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16  JOSE A. PUPPIM DE OLIVEIRA

s­ takeholders, such as indigenous groups. Thus, the main objective of this book is to gather essays from authors across the UNU institutes in order to contribute to the debates on the two themes in several areas in which the programmes/institutes have accumulated expertise. Thematic discussions led by UNU experts will help us to understand the achievements and ­obstacles in relation to sustainability in the last 20 years so that we can propose new ideas and changes in economy and governance for a more sustainable future. Each group of experts will contribute to its specific area of expertise, having as a background the United Nations’ crosscutting broad themes for Rio+20 and beyond. In the next chapter, Sam Johnston of UNU-IAS discusses how the debates on sustainable development have evolved, particularly since Rio92, and identifies the main achievements and challenges for moving the sustainable agenda forward. He examines advances in the implementation of sustainability, having as a background the global environmental processes that started in 1972 and looking at the best practices and ­lessons we can learn from more than 40 years of global environmental processes. Based on that, he identifies opportunities to scale those lessons and the necessary changes that could facilitate the achievement of a more sustainable future. In Chapter 3, Manu V. Mathai and Govindan Parayil of UNU-IAS ­argue about the limitations of defining and applying the concepts of ­sustainable development and the green economy. Even though the two concepts are popular, they are both ambiguous and incomplete. The authors identify three attributes of sustainability that could clarify some of the ambiguities found in these concepts: having the economic system as a subsystem of the ecosystems, recognizing environmental injustices, and acknowledging the limitations and consequences of technological fixes to environmental problems. In Chapter 4, the idea of the green economy is analysed critically. UNU-WIDER’s Danielle Resnick, Finn Tarp and James Thurlow examine the concept of green growth to see if it is possible for general ­economic development objectives, such as job creation and poverty alleviation, to go hand in hand with “green” or environmental goals. Using the cases of Mozambique, South Africa and Malawi, they argue that the concept of green growth, and the reforms needed to achieve it, demands policy reforms similar to other reforms that require short-term adjustment costs in order to achieve long-term gains. They conclude that green growth strategies can lead to fierce opposition from some parts of society, including the poor. Chapter 5 presents a discussion of the green economy in the context of education, particularly its role in changing patterns of consumption and production. The team of authors (Zinaida Fadeeva, Abel Barasa

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  
Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...