2021 NCJR Annual Report

Page 1

NEBR ASK A CENTER FOR JUSTICE RESE ARCH

A N N U A L 2 0 2 1

R E P O R T



TABLE OF CON T EN T S From the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Nebraska Center for Justice Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 NCJR Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Statement of Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Meet the Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Congratulations to Dr. Emily Wright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Associate Director Highlight: Dr. Zachary Hamilton . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Faculty Affiliate Highlight: Dr. Leah C. Butler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Student Affiliate Highlight: Ebonie Epinger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Presentation Highlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Project Highlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Report Highlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Testimony Highlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Community Partners: Adjusting to COVID-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Publication Highlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Faculty Affiliates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Student Affiliates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


FROM THE DIREC TOR The Nebraska Center for Justice Research (NCJR) was established in 2014 with a mission to develop and sustain criminal justice research capacity internal to the State of Nebraska. Our goal is to assist the Legislature, justice agencies, practitioners, foundations, and stakeholders with research and evaluation to reduce recidivism, promote the use of evidence-based practices, and improve public safety. This annual report summarizes the activities and financial status of NCJR in the 2020-2021 fiscal year. As for most professionals working in the areas of higher education, criminal justice, and corrections, NCJR’s work this year was conducted in the context of an unrelenting pandemic. As the UNO campus shut down, NCJR staff quickly adopted to working from our homes in a virtual fashion. Whereas the challenges were greatest for our administrative staff, our research and evaluation activities proceeded without interrupt from our new locales. Zoom meetings became the norm. Faces on screens replaced travel and in-person meetings. Weekly meetings not only coordinated our research and evaluation tasks, but also served as conduits for much-needed social interaction…virtual “water cooler chats”…and opportunities to check-up on each other. At all times, we knew that our practitioner collaborators working in law enforcement, corrections, community corrections, reentry, and child advocacy faced substantially more difficulties and dangers in this new environment. Consequently, we applaud and appreciate their brave work. NCJR experienced a change in the leadership team this year. Dr. Emily Wright, who served as NCJR’s inaugural associate director, accepted a half-time administrative position in UNO’s Office of Research and Creative Activity. In combination with her position as a full professor in UNO’s School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, her busy schedule did not allow her to continue in her role with NCJR. We thank Dr. Wright for her invaluable contributions to NCJR these last few years! On a positive note, assuming the role of associate director is Dr. Zach Hamilton, a recent addition to the faculty of UNO’s School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Although a recent arrival to UNO, Dr. Hamilton’s research already has a legacy in the state of Nebraska, as he developed the classification and re-classification instruments, as well as the Strong-R risk and needs assessment tool, used by the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Dr. Hamilton is one of the top researchers on risk/needs assessment and classification in the nation and is a valuable addition to NCJR’s research and evaluation team. NCJR was once again active with the Legislature in working through issues such as overcrowding and staff shortages. For the first time, NCJR collaborated with UNO’s Center for Public Affairs Research (CPAR) in work the Unicameral’s Planning Committee. This work was in response to the social protests experienced nationwide, and locally in Omaha and other cities across the state, in reaction to police shootings of racial minorities, as well as widespread perceptions of racial and ethnic disparities in criminal justice systems and corrections. For this report, entitled Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System in Nebraska, we collected all criminal justice and corrections data available in Nebraska that allowed for an examination of racial and ethnic disparities. In addition to assisting with this report, I accompanied UNO School of Criminology and Criminal Justice professor Leah Butler and CPAR Director Josie Schafer to testify to the Planning Committee regarding this issue that is foundational to justice systems in Nebraska. Regarding NCJR’s academic mission, NCJR faculty and students were once again able to present our work at a conference: our first participation with the American Jail Association. We also published our first article in

4

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


American Jails magazine, entitled “Examining Risk and Need Factors Among a Midwestern Jail Population.” NCJR faculty and staff also had a very successful year of publishing in academic journals, including top journals such as Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, and Criminal Justice and Behavior. From a budgetary standpoint, we continue to be encouraged by the well-balanced budgetary profile of NCJR that includes state funding, contracts with local agencies, federal grants, and funding by local foundations. The diversity of our funding profile not only broadens the impact of our research, technical assistance, and evaluation activities across the state, but also allows us to provide “matching” funding for products that benefit from both public and private dollars. Although this was a challenging year for everyone, I am proud of the work that NCJR faculty, staff, and students completed in achieving our mission and goals in Nebraska’s justice system. We remain extremely grateful and proud of the difficult, but extremely important work that was completed by our stakeholders in the fields of law enforcement, community corrections, institutional corrections, and reentry. We hope that these challenges have made our hearts more resilient and our work more flexible and nimble. Perseverantia omni vincit (perseverance conquers all things)!

Ryan E. Spohn NCJR Director

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

5


NCJR Mission Statement The Nebraska Center for Justice Research’s mission is “to develop and sustain research capacity internal to the State of Nebraska, assist the Legislature in research, evaluation, and policymaking to reduce recidivism, promote the use of evidence-based practices in corrections, and improve public safety.” Our research focus is to use data, research, and evaluation to reduce recidivism, promote the use of evidence-based practices, and improve public safety in Nebraska with an emphasis on reducing prison overcrowding.

NCJR Facilities NCJR currently occupies approximately 1,000 square feet in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice (SCCJ), located in the College of Public Affairs and Community Service (CPACS) building on the University of Nebraska Omaha campus.

Statement of Goals NCJR is a non-partisan non-profit research entity housed in the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Public Affairs and Community Service. The team is comprised of social science researchers who strive to serve the residents of Nebraska with honor and integrity by producing scientific studies held to the highest ethical standards. In pursuit of this overarching goal, we:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Conduct non-partisan examinations of justice-related issues for the state of Nebraska. Propose and conduct scientific evaluations of policies and activities of Nebraska state agencies in order to assist them to serve Nebraskans efficiently and effectively. Provide the public and legislature with regular reports regarding our activities. Contribute to the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice’s graduate program by funding students via applied research projects. Promote sustainability of statewide justice reinvestment activities. Increase research credibility by producing useable technical reports and meaningful academic publications. Continue our national reputation as a top-tier research and evaluation Center by ensuring our deliverables are produced with the utmost methodological rigor.

For more information visit: justiceresearch.unomaha.edu

6

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


MEET THE TEAM

Ryan Spohn, Ph.D. Director

Zachary Hamilton, Ph.D. Associate Director Michael F. Campagna, Ph.D. Research Associate Katelynn Towne, Ph.D. Research Coordinator Taylor Claxton, M.S. Research Assistant Cheryl Christiansen Staff Associate

Ryan is the Director of the Nebraska Center for Justice Research. He received his B.S. in Sociology/Criminology from Kansas State University (1996), M.S. in Sociology from Texas A&M University (1998), and Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Iowa (2003). His areas of research include juvenile delinquency, crime, families, child maltreatment, and the evaluation of criminal justice agencies and programs. Zachary is the Associate Director of the Nebraska Center for Justice Research and is an Associate Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University. His research areas include risk and needs assessments and corrections. Michael is the Research Associate for the NCJR. He received his B.A. in both Crime, Law, & Justice and Sociology from the Pennsylvania State University (2006), M.A. in Criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania (2009), and Ph.D. in Criminal Justice & Criminology from Washington State University (2017). His areas of research include prisoner reentry, risk/needs assessment, case management, developmental theory, and desistance. Katelynn is the Research Coordinator for the NCJR. She received her B.A. in Sociology from University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2011), M.A. in Sociology from University of Missouri-Columbia (2014), and Ph.D. in Sociology from University of Missouri-Columbia (2019). Her areas of research include criminology, social inequality, reentry, policing, victimization, and social media. Taylor is a doctoral student at the University of Nebraska at Omaha in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. She received her M.S. in Criminal Justice from the University of North Florida (2018). Her areas of research include inequities in the criminal legal system, reform efforts, and public opinion. Cheryl is a staff associate at the NCJR. She tracks the Center’s budgets and supports the directors and coordinators with their various administrative needs. Cheryl has worked for the University of Nebraska at Omaha in the Biology department, as well as the dean’s office in the College of Information Sciences & Technology, starting there in 2008.

Report Prepared By Tara Grell, graphic designer, UNO Center for Public Affairs Research

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

7


CONGR AT UL AT IONS Associate Director Emily Wright Accepts New Administrative Position at UNO The Nebraska Center for Justice Research underwent a personnel change this year, as our former associate director, Dr. Emily Wright, transitioned to a new position at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. We would like to give a special thank you to Dr. Wright for her time working at the Center. Dr. Wright first joined the NCJR family as a faculty associate in 2014 before accepting the position of Associate Director in 2016. At the beginning of 2021, Dr. Wright transitioned to her new position as Assistant Vice Chancellor for Social Sciences in the Office of Research and Creative Activity at the University of Nebraska at Omaha where she oversees both faculty and student research. This new role allows her to assist folks with their research endeavors by connecting them to other researchers and opportunities at UNO and other campuses. She is also working on an initiative to develop services that foster mentorships between early and seasoned academics. In her new role, Dr. Wright continues to promote the importance of community-engaged research, as she did at NCJR. When speaking with Dr. Wright about her favorite memories while at NCJR, she highlighted her experiences meeting new people and getting to work with community agencies, such as Boys Town, the Juvenile Assessment Center, Nebraska Department of Correctional Services, and Douglas County Department of Corrections. Dr. Wright excels at building relationships and bridging the gap between academia and agencies/practitioners. While Dr. Wright will truly be missed here at NCJR, we are excited to see where this new journey takes her! We know she will do excellent things for the UNO and Nebraska research scenes!

8

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


A S SOCI AT E DIREC T OR HIGHLIGH T Dr. Zachary Hamilton Beginning January 2021, Dr. Zachary Hamilton joined the Nebraska Center for Justice Research as the new associate director. Dr. Hamilton had recently made the transition from Washington State University to the University of Nebraska at Omaha for the 2020-2021 academic year. Even though the move is recent, Dr. Hamilton is no stranger to Nebraska. While at Washington State, his assessment tools, the Static Risk Offender Needs Guide-Revised (STRONG-R) and the Modified Positive Achievement Change Tool (MPACT), were implemented by the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Dr. Hamilton is an expert in the field of risk and needs assessments. His current research focuses on risk assessment optimization. In a recent Justice Quarterly publication, Dr. Hamilton and colleagues outlined the optimization for a juvenile assessment in 10 states. They are currently expanding this assessment to include five additional states. In addition to his work on optimization, Dr. Hamilton is also developing a version of the STRONG-R for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Given his expertise in the field, Dr. Hamilton, along with Drs. Duwe and Kigerl, were selected by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to develop an assessment tool for the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) to comply with new standards established by the First Step Act of 2018. The new legislation required that the BOP use risk and needs assessments to classify incarcerated individuals. This resulted in the creation of the Prisoner Assessment Tool Targeting Estimate Risk and Needs (PATTERN), which is a gender-specific instrument that predicts general and violent recidivism using static and dynamic measures. PATTERN allows the BOP to assess an individual’s specific needs and assign the proper programming and treatment. Additionally, it is designed in a way that can reduce the incarcerated population through early parole. The PATTERN assessment project was the first federal project Dr. Hamilton worked on – and he rocked it! The turnaround time for the project was quick which was no small feat. Dr. Hamilton and friends developed and validated the tool on a sample of over 222,000 in approximately three months. Despite his impressive list of projects, Dr. Hamilton stays just as busy with a host of hobbies, such as running, golfing, and softball. His favorite place to relax is Beercade in Benson. Dr. Hamilton is looking forward to exploring more of Omaha and Nebraska as things begin to reopen. We are excited to welcome Dr. Hamilton into the NCJR family!

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

9


FAC U LT Y A F F I L I AT E H I G H L I G H T Dr. Leah C. Butler Dr. Leah Butler joined the University of Nebraska Omaha’s School of Criminology and Criminal Justice as an assistant professor in 2020. As a new faculty affiliate, she partnered with NCJR and UNO’s Center for Public Affairs Research to examine racial and ethnic disparities within Nebraska’s criminal justice system. The data demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities at multiple points of contact. Now that specific racial and ethnic disparities have been identified, the report recommends turning attention to answering why these disparities exist. Dr. Butler is also working on several projects related to her specializations in corrections and victimization. Her corrections research emphasizes the effects of race and racial attitudes on public opinion of correctional policies. Dr. Butler is in the process of preparing parts of her dissertation for publication. A forthcoming manuscript focuses on the public belief in the redeemability of Black people who have been incarcerated and another part will focus on racial beliefs and criminal justice policy opinions. She is also working with NCJR’s Dr. Zachary Hamilton on racial bias in juvenile risk assessments. This work will explore potential strategies for ameliorating bias in these assessments. The current focus of her victimization research is on bystander intervention and intimate partner violence. She is evaluating the effect of a bystander training program on an individual’s ability to intervene, as well as another project looking at an online intervention to stop or prevent forms of online harassment. Dr. Butler is also using data she collected to examine the social construction of intimate partner cyber abuse (ICPA). Additionally, she is working with her graduate assistant, Brian Gildea, to estimate rates of ICPA victimization among both cisgender, heterosexual survey respondents and LGBTQ+ respondents, while considering different risk factors for victimization among both groups.

Behind the Ph.D. Because her move to Omaha occurred during COVID restrictions, Dr. Butler and her husband have mostly been relaxing at home with their two dogs and some good vegan takeout. In addition to being an excellent researcher and professor, she is an avid baker and enjoys making sweets for get-togethers with friends. She is looking forward to exploring more of Omaha and fun spots like the Benson Brewery.

10

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


As a big proponent of public opinion research, Dr. Butler has been instrumental in developing the Crime and Justice Public Opinion Lab within SCCJ. This lab will give SCCJ students and faculty members the opportunity to work together to collect data that can be used to produce a wide range of studies on crime and justice public opinion. When speaking with Dr. Butler, she indicated three reasons for wanting to create this lab:

1

Public opinion is interesting! Public opinion research allows us to examine how people think and feel about an issue and why they think and feel that way.

2

Public opinion has important effects on our individual and collective lives. Policymakers look to public opinion when making decisions and through collective efforts (e.g., voting for certain candidates or ballot initiatives, protesting) the public can drive social and political change.

3

Public opinion research encompasses a vast and deeply nuanced range of topics and ideas and therefore the lab has huge potential for learning and publishing opportunities for our students. This is the most important reason for starting the lab. Existing collaborative public opinion studies (such as the Cooperative Congressional Elections Study) have already been established as valuable pathways for student research, and I hope that the CJPOL will likewise be a beneficial resource for SCCJ students.

S T UDEN T AFFILI AT E HIGHLIGH T Ebonie Epinger Ebonie Epinger is a doctoral candidate in the School of Criminology & Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska-Omaha. Her research interests include corrections (jail populations), risk, needs, and case management. Recently, she co-authored a publication, Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury, with other Nebraska Center for Justice Research (NCJR) staff. Ebonie has been working with the NCJR on the Reentry Services Evaluation of the Douglas County Department of Corrections (DCDC) since January 2017. In January 2020, she took on the role of project and data manager which requires her to oversee daily tasks and deadlines, as well as acquire and organize the data. Working on this project has taught Ebonie skills needed for applied research and how to bridge relationships between researchers and practitioners. Ebonie is in the dissertation stage of the doctoral program. Her dissertation examines dynamic need factors among a jail population while controlling for relevant risk factors. She hopes that this will serve as the foundation to building a case management tool for jail populations. Ebonie recently accepted a position at the University of Illinois – Urbana Champaign as the Research Program Coordinator for the Center for Prevention Research and Development within the School of Social Work and is set to begin in early 2022. This position will allow her to continue to focus on applied research. She will lead a team that conducts data collection and analysis, data reporting, and evaluations targeting the juvenile and criminal justice systems.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

11


PRE SEN TAT ION HIGHLIGH T Technical Assistance Provision for Corrections Improving the use of actuarial assessment in case management The Technical Assistance Provision for Corrections project set out to assist the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services (NDCS) in using the Static Risk and Offender Needs Guide – Revised (STRONG-R) in case management and reentry services. The Nebraska Center for Justice Research’s Michael Campanga and NCJR affiliate, Debra O’Connell created a presentation to communicate best practices in correctional settings and collaborate with NDCS to optimize their usage of the STRONG-R risk/needs assessment. Drs. Campagna and O’Connelll observed and interviewed NDCS staff using the assessment instrument and reviewed documents to develop a revised guide for STRONG-R implementation. They presented this information to NDCS staff in an 8-hour training session. The work done by Drs. Campagna and O’Connell resulted in two policy changes to improve usage. First, NDCS modified the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). System-involved individuals will initially be assessed with the full STRONG-R instrument at intake. An additional assessment will occur at 120 days prior to release with an annotated version of the STRONG-R. Second, NDCS modified the SOP for reentry staff. Reentry specialists will complete the STRONG-R and develop a reentry plan with the detainee. Training the NDCS staff on how to use the STRONG-R instrument helps with efficiency and effectiveness needed a risk-need-responsivity model of corrections. NDCS staff are better able to assess individuals and match them to proper services.

12

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


PROJEC T HIGHLIGHT Safer Achieving Change Together (ACT) Program Last year, NCJR began an exciting new evaluation of a reentry program that utilizes a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) design. Funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) Second Chance Act, the Achieving Change Together (ACT) is a prisoner reentry program based in Davenport, Iowa, and administered by the Safer Foundation. Over the three-year grant, Safer intends to provide services pre- and post- release to approximately 150 individuals who are at least 18 years of age and are moderate to high risk as identified by a validated criminogenic risk and needs assessment. Participants enrolled in the ACT Program receive intensive case management, cognitive behavioral interventions, job readiness training, employment placement, and trauma informed services. Identified partner organizations provide supportive services including anger management, healthy relationship training, financial literacy, substance abuse, mental health, mentorship, and housing services. Intensive case management will be provided to link participants to community supports and wrap around services to promote successful reentry. ACT Case managers will develop comprehensive case management reentry plans that address criminogenic risks and needs which include delivery or facilitation of services in a manner consistent with participants’ learning styles and abilities. Follow-up services will be provided for 12 months post-release and recidivism data will be tracked. ACT is particularly interested in comparing two cognitive-behavioral interventions for individuals reentering society. Thus, those enrolled in the program are randomly assigned one of two cognitive-behavioral interventions. The first is an evidence-based intervention with considerable empirical support – Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT). The second is also evidence-based but is newer to the reentry/rehabilitation scene and has yet to be tested across a variety of settings – Decision Points (DP). DP is a modified version of the popular Thinking for a Change program and shows promise for effectiveness in addressing identified criminogenic needs. The evaluation examines both process and outcomes of ACT. In close collaboration with Safer, NCJR developed lagging and leading measures of process, in order to inform Safer of what they are doing and exploring/designing strategies to improve the chances of implementation success. For the outcome evaluation, there are intermediate measures collected by Safer that will be examined with multi-variate statistical models following a 12-month follow-up period. To examine recidivism as a long-term metric, NCJR is working with the Iowa Department of Corrections to obtain courts and correctional data. NCJR is excited for the opportunity to evaluate this initiative and these two cognitive-behavioral interventions using an RCT. As a former student in Iowa, Dr. Spohn relishes the opportunity to visit the state and contribute to its improvement of social services.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

13


REPORT HIGHLIGHT Ready & Resilient: Qualitative Findings from Life Story Interviews with Vocational and Life Skills Program Participants The Vocational and Life Skills (VLS) Program was created by the 2014 Nebraska Legislative Bill 907 for the purpose of increasing employment opportunities and decreasing recidivism in Nebraska. NCJR conducts ongoing evaluations of the program outcomes. The Ready & Resilient report sheds light on what VLS participants found helpful and what areas had the potential for improvement. To better understand the experiences of individuals going through the VLS program, NCJR staff, Drs. Katelynn Towne and Michael Campagna, conducted life story interviews with 21 VLS program participants which allowed them to share their own experiences and struggles with system involvement and reentering the community after incarceration. Participants had received a variety of services from different VLS grantees, offering insight to numerous aspects of the program.

Read the full report here: https://www.unomaha.edu/ college-of-public-affairs-andcommunity-service/nebraskacenter-for-justice-research/ documents/vls-ready-andresilient-feb-2021.pdf

Many of the participants experienced hardships prior to system involvement and incarceration, including a history of traumatic life experiences and abuse, using substances to Participant Backgrounds cope, and difficulty navigating health issues and • Trauma disabilities. When asked about their motivation for • Early onset delinquency entering the VLS program, participants indicated • Substance abuse that they were ready for something better and • Health issues and disabilities hoped it would aid in personal development. Reentry and reintegration are difficult, ongoing processes. Things like housing restrictions and employment standards act as barriers for successful reintegration. Programs like VLS are important for providing tools and resources to assist folks returning from incarceration. Most participants identified program offerings that they thought were most helpful for their reentry goals. While VLS and NDCS work hard to provide services to individuals and help them overcome barriers to reentry and reintegration, participants also identified areas that they thought could use improvement. Towne, Katelynn, Michael F. Campagna, and Ryan Spohn. (2021). Ready & Resilient: Qualitative Findings from Life Story Interviews with Vocational and Life Skills Program Participants. (2021) For the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services.

14

Preparing for Reentry • Ready for something better • Personal development

Reentering Society • Selective social networks • Importance of social support • Housing struggles • Gaining employment

Future Endeavors • Resilience and optimism • Improvement recommendations

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


TESTIMONY HIGHLIGHT Nebraska LB 384 In 2021, Dr. Zachary Hamilton, associate director of the Nebraska Center for Justice Research (NCJR), spoke with members of the Nebraska Legislature regarding the issue of overcrowded prisons. As part of a larger state budget package, an amendment to LB 384 passed which directed $15 million to create the Prison Overcrowding Contingency Fund. A portion of this fund ($200,000) is contracted to UNO for the purpose of addressing prison overcrowding. This is a significant issue for Nebraska correctional institutions, with one of the highest rates of overcrowded prisons in the country. NCJR’s Dr. Zachary Hamilton will work with the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services (NDCS) to examine inmate classification as a way to reduce overcrowding by releasing/paroling lowrisk individuals. Dr. Hamilton previously worked with NDCS to develop a classification tool for incarcerated individuals. An updated version of the tool will be used to examine sources of overcrowding. The researcher-practitioner partnership between Dr. Hamilton and NDCS will be completed in three phases. Phase 1 is to assess the issues via interviews, focus groups, and data collection. Dr. Hamilton and his research team are meeting with administrators, wardens, unit managers and conducting focus groups at each of the NDCS prison facilities. NDCS staff are providing their opinions on issues and possible solutions to classification and inmate flow through the system. Research staff will examine some of the themes of these issues using data routinely collected and provided by NDCS. Phase 1 will conclude with a process evaluation report to NDCS and the legislature. In Phases 2 and 3 we will collaborate with NDCS to address and solve some of the issues identified in Phase 1.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

15


C O M M U N I T Y PA R T N E R S The Covid-19 pandemic created several challenges for NCJR community partners: particularly for the Vocational and Life Skills (VLS) reentry program providers. The first problem that surfaced in March of 2020 involved figuring out how program staff could deliver programming safely. One safety strategy implemented on behalf of NDCS, and other programs was to limit enrollment to maintain social distancing. Other preventative measures include masks, temperature checks, and encouraging hand sanitizer. Although these strategies were promising, some program facilitators had to step back from program delivery due to childcare limitations or underlying medical conditions. The Covid-19 pandemic made finding employment and housing, while maintaining socially distanced mental health more difficult than ever.

Many businesses are not hiring right now or are closed or have limited hours of operation. Many of the places that are hiring are not places that hire our population. The challenge in the next few weeks will be to assist the current guests at Honu in finding employment, housing and accessing some services.

Mental Health Association, March 2020

RISE was required to pivot on certain in-person services which proved to be a challenge due to the lack of technology expertise of our client base. Many hours were spent by front line staff on the phone as ‘tech support’ so clients understood how to virtually attend therapy appointments, doctors’ appointments, AA and NA groups, and other things vital to their lives. Once the basics of technology were understood, RISE program participants were then invited to a weekly virtual gathering of RISE Reentry staff as well as other program participants to come together for no other reason than to support each other. Conversation ranged from peoples’ favorite food to make, to pastimes during quarantine, from family struggles to mental health concerns. This community allowed people to feel that they had a support system of people who cared about their wellbeing and allowed consistent interaction with other people of similar backgrounds.

RISE, November 2021

16

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


ADJUS TING TO COVID -19 Despite these pandemic challenges, VLS program providers found creative ways to continue to serve their community. For example, program facilitators that could not directly meet with participants for medical considerations developed self-paced learning workbooks. These self-paced programming options are now more popular than many in person programs. Program staff worked hard to maintain flexibility and create alternatives as things changed. Programs developed correspondence courses, learned how to teach through virtual options, and even put together supportive video recordings to be displayed on facility televisions. Although the spread of Covid-19 led to multiple ways programming was limited both in the community and the facilities, VLS program providers served more participants than years prior. Some of the reasons there was an increased need among the population for VLS services are described below.

Given the setup of our building isolating and/or quarantining individuals who are experiencing symptoms or who are pending a test has been challenging. These abrupt changes in room assignments, recreation times, modified community movements, etc. have been difficult for our residents to digest and when this has occurred some have resorted back to anti-social thinking patterns and behavioral patterns. While these thinking patterns and behaviors are challenging, the staff have used these opportunities as teachable moments with the residents.

Bristol Station, November 2020

The past month our program has experienced roadblocks due to COVID-19, however, the participants flourish with flexibility and worked extremely hard in their Math class with their grade proving that their education is a priority. We have hoped that these coming months we transition out of COVID-19 regulations.

York College, June 2021

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

17


PUBLIC AT ION HIGHLIGH T Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury This manuscript, accepted for publication in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, was a collaborative effort between NCJR staff, and faculty and student affiliates. The authors used data from the Douglas County Department of Corrections to assess rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among those incarcerated and the impact on jail admissions. Substantial research has identified that incarcerated populations have significantly higher rates of traumatic brain injuries but this article offers a unique look at changes in system contact in specific individuals before, around the time of, and after experiencing a traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injuries are a known source of cognitive and behavioral problems. Criminal justice scholars, such as Dr. Joseph Schwartz, have recently started to investigate how these injuries factor into contact with the system. Prior research, limited by available data, have only examined general changes over time or system contact post-TBI. This project advances the criminal justice and TBI literature because the authors were able to look at changes in admissions before and after a TBI using this novel data which contains information two years before and after an individual’s first TBI. The results indicate traumatic brain injuries have a lasting effect on system contact. While the probability of jail admissions began to increase in the months right before the injury, the greatest increase was in the months immediately after the TBI. Further, the risk of admission never returned to levels prior to the brain injury. These findings are important for understanding the relationship between TBIs and system contact. This research demonstrates that traumatic brain injuries are a risk factor for initial criminal justice involvement as well as recidivism and continued criminal conduct. Additionally, correctional programming should expand to assess and address the need(s) resulting from traumatic brain injuries. Schwartz, Joseph A., Emily M. Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael F. Campagna, Benjamin Steiner, and Ebonie Epinger. “Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/x34kr https://twitter.com/schwartz_j/status/1425784800904978435

Connect with the authors on Twitter

18

Joseph Schwartz

Emily Wright

Ryan Spohn

@schwartz_j

@steiner_wright

@ryanespohn

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


NCJR BUDGET FY 2013-2021 Total Budget Breakdown, Fiscal Years 2013-2021 State Appropriation

Grants, Contracts, and Projects

NCJR was established by the Nebraska Legislature in October 2014 and receives an annual state appropriation to aid in research and evaluation efforts.

$1,000,000 $900,000 $800,000 $700,000 $600,000 $500,000 $400,000 $300,000 $200,000 $100,000 $0

FY 2013

FY 2014

FY 2015

FY 2016

FY 2017

FY 2018

Contracts and Grants, Fiscal Years 2013-2021 Contracts

Grants

$500,000

FY 2019

FY 2020

FY 2021

Fiscal Year 2020-2021 Budget Breakdown

$450,000

Contracts

$400,000

Grants State Appropriation

$350,000 $300,000 $250,000 $200,000

42%

$150,000 $100,000

36%

$50,000 $0 2013 2014 2015 2016

2017

2018 2019 2020 2021

22%

Fiscal Year

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

19


APPENDICES Selected Academic Publications, 2019-2021 Schwartz, Joseph A., Emily M. Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael F. Campagna, Benjamin Steiner, and Ebonie Epinger. 2021. “Changes in Jail Admissions Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology. DOI: 10.1007/s10940-021-09524-7 Mei, Xiaohan, Zachary Hamilton, Melissa Kowalski, and Alex Kigerl. 2021. “Redesigning the Central Eight: Introducing the M-PACT Six.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Church, Abere Sawaqdeh, David K. Marcus, and Zachary K. Hamilton. 2021. “Community Service Outcomes in Justice-Involved Youth: Comparing Restorative Community Service to Standard Community Service.” Criminal Justice and Behavior. Hamilton, Zachary, Grant Duwe, Alex Kigerl, Jason Gwinn, Neal Langan, and Christopher Dollar. 2021. “Tailoring to a Mandate: The Development and Validation of the Prisoner Assessment Tool Targeting Estimated Risk and Needs (PATTERN).” Justice Quarterly. Hamilton, Zachary, Alex Kigerl, and Melissa Kowalski. 2021. “Prediction is local: The benefits of risk assessment optimization.” Justice Quarterly. Hermsen, Joan, Eileen Avery, and Katelynn Towne. 2020. “Crime Victimization Distress, Neighborhood Social Cohesion, and Perceived Police Effectiveness.” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology. Wright, Emily M., Ryan Spohn, and Michael Campagna. 2020. “Responding to Crossover Youth: A Look Beyond Recidivism.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Steiner, Benjamin, Emily M. Wright, and Sara Toto. 2020. “The Sources of Violent and Nonviolent Offending among Women in Prison.” Justice Quarterly (37)4:644-666. Woo, Youngki, Laurie Drapela, Michael Campagna, Mary K. Stohr, Zachary Hamilton, Xiaohan Mei, & Elizabeth Tollefsbol. 2019 “The effect of disciplinary segregation on offender behavior: Institutional and community outcomes.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, forthcoming. Batton, Candice and Emily M. Wright. 2019. “Patriarchy and the Structure of Employment in Criminal Justice: Differences in the Experiences of Men and Women Working in the Legal Profession, Corrections, and Law Enforcement.” Feminist Criminology 14(3):287-306. Campagna, Michael, Melissa Kowalski, Laurie A. Drapela, Mary K. Stohr, Elizabeth Tollefsbol, Youngki Woo, Xiaohan Mei, and Zachary Hamilton. 2019. “Understanding Offender Needs Over Forms of Isolation Using a Repeated Measures Design.” The Prison Journal 99(6):639-661. Campagna, Michael, Ming-Li Hsieh, and Christopher M. Campbell. 2019. “The Contours of Assessment: Considering Aspects that Influence Prediction Performance.” Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research. Chenane, Joselyne L., Emily M. Wright, and Chris L. Gibson. 2019. “Traffic Stops, Race, and Perceptions of Fairness.” Policing and Society, forthcoming.

20

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


Nix, Justin, Tara N. Richards, Gillian M. Pinchevsky, and Emily M. Wright. 2019. “Are Domestic Incidents Really More Dangerous to Police? Findings from the 2016 National Incident Based Reporting System.” Justice Quarterly, forthcoming. Schwartz, Joseph A., Emily M. Wright, and Brandon A. Valgardson. 2019. “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Deleterious Outcomes in Adulthood: A Consideration of the Simultaneous Role of Genetic and Environmental Influences in Two Independent Samples from the United States.” Child Abuse & Neglect, 88:420-431. Richards, Tara N., Marie Skubak Tillyer, and Emily M. Wright. 2019. “When Victims Refuse and Prosecutors Decline: Examining Exceptional Clearance in Sexual Assault Cases.” Crime & Delinquency 65(4):474498. Zavala, Egbert, Ryan E. Spohn, and Leanne F. Alarid. 2019. “Gender and Serious Youth Victimization: Assessing the Generality of Self-Control, Differential Association, and Social Bonding Theories.” Sociological Spectrum 39(1):53–69.

Professional Publications, 2021 Ebonie, Epinger, Emily M. Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael Campagna, Taylor Claxton, and Benjamin Steiner. 2021. “Examining Risk and Need Factors Among a Midwestern Jail Population.” American Jails 35(1): 34-38.

Grants Awarded, 2018-2021 2020-23

Douglas County, Nebraska Sexual Assault Research Project (Emily Wright with Tara Richards). National Institute of Justice.

2020-22

Expanding the Knowledge Base about Child Advocacy Centers (Ryan Spohn and Emily Wright with Megan Davidson and Teresa Kulig). National Institute of Justice.

2020-21

A Descriptive Analysis of Missing and Murdered Native Women and Children in Nebraska, Barriers to Reporting and Investigation, and Recommendations for Improving Access to Justice (Emily Wright with Tara Richards). National Institute of Justice, Tribal-Researcher Capacity Building Grant.

2019-23

Reducing Violence and Recidivism through VRP Aftercare and CBI Open Groups (Ryan Spohn and Michael Campagna with Jennifer Miller). Bureau of Justice Assistance.

2018-20

American Indian/Alaska Native Training Technical Assistance Program (Emily Wright with Victoria Ybanez). National Institute of Justice.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

21


Contracts and Projects, 2017-2021 Role: Principal Investigator 2020-23

Evaluation of Douglas County Assessment and Case Management Services. Douglas County Department of Corrections. Ryan Spohn and Emily Wright.

2020-22

Vocational & Life Skills Evaluation. Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Ryan Spohn.

2020

COVID First Responders Needs Assessment. The First Responders Foundation. Ryan Spohn.

2020

Technical Assistance and Provisions to Improve Assessment and Case Management. Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Michael F. Campagna.

2019

Youth Impact! Cost/Benefit Analysis Update. The Sherwood Foundation. Ryan Spohn.

2018-20

Vocational & Life Skills Evaluation. Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Ryan Spohn.

2017-18

Douglas County Juvenile Justice Prevention Needs Assessment. The Sherwood Foundation. Ryan Spohn with Emily Wright.

2017-19

Evaluation of Douglas County Assessment and Case Management Services. Douglas County Corrections. Ryan Spohn with Benjamin Steiner and Emily Wright.

2017

Defy Ventures Evaluation. The Sherwood Foundation. Ryan Spohn with Roni Reiter-Palmon and Joseph Allen.

Role: Project Evaluator

22

2020-2023

Achieving Change Together, Reentry Program Evaluation. Safer Foundation and Bureau of Justice Assistance. Ryan Spohn and Michael Campagna

2018-19

A Collaborative Evaluation of the Nebraska Connected Youth Initiative. WestEd Justice & Prevention Resource Center. Ryan Spohn

2017-19

Douglas County Operation Youth Success Evaluation. The TerraLuna Collaborative. Ryan Spohn

2017-19

Minority Health Initiative Evaluation, Colfax and Platte Counties, NE. Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services. Ryan Spohn

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


Selected Research Reports, 2019-2021 Towne, Katelynn, Michael Campagna, and Ryan Spohn. 2021. Vocational & Life Skills Evaluation Annual Report, Grant Cycle Three: Year Two. Prepared for the Nebraska Judiciary Committee and the Nebraska Department of Corrections. Towne, Katelynn, Michael Campagna, and Ryan Spohn. 2021. Ready & Resilient: Qualitative Findings from Life Story Interviews with Vocational and Life Skills Program Participants. Prepared for the Nebraska Judiciary Committee and the Nebraska Department of Corrections. Butler, Leah, Ryan Spohn, and Josie Schafer. 2020. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Criminal Justice System in Nebraska. For the Center for Public Affairs Research at UNO. Campagna, Michael, Alex Kigerl, and Ryan Spohn. Parole Custodial Sanctions and Graduated Sanctions. Due to Parole Administration, Lincoln, NE Spohn, Ryan. 2020. Douglas County Youth Impact! Cost/Benefit Analysis: Revised Edition, 2019 Dollars. For the Sherwood Foundation. Spohn, Ryan. 2020. Analysis of Douglas County Juvenile Assessment Center, 2012-2019: Successful Completions and Recidivism by Youth Level of Service Scores and Race/Ethnicity. For the Douglas County Juvenile Assessment Center. Campagna, Michael and Ryan Spohn. 2019. The Transformation Project final evaluation—2019. For the Sherwood Foundation. Toto, Sara, Ryan Spohn, Emily M. Wright, Ryan Campagna, and Katelynn Towne. 2019. Adult Justice in Nebraska 2019. For the Nebraska Legislature. Towne, Katelynn and Michael Campagna. 2019. Vocational and life skills quarterly report – Grant Cycle 3: Q4. For the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Towne, Katelynn and Michael Campagna. 2019. Vocational and life skills quarterly report – Grant Cycle 3: Q3. For the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Towne, Katelynn and Michael Campagna. 2019. Vocational and life skills quarterly report – Grant Cycle 3: Q2. For the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Towne, Katelynn and Michael Campagna. 2019. Vocational and life skills annual report – Grant Cycle 3: Year 1. For the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Spohn, Ryan. 2019. Immersion State Blue Courage Training Evaluation. For the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards & Training (IADLEST) Spohn, Ryan, Emily M. Wright, and Sara Toto. 2019. Adult Justice in Nebraska 2018. For the Nebraska Legislature. Spohn, Ryan, Justin Nix, and Ashley Arnio. 2019. Assessing the Effectiveness of ShotSpotter in Omaha: Addendum to Project Safe Neighborhoods 2016 Final Evaluation Report. For the Bureau of Justice Assistance. Spohn, Ryan, Sara Toto, and Emily M. Wright. 2019. Nebraska Center for Justice Research: Annual Report 2019. Nebraska Center for Justice Research.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

23


Policy and Research Briefs Nix, Justin, Tara N. Richards, Gillian M. Pinchevsky, and Emily M. Wright. 2020. Assessing the Relative Dangerousness of Various Call Types. For Police Chief, International Association of Chiefs of Police. Braun, Clara L., Emily M. Wright, and Ryan Spohn. 2017. Restricted Housing among Juvenile Populations. Nebraska Center for Justice Research. Moore, Sara, Emily M. Wright, and Ryan Spohn. 2017. Status Offenders and the Juvenile Justice System. Nebraska Center for Justice Research.

Academic Presentations, 2017-2021 Epinger, Ebonie, Emily Wright, Ryan Spohn, and Michael Campagna. 2021. “Jails Use Data Too!” American Jail Association Meetings. Epinger, Ebonie, Emily Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael Campagna, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “The Effects of Risk Factors and Criminogenic Needs on Recidivism among a Jail Population.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Campagna, Michael F., Emily M. Wright, Joseph Schwartz, Ryan Spohn, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “Jails Use Data Too! How Internalizing, Externalizing, and Psychopathy Scales Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Factors and Recidivism.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Campagna, Michael F., Katelynn Towne, and Ryan Spohn. 2019. “Type and Dosage of Reentry Programming: Effects on Racial Disparity in Recidivism and Employment.” Presented at Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD. Epinger, Ebonie, Emily M. Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael Campagna, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “The Effects of Risk Factors and Criminogenic Needs on Recidivism among a Jail Population.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Johnson, Douglas F., Nick Juliano , Ryan Spohn, and Emily Wright. 2019. “Achieving Positive Outcomes for Crossover Youth through Youth and Family Engagement.” Presented at Heartland Juvenile Services Association annual conference, Omaha, NE. Johnson, Douglas F., Nick Juliano, Ryan Spohn, and Marlon Wofford. 2019. “Utilizing Voice and Choice to Improve Outcomes for Crossover Youth and Their Families.” Presented at Nebraska Juvenile Justice Association annual conference, Kearney, NE. Kurtz, Don and Ryan Spohn. 2019. “The Importance of Social Support at Reentry: Qualitative Work from a Statewide, Multi-Site Reentry Initiative in Nebraska.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Kotlaja, Marijana M., Abigail A. Fagan, and Emily M. Wright. 2019. “Perceptions, Tolerance, and Disadvantage: Examining Neighborhood Influences on Child Physical Abuse.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Schwartz, Joseph, Emily Wright, Ryan Spohn, Michael Campagna, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “Brain Injury as a Risk Factor for Institutional Misconduct and Recidivism: Results from a Sample of Jail Inmates.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

24

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


Spohn, Ryan, Cara Stirts, and Doug Johnson.2019.“Increasing Collaboration While Decreasing costs for DualInvolved Youth.” Presented at the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Conference, Orlando, FL. Spohn, Ryan, Emily Wright, Michael Campagna, Joseph Schwartz, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “Risk Factors and Negative Outcomes for Military Veterans and Non-Veterans in a Jail Population.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Toto, Sara, Emily M. Wright, and Benjamin Steiner. 2019. “The Sources of Violent and Nonviolent Offending Among Women in Prison”. Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Towne, Katelynn. 2019. “My Friends Keep Me Woke About These Things.” Presented at the Policing and Society Conference, Akureyri, Iceland. Towne, Katelynn, Michael Campagna, and Ryan Spohn. 2019. “When There is a Will, the Way is Still Hard: Qualitative Themes of Ex-Offender Reentry.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Towne, Katelynn, Ryan Spohn, and Michael F. Campagna. 2019. “Reentry Program Participant Satisfaction and Remaining Challenges”. Presented at Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD. Brewer, Krista, Emily Wright, Benjamin Steiner, Ryan Spohn, Nicky Dalbir, and Ebonie Epinger. 2018. “The Relationship between Prior Victimization and Misconducts among Jail Inmates.” Presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Epinger, Ebonie, Benjamin Steiner, Emily Wright, Ryan Spohn, and Krista Brewer. 2018. “Examining Racial and Gender Differences in Risk and Criminogenic Needs among a Jail Population.” Presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Johnson, Doug, Shawn Coonfare, Ryan Spohn, and Margaret Vacek. 2018. “Achieving Positive Outcomes for Crossover Youth through Youth Family Engagement.” Presented at the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Denver, CO. Spohn, Ryan. 2018. “The Nebraska Center for Justice Research: A State/University Partnership to Advance Data, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice.” Presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meetings, Philadelphia, PA. Spohn, Ryan and Emily Wright. 2018. “The Process and Results of a Metropolitan University Collaborating with Community Partners to Improve Service to Crossover Youth.” Presented at Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities Annual Conference, Chicago, IL. Arnio, Ashley and Ryan Spohn. 2017. “An Exploratory Analysis of ShotSpotter as a Tool for Community Policing.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Chenane, Joselyne, Ryan Spohn, and Emily Wright. 2017. “Evaluation of the Crossover Youth Practice Model (Youth Impact!).” Poster presented at the Nebraska Juvenile Justice Association conference, Kearney, NE. Leifker, Denise, Samantha O’Hara, Brianne Potts, William Wells, Delores Craig-Moreland, Gordon A. Crews, and Ryan Spohn. 2017. “The Blue Courage Guardianship Police Training Program: Observations from a Multi-State Implementation and Evaluation.” Roundtable at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

25


Schoenbeck, Madison, Kevin Mitchell, Ryan Spohn, Joseph Mroz, Joseph Allen, and Roni Reiter-Palmon. 2017. “Evaluating the System of Alternatives to Youth Detention in Douglas County.” Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO. Solomon, Starr, H. Daniel Butler, and Ryan Spohn. 2017. “Examining the Relationship between Misconduct and Restrictive Housing.” Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO. Spohn, Ryan, Madison Schoenbeck, Joseph Mroz, Joseph Allen, and Roni Retier-Palmon. 2017. “Addressing Risk but not Needs in Juvenile Intake: An Evaluation of Alternatives to Juvenile Detention.” Presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Toto, Sara N., Benjamin Steiner, and Emily M. Wright. 2017. “Assessing Risk Factors for Sexual Perpetration and Victimization in a Prison for Women.” Poster presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Wright, Emily M., Ryan Spohn, and Joselyne Chenane. 2017. “Crossover Youth in the Justice System: An Outcome and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Crossover Youth Practice Model.” Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO.

Invited Presentations, 2017-2021 Epinger, Ebonie, Emily Wright, Ryan Spohn and Joseph Schwartz. 2021. “Jails Use Data Too!” Presentation to the Douglas County, Nebraska, Board of Commissioners. Spohn, Ryan. 2021. “Racial Disparities in Prison Populations: Who is System-Involved and Why?” Presented to the Leadership Omaha Class 43. Spohn, Ryan. 2020. “Role of Social Workers in the Criminal Justice System, Evidence-Based Practices, and Reentry.” Presented to Kansas State University SOCWK 350: Social Work with Offenders and Victims. Campagna, Michael. 2019. “Jails Use Data too!” Presented to the Douglas County Detention Center executive board, Omaha, NE. Campagna, Michael and Ryan Spohn. 2019. “Selection Bias is Ruining My Evaluation! A Comparison of Two Adjustment Models.” Presented at the May 2019 meeting of the Omaha Evaluators Group, May 9, Omaha, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2019. “Community-Engaged Research and Research-Focused Careers.” Presented at Kansas State University, October 25, Manhattan, KS. Spohn, Ryan. 2019. “The State of Crossover Youth Research.” Presented at the Youth Impact Annual Meeting, February 1, Lincoln, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2019. “The State of Crossover Youth Research.” Presented at the Youth Impact Annual Meeting, January 15, Lincoln, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2018. “Reentry as a Component of PSN.” Presented at the National Project Safe Neighborhoods Conference, Bureau of Justice Assistance, December 5 and 7, Kansas City, MO. Spohn, Ryan. 2018. “Violence Reduction through Community Engagement and Partnerships.” Presented at the National Project Safe Neighborhoods Conference, Bureau of Justice Assistance, December 5, Kansas City, MO. 26

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


Spohn, Ryan. 2017. “Nebraska Center for Justice Research: Research and Community Engagement Activities.” Presented at the Omaha Community Partnership meeting, June 22, Omaha, NE. Wright, Emily M., Ryan Spohn, and Joselyne Chenane. 2017. “Evaluation of Douglas County Youth Impact!” Presented at the quarterly meeting of the Nebraska Juvenile Services, April 11, Lincoln, NE.

Panels and Discussions, 2016-2019 Spohn, Ryan. 2019. “Georgetown Capstone Presentation: Reducing Race and Ethnic Disparities in the Douglas County Juvenile Justice System.” September 27, Omaha, NE. Spohn, Ryan, 2019. “Project Safe Neighborhood Training/Technical Assistance Strategic Planning Collaboration Meeting.” For the Bureau of Justice Assistance, July 19, Washington, DC. Spohn, Ryan. 2018. “The Intersection of Disproportionate Minority Contact, Justice, & Law Enforcement.” For the First United Methodist Church of Omaha and Policy Research & Innovation (PRI), December 11, Omaha, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2018. “Beyond Police, Courts, and Corrections.” For UNO’s School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, February 7, Omaha, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2016. “Sustainability Panel.” For the statewide Crossover Youth Practice Model Meeting, September 6, Omaha, NE. Spohn, Ryan. 2016. “Evidence-Based Practice Panel.” For the Nebraska Children’s Commission Meeting, January 20, Omaha, NE.

Webinars Bilchik, Shay, Michael Umpierre, Amy Latshaw, Monica DeMent, Cara Stirts, Dawn Rockey, Larry Gendler, Emily Wright, and Ryan Spohn. 2018. Crossover Youth Practice Model 101. Webinar with the Center for Juvenile Justice Reform at Georgetown University and the Nebraska Court Improvement Project, June 22. Spohn, Ryan, Nick Juliano, Emily M. Wright, and Darci Poland. 2018. Douglas County, Nebraska CYPM CostBenefit Analysis. For Georgetown’s Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, April, 26. Coonfare, Shawn, Dan Jackson, Nick Juliano, Ryan Spohn, and Emily M. Wright. 2018. A Research and Practice Partnership to Improve Outcomes for Crossover Youth: Douglas County, Nebraska’s CYPM Evaluation. For Georgetown’s Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, February 20.

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

27


FAC U LT Y A F F I L I AT E S University of Nebraska at Omaha – Faculty Gaylene Armstrong, Ph.D. Director, Criminology & Criminal Justice Todd Armstrong, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Amy Anderson, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Janelle Beadle, Ph.D. Gerontology & Biology Kerry Beldin, LCSW, Ph.D. Social Work Abby Bjornsen, Ph.D. Counseling Leah Butler, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Juan Casas, Ph.D. Psychology Samantha Clinkinbeard, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Mark Foxall, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Ann Fruhling, Ph.D. Information Science & Technology Zachary Hamilton, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice; Associate Director Nebraska Center for Justice Research Daniel Hawkins, Ph.D. Sociology & Anthropology Anne Hobbs, Ph.D., J.D. Juvenile Justice Institute Robert Houston, M.S. Criminology & Criminal Justice Nikitah Imani, Ph.D. Black Studies Teresa Kulig, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Justin Nix, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Roni Reiter-Palmon, Ph.D. Psychology Trisha Rhodes, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Tara Richards, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Lisa Sample, Ph.D. Reynolds Professor of Public Affairs & Community Service, Criminology & Criminal Justice Scott Sasse, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Rosemary Strasser, Ph.D. Psychology Emily Wright, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice; Assistant Vice Chancellor for Social Sciences, Office of Research & Creative Activity

University of Nebraska Lincoln – Faculty Larry Barksdale, M.A. Forensic Science Eve Brank, Ph.D., JD Psychology Ari Kohen, Ph.D. Political Science Lisa Kort-Butler, Ph.D. Sociology Mario Scalora, Ph.D. Psychology Richard Wiener, MLS, Ph.D. Law & Psychology Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Ph.D. Psychology

28

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report


University of Nebraska Medical Center – Faculty Jane Meza, Ph.D. Dejun Su, Ph.D. Melissa Tibbits, Ph.D.

Public Health Public Health Public Health

University of Nebraska Kearney – Faculty Julie Campbell, Ph.D. Timbre Wulf-Ludden, Ph.D.

Criminal Justice Criminal Justice

External Faculty Affiliates Joseph Allen, Ph.D. Ashley Arnio, Ph.D. Jieru Bai, Ph.D. Jonathan Brauer, Ph.D. Pauline Brennan, Ph.D. H. Daniel Butler, Ph.D. Ashley Hall, Ph.D. Don Kurtz, Ph.D. Sara Moore, Ph.D. Jukka Savolainen, Ph.D. Joseph Schwartz, Ph.D. Sara Toto, Ph.D. Andrea Walker, Ph.D. Michael Walker, Ph.D.

University of Utah Texas State University Cal State LA University of Indiana - Bloomington University of Massachusetts Lowell Iowa State University University of Illinois-Chicago Kansas State University Nebraska Wesleyan University Wayne State University Florida State University Central Washington University Clarkson College University of Minnesota

Other Affiliates and Consultants Lorena Baccaglini, DDS, Ph.D. Director, Clinical Research and Epidemiology Program National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH Alex Kigerl, Ph.D. Research Associate, Criminology & Criminal Justice Melissa Kowalski, Ph.D. Wisconsin Department of Corrections Jennifer Miller, Ph.D. Nebraska Division of Parole Supervision Debra O’Connell, Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Fellow in Department of Neurological Sciences at UNMC Krystal Roig-Palmer, Ph.D. Private Consultant Lindsey Wylie, Ph.D., J.D. Research Director, Juvenile Justice Institute

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report

29


S T UDEN T AFFILI AT E S Emily Adams I/O Psychology Kelsey Ciagala I/O Psychology Taylor Claxton Criminology & Criminal Justice Shelby Connett Social Work Nicky Dalbir Criminology & Criminal Justice Ebonie Epinger Criminology & Criminal Justice Genevieve Heimer-Lang Counseling Julie Garman, Ph.D. Criminology & Criminal Justice Amber Krushas Criminology & Criminal Justice William Kunkle Communication, Fine Arts, and Media Amber Richey University of Indiana - Bloomington

Student Workers, 2020-2021 NCJR Fall 2020

Taylor Claxton Ebonie Epinger Genevieve Heimer-Lang William Kunkle

30

NCJR Spring 2021 Taylor Claxton Ebonie Epinger William Kunkle

NCJR Summer 2021 Taylor Claxton Ebonie Epinger Addison Kobie

Nebraska Center for Justice Research | 2021 Annual Report



Dr. Ryan Spohn, Director Nebraska Center for Justice Research University of Nebraska at Omaha 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, NE 68182 402.554.3794 | justiceresearch.unomaha.edu

The University of Nebraska does not discriminate based on race, color, ethnicity, national origin, sex, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, disability, age, genetic information, veteran status, marital status, and/or political affiliation in its programs, activities, or employment. UNO is an AA/EEO/ADA institution. For questions, accommodations, or assistance please call/contact the Title IX/ADA/504 Coordinator (phone: 402.554.3490 or TTY 402.554.2978) or the Accessibility Services Center (phone: 402.554.2872).