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34  SAM JOHNSTON

The most important priority and intervention for the developing world is tackling poverty. The experience of the past 40 years has demonstrated what a complex and difficult challenge this is, with poverty, inequity and environmental degradation being intertwined. The work of the Global Sustainability Panel shows that education, vocational training and employment are important means for the transformation towards an environmentally conscious and resilient society. Other options being con­ sidered by the Global Sustainability Panel include paying for ecosystem services, ensuring universal access to renewable energy, defining codes of conduct for investments related to natural resources, connecting social protection systems to sustainability outcomes, and pushing for agricultural research and development (R&D) that includes sustainable practices. Building on this work for Rio+20, particularly the work of the Global Sustainability Panel, requires strategic interventions, which are highlighted in the next section.

Strategic interventions to help achieve sustainability Climate change Climate change is predominantly seen as a challenge. Yet the issue also creates significant opportunities for developing countries and for promoting sustainable development. Global energy demand is estimated to grow 55 per cent by 2030, which will require an investment of USD 22 trillion in energy infrastructure, with about half of that in developing countries (IEA, 2011). Significant mitigation opportunities for developing countries are being created, such as potentially USD 60 billion per year for halting deforestation (World Bank, 2011b). Under the UNFCCC, developed countries are considering how to provide financial assistance for adaptation costs in the developing world, which are expected to be USD 250 billion per year by 2020. Global investment in renewable energy projects will rise from USD 195 billion in 2010 to USD 395 billion in 2020 and to USD 460 billion by 2030, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance analysis. Over the next 20 years this growth will require nearly USD 7 trillion of new capital (Bloomberg, 2011). Many of the world leaders in clean energy technologies are in the developing world. At a more philosophical level, many parties to the UNFCCC have ­argued that atmospheric resources are the common wealth of human ­beings and should be shared equally, and that cumulative per capita emissions can be used as an indicator of equity. Scientists estimate that society will have emitted 600 gigatons of carbon (GtC) between the years 1800

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  
Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...