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“As viagens são na juventude uma parte de educação e, na velhice, uma parte de experiência.” “Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience” Francis Bacon”


IN TRO DU ÇÃO

Este E-book pretende ser uma mostra do conjunto de atividades desenvolvidas no âmbito do projeto Catedrais Erasmus KA2 - 2016-1-ES01-KA219-024940_3 – que tiveram lugar nos anos letivos de 2016-17 / 2017-18. Esta compilação resulta do trabalho de colaboração desenvolvido pelas equipas parceiras das escolas de Espanha, Grécia, Itália e Portugal. A tarefa de compilação e organização do presente livro foi da responsabilidade da equipa portuguesa.


This E-book is the result of a series of activities throughout the Erasmus+ KA2 Cathedrals project 2016-1-ES01-KA219-024940_3 - which took place between the school years of 2016-17 / 2017-18. This compilation is a collaborative activity among the different partner teams of the schools of Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal. The book compilation and organization was a task attributed to the Portuguese team.

IN TRO DUC TION


OUR PROJECT

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VILLANUEVA DE LA REINA

Κέρκυρα

Jaén Cathedral 15 Granada Cathedral 16-17 The Alhambra 19 Toledo Cathedral 20-21

CORFU

The Temple of Kardaki 33 The Sanctuary of Apollo 34 The Temple of Artemis 35 The Church of Saints Jason and Sosipater 36 - 37 The Church of Saint Syridon 38 - 39


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ANA GNI

VILA VERDE

Anagni Cathedral 48 - 53 Abbey of Casamari 54 -57 Abbey of Montecassino 58- 61 St. Peter’s Basilica 62 - 65

Braga and its Cathedral 73 - 75 Porto and its Cathedral 76 - 79 Batalha Monastery 80 - 81 Fatima Sanctuary 82 - 83


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OURO PRO JECT As our pupils live in a rural area, they have few opportunities to communicate in a foreign language and to have access to other cultures. That is why we are taking part in an Erasmus Plus Project. Our association (“Cathedrals�) is intended to reach these purposes, such as involving our pupils in studying different cultural and artistic movements and buildings; practising the English language in real contexts; and encouraging them to work hard on the many subjects involved.


The logo of our association, “Cathedrals”. It was designed by a group of Portuguese students.

Nuestros alumnos, que viven en una zona rural, tienen pocas oportunidades de comunicarse en una lengua extranjera o de conocer otras culturas. Esa es la razón por la que coordinamos un proyecto Erasmus Plus. Nuestra asociación (“Catedrales”) está pensada para que los alumnos implicados estudien diferentes movimientos artísticos y construcciones; para que practiquen la lengua inglesa en un contexto real; para que adquieran conocimientos en las distintas materias académicas.

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SPAIN ESPAÑA Spain is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It comprises the mainland, the Balearic Islands (in the Mediterranean Sea), the Canary Islands off the North African Atlantic coast, two cities, Ceuta and Melilla, in the North African mainland and several small islands in the Alborean Sea near the Moroccan coast. España es un país soberano situado en la Península Ibérica al suroeste de Europa. Lo constituyen el territorio principal junto con las Islas Baleares (en el mar Mediterráneo), las islas Canarias en la costa del norte de África, las ciudades de Ceuta y Melilla, y varias islas pequeñas en el mar de Alborán cerca de la costa de Marruecos. Spain, whose capital city is Madrid, is organised into seventeen autonomous communities which are also divided into fifty provinces. Spain is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional Monarchy, headed by King Felipe VI, who ascended in 2013. Su territorio, con capital en Madrid, está organizado en diecisiete comunidades autónomas, formadas estas, a su vez, por cincuenta provincias. Su forma de gobierno es la monarquía parlamentaria, cuya cabeza de estado es el rey Felipe VI, que accedió al trono en 2013.


Jaén

Villanueva de La Reina

Jaén is a Spanish province located in the autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of about 700.000 inhabitants (one-sixth living in the homonymous city), the province covers an area of about 14.000 square kilometres.

Villanueva de la Reina is a Spanish village on the northeast corner of the province of Jaén, in Andalusia. Its population is about 3.152 inhabitants. It is part of the Natural park known as Sierra de Andújar.

Jaén es una provincia española de la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía. Con una población de alrededor de 700.000 habitantes (un sexto del cual vive en la ciudad del mismo nombre), su superficie es de aproximadamente 14.000 kilómetros cuadrados.

Villanueva de la Reina es un municipio español situado en el extremo noroeste de la provincia de Jaén, Andalucía. Cuenta con una población de 3152 habitantes. El término municipal de Villanueva de la Reina forma parte del Parque Natural Sierra de Andújar. 13


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JAÉN CATHEDRAL The province of Jaén is located to the northeast of the Autonomous Region of Andalusia. It has an extension of 13,496.09 km2, and borders the province of Ciudad Real in the north, Cordoba in the west, Granada in the south and Albacete in the east. The capital of the province is the city of Jaén. Jaén se encuentra al noreste de la comunidad de Andalucía. Su extensión es de 13,496.09 kilómetros cuadrados, y limita con la provincia de Ciudad Real al norte, con Córdoba al oeste, con Granada al sur y con Albacete al este. La capital de la provincia es la ciudad de Jáen.

Jaén is remakable for the beauty of its natural landscapes and the architecture, monuments in its villages and cities which keep alive the memory of a past of great splendour. Specially outstanding are the villages of Úbeda and Baeza, and the natural parks of Andújar and Cazorla, the source of the Gualdalquivir river. La provincia de Jáen destaca por la belleza de sus paisajes naturales y la arquitectura y monumentos en sus pueblos y cuidades, que mantienen vivo el recuerdo de un pasado glorioso. Destacan especialmente las ciudades de Úbeda y Baeza y los parques naturales de Andújar y la sierra de Cazorla, donde nace el río Gualdalquivir.

The cathedral is dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, and was built between the 16th and 18th centuries on the site of the old Aljama mosque. The subsequent Gothic cathedral raised to house the Holy Veil. The initial Renaissance project was the work of Andrés de Vandelvira, and was built in different stages, without its successors changing more than the ornamental aspects or subsidiary features of the basic design. Artistic highlights inside the cathedral include the sacristy, the chapter room, the choir, and the main chapel which houses the famous relic of the Holy Veil; and on the exterior, the monumental façade by Eufrasio López Rojas, and the Gothic frieze at the back. Esta catedral está dedicada a la Asunción de la Virgen, y fue construida entre los siglos XVI y XVIII, en la misma ubicación donde una mezquita fue construida. La catedral gótica se erigió para albergar la reliquia del Santro Rostro. El proyecto renacentista inicial fue de Andrés de Vandelvira, y se contruyó en diferentes etapas, con sus sucesores no haciendo variaciones excepto en aspectos ornamentales o características subsidiarias del diseño básico. Aspectos artísticos destacados en el interior incluyen la sacristía, la capilla, el coro y la nave principal que aloja la reliqiuia del Santo Rostro; y en el exterior, la monumental fachada de Eufrasio López Rojas, y el friso gótico de la parte de atrás. 15


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GRANADA CATHEDRAL Granada is located just at the point where the Sierra Nevada mountains meet the fertile plain of the vega. Behind it, there are steep mountains and in front there is flat agricultural land. The altitude is 630 metres. Its population is about 250350,000, the fluctuation is due to Granada being a student city with a large amount of people coming from outside to study. Granada está situada en un lugar entre Sierra Nevada y la llanura fértil de la vega. A su espalda se encuentran grandes montañas y delante hay campos de cultivo. Su altitud es de 630 metros. Su población fluctúa entre 250 y 300 mil, debido al hecho de contar con gran población de estudiantes universitarios que viajan desde otras ciudades.


Granada Cathedral was built by Queen Isabella immediately after the conquest of Granada on the site of the Mosque. This cathedral is a masterpiece of Spanish Renaissance style. This cathedral, also called Incarnation cathedral, has impressive façades and a stunning interior with a grand altar and several chapels. Granada catedral is huge. In fact, it is the fourth largest Cathedral in the world. Isabel la Católica ordenó la construcción de la Catedral de Granada en 1505, poco después de la toma de la ciudad, y eligió para su ubicación el lugar donde se encontraba la Mezquita Mayor de Granada. Es una verdadera joya de la arquitectura renacentista española. La Catedral de Granada o Catedral de la Encarnación muestra impresionantes fachadas y un magnifico interior con un grandioso retablo y varias capillas. La catedral es enorme. De hecho, es la cuarta catedral más grande del mundo. Carlos V, always respectful to the memory of his ancestors, made sure that the Cathedral was built in accordance with desires of the Catholic kings. The first stone of the Cathedral of Granada was laid in 1523 on the site of the ancient mosque. Its architect was Enrique Egas, master of the Old Gothic School. These works, concentrating on the foundations, lasted five years. Egas was replaced by Diego of Siloam, another Spanish artist trained in Italy. His first decision was to change the Gothic style to the Renaissance style. Carlos V, siempre respetuoso con la memoria de sus augustos abuelos, quería que los planos se realizaran tal como había sido el deseo de los Reyes Católicos. La primera piedra de la catedral de Granada fue puesta en 1523, el día de la Encarnación. Las obras se prolongaron durante cinco años bajo el mando de Enrique Egas, que luego fue sustituído por Diego de Siloé, otro artista español formado en Italia, cuya primera determinación fue la de cambiar el estilo gótico de la catedral por el estilo renacentista. 17


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THE ALHAMBRA The Alhambra citadel of Granada is one of the most famous buildings in Spain: a Moorish fortress with grand archways and delicate ornamental mosaics. It consists of gardens, fortifications and sumptuous palaces. It was the home of many of the Arab Sultans who ruled the whole province. La Alhambra de Granada es uno de los monumentos mĂĄs importantes de EspaĂąa: una fortaleza mora con grandes arcos y delicados mosaicos ornamentales. La forman jardines, fortificaciones y suntuosos palacios. Fue la residencia de muchos sultanes ĂĄrabes que gobernaron la provinvia.

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TOLEDO CATHEDRAL

Toledo is one of the Spanish cities with the greatest wealth of monuments. Known as the “city of the three cultures”, because Christians, Arabs and Jews lived together there for centuries. Behind its walls Toledo preserves an artistic and cultural legacy in the form of churches, palaces, fortresses, mosques and synagogues. This great diversity of artistic styles makes the old quarter of the capital of Castile - La Mancha a real open-air museum, which has led to it being declared a World Heritage Site.

Toledo es una de las ciudades españolas con mayor riqueza monumental. Es conocida como “la ciudad de las tres culturas” porque allí coexistieron durante siglos cristianos, árabes y judíos. Más allá de sus muros, Toledo preserva un legado artístico-cultural con iglesias, palacios, fortalezas, mezquitas y sinagogas. Esta amplia variedad de estilos hacen de la capital de Castilla la Mancha un museo al aire libre. Fue declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.


Toledo Cathedral in Spain, is ranked among the greatest Gothic structures in Europe. Inside, the cathedral contains important masterpieces including a spectacular baroque high altar and two paintings by El Greco. La Catedral de Toledo en España está catalogada como una de las mejores catedrales góticas de Europa. El interior tiene importantes obras maestras como un altar mayor barroco y los cuadros del pintor El Greco. Its building began in 1226 under the rule of Ferdinand III and the last Gothic contributions were made in the 15th century. It combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style, mainly in the cloister. The structure of the building is greatly influenced by the French Gothic style of the 13th century, but adapted to Spanish taste. It measures 120 metres in length by 59 metres in width and 44.5 metres high. Su construcción empezó en el año 1226 bajo el reinado de Fernando III y las últimas contribuciones góticas se realizaron en el siglo XV. Combina algunas características del estilo Mudéjar, principalmente en el claustro. La estructura del edificio está influenciada principalmente por el estilo gótico franceś del siglo XIII, pero adaptado al gusto español. Su longitud es de 120 metros por 59 metros de anchura y una altura de 44 metros y medio. 21


VILLANUEVA DE LA REINA

STUDENTS WORK


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“I loved being part of Erasmus +. I had the opportunity to meet great people and visit wonderful places, it is undoubtedly an experience that I will never forget and I will keep it in my heart for the rest of my life.” Cheila 9º”

“I really enjoyed the experience it was fantastic to make new friends and learn things.” Margarida 8º”


“For me, the Erasmus+ was an amazing experience. I never had an experience like that so I loved meeting new people, I learned many new things and I had a lots of fun.” Luisa 9º”

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COR FU Corypho or Corfoi is the medieval name of the city because of the two characteristic rock-peaks of the Old Fortress of Corfu. Κορυφώ ή Κορφοί είναι το μεσαιωνικό όνομα της πόλης που οφείλεται στις δύο χαρακτηριστικές βραχώδεις κορυφές του παλαιού φρουρίου της Κέρκυρας.


Corfu Mythical Past: Corfu is identified by most archaeologists with the mythical island of Phaeacians. Homer placed here the station, where Odysseus arrived after days of struggle with the sea waves. Το μυθικό παρελθόν της Κέρκυρας: Η Κέρκυρα ταυτίζεται από τους περισσότερους αρχαιολόγους με το μυθικό νησί των Φαιάκων. Ο Όμηρος τοποθετεί εδώ τον τελευταίο σταθμό του ταξιδιού του Οδυσσέα, όπου έφτασε μετά από πολυήμερη μάχη με τα κύματα.

The Unhelmed Ship: The emblem of Corfu symbolises the naval bravery of the Phaeacians (Corfiots) and their remarkable ships at the time of Odysseus. In The Odyssey King Alkinoos describes to Odysseus how the Phaeacian ship will take him home to Ithaca. Η απήδαλος ναυς: Το έμβλημα της Κέρκυρας συμβολίζει την ναυτική επιδεξιότητα των Φαιάκων (Κερκυραίων) και τα θαυμαστά καράβια τους. Στην Οδύσσεια ο βασιλιάς Αλκίνοος εξηγεί στον Οδυσσέα πώς το πλοίο των Φαιάκων θα τον οδηγήσει πίσω στην πατρίδα του, την Ιθάκη.

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2800 years of history The ancient city of Kerkyra was founded by the Corinthians at the end of the 8th century B.C. on the peninsula of Palaiopolis that projects between the sea and a lagoon. During the Classical Greek period (5th-4th century BC) Corfu developed around the area of Palaiopolis. For nearly 1400 years, the island was part of the Roman and later the Byzantine Empire. From the 15th century onwards, 4 centuries of Venetian rule had a great influence on Corfu, while the rest of the Greek world was part of the Ottoman Empire. (The Corfiot dialect is heavily influenced by the Italian language.) Afterwards Corfu came under the control of French and later Russians. During the period 1799-1807 Corfu was the capital of the Independent State of the Ionian Islands. For 50 years (1814-1864) Corfu was under British protection. And finally Corfu united with Greece in 1864.

2800 χρόνια Ιστορίας Η αρχαία πόλη της Κέρκυρας ιδρύθηκε από τους Κορίνθιους στα τέλη του 8ου αιώνα π.Χ. στην χερσόνησο της Παλαιόπολης, που βρίσκεται ανάμεσα στην θάλασσα και σε μια λιμνοθάλασσα. Κατά την κλασική εποχή (5ος -4ος αι. π.Χ.) η πόλη της Κέρκυρας αναπτύχθηκε γύρω από την περιοχή της Παλαιόπολης. Για περίπου 1400 χρόνια το νησί ανήκε στη Ρωμαϊκή και στη συνέχεια στη Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία. Από τον 15ο αι. και εξής οι 4 αιώνες της Βενετικής κυριαρχίας άσκησαν μεγάλη επιρροή στη διαμόρφωση της φυσιογνωμίας του νησιού, ενώ την ίδια περίοδο ο υπόλοιπος Ελλαδικός χώρος ανήκε στην Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία. Το κερκυραϊκό ιδίωμα είναι ιδιαίτερα επηρεασμένο από την Ιταλική γλώσσα. Στην συνέχεια η Κέρκυρα πέρασε διαδοχικά υπό τον έλεγχο των Γάλλων και των Ρώσων. Κατά το διάστημα 1799-1807 η Κέρκυρα ήταν πρωτεύουσα της ανεξάρτητης Πολιτείας των Ιονίων Νήσων. Για πενήντα χρόνια (1814-1864) η Κέρκυρα ήταν υπό Βρετανική προστασία. Και τέλος το 1864 ενώθηκε με την Ελλάδα.


Corfu today: Some things we are proud of

Η Κέρκυρα σήμερα: Πράγματα για τα οποία είμαστε περήφανοι

Corfu is the Island of Music with 18 philharmonic bands; Corfu Old Town: World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 2007; Celebration of Easter in Corfu is part of a unique and very impressive experience, with religious and cultural activities different from anywhere else in Greece.

Η Κέρκυρα είναι το νησί της μουσικής με 18 φιλαρμονικές. Η παλιά πόλη της Κέρκυρας περιλαμβάνεται στον κατάλογο μνημείων της Παγκόσμιας Κληρονομιάς της ΟΥΝΕΣΚΟ από το 2007. Ο εορτασμός του Πάσχα στην Κέρκυρα είναι μια εντυπωσιακή εμπειρία, με θρησκευτικές και πολιτιστικές εκδηλώσεις, που δεν μοιάζει με κανένα άλλο μέρος στην Ελλάδα. 31


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OUR SCHOOL ΤΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΊΟ ΜΑΣ

The building dates back to 1890. It houses the 1st Gymnasium of Corfu since 1944. Today, there are about 250 students, aged 12-15, and 30 teachers. Το κτήριο χτίστηκε το 1890. Στεγάζει το 1ο Γυμνάσιο Κέρκυρας από το 1944. Σήμερα το σχολείο έχει περίπου 250 μαθητές, ηλικίας 12-15 ετών, και 30 καθηγητές.


THE TEMPLE OF KARDAKI The temple is situated in the steep coast of Analipsi inside the Mon Repos area. It is a small dimensioned Doric temple (11,91x25,5 m.) of the late archaic years. It was revealed by the British in 1822. From all Corfu’s temples, this temple is in the best condition.

Six columns laid in the narrow sides and twelve in each long side. Inside the alcove there was an altar. The name “Kardaki” was given due to the name of a fountain found in its area. Its connection to the cult of Poseidon or Apollo hasn’t been verified by the excavations.

Ο ναός είναι χτισμένος μέσα στην περιοχή του Μον Ρεπό, στην απότομη πλαγιά πάνω από την πηγή του Καρδακίου. Είναι μικρός δωρικός ναός (11,91x25,5 μ.) της ύστερης αρχαϊκής εποχής. Ανακαλύφθηκε από τους Βρετανούς το 1822. Διατηρείται σε καλύτερη κατάσταση απ’ όλους τους αρχαίους κερκυραϊκούς ναούς.

Είχε έξι κίονες στις στενές πλευρές και δώδεκα στις μακρές. Στο εσωτερικό του σηκού υπήρχε βωμός. Η ονομασία «Καρδάκι» οφείλεται στο όνομα της γειτονικής πηγής. Η συσχέτισή του με την λατρεία του Ποσειδώνα ή του Απόλλωνα δεν έχει αποδειχθεί από τις ανασκαφές. 33


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THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO A large sanctuary probably dedicated to a divinity protective of Kerkyra and the other cities of Western Greece was built at the end of the 8th c. B.C. A century later a large temple was built with columns. The roof was in terracotta, richly decorated. That of Apollo had a hypaethral enclosure with an altar, and Aphrodite and Hermes were remembered by two small temples. At the end of the 5th c. a fire destroyed the sanctuary. At the beginning of the 4th c. a new temple in limestone with a marble roof arose on the ruins of the archaic temple. Στο τέλος του 8ου αι. π.Χ. ιδρύθηκε ένα μεγάλο ιερό, πιθανώς αφιερωμένο σε προστάτιδα θεότητα της Κέρκυρας και άλλων πόλεων της Δ. Ελλάδας. Έναν αιώνα αργότερα χτίστηκε μεγάλος ναός με κίονες. Η στέγη του είχε πλούσιο κεραμικό διάκοσμο. Ο ναός του Απόλλωνα είχε υπαίθριο περίβολο με βωμό. Η Αφροδίτη και ο Ερμής τιμούνταν με δυο μικρούς ναούς. Στα τέλη του 5ου αιώνα το ιερό καταστράφηκε από πυρκαγιά. Στις αρχές του 4ου πάνω στα ερείπια του αρχαϊκού ναού χτίστηκε νέος ναός από πωρόλιθο με μαρμάρινη στέγη.


THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS The archaic Temple of Artemis was built in doric order around 580 BC in the ancient city of Kerkyra. Eight (8) columns laid in the narrow sides and seventeen (17) in each long side. Ο αρχαϊκός ναός της Αρτέμιδος, δωρικού ρυθμού, χτίστηκε γύρω στο 580 π.Χ. στην αρχαία πόλη της Κέρκυρας, στην περιοχή των Αγίων Θεοδώρων. Είχε οκτώ κίονες στις στενές πλευρές και δεκαεπτά στις μακρές. The largest part of the temple is ruined today. The Archaeological Museum of Corfu showcases the western pediment of the temple. It is considered the oldest stone-pediment saved. It is adorned by the embossed representation of goddess Artemis (Gorgon) in the center running - while her face is turned to the spectator - surrounded by her children, Chryssaor and Pegasus, two lion-panthers and two scenes of the battle of the Titans. Το μεγαλύτερο μέρος του ναού σήμερα έχει καταστραφεί. Στο Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο της Κέρκυρας εκτίθεται το Δυτικό αέτωμα, που είναι το αρχαιότερο σωζόμενο λίθινο αέτωμα. Κοσμείται από ανάγλυφη παράσταση της θεάς Άρτεμης (Γοργούς) στο κέντρο να τρέχει με το πρόσωπο στραμμένο στον θεατή. Πλαισιώνεται από τα παιδιά της, Πήγασο και Χρυσάορα, δύο λεοντοπάνθηρες και δύο σκηνές Τιτανομαχίας. 35 2


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THE CHURCH OF SAINTS JASON AND SOSIPATER The church was built around 1000 A.D. in the area of Anemomylos. It was constructed on an older church of a monastery and was originally dedicated to St. Andrew, and later, to Saints Jason and Sosipater, who were disciples of St Paul and brought Christianity to Corfu. Ο ναός χτίστηκε γύρω στο 1000 μ.Χ. στο προάστιο του Ανεμόμυλου, στα ερείπια ενός παλαιότερου καθολικού μοναστηριού. Αρχικά ήταν αφιερωμένος στον Άγιο Ανδρέα και στη συνέχεια στους Αγίους Ιάσονα και Σωσίπατρο, που ήταν μαθητές του Αποστόλου Παύλου και δίδαξαν το Χριστιανισμό στην Κέρκυρα.

The church is of the simple cross-in-square type on two columns with a dome. Είναι σταυροειδής εγγεγραμμένος δικιόνιος με τρούλο.


The cloisonne wall masonry (stone blocks enclosed by bricks) is decorated with bricks and tiles set in various patterns. Stones taken from the nearby ruins of the ancient city of Kerkyra were also used as building material in the walls from the old town of Corfu. Η πλινθοπερίκλειστη τοιχοδομία έχει διάκοσμο από πλίνθους σε διάφορα σχήματα. Για το χτίσιμο επίσης χρησιμοποιήθηκαν λίθοι από τα ερείπια της παλιάς πόλης της Κέρκυρας.

The history of the church kept pace with the history of Byzantine Empire. After the fall of Constantinople, the brother of the last emperor, Thomas Palaeologos, came here with his wife Catherine, who died in Corfu and was buried in this church.

Of the original decoration of the walls only a few fragments of frescoes have survived, dated to the 11th - 13th centuries A.D. In the 17th century, the church was enriched with icons painted by the famous Cretan artist, Emmanuel Tzanes.

Η ιστορία του ναού συμβαδίζει με την ιστορία της Βυζαντινής Αυτοκρατορίας. Μετά την Άλωση ο αδελφός του τελευταίου Αυτοκράτορα, Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος, έφτασε στην Κέρκυρα με τη σύζυγό του Κατερίνα, η οποία πέθανε στο νησί και είναι θαμμένη στο ναό αυτό.

Από τις αρχικές τοιχογραφίες σώζονται ελάχιστα σπαράγματα του 11ου-13ου αιώνα. Τον 17ο αι. η εκκλησία κοσμήθηκε με εικόνες του Κρητικού ζωγράφου Εμμανουήλ Τζάνε.

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THE CHURCH OF SAINT SPYRIDON The Church of Saint Spyridon, built in 1590, is situated in the heart of Corfu town just behind the Liston square. Ο ναός του Αγίου Σπυρίδωνα, χτισμένος το 1590, βρίσκεται στην καρδιά της πόλης, ακριβώς πίσω από το Λιστόν.

It is a single-nave “Heptanesian” basilica. Although the exterior of the décor is very austere, the interior of the church is rich in decoration with an impressive “templon” of Parian marble and a painted ceiling divided into segments depicting scenes from St. Spyridon’s life and miracles. Πρόκειται για μια μονόκλιτη βασιλική επτανησιακού τύπου. Το εξωτερικό της είναι απλό, ενώ το εσωτερικό είναι πλούσια διακοσμημένο. Το εντυπωσιακό τέμπλο είναι από παριανό μάρμαρο και στην «ουρανία» απεικονίζονται σκηνές από τον βίο και τα θαύματα του Αγίου.

The bell tower built in 1620 is the highest point in the town. It is plain and squarely profiled in an Italian style which resembles the Greek Church St. Giorgio’s Dei Greci bell tower in Venice, but with a red dome. Το πυργοειδές καμπαναριό χτίστηκε το 1620 και είναι το ψηλότερο κτίσμα στην πόλη. Έχει μεγάλη ομοιότητα με αυτό του Αγίου Γεωργίου των Ελλήνων στη Βενετία.


The Saint’s Holy relic is kept in a shrine inside the church in a crypt to the right of the “templon”. It had remained in Cyprus for about 300 years after his death and was transported to Constantinople in the 7th century AC because of the Arabian invasions in Cyprus. In 1456, three years after the fall of Constantinople, a priest took the Saint’s relic and brought it to Corfu. Το ιερό σκήνωμα του Αγίου φυλάσσεται σε λάρνακα σε μια κρύπτη στα δεξιά του τέμπλου. Είχε παραμείνει στην Κύπρο επί 300 χρόνια μετά τον θάνατο του Αγίου και μεταφέρθηκε στην Κωνσταντινούπολη τον 7ο αι. εξαιτίας των αραβικών επιδρομών. Το 1456, τρία χρόνια μετά την άλωση της Πόλης, ένας ιερέας μετέφερε το σκήνωμα του Αγίου στην Κέρκυρα. The Kerkyreans have processions many times during the year to honour the guardian saint with greatness. On 11 August, when the island celebrates its salvation from the siege of the Turks in 1716. The first Sunday in November and palm Sunday is celebrated for the island’s release of the plague epidemic. On Holy Saturday the salvation of the people from starvation. Saint Spyridon is the most important and revered of saints on the Island and many men and boys are named after him. Οι Κερκυραίοι κάνουν λειτανίες αρκετές φορές κατά τη διάρκεια του έτους για να τιμήσουν τον προστάτη Άγιό τους με λαμπρότητα. Στις 11 Αυγούστου το νησί γιορτάζει τη σωτηρία του από την Οθωμανική πολιορκία του 1716. Την πρώτη Κυριακή του Νοεμβρίου και την Κυριακή των Βαΐων την απαλλαγή του νησιού από την πανώλη. Το Μέγα Σάββατο τη σωτηρία των Κερκυραίων από τον λιμό.

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“The Erasmus project was a great experience for me, and I made new friends, saw amazing things and found a different culture and great people.” Miguel 8º”


“I really loved the Erasmus experience and the people I knew during that week. It was a dream come true.” Marisa 9º”

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ANA GNI The city is marked by a long and ancient history, evinced by old human settlements, such as Fontana Ranuccio (457.000 years ago). The population of over 20,000 inhabitants’ lives in the still densely populated old town as well as the surrounding countryside and rural areas.

Città segnata da una lunga e antica storia, testimoniata da insediamenti umani antichissimi, come Fontana Ranuccio (457.000 anni fa). La popolazione di oltre 20.000 abitanti vive nel centro storico ancora densamente popolato e nelle campagne e nelle aree rurali circostanti.

Anagni, the city of Popes, is popular for having been, in the Medieval Age, the city of the Popes. While hosting the papal court between the XI and XIV centuries, Anagni saw the birth of Popes Innocenzo III, Gregorio IX, Alessandro IV and Bonifacio VIII.

Anagni, la città dei Papi, è famosa per essere stata nel Medioevo, sede dei Papi. Mentre ospitava la corte papale tra l’XI e il XIV secolo, Anagni vide la nascita dei Papi Innocenzo III, Gregorio IX, Alessandro IV e Bonifacio VIII.

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ANAGNI CATHEDRAL History of Anagni Cathedral Christianity arrived fairly early in Anagni as a result of its proximity to Rome. Later legends mention St. Peter visiting Anagni in the first century, but this has no historical basis. Fifty years later, during the persecution under Decius (249-51), St. Secondina was martyred at Anagni. Her relics are in the cathedral crypt.

Storia della cattedrale di Anagni Il cristianesimo arrivò abbastanza presto ad Anagni a causa della sua vicinanza a Roma. Le leggende successive menzionano San Pietro visitando Anagni nel primo secolo, ma questo non ha basi storiche. Cinquant’anni dopo, durante la persecuzione sotto Decio (249-51), Santa Secondina fu martirizzata ad Anagni. Le sue reliquie sono nella cripta della cattedrale.


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It was probably around 450 that a pagan sanctuary on the acropolis of Anagni was transformed into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Such dedications were became increasingly popular after the Council of Ephesus in 431. The first certain historical record of Christianity in Anagni dates to March 13, 487, when Felice, Bishop of Anagni, was recorded at a council in the Lateran Basilica in Rome. The present Anagni Cathedral was commissioned by Bishop St. Peter of Salerno in 1072, who was assigned the task by St. Magnus in a vision. A Benedictine monk, Peter is known to have made two trips to Constantinople, the second to participate in the First Crusade (1096). It is likely he brought Byzantine craftsmen back to Anagni with him to help build his new cathedral, which was consecrated in 1104. Located in the central Italian region of Lazio, Anagni Cathedral is a magnificent Romanesque edifice that should be more famous than it is. In addition to imposing castle-like architecture, it contains a crypt covered in beautifully-preserved medieval frescoes of biblical stories, saints and scientific diagrams. In the Middle Ages, Anagni became a popular country residence of popes. Situato nella regione centrale del Lazio, la Cattedrale di Anagni è un magnifico edificio romanico. Oltre all’imponente architettura simile a un castello, contiene una cripta coperta da affreschi medievali splendidamente conservati di storie bibliche, santi e diagrammi scientifici. Nel Medioevo, Anagni divenne una popolare residenza di campagna dei papi.

Fu probabilmente intorno al 450 che un santuario pagano sull’acropoli di Anagni fu trasformato in una chiesa cristiana dedicata alla Vergine Maria. Tali dediche divennero sempre più popolari dopo il Concilio di Efeso del 431. La prima testimonianza storica certa del cristianesimo ad Anagni risale al 13 marzo 487, quando Felice, vescovo di Anagni, fu registrato in un concilio nella Basilica Lateranense a Roma. L’attuale Cattedrale di Anagni fu commissionata dal vescovo San Pietro di Salerno nel 1072, a cui fu affidata la visione di San Magnus. Un monaco benedettino, Pietro è noto per aver fatto due viaggi a Costantinopoli, il secondo per partecipare alla prima crociata (1096). È probabile che abbia portato con sé gli artigiani bizantini ad Anagni per aiutare a costruire la sua nuova cattedrale, che fu consacrata nel 1104. 49


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During his reign, Pope Boniface VIII made lasting contributions including the papal bull entitled Unam Sanctum, which establishes the pope’s authority as Vicar of Christ; the foundation of the first university in Rome; and the institution of the first Holy Year (in 1300), during which all pilgrims to Rome receive full remission of sins. Durante il suo regno, Papa Bonifacio VIII apportò contributi duraturi tra cui la bolla papale intitolata Unam Sanctum, che stabilisce l’autorità del papa come Vicario di Cristo; la fondazione della prima università a Roma; e l’istituzione del primo Anno Santo (nel 1300), durante il quale tutti i pellegrini a Romereceive completa remissione dei peccati.

What to See at Anagni Cathedral Anagni Cathedral has an imposing but aesthetically pleasing appearance from the outside. Built high on the ancient acropolis of Anagni, one is usually looking up at it. The most attractive aspect of the exterior is the east end, where three semicircular apses towering over a wide stone staircase.

Cosa vedere alla Cattedrale di Anagni La Cattedrale di Anagni ha un aspetto imponente ma esteticamente piacevole dall’esterno. Costruito in alto sull’antica acropoli di Anagni, di solito lo si guarda. L’aspetto più attraente dell’esterno è l’estremità est, dove tre absidi semicircolari svettano su un’ampia scala in pietra.

An almost-hidden staircase at the southwest corner leads to the main plaza and west façade. Here also is a lovely freestanding Romanesque campanile and fine views of the countryside. The tower was probably placed in its unusual position right across from the central portal due to the need for stability of the ground. Una scala quasi nascosta all’angolo sud-ovest conduce alla piazza principale e alla facciata ovest. Qui è anche un bel campanile romanico indipendente e belle vedute della campagna. La torre fu probabilmente collocata nella sua posizione insolita proprio di fronte al portale centrale a causa della necessità di stabilità del terreno. The west front is austere, with only a few small windows and blocks of decorative reliefs interrupting the plain, bare masonry. Entrance is currently through the southernmost of the three portals. Inside is a beautiful Cosmatesque pavement dating from before 1227, which a plaque notes was funded by 100 gold coins donated by Rainaldo Conti, a canon of the cathedral. Il fronte ovest è austero, con solo alcune piccole finestre e blocchi di rilievi decorativi che interrompono la semplice muratura a secco. L’ingresso è attualmente attraverso il più meridionale dei tre portali. All’interno si trova un bellissimo pavimento cosmatesco risalente a prima del 1227, che una banconota è stata finanziata da 100 monete d’oro donate da Rainaldo Conti, un canonico della cattedrale.


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In the apse are fine marble furnishings created in 1263 by Vassalletto, who also worked at San Giovanni Laterano in Rome. The murals of the apse were painted by Antonio da Borgogna in 1673. The entire cathedral interior was once covered in medieval frescoes, but only two small fragments survive. Medieval highlights include Cosmatesque mosaic decorations and a sculpture of a seated St. Francis of Assis.

Nell’abside si trovano pregevoli arredi marmorei creati nel 1263 da Vassalletto, che lavorò anche a San Giovanni Laterano a Roma. I murales dell’abside furono dipinti da Antonio da Borgogna nel 1673. L’intero interno della cattedrale era un tempo ricoperto da affreschi medievali, ma sopravvivono solo due piccoli frammenti. Tra le attrazioni medievali figurano le decorazioni musive cosmatesche e una scultura di un San Francesco d’Assisi seduto.


The crypt of Anagni Cathedral, located beneath the choir, is one of the area’s greatest attractions. It centers on the tomb of St. Magnus in the central apse, with relics of Sts. Secondina, Aurelia and Neomisia in the left apse and Sts. Sebastian, Caesarius and other martyrs in the right apse. The walls and vaults of the crypt are completely covered in medieval frescoes, which are in remarkable condition: still brightly colored and almost fully intact. They form one of the most extensive and best-preserved medieval pictorial cycles in Europe. The frescoes were painted in 1237 by Friar Romanus, who also painted the frescoes at San Benedetto in Subiaco, and two other unknown masters.

La cripta della cattedrale di Anagni, situata sotto il coro, è una delle maggiori attrazioni della zona. Si centra sulla tomba di San Magnus nell’abside centrale, con le reliquie dei SS. Secondina, Aurelia e Neomisia nell’abside sinistra e SS. Sebastiano, Cesario e altri martiri nell’abside destra. Le pareti e le volte della cripta sono completamente ricoperte da affreschi medievali, che sono in condizioni eccezionali: ancora dai colori vivaci e quasi completamente intatti. Formano uno dei cicli pittorici medievali più estesi e meglio conservati in Europa. Gli affreschi furono dipinti nel 1237 da Fra Romano, che dipinse anche gli affreschi di San Benedetto in Subiaco e altri due maestri sconosciuti.

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One of the most stylistically significant abbeys in Italy and therefore definitely worth a visit is the Abbey of Casamari. Una delle abbazie stilisticamente più significative in Italia e che pertanto merita sicuramente di essere visitata è l’Abbazia di Casamari. According to sources it learns that the abbey is at the dawn of the eleventh century, in 1005, on the initiative of a Benedictine community who built the first monastery. When, for the spiritual work of Bernard of Clairvaux and the support of the Popes, the Order of Citeaux (Cistercium) in Burgundy, spread to Italy, in 1152 the abbey passed to the Cistercians . Secondo la prima di tali fonti si apprende che l’abbazia sorge agli albori dell’XI secolo, nel 1005, per iniziativa di una comunità benedettina che edificò il primo monastero. Quando poi, per l’opera spirituale di Bernardo di Clairvaux e per l’appoggio dei Pontefici, l’Ordine di Citeaux (Cistercium) in Borgogna, si diffuse in Italia, nel 1152 l’abbazia passò ai Cistercensi

ABBEY OF CASAMARI


.These in 1203 began a radical reconstruction of the ancient monastery of the Order according to the typical floor plan, under the direction and design of Friar William of Milan. Since 1152 the Cistercians uninterruptedly still live here in testimony to the soundness of their communities. The abbey of Casamari is a stylistic benchmark in the history of the arrival in England of the Gothic-Burgundian forms to the early ‘200.

Questi nel 1203 intrapresero una radicale ricostruzione dell’antico monastero secondo la planimetria tipica dell’Ordine, sotto la direzione e progettazione di Frà Guglielmo da Milano. Dal 1152 i Cistercensi ininterrottamente vivono ancora qui a testimonianza della solidità della loro comunità. L’abbazia di Casamari è nella storia dell’architettura un caposaldo stilistico dell’arrivo nel Lazio delle forme gotiche-borgognone ai primi del ‘200.

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The interior , of great simplicity, is with the shape of a Latin cross with three aisles, apse rectangular time to the east, transect with six rectangular chapels, vaults supported by pillars and roof beam columns, typical architectural elements of the Gothic style. Unique ornament, the great eighteenth-century tabernacle in polychrome marble and stucco surmounting the altar, donated by Clement XI in 1711. L’interno, di grande sobrietà, è con la pianta a croce latina a tre navate, abside rettangolare volta ad oriente, transetto rettangolare con sei cappelle, volte a crociera sostenute da pilastri a fascio e colonnine pensili, tipici elementi architettonici dello stile gotico. Unico ornamento, il grande ciborio settecentesco in marmi e stucchi policromi che sormonta l’altare, donato da Clemente XI nel 1711.

The abbey is also famous for galenica activities of its monks and its ancient Pharmacy, whose official founding year of 1761 seems, even if the activity increased in the following years. L’abbazia è famosa anche per l’attività galenica dei suoi monaci e per la sua antica Farmacia, il cui anno di fondazione ufficiale sembra il 1761, anche se l’attività si intensificò negli anni a seguire.


The Letters De Jacobis, preserved in the abbey, reports that Brother Jacob Margione bought in Rome just a few special plants and when in 1822 he obtained a driver’s license apothecary pharmacy was opened to the public. The abbey also has a highly equipped library, with a collection of books of about 80,000 volumes, and an extensive art gallery with paintings by Carassi, Guercino, Sassoferrato, Balbi, Fantuzzi and Purificato.

L’Epistolario De Jacobis, conservato nell’Archivio dell’abbazia, riporta che Frà Giacobbe Margione acquistava a Roma solo alcune piante particolari e quando nel 1822 ottenne la patente di speziale la farmacia fu aperta al pubblico. L’abbazia ospita inoltre una assai fornita Biblioteca, con un patrimonio librario di circa 80.000 volumi, e una ricca Pinacoteca con dipinti di Carassi, Guercino, Sassoferrato, Balbi, Fantuzzi e Purificato.

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Nobody that it travels the Highway of the Sun, in the stretch that connects Rome to Naples (exit Cassino ), escapes the show that offers a wide along the Liri River valley: a square and white building is there, well planted to 520 meters in height, above the last offshoot of a tiered chain of Cairo upstream. The largest building is the majestic Abbey of Montecassino that stands on top of the mountain, once covered by ancient oaks and oak woods and now by green-silvery olive trees, almost dominating the city below of Cassino. The abbey was founded in 529 by St. Benedict of Norcia, but was devastated by the Lombards (580), by the Saracens (883), by a terrible earthquake (1349) and February 15, 1944, during the last war, it was completely razed to the ground by a violent bombardment of the Allies. A nessuno che percorra l’autostrada del Sole, nel tratto che congiunge Roma a Napoli (uscita di Cassino), sfugge lo spettacolo che si offre lungo l’ampia valle del fiume Liri: una squadrata e candida costruzione è lì, ben piantata a 520 metri di altezza, sopra l’ultima propaggine di una catena di balze del monte Cairo. Il grande edificio è la maestosa Abbazia di Montecassino che si staglia sulla cima della montagna, ricoperta una volta da boschi di secolari querce e lecci ed ora da verdi-argentei ulivi, quasi a dominare la sottostante città di Cassino. L’abbazia fu fondata nel 529 da San Benedetto da Norcia, ma venne devastata dai Longobardi (580), dai Saraceni (883), da un terribile terremoto (1349) e il 15 febbraio del 1944, durante l’ultimo conflitto, venne completamente rasa al suolo da un violento bombardamento degli Alleati.

ABBEY OF MONTECAS


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The history of the Abbey is that of a cultural stronghold from which, along with Catholicism, have spread the art, language and values of a new civilization through tenacious work of the descendants of St. Benedict who, first, with a few companions reached the ancient Acropolis Casinum on which stood a number of pagan temples. In the then small complex, Benedict spent the rest of his life doing everything in helping the needy, performing many miracles and, above all, writing the historic “Rule” , written in 73 chapters, in which the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience he added the obligation of work; the motto “Ora et Labora “, since then is the basis of Benedictine monasticism. The saint died around 547, a few days after the death of his sister Scholastica; the relics of the two saints are kept in the cryptbelow the sumptuous main altar of the church. La storia dell’Abbazia è quella di una roccaforte culturale dalla quale, insieme al Cattolicesimo, si sono diffuse l’arte, la lingua e le valenze di una nuova civiltà grazie all’opera tenace dei discendenti di San Benedetto il quale, per primo, con pochi compagni raggiunse l’Acropoli dell’antica Casinumsulla quale sorgevano numerosi templi pagani. Nell’allora piccolo complesso, Benedetto trascorse il resto della sua vita prodigandosi nell’assistenza dei bisognosi, compiendo numerosi miracoli e, soprattutto, scrivendo la storica “Regola”, redatta in 73 capitoli, nella quale ai tre voti di povertà, castità e obbedienza aggiunse l’obbligo del lavoro; il motto “Ora et Labora”, da allora è alla base del monachesimo benedettino. Il Santo si spense intorno al 547, pochi giorni dopo la morte della sorella Scolastica; le reliquie dei due santi sono conservate nella cripta sottostante il suntuoso altare maggiore della chiesa. 59


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It enters the Basilica passing three large cloisters in succession, the second of which, the central one also said Bramante , built in 1595, appears softened by the elegant Loggia del Paradis or and by the presence of a harmonious well with the sides of the two marble statues eighteenth century St. Benedict and St. Scholastica. Of the three doorways only the middle one is original. It is a Byzantine work of the eleventh century, a period in which the abbey reached the height of its splendor. The interior, with three naves, decorated with magnificent gilded stucco was rebuilt on the original seventeenth-century design, enriched in the following century with sumptuous decoration, reusing what had been recovered from the rubble where the abbey had been reduced. Si entra nella Basilica oltrepassando tre grandi chiostri in successione, di cui il secondo, quello centrale detto anche del Bramante, costruito nel 1595, appare ingentilito dall’elegante Loggia del Paradiso e dalla presenza di un armonioso pozzo con ai lati le due marmoree statue settecentesche di San Benedetto e Santa Scolastica. Dei tre portali d’ingresso soltanto quello al centro è originale. Esso è opera bizantina dell’XI secolo, periodo in cui l’abbazia raggiunse l’apice del suo splendore con l’abate Desiderio. L’interno, a tre navate, decorato da fastosi stucchi dorati è stato ricostruito su disegno originario seicentesco, arricchito nel secolo successivo dalla fastosa decorazione, riutilizzando quanto era stato possibile recuperare dal cumulo di macerie in cui l’abbazia era stata ridotta


We must not forget that from the eighth century onwards, the abbey was a center of culture, especially the work of transcribing ancient works according to the technical writing of Benevento, in the Archives is located the famous “ Placito cassinese “ dell ‘ 960 years, known for being the first document that contains written in the Italian vernacular. And in the Library , a national monument which houses precious and rare works including 40,000 ancient scrolls, codices, manuscripts, the lectionary of 1068, the books of Hours (prayer books for the laity), the incunabula of the ‘400, the sixteenth and a number of bindings and bibliographic rarity of minimum measures, choral books, drawings and prints of the ‘700 and’ 800. Non dobbiamo dimenticare che dall’VIII secolo in poi, l’abbazia fu un centro di cultura, soprattutto per l’opera di trascrizione delle opere antiche secondo le tecniche della scrittura beneventana, nell’Archivio è ubicato il famoso “Placito cassinese” dell’anno 960, noto per essere il primo documento che racchiude scritte del volgare italiano. E nella Biblioteca, monumento nazionale, sono conservate preziosissime opere rare ed antiche tra cui 40.000 pergamene, codici, manoscritti, il lezionario del 1068, i libri d’Ore (libri di preghiere per i laici), gli incunaboli del ‘400, le cinquecentine e numerose rilegature e rarità bibliografiche di minime misure, libri corali, disegni e stampe del ‘700 ed ‘800. 61


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ST PETER’S BASILICA

It’s the world’s largest Basilica of Christianity, nested into the heart of the Vatican city, with its 186 metres of length (218 if we consider the porch too), a height of 46 metres in the central aisle, a main dome 136 metre high and 42 metres large in diameter. The huge façade is 114 metres wide and 47 metres high. It has a surface of 22000 square metres and twenty thousand people can pray in it.

E’ la più grande Basilica del cristianesimo nel mondo con la sua lunghezza di 186 metri (218 se consideriamo anche il portico), altezza nella navata centrale di 46 metri, una cupola principale alta 136 metri e larga 42 di diametro. L’immensa facciata è larga 114 metri e alta 47. Ha una superficie di 22000 mq e ci si può pregare in ventimila persone.


The indigenous St Peter’s Basilica, nowadays forgotten, was constructed by will of Emperor Constantine around 320 AD in the area where Saint Peter had been martyrized (together with other Christians) close to the circus of Nero that, in fact, rose in the vicinity. For about thousand years the Basilica grew and got enriched, but it was also theatre of pillage in the barbarian hordes. La prima Basilica, oggi scomparsa venne fatta costruire dall’ imperatore Costantino intorno al 320 dc. sui luoghi ove San Pietro era stato martirizzato (assieme ad altri cristiani) presso il circo di Nerone che sorgeva appunto in quei posti. Per circa mille anni la Basilica crebbe e venne arricchita, ma fu anche teatro di saccheggio delle orde barbariche.

The first repair and enlargement intervention was ordered in the middle of the 15th century by pope Niccolo V, who entrusted Leon Battista Alberti and his helper Bernardo Rossellino. Later pope Giulio II charged Bramante who in 1506 demolished the old Saint Peter’s Basilica planning a new one with a Greek cross plan. But at the time of the death of both pope and architect only the central pillars had been constructed. SIl primo intervento di restauro ed ampliamento fu ordinato nella metà del 1400 dal papa Niccolò V che incaricherà Leon Battista Alberti e il suo collaboratore Bernardo Rossellino. Successivamente il pontefice Giulio II incaricò il Bramante che nel 1506 demolì la vecchia Basilica progettandone una nuova con pianta a Croce Greca. Ma alla morte di papa e architetto erano stati realizzati solo i pilastri centrali. 63


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Rafael (with the contribution of experts such as Fra Giocondo and Giuliano Da Sangallo) took over the guidance of the works, and proposed a Latin cross plan. Rafael was succeeded by Baldassarre Peruzzi first and Michelangelo later, who instead chose a return to the Greek cross. After the death of all contenders, pope Paolo V imposed the Latin cross structure, which was realized by Maderno who took care as well of the façade as we see it today. The St Peter’s Basilica was consecrated in 1626. The plan of the dome belongs to Michelangelo who managed to finish only the portion of the dome basement called Tamburo. It will be Giacomo Dalla Porta to complete the dome according to Michelangelo’s drawings in 158889. The positioning of most of the interior furnishing of the Basilica was assigned to Bernini by his untiring pope Urbano VIII Barberini. Bernini worked in the St Peter’s Basilica for twenty years. We owe this artist the arrangement of the St Peter’s square in front of the Basilica as well (1656-1667). Inside the Basilica are numerous and priceless art pieces kept in the forty five altars and eleven chapels. There are about ten thousand square metres of mosaics, Michelangelo’s Pieta, the papal canopy and the monument to Urbano VIII both by Bernini, the monument to Cristina of Sweden by Carlo Fontana, the monument to the countess Matilda by Canossa (under drawing of Bernini), only to quote some of the most important pieces.

Successero alla guida del cantiere Raffaello (che si avvalse della collaborazione di esperti come Frà Giocondo e Giuliano Da Sangallo) il quale propose inveca una pianta a Croce Latina. Dopo Raffaello passarono alla guida del cantiere Baldassarre Peruzzi prima e Michelangelo dopo che optarono invece per un ritorno alla Croce Greca. Alla morte di tutti i contendenti il papa Paolo V impose l’ impianto a Croce Latina che venne realizzata dal Maderno il quale si occupò anche della facciata come oggi la vediamo. La basilica venne consacrata nel 1626. Il progetto della cupola è di Michelangelo che riuscì a terminare solo la parte del basamento della cupola detta Tamburo. Sarà Giacomo Dalla Porta a completare la cupola in base ai disegni di Michelangelo nel 1588-89 . La sistemazione della maggior parte dell’ arredamento interno della Basilica venne affidato al Bernini dal suo instancabile papa Urbano VIII Barberini. Bernini lavorò nella basilica per venti anni. All’ artista è anche dovuta la sistemazione della piazza antistante la Basilica (1656-1667). All’ interno della Basilica sono custodite numerosissime ed inestimabili opere d’arte custodite nei quarantacinque altari e 11 cappelle. Vi sono circa diecimila metri quadrati di mosaici, la “Pietà” del Michelangelo, il baldacchino papale e il monumento ad Urbano VIII del Bernini, il monumento a Cristina di Svezia di Carlo Fontana, il monumento alla contessa Matilde del Canossa ( sotto disegno del Bernini), solo per citarne alcune tra le più importanti.


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ANAGNI STUDENTS WORK


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“For me, the Erasmus project was the best experience of my life, because I made new friends and learned new things. Also I travelled by plane...” Ana Beatriz 9º”


“It was the best week of my life! I made many friends, learned a lot about Italian culture and practiced my English. It was a dream come true!” Beatriz 9º”

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VILA VERDE The Portuguese school, Escola Monsenhor ElĂ­sio AraĂşjo, is located in Pico de Regalados, Vila Verde. We have been involved in European Projects for a long time and try to offer our students many opportunities that, otherwise, would not be available due our rural area and disadvantaged-socio-economic conditions.


The city of Braga is the capital of the district. It is one of the largest cities in the country. It is called “city of archbishops,” because of the importance of the city’s religious point of view. The archbishop of Braga is previous to the founding of the nation and had an important role in the recognition of Afonso Henriques as king of Portugal. The city of Braga was founded by the Romans 2,000 years ago. Its Roman name was then Bracara Augusta. A cidade de Braga está localizada no norte de Portugal, na região do Minho. É uma das maiores e mais importantes cidades do país. A cidade de Braga foi fundada pelos Romanos há 2000 anos, ao tempo de Octávio César Augusto. O seu nome era Bracara Augusta. Braga é desde o século III sede de arcebispado. O arcebispo de Braga teve um importante papel na independência de Portugal e no reconhecimento de D. Afonso Henriques como Rei de Portugal no século XII. Dada a sua importância religiosa e histórica, Braga é também conhecida por “cidade dos arcebispos”.

BRAGA The city has a large number of churches which are now the majority of the city’s most important monuments, such as Braga Cathedral, the church and Stairway of Bom Jesus de Braga, Congregados Church, St Marcus Church, the Archbishop’s Palace, the Pópulo Convent, Falperra Church, the Sameiro Sanctuary. Sendo sede religiosa, a cidade tem um grande número de igrejas, que são hoje alguns dos seus mais importantes monumentos, tais como a Sé Catedral, Igreja e Escadório do Bom Jesus, Igreja dos Congregados, Igreja de S. Marcos, Convento do Pópulo, Igreja da Falperra ou Santuário do Sameiro.

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Braga made the city known as “Portuguese Rome”. The eighteenth century has been the pinnacle of socio economic importance of Braga’s past, which is demonstrated by the many monuments of the Baroque period. Ao longo da sua história, o século XVIII foi um período muito importante em termos políticos e socioeconómicos, como se comprova pelos muitos monumentos religiosos e civis do período do Barroco e do Rococó.


The previous monuments are masterpieces of the Baroque in Braga, as well as the Town Hall, the Archbishop’s Palace, the Biscainhos Palace, the Raio Palace, are examples of other buildings of greater importance in the city, and of the Baroque and Rococo. André Soares is one of the most important artist of that era, mainly on the interior and façades decorations of the Rococo buildings . Also important are the Roman remains, as the Idol Fountain or the ruins of the Baths. The municipal Stadium is a masterpiece of the portuguese modern architecture. Eduardo Souto Moura won the Pritzker prize in 2011 with this work. Destes períodos destacam-se os seguintes monumentos: o edifício da Câmara Municipal, o palácio arquiepiscopal, o Palácio dos Biscaínhos, o Palácio do Raio. André Soares é um dos artistas desta época que mais se destaca, sobretudo na decoração dos exteriores e interiores dos edifícios do Rococó. Monumentos também muito importantes em Braga são as ruínas Romanas, como a Fonte do Ídolo ou os Banhos Romanos, cujo espólio se pode observar no Museu D. Diogo de Sousa. Na arquitectura moderna é de destacar o Estádio Municipal de Braga, do arquitecto português Eduardo Souto Moura, prémio Pritzker em 2011 e um dos arquitetos de renome a nível mundial.

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THE CITY OF PORTO

The city of Porto is considered the second most important city of the country and the most important in northern Portugal. In Porto there are currently very important institutions in the national and international level, such as, the University of Porto, Casa da Música, the Serralves Foundation, the Porto Football Club. O Porto é considerada a cidade mais importante da região norte de Portugal e a segunda mais importante do país. Costuma ser chamada “capital do Norte”. Atualmente, no Porto, existem várias instituições importantes a nível nacional e internacional, entre elas a Universidade do Porto, a Casa da Música, a Fundação de Serralves ou o Futebol Clube do Porto.


Also, in the economic level, the region of North and Porto has central importance. Important industrial and business centers perform their activity in northern Portugal and Porto. Its airport is the most important in northern Iberian Peninsula. Also the seaport of Leixões has an important role in promoting trade, tourism and industry in the region.

Também a nível económico o Porto assume grande importância, quer a nível industrial, quer comercial. O aeroporto Francisco Sá Carneiro, que é o mais importante do Norte da Península Ibérica, assim como o Porto de Leixões, têm um papel fundamental no comércio, turismo e na indústria da região.

The river Douro, which bathes the city in addition to connect two neighboring cities, Vila Nova de Gaia and Porto, established since long time, communication with the interior of the country, especially in the region of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, which produces the famous Douro wine, which transported to Porto, was stored in cellars situated mostly in Vila Nova de Gaia and hence exported all over the world. The importance of the name of the city of Porto is the reason why this wine is known as Port Wine.

O Rio Douro banha a cidade e liga as duas cidades vizinhas, Vila Nova de Gaia e Porto. Estabelece também ligação, desde há muito, entre a região de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, no interior do país, zona onde se produz o famoso Vinho do Douro, que transportado para o Porto, colocado e armazenado nas Caves em Vila Nova de Gaia, é depois exportado para todo o mundo, com o nome de Vinho do Porto. Recentemente, o rio Douro ganhou importância turística acrescida pelo crescimento do número de navios de cruzeiro que percorrem o rio desde a sua foz até ao interior do país.

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Porto is closely linked to the formation of Portugal from the outset: the name deriving Portugal, portus cale (port, local boats). Before Portugal was an independent kingdom, the Portucalense existed, which had its capital first at Porto and then in Guimarães. O Porto está intimamente ligado à formação de Portugal, até na origem do nome: o nome do país deriva de portus (porto de mar). Antes de Portugal ser um reino independente existia o condado Portucalense, cuja primeira capital foi o Porto e, posteriormente, Guimarães.


In the eighteenth century because of the production of Port wine, Porto became an important economic activity, which will create the oldest demarcated wine region in the world, precisely the region of Douro wines. Durante o século XVIII a produção de Vinho do Porto tornou-se numa importante atividade económica, dando origem à mais antiga região demarcada do mundo, a região de vinhos do Douro.

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The Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória, also known as the Monastery of Batalha, is one of the most beautiful examples of Portuguese and European architecture. This dazzling architectural ensemble was born out of a promise that King, João I, made in thanks for his victory at Aljubarrota, a battle fought on August 14, 1385, which assured him the throne and guaranteed independence for Portugal. O Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitória, também conhecido por Mosteiro da Batalha, é um dos mais belos exemplos da arquitetura gótica Portuguesa e Europeia. O extraordinário conjunto arquitetónico nasceu de uma promessa do Rei D. João I, em agradecimento pela sua vitória na Batalha de Aljubarrota, contra o Reino de Castela, em 14 de agosto de 1385, tendo-lhe garantido o trono e a independência de Portugal.

BATA LHA

The construction took over 150 years, across various phases. This is the reason why one can find not only gothic style, but also Manueline style and some renaissance touches. A number of alterations were made to the initial project, resulting in a vast monastic complex that today includes a church, two cloisters with annexed dependencies and two royal pantheons, the Founder’s Chapel and the Unfinished Chapels. Nowadays it is a national Monument also declared World Heritage by UNESCO, in 1983. A construção decorreu ao longo de cerca de 150 anos, atravessando várias fases. Essa é a razão pela qual se encontra não só o estilo Gótico (predominante), como também o Manuelino e alguns toques de Renascença. Uma série de alterações ao projeto inicial foram sendo feitas, resultando num complexo monástico muito vasto, que inclui uma igreja, dois claustros e com dois Panteões Reais, a Capela dos Fundadores e as Capelas Inacabadas.


The Unknown Soldier

O Soldado Desconhecido

On April 9, 1921 there were brought from Flanders and Portuguese Africa to the Monastery of Batalha, the two Unknown Soldiers, who died during WW I, representing in all their glory those lost during the expeditions sent to the referred theatres of operations and symbolising the heroic sacrifice of the Portuguese People. Ever since the end of the 19th century the Monastery of Batalha has been an object of nationalistic fervour due to its cultural significance in history, which would later lead to its appointment as dedicated resting place for the Unknown Soldier, becoming a patriotic place of pilgrimage where the national soul could find sanctuary.

A 9 de abril de 1921 foram trazidos da Flandres e da África Portuguesa para o Mosteiro da Batalha dois Soldados Desconhecidos, mortos na 1ª Guerra Mundial, representando a glória dos soldados perdidos durante as expedições nos respetivos teatros de guerra, simbolizando o heroísmo e sacrifício dos portugueses. Desde os finais do século XIX que o Mosteiro da Batalha tem sido local de fervor nacionalista devido ao seu significado cultural e histórico e que mais tarde deu lugar ao memorial do Soldado Desconhecido, tornando-se um local de peregrinação para a alma nacional. 81


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FĂ TIMA FATIMA The Sanctuary of Fatima is the most religious place in Portugal. Throughout the year thousands of people go to Fatima to pray to Our Lady. Different Christian believers come, but mainly Catholics.


May 13th each year has the most pilgrims in Fatima, from the whole country and from abroad. In the previous weeks of 13th of May thousands of pilgrims, from all over the country, walk the roads towards Fátima, in pilgrimage. According to the believers, on the 13th of May 1917 Our Lady appeared to three children, three little shepherds, called Francisco, Jacinta and Lúcia upon a holm oak at Cova da Iria, Fatima.

Em 13 de maio de cada ano muitos peregrinos portugueses e do estrangeiro rumam a Fátima para prestar culto à Virgem Maria. Nas semanas que precedem esta data milhares destes peregrinos caminham pelas estradas do país em peregrinação. De acordo com os crentes, no dia 13 de maio de 1917, Nossa Senhora apareceu a três pastorinhos, Francisco, Jacinta e Lúcia, em cima de uma azinheira na Cova da Iría.

In the following months, until October 13th, Our Lady appeared as promised and many people came to Cova da Iria to see Her. Only the little shepherds could see and speak to Her. The apparition of Our Lady in Fatima, as other apparitions in the world, is a religious issue. You either believe them or not. In Portugal, many, many people believe that’s true, and in all Portuguese churches – and in many churches abroad – you can see in the altars an image of Our Lady of Fatima, evidence of the importance that these apparitions in Fátima, Portugal, have all over the world. They were recently sanctified by Pope Francis. Nos meses que se seguiram, até 13 de outubro, Nossa Senhora apareceu-lhes várias vezes, como prometido, e muitas pessoas acorreram ao local das aparições para ver. No entanto, apenas os pastorinhos a conseguiam ver ou ouvir. Obviamente que as Aparições de Fátima, como outras pelo mundo, são um assunto religioso. Há quem nelas acredite e outros não. Em Portugal, sendo maioritariamente um país católico, muitos acreditam e é possível ver em muitas igrejas, no país e estrangeiro, imagens de Nossa Senhora de Fátima. Recentemente os pastorinhos foram canonizados pelo Papa Francisco. 83


PORTUGAL STUDENTS WORK


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“For me, the Erasmus project was the best experience of my life, because I made new friends and learned new things. Also I travelled by plane...” Ana Beatriz 9º”


“Erasmus was one of the best experiences of my life and I made friends for life.” Nádia 9º”

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CONTACTOSO CONTACTS

Agrupamento de Escolas de Vila Verde Av. Dr. António Ribeiro Guimarães, nº 1360 4730 – 715 Vila Verde Phone: 00351253 310 080 / Fax: 253 310 089 EB Monsenhor Elísio Araújo – (Erasmus+ project school) Address: EC Vila Verde - Apartado 105 4731-909 Vila Verde Phone: 00351253 310 370/ Fax: 253 310 379


Cathedrals - Erasmus Plus  

As our pupils live in a rural area, they have few opportunities to communicate in a foreign language and to have access to other cultures. T...

Cathedrals - Erasmus Plus  

As our pupils live in a rural area, they have few opportunities to communicate in a foreign language and to have access to other cultures. T...

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