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18  JOSE A. PUPPIM DE OLIVEIRA

to boost the green economy by local communities that manage and are dependent on biological resources, particularly in places with high biological diversity. There is an implementation gap in global environmental policies as a result of the limited involvement of local stakeholders who would be affected the most by and, theoretically, benefit most from those policies. However, trade tends to concentrate the benefits from biological resources in those who trade final products and services and much less in the primary producers and those responsible for managing the biological resources. For the green economy to work, we need to design mechanisms both nationally and internationally that could make a more equal distribution of the benefits from resources conservation. Chapter 10 looks at the traditional discussion on international environmental governance but with a different analysis. The author, Norichika Kanie of UNU-IAS, examines the main problems of and alternatives to the current sustainable development institutional framework. Using the World Café workshop, a format of discussions where small groups rotate to address the same discussion points, he presents an analysis of the reforms that may be needed to make international processes more efficient, legitimate and effective in providing solutions to pressing global problems. Chapter 11 analyses the governance challenges of the deep and open oceans beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Marjo Vierros and Anne McDonald of UNU-IAS and Salvatore Arico of UNESCO argue that the principle of the “freedom of the sea” that prevails in the governance of ocean areas beyond national jurisdiction is leading to unsustainable use and an inequitable distribution of the benefits from marine resources. Oceans are the least protected ecosystems on the planet. One of the reasons is the lack of knowledge about their rich biodiversity, despite oceans accounting for the largest surface area. The authors believe that a better understanding of the richness of the oceans could boost governance and make oceans a real global commons, instead of almost an open access resource as they are now. The modern tools used for the conservation of coastal areas could also improve the management of conservation in the oceans. Chapter 12 analyses the role of indigenous peoples in global environmental governance. Kirsty Galloway McLean, Sam Johnston and Ameyali Ramos Castillo of UNU-IAS look at how international processes have evolved in relation to the participation of indigenous people, who have brought important interests and knowledge to those processes. Local indigenous communities make direct links between environmental assets and human well-being, because many of them have depended on nearby ecosystems for their livelihood for many generations and have developed specific knowledge about keeping those ecosystems in good health. In

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  
Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...