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growth, was indeed at the root of some environmental problems, such as lack of sanitation or deforestation in some areas. The mainstream framework to combat environmental degradation was also lacking important dimensions, such as economic and development inequalities and poverty. The continuing depletion of natural resources and the environmental pollution in some countries and their consequences for economic and social development led the United Nations to create the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), or the Brundtland Commission, chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland (former Norwegian prime minister) in 1983. The Commission released its report Our Common Future in 1987. Widely known as the Brundtland Report, it popularized the concept of sustainable development and had a huge impact on international and national policies all over the world (WCED, 1987). Doubt was already being cast on the narrow focus of the concept of development on economic development, and the idea of the Human Development Index was being developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 1990). The Brundtland Report consolidated the idea that economic and social development can go hand in hand with environmental protection. The Commission said it was also important to include the needs of future generations in the development equation, defining sustainable development as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The environmental and development agenda after WCED changed definitively. It moved from being only “green” to trying to make environmental protection compatible with social and economic development for both present and future generations. While the WCED was meeting and presenting its results, new environmental problems were emerging, such as the depletion of the ozone layer, biodiversity loss and global warming. The nature of these problems was different from that of previous problems related to local air and water pollution – they had global causes and consequences and needed global solutions. One country alone could not solve these problems. The need to find solutions for global problems and the search for a new kind of development (sustainable development) led the United Nations to call for a second large global environmental summit, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, or Rio-92, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. The conference produced important conventions and other documents such as Agenda 21, the Convention on ­Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Agenda 21, a blueprint for the implementation of sustainable development, was widely discussed around the world, and thousands of Agendas 21 were drafted at national, subnational and local levels.

Green Economy and Good Governance for Sustainable Development: Opportunities, Promises and Concerns  

Debates on green growth and environmental governance tend to be general in nature, and are often conceptual or limited to single disciplines...