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38  SAM JOHNSTON

f­ acilitated access to IPRs and international assistance but by their own investment in R&D capacities. Many developing countries have started to prioritize their R&D investments. China, a prominent example in recent years, doubled its gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) to 1.54 per cent in 2011 compared with 2002 (UNESCO, 2011). China expects to invest USD 154 billion in R&D in 2011, second only to the United States in USD terms. GERD has remained stable in Brazil (0.9 per cent) and India (0.9 per cent), but this has resulted in significant new finds for R&D owing to strong economic growth. In 2011, India will spend USD 36 billion (eighth-highest in the world) and Brazil will spend USD 19 billion ­(eleventh-highest in the world). Mexico, South Africa, Argentina, Hungary, Romania, Turkey and Poland have billion dollar commitments to R&D and rank inside the top 40 countries in the world. Only China has a GERD above 1 per cent, whereas the OECD average is nearly 2 per cent, led by Japan (3.3 per cent), Sweden (3.3 per cent), Finland (3.1 per cent), South Korea (3.0 per cent) and the United States (2.7 per cent) (UNESCO, 2011). Additionally the ICT revolution has meant cheap and easy access to R&D and technologies. The global financial crisis has also shifted relative investments in that it has had larger effects on R&D budgets in many developed countries than in the developing world and resulted in the speeding-up of developing countries’ competitive edge. As the UNESCO Science Report 2010 concluded: [A]chieving knowledge-intensive growth . . . depends increasingly on a better use of knowledge, whatever the level of development, whatever its form and whatever its origin: new product and process technologies developed domestically, or the re-use and novel combination of knowledge developed elsewhere. This applies to manufacturing, agriculture and services in both the public and private sectors. . . . Knowledge accumulation and knowledge diffusion are able to take place at a faster pace, involving a growing number of new entrants and providing a threat to established institutions and positions. (UNESCO, 2010: 2, 26)

Governments nevertheless need to create the right policy environment to encourage people into R&D and private investment. For most developing countries, this will mean a significant long-term commitment of public funds to the tertiary education system, as in Korea, China, India and ­Brazil.

MDGs As noted before, the MDGs have provided an important focus for the entire international community and will offer important goals for the

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  
Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...