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40  SAM JOHNSTON

The collection of data and statistics has significantly improved in the last decade and means that many of the indicators could be refined and improved. Examples include Indicator 7.1 on forest coverage, which could be refined to include natural habitat coverage or could be replaced by natural habitat coverage, and Target 7.6, which could be refined to be more accurate or meaningful so that it refers to eco-regions, biomes, ecosystems, Alliance for Zero Extinction sites or Important Bird Areas, rather than just protected marine and terrestrial areas. The internal structure or logic of the MDGs could also be improved. For example, it is not clear why health issues have three separate goals (MDG4 – reduce child mortality; MDG5 – improve maternal health; and MDG6 – combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases). In addition, the relationship between several of the targets and their indicators is not clear or understandable. For example, the relationship between Targets 7.A and 7.B and their indicators needs revision. Moreover, many of the targets for MDG8 have a tangential relationship to the overall goal.

Conclusion The challenge over the coming decades is to ensure that economic growth is equitable, rolls back unsustainable use of our natural resources and restores those ecosystems that have been degraded. There are no silver bullets or simple strategies for addressing a challenge as vast and complex as sustainable development. Sustainable development is a continuing iterative process, more than a plan or a project. Consequently, governments need more tools to implement sustainable development, not more rules. The experience of the last 40 years and our existing needs for the ­future raise profound questions, including: • Is the sustainable development model still relevant and should we ­focus on mechanisms for implementing it? Or should we change the paradigm for the coming decades? • What is currently missing that needs to be put in place to ensure that the needs of current and future generations are met? • What lessons can be drawn from recent experience to frame a new international “deal” for sustainable development at Rio+20? • Who are the key parties and what are their respective interests and constraints? • What is needed to ensure that development over the next 40 years is equitable? • What are the key lessons from the record? This chapter illustrates that there are a number of other key strategic contributions that can be made, including developing REDD+, promoting technology development and transfer, and revising the MDGs.

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  
Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...