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CHANGES IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM  25

able consumption and internalizing externalities, respect for diversity, common but differentiated responsibility, special attention and support for the least able and most vulnerable, enfranchisement for all stakeholders, access to justice accountability and the precautionary principle. Specific goals and targets to guide implementation of sustainable development are numerous and cover a wide range of issues. The most important set is the MDGs, which set out 21 targets and 60 indicators within the following goals:1 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development The MDGs are the epitome or minimum set of core goals, targets and indicators that the international community developed and importantly agreed to through numerous conferences, processes and conventions. As such the MDGs are a product of political and practical compromise and as a result are not complete or final. They are missing key elements for sustainable development, such as references to cultural diversity, minority rights, population stabilization or principles of good governance. The MDGs are also missing important targets and indicators, such as economic rights for women, action on chemical pollutants or renewable energy. Moreover, the internal structure of the MDGs is debatable. For example, it is not clear why four of the eight goals deal with human health. Even though many of the targets are time bound – most referring to 2015 as the relevant date – the goals, the indicators and many of the targets are enduring. For example, eliminating extreme poverty and hunger are still important goals even for richer countries and will always be important goals for any government at any stage of development. The institutional architecture for developing and implementing sustainable development, like the concept itself, is complex and multi­ faceted. As outlined in the General Assembly Resolution on Rio+20 (United Nations, 2010a), it centres on the General Assembly, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the Commission on Sustainable Development and the member states, in particular their national sustainable development commissions. The UN Secretary-General, the United Nations Secretariat, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization, the United Nations

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...