope of an agenda item. If a speaker deviates from this topic, the Director may discipline him or her, or another delegate may call a Point of Order. Rule 17: The duration of a Moderated Caucus shall be set by the Director. Delegates proposing a Moderated Caucus in a motion from the floor may propose a time limit for the Moderated Caucus. The Chair may extend a Moderated Caucus by up to five minutes without a motion. A delegate may propose a Motion to Return to Formal Debate, and if such a motion passes, the Moderated Caucus shall end. Rule 18: An Un-moderated Caucus is a period of discussion of a fixed length during which time delegates may circulate and discuss issues arising from the agenda item under discussion. No points or motions from the floor shall be entertained. Rule 19: Un-moderated Caucuses must be initiated by motion. At the initiation of an Un-Moderated Caucus, the Chair shall specify the duration of the Un-moderated Caucus to all delegates. Delegates proposing a motion to move to Un-moderated Caucus may specify a time of duration. Rule 20: Unless otherwise stated, the rules of Formal Debate are presumed to apply throughout all Security Council sessions. Rule 21: Formal debate shall be the primary method for discussion of agenda items at the Conference. During Formal Debate, all speeches shall be made through the Chair in strict accordance with the Speakers’ Lists. All motions and points from the floor shall be open. Time limits for speeches shall be set by the Chair, but shall be no more than five minutes. Rule 22: Speakers’ Lists shall determine the speaking order throughout Formal Debate and shall be drawn up by the Chair or Secretariat. During Formal Debate, only speakers on a Speakers’ List may give speeches, although others may raise motions and points from the floor or speak if yielded to. Rule 23: At any time during formal substantive debate a speaker may yield the floor to another delegate subject to the Chair’s discretion. Such a speaker must be on the Speaker’s List unless said Speaker’s List has been exhausted. Rule 24: At the exhaustion of a Draft Resolution Speakers’ List, or otherwise immediately prior to voting on a Draft Resolution, the proposing delegate may deliver a short address summarising the advantages of the Draft Resolution. This address will be no longer than two minutes.
SECTION E: RESOLUTIONS AND AMENDMENTS Rule 25: Draft Resolutions are introduced by motion from the floor. If a Draft Resolution is successfully introduced: 1) The Chair shall close and suspend the General Speakers List; 2) The Proposer shall come forward to read the Operative Clauses; 3) Questions of Clarification shall be entertained; 4) Syntactic and Semantic Amendments shall be taken; 5) The Proposer shall speak to the Draft Resolution; OUMSC | 20
6) 7) 8)
The Director shall open the Draft Resolution Speakers’ List; The Seconder shall speak to the Draft Resolution; then The Draft Resolution Speaker’s List shall commence with the first speaker against.
Rule 26: Amendments may be proposed by any Member State. An Amendment must be submitted to the Chair before it may be introduced. Amendments need not be distributed to all delegates, but all delegates must have the opportunity to read an amendment before any vote on its introduction. All Amendments must 1) Be signed by its Proposer and Seconder; 2) Clearly state which agenda item and Draft Resolution it pertains to; 3) Be signed by at least ten percent of the Member States in the Security Council; 4) Follow correct UN Resolution format; and 5) Be typed or clearly hand-written and free from errors of spelling and grammar. The Chair may, at his or her discretion, reject frivolous or inappropriate Amendments. Rule 27: Amendments are introduced by motion from the floor. If an Amendment is successfully introduced: 1) The Chair shall close and suspend the Draft Resolution Speakers List; 2) The Proposer shall come forward an read the Amendment; 3) Questions of Clarification shall be entertained; 4) Syntactic and Semantic Amendments shall be taken; 5) The Security Council shall carry out a vote to determine whether or not to debate the Amendment; then: 6) If the vote to debate passes, an Amendment Speakers’ List shall be opened, the Proposer shall speak to the Amendment, and the Amendment Speakers’ List shall then commence with the first speaker against; or 7) If the vote to debate fails, the Amendment shall move directly to a vote. Rule 28: If the Security Council moves to debate an amendment, the Chair shall draw up an Amendment Speakers’ List. This list shall function in the manner of a Draft Resolution Speakers’ List, but the discussion is to be focused on the Amendment alone. No Proposer’s Right of Reply shall apply.
SECTION F: POINTS AND MOTIONS Rule 29: Points of Order A delegate may call a Point of Order if another delegate or the Chair is in breach of these rules of procedure. A Point of Order may interrupt the debate at any time. When a Point of Order is recognised, the delegate raising the Point is to explain, in less than thirty seconds, how procedure has not been followed. The Chair shall then rule as to whether the Point is in or out of order. Rule 30: Points of Personal Privilege Points of Personal Privilege may be raised if a speaker is inaudible or any matter of the Security Council environment is unsatisfactory. When a Point of Personal Privilege is recognised, the delegate raising the Point is to explain his or her concern in less than thirty seconds. Unless urgent, Points of Personal Privilege should be made in writing. OUMSC | 21
Rule 31: Points of Procedural Enquiry A Point of Procedural Enquiry allows a delegate to clarify matters of procedure. Points of Procedural Enquiry may not interrupt speakers. When a Point of Procedural Enquiry is recognised, the delegate raising the Point is to outline, in less than thirty seconds, what element of procedure he or she wishes clarification on. Unless urgent, Points of Procedural Enquiry should be made in writing. Whether or not the Point is made orally, the Chair shall respond with an oral declaration to all delegates. Rule 32: Points of Information Points of Information may be offered at the end of any speech arising from a non-procedural Speakers List. Points of Information may not be addressed to the Proposer or Seconder of a Draft Resolution, or the Proposer of an Amendment. Speakers may choose to accept or refuse Points of Information. If a speaker elects to take Points of Information, the Chair will then invite delegates wishing to make such points to raise their placards, without speaking, and await recognition. The Chair or delegate may limit the number of Points of Information at his or her discretion. All points of information are to be brief, relevant, and in the form of a question. Rule 33: Point of Abuse If a delegate feels a speaker is abusing their nation or that false statements have been made about their nation, they may stand and state their objection. Delegates must wait until the completion of the speech to raise their objection in all but the most serious of cases. If the Chairâ€™s discretion recognises the standing delegate, they may call upon the speaker for an immediate apology or issue a warning. In extreme cases and if the delegate has received several warnings, the Chair may expel thewm from the remainder of the session. Rule 34: Procedural motions may be made by any delegate or the Chair and may not interrupt speakers. A delegate wishing to raise a procedural motion should stand, raise his or her placard, and state the motion he or she wishes to raise. They may not speak to that motion. The Director may reject frivolous or inappropriate motions. A motion that has been recognised shall be put to the vote. Rule 35: The following procedural motions are admissible; 1) Motion for a Moderated Caucus; 2) Motion to Extend the Moderated Caucus; 3) Motion to Return to Formal Debate; 4) Motion for an Un-moderated Caucus; 5) Motion to Introduce a Draft Resolution; 6) Motion to Introduce an Amendment; 7) Motion to Suspend Debate; 8) Motion to Resume Debate; 9) Motion to Close Debate; 10) Motion to Divide the Question; 11) Motion for Roll Call Vote; 12) Motion for Recount; 13) Motion for Procedural Debate; 14) Motion to Adjourn Session.
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THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF NEW ZEALAND (UNITED NATIONS YOUTH ASSOCIATION OF NEW ZEALAND BRANCH), INC IS THE YOUTH ARM OF THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF NEW ZEALAND, A MEMBER OF THE WORLD FEDERATION OF UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATIONS (WFUNA)