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Docente / Contenidos: Lizeht Vásquez Diseño y Diagramación: Máximo A. Méndez Prepared by Professor Lizeht Vasquez. Rights reserved It is prohibited to reproduce this material (total or partial) Derechos Reservados 2012. Unnatec


Nombres y Apellidos

MatrĂ­cula

Facilitador

Cuatrimestre


Universidad Nacional Tecnológica - UNNATEC

La Innovación de la

L

Esperanza

os grandes movimientos de la historia se han basado en el poder del ser humano. Son los individuos y los equipos los que inyectan innovación a las organizaciones, quienes producen los grandes cambios que revolucionan el mundo. Arquímedes decía: “Dame un punto de apoyo y moveré el mundo”, para enseñar que la palanca es capaz de multiplicar la fuerza y levantar cualquier objeto por muy pesado que sea, siempre que se tenga un punto de apoyo apropiado. Cuando alguien combina la energía y la inteligencia en el nivel correcto, estas le pueden generar una fuerza poderosa que catapulta de manera innovadora los nuevos paradigmas de la creatividad humana. Nuestra función como institución de educación superior es precisamente esa: facilitar a nuestros estudiantes la palanca y el punto de apoyo para la innovación de la esperanza. Necesitamos una vía poderosa para enfrentar los grandes desafíos que agobian a nuestra sociedad, traducidos en la pobreza y la coerción social. La pobreza no es creada por la gente pobre, sino por el sistema que hemos establecido, las instituciones que diseñamos y los conceptos que formulamos. Vivimos tiempos difíciles, pero cuando la crisis llega a su nivel más profundo, entonces estos agravantes deprimen la condición humana. Sin embargo, a pesar de la adversidad, podemos descubrir grandes oportunidades para mejorar el bienestar de nuestro entorno. Para esto, en la UNNATEC adoptamos un nuevo sistema de educación presencial y a distancia que le brindará las facilidades y el entorno de aprendizaje más idóneo para el desarrollo de sus competencias personales y profesionales, y le permitirá lograr su superación e inserción en el mercado laboral. Usted podrá estudiar, sin dejar de trabajar, y generar las entradas que le ayudarán a completar sus estudios. Así, podrá elevar su nivel de ingresos con una carrera profesional o técnica. Esta institución ha diseñado para usted una metodología innovadora y práctica, con la facilidad de todos los recursos necesarios para su aprendizaje, desde el uso de esta guía instruccional, la mediación de los tutores en los encuentros presenciales, las tutorías presenciales y a distancia, hasta el uso del aula virtual, las bibliotecas digitales y las redes sociales.

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Todo ser humano ha venido a este mundo proveído de capacidades innatas, no solo para su desarrollo personal, sino también para contribuir a la generación de riquezas y bienestar del mundo donde vivimos. Usted puede develar el inmenso potencial que está oculto en su interior y mostrar la inquebrantable fe que lo caracteriza como ser humano, que no nació para sufrir la pobreza material o espiritual, sino para prosperar y triunfar en la vida. Esto es parte de nuestra misión, acompañarlo a recorrer este camino en el proceso de su formación, para que logre mejores resultados, con valor agregado, y que usted sea una inspiración personal para alcanzar la realidad que todos deseamos, “innovando la esperanza para vivir una vida digna y próspera”.

Ramona Reinoso de Reyes (Doña Cielo) / Presidenta del Consejo Directivo

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El Nuevo

Paradigma

de la Educación

a Distancia

B

ienvenidos al sistema de educación a distancia en su modalidad semipresencial y virtual de la UNNATEC. Usted es un estudiante del siglo XXI y debe estar preparado para afrontar los grandes desafíos de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, y desarrollar las competencias personales y profesionales que lo acrediten como un individuo competente y eficiente. El propósito de esta guía instruccional es guiarlo y a la vez acompañarlo en el proceso de su propio aprendizaje. Este instrumento es suficiente en sí mismo y lo llevará a usted, paso a paso, por el camino de la construcción de su propio conocimiento. Con esta guía podrá realizar sus actividades de estudio, investigaciones y prácticas de cada eje temático de la asignatura. Nuestra propuesta metodológica para el uso de esta guía se centra en tres aspectos relevantes. Desde la perspectiva pedagógica, adoptamos el pensamiento constructivista como eje fundamental para fomentar el pensamiento crítico y creativo en la aplicación del conocimiento; desde una perspectiva comunicacional, para fomentar la dialéctica y la ética comunicativa del quehacer humano; y desde la perspectiva tecnológica, para crear los ambientes propicios de aprendizaje apoyados en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación. La articulación de la pedagogía, la comunicación y la tecnología, nos permite utilizar métodos y recursos útiles al momento de forjar las competencias requeridas en el currículo. Estas estrategias se basan en los postulados teóricos del profesor Reuven Feuerstein, quien favorece el desarrollo de los procesos mentales y las funciones cognitivas que están implícitos en las actividades educativas y en la vida social. Esta guía está diseñada con objetivos claros que puedan ser entendidos y logrados a través de su trabajo como estudiante de una manera efectiva, que le permitirá desarrollar

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las competencias definidas sin pérdida de tiempo ni de recursos valiosos. Los recursos empleados en la guía, le permitirán fijar claramente los conceptos, manejar un nuevo vocabulario, elaborar mapas conceptuales y diarios de doble entrada, interactuar con sus compañeros para discutir temas de relevancia y conectarse a múltiples enlaces de informaciones y de personalidades en el aula virtual y en las redes sociales. Una vez realizadas todas las actividades de trabajo, tanto de la guía instruccional como del aula virtual, usted estará en capacidad de ser evaluado y valorado con una alta calidad en el conocimiento de su área de estudio. Espero que con esta nueva manera de lograr los aprendizajes, podamos hacer juntos un ejercicio, no solamente teórico, sino moderno y pragmático que nos permita ser mejores seres humanos y mejores profesionales.

Ing. Luis Paulino Marte /

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Rector

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Indice ING – 102

UNIT I – JOBS AND OCUPATIONS. DESCRIBING JOB, DAILY ACTIVITIES AND ROUTINES...................................................................................14 1.1 Objective...................................................................................................................14 1.2 Vocabulary. Occupations........................................................................................,.14 1.3 Grammar - Present Simple “other verbs”................................................................14 1.3.1 Affirmative statements..............................................................................15 1.3.2 Negative statements .................................................................................15 1.3.3 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions.............................16 1.4 Vocabulary: Daily activities. Time. What time is it? Time expressions..................17 1.5 Grammar. Prepositions of time...............................................................................18 1.6 Use of “at”.................................................................................................................18 1.7 Use of “in”.................................................................................................................18 1.8 Use of “on”................................................................................................................18 1.9 Grammar. Adverbs of frequency..............................................................................18 1.10 Grammar. Present Simple vs. Present Progressive...............................................19 ACTIVITIES...................................................................................................................21

UNIT II – PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE AND QUALITIES; EXPRESSING QUALITIES OF THINGS AND ANIMALS. EXPRESSING ONE´S ABILITY, PREFERENCES AND AVERSION......................................27 2.1 Objective...................................................................................................................28 2.2 Vocabulary: Adjectives and their opposite...............................................................28 2.2.1 Grammar. Forming adjectives...................................................................29 2.3 Vocabulary: Leisure Activities and sport.................................................................29 2.3.1 Verb “to like” and “to love” to express preference and the verb “to dislike”or “do not like” to express aversion.........................................................................29 2.4 Grammar. Modal “Can” to express ability or possibility..........................................29 2.4.1 Affirmative statements...............................................................................30 2.4.2 negative statements...................................................................................30 2.4.3 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions.............................30 ACTIVITIES...................................................................................................................33

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UNIT III – CLOTHES AND COLORS. HOLIDAYS, CELEBRATIONS; PREPARING A PARTY DETECTING THINGS THAT YOU NEED AND WANT. PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE.....................................................37 3.1 Objective:..................................................................................................................38 3.2 Vocabulary: Clothes, type of clothes. Colors............................................................38 3.3 Grammar. Future with “Going to.............................................................................39 3.3.1 Affirmative statements...............................................................................39 3.3.2 Negative statements...................................................................................39 3.3.3 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions............................40 3.3.4 Time expressions for the future.................................................................41 3.4 Vocabulary: Holidays. Preparing a Party...............................................................41 3.5 Grammar. Direct Objects. Objects Pronouns.........................................................42 3.6 Ordinal Numbers......................................................................................................42 3.7 Use of “let’s” to make or agree suggestions..............................................................43 ACTIVITIES...................................................................................................................45

UNIT IV– TALKING ABOUT THE PAST.......................................................51 4.1 Simple Past..............................................................................................................52 4.2 Grammar. Simple past “Verb to be”.........................................................................52 4.2.1 Affirmative statements...............................................................................52 4.2.2 Negative statements...................................................................................53 4.2.3 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions............................53 4.3 Grammar. Simple past “other verbs”......................................................................54 4.3.1 List of some Regular and Irregular verbs..................................................55 4.3.2 Affirmative statements..............................................................................55 4.3.3 Negative statements..................................................................................56 4.3.4 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions............................56 4.4 Time expressions for the past..................................................................................57 ACTIVITIES...................................................................................................................59

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Orientaciones muy importantes Antes de iniciar cada unidad del programa, recomendamos leer detalladamente las siguientes pautas: 1- Lee con atención la introducción de cada unidad, aquí se te explica el contenido de la misma. 2- Interpreta correctamente el objetivo general de la asignatura, de esta manera sabrás con certeza a dónde queremos llegar. 3- Identifica los objetivos específicos de cada eje temático en los documentos, presentaciones, actividades, etc., con el objetivo fundamental de alcanzar mejores resultados de formación académica y profesional. 4- Visualiza detenidamente el plan de estudio, el orden y la jerarquía de los ejes temáticos y su relación con el tema de la unidad a estudiar, así logras no perder la secuencia de lo que has leído. 5- Usa todos los elementos que conoces de contenidos aprendidos anteriormente en otras asignaturas y confecciona tus propios resúmenes, comentarios, glosario de términos, reseñas, etc.; analízalos y preséntaselos al resto del grupo y a tu profesor en clases. 6- Analiza con detenimiento los planteamientos de los diferentes autores que tendrás al alcance en el Aula Virtual, aplicando tu propia experiencia para interpretarlos debidamente. De esta forma estarás en mejores condiciones de comparar, comprender y actualizar esa información con la realidad más cercana a ti. 7- Reorganiza el tiempo, logrando disponer del necesario para tu formación, evitando que la premura afecte la concentración necesaria en lo que haces. Siempre trata de aprovechar el tiempo indicado para realizar las actividades. 8- Comprueba tu propio nivel de aprendizaje realizando las actividades propuestas en cada eje temático y que aparecen al final de cada una de las unidades de estudio. 9- Refresca y mantén vigente cada competencia a desarrollar, como utilidad necesaria para tu evaluación. 10- Consulta el glosario, visualiza los videos y participa en los foros de discusión del Aula Virtual. 11- Cumple con las horas establecidas para cada unidad. 12- Ante cualquier dificultad, comunícate con tu profesor por cualquiera de las vías previstas. Adelante, tú puedes!!!

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STUDY PLAN THEME OF UNIT I

Jobs and occupations. Describing jobs, daily activities and routines

CONTENT 1. General Objective

Learn to hold a simple English conversation based on jobs, occupation, daily activities, routine and time, managing the basic grammar rules in the simple present.

2. Specific Objectives

• Talk about jobs and occupation. • Ask and answer questions about jobs . • Give one’s occupation. • Describe daily activities and routines and frequency. • Talk about time.

3. Main Themes

• Jobs and occupation. • Simple present. • Daily activities and routine. • Adverbs of frequency. • Time

4. Vocabulary and Concepts

• Jobs, occupation and verbal action. • Daily activities and time. • Preposition of time. • Adverbs of frequency.

LEARNING 5. Competences

• Take over a simple English conversation base on jobs, occupation, daily activities, routine and time. • Show control of grammar structuring in the simple present, basically, the management of affirmative, negative and question statements.

6. Mental Operations

Structuring affirmative, negative and questions statement base on jobs, occupation, daily activities and routine. Structuring the adverbs of frequency.

ACTIVITIES

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7. Video Content

Use the video sounds in virtual room base on pronunciation of vocabulary.

8. Discussion forum

Sign in to virtual room and participate at the unit forum as well as chat room.

Resources

Dictionary.

9. Writing Activities

Written exercises and through virtual room.

WORKING HOURS

Hours of attendance: 04 Hours at distance: 16 Instructional Guide | English II


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UNIT

1 U

1

JOBS AND OCUPATIONS. DESCRIBING JOB, DAILY ACTIVITIES AND ROUTINES

nnatec’s student should know the basic rules of the english language, looking forward his/her ability to hold a simple English conversation based on job and occupation, as well as the daily activities which means, actions in the simple present, consequently the management of this tense.

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UNIT I – JOBS AND OCUPATIONS. DESCRIBING JOB, DAILY ACTIVITIES AND ROUTINES 1.1 Objective Learn to hold a simple English conversation based on jobs, occupation, daily activities, routine and time, managing the basic grammar rules in the simple present 1.2 Vocabulary. Occupations Use occupation to refer to someone occupation, profession or position. Always use the article ¨a¨ or ¨an¨ to refer to an occupation. Occupations Secretary

Verb to work

Journalist Photographer Bus Driver Taxi Driver Salesperson (salesman, saleswoman) Actor (actress) Waiter (waitress) Chef Pilot Hairdresser Writer Doctor Manager Director Account

to write to take photos to drive to drive to sale to act to work to cook to fly to cut to write to work to manage to direct to work

e.g. Michael is a bus driver. He drives a private bus. I am a writer. I write an animal book 1.3 Grammar - Present Simple “other verbs” Use the present simple to talk about habit activities it means, to describe daily life routine. The explanation below relates to all verbs, excluding verb “to be”

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Conjugation (to work)

Conjugation (to teach)

I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work

I teach You teach He teaches She teaches It teaches We teach You teach They teach

1.3.1 Affirmative statements When forming affirmative statements in the present simple with other verbs (not verb to be) the variables below should be taken into a count: Noun or pronoun

Rest of the sentence

Verb

(Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

(The action)

(The information given)

SHE

TEACHES

ENGLISH AT CENTU

1.3.2 Negative statements When forming negative statements in the simple present with other verbs (not verb to be) the variables below should be taken into a count: Noun or pronoun (Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

Auxiliary verb (do/does)

SHE

NOT Contraction Do not = don’t Does not = doesn’t

Verb (The action)

DOESN’T

TEACH

Rest of the sentence (The information given)

ENGLISH AT CENTU

Note: Be aware about conjugation as when there is an auxiliary verb you might conjugate upon the auxiliary verb instead of the principal verb.

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1.3.3 Questions: Yes / No questions - Information questions There are two types of questions: a) Yes/no Question: The type of question in which answer is weather “yes” or “No”. When forming “yes/no question” in the simple present with other verbs (not verb to be) the variables below should be taken into a count: Auxiliary verb

Noun or pronoun (Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

DOES

SHE

(do/does)

Rest of the sentence

Verb

(The action)

(The information given)

TEACH

ENGLISH AT CENTU?

Short answers: Yes, she does No, she doesn´t Note: Be aware about conjugation as when there is an auxiliary verb you might conjugate upon the auxiliary verb instead of the principal verb. b) Information question: The type of question that pursue informative response. It responds to the question words (what, where, which, who, how, when, etc.). When forming ¨information question¨ in the simple present with other verbs (not verb to be) the variables below should be taken into a count: Question Word (QW) What = thing Where = place Who = person When = time Which = thing How (different uses)

WHAT

Auxiliary verb (do/does)

Noun or pronoun (Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

Verb (The action)

DOES

SHE

TEACH

Rest of the sentence (The information given)

AT CENTU?

Note 1: Note: Be aware about conjugation as when there is an auxiliary verb you might conjugate upon the auxiliary verb instead of the principal verb. Notes 2: The Information question “What do you do?” is used to ask about occupations.

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1.4 Vocabulary: Daily activities. Time. What time is it? Time expressions The vocabulary below applies when someone wants to express ¨day to day¨ activities or routines. Daily activities might be joined to exact time or the frequency that someone performs any activity. Daily Activities To get up

Time. What time is it? 6:00 am It’s six o’clock in the morning

Time expressions In the morning

To take a shower

1:15 pm It’s one fifteen in the afternoon

In the afternoon

To eat breakfast To go to the gym To watch TV To go bed To have lunch To go to the supermarket To go to the movie

7:30 pm It’s seven thirty in the evening 9:40 pm It’s nine forty at night 12:00m It’s twelve o’clock noon. It´s midday 12:00 m It’s midnight 3:15pm It’s fifteen pass three in the afternoon 1:15am It´s a quarter pass three in the afternoon 10:45am It’s fifteen to eleven in the morning 9:30pm It´s nine thirty. It´s nine and half. It´s half pass nine

At night At noon Every day Every week Every month

To go running

Every year At weekend Today

To brush one´s teeth To have dinner To take out the garbage To do laundry To exercise To go to the beach

e.g. Louis goes running every day at 6:00 pm. They wake up at 8:00 am on weekdays. When expressing time: • 12 hours clock you might use the expression weather ¨am¨/¨pm¨ or indicate part of the day (in the morning, in the afternoon, at noon, at night). • 24 hours clock does not need to indicate weather am/pm or part of the day. • O´clock refers to :00 minute • The information question for asking about time is: what time is it? When expressing time expressions: • Events during a day, a week, a month, a year, a weekend Instructional Guide | English II

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1.5 Grammar. Prepositions of time Prepositions of time are considered time expression as well, and they are used to express the moment that an activity is taking place in the present. The prepositions of time At, In, On should be used as follow: 1.6

Use of “at”

Use the preposition ¨At¨ to express a precise time: /at 5 o’clock/at weekends (British English)/ at noon/ at lunch time/ at bed time/at night/at lunch) e.g. She goes bed at 10 o´clock./They meet every day at lunch time. 1.7

Use of “in”

Use the preposition ¨In¨ to refer to part of the day, seasons, months, years, centuries: /in the morning/ in the afternoon/ in the evening/ in spring/ in autumn/in winter/ in summer/in July/in December. e.g. I take out the garbage every day in the morning / We go to the beach in summer 1.8

Use of “on”

Use the preposition of time ¨On¨ to refer to days, days with part of the day and dates: on Monday/on Tuesday/ on Sunday/on July 25, 2006/on Wednesday/on Monday morning/ on December 25th/ on Weekends (American English) e.g. She goes to the movie on weekends / He exercises on Sunday morning 1.9 Grammar. Adverbs of frequency The adverbs of frequency are used to express the occurrence in which an activity takes place and they are merely used in the present simple. The most common are: always, usually, sometimes, often, never and they might be used following this balance:

Always

Usually

Sometimes

Often

Never

100%

75%

50%

25%

0%

When structuring a sentence or statement using the adverb of frequency, the variable below should be taken into a count:

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a. When using other verbs (not verb to be) the adverbs of frequency always go between the noun or pronoun and the verb. Noun or pronoun (Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

Adverb of Frequency

NICOLA

ALWAYS

Verb

Rest of the sentence

(The action)

(The information given)

TAKES A SHOWER

AT 7:00 AM

b. When using the verb ¨to be¨ the adverbs of frequency go after verb to be. Noun or pronoun (Person, animal or thing who performs the action)

STEPANIE

Verb

Adverb of Frequency

Rest of the sentence

IS

NEVER

BEAUTIFUL TO THE PARTY

(The action)

(The information given)

c. The information question for asking about the frequency of events is “How Often” d. e.g. How often does she go to the party? / How often do you brush your teeth? 1.10 Grammar. Present Simple vs. Present Progressive The simple present and the present progressive are both tenses to express actions in the present, but it exists a fairly difference between them. Use the simple present to talk about daily routines. Use the present progressive tense to talk about temporary actions. In general terms: Simple Present ◊ Factual actions ◊ Habitual ◊ In general (regularly, often) ◊ Present actions happening one after another.

Present Progressive ◊ Ongoing actions ◊ Also for several actions happening at the same time ◊ Signal worlds (at the moment, at this moment, today, now, right now, look) ◊ It is formed with the verb “to be” as auxiliary verb and “ing”

◊ Signal word (always, every, often, normally, usually, sometimes, never, first, then) ◊ The following verbs are usually ONLY used in Simple Present: be, have, hear, and know, like, love, see, smell, think, want.

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e.g. Ronny plays football Ronny often plays football Ronny plays football, and then he watches TV. e.g. Ronny is playing football now. Ronny is playing football and Vicky is watching him.

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Activities

Main theme: Jobs and occupation Names and Last Names: ______________________________________________________ Registration Number: _________________ Professor: __________________________________________________________ I- With the statements below, identify each case as job, occupation or profession and write in the blank 1. Maria is 20 years old. She studies Business Administration ______________________ 2. Jeannie and I work in the accounting department ________________ 3. He cuts my hair very well _________________________ 4. My mother drives a bus, she is a _________________________ 5. Corey´s book is “the discovery in 20th century” _______________________

II- Using “occupation” vocabulary above, write statements in simple present as follow: 1. Five affirmative sentences _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Five negative sentences _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Five 05 Yes / No Questions __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Five 05 information question __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ III- Change sentences in the following paragraph by substituting for adverbs of frequency Katty gets up at 6pm from Monday to Friday. She takes a shower every day. She exercises on Tuesday and Thursday. She does not go to the Supermarket. She works four days during the week. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ IV- Analyze the following agenda then answer to questions from a-b. Give long answer and use prepositions of time and place. Agenda: Saturday morning: Play tennis Sunday morning: Take English class Monday morning: Play football Monday afternoon: Go Shopping Tuesday afternoon: Go to a Meeting Tuesday night: Ring Jane Wednesday: Buy flowers Thursday: Go to a concert Friday night: Go to a cinema Sunday at night: Go to a Italian restaurant

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a) When is his English course? b) What does he do on Friday night? c) When does he play tennis? d) When is his meeting? e) What do we do on Sunday night? f) When do they go to the Italian restaurant? g) When do you ring Jane? (Plural) h) What does she do on Monday morning? i) When does he play tennis? j) What do you do Tuesday afternoon? (Singular)

V- Write whether the statement is true or false a) The auxiliary verb “do or does” is always used to form negatives sentences and questions in the simple present ________ b) The adverbs of frequency always go between the noun or pronoun and the verb, exception when verb “to be” is used ______ c) In the simple present the verb “to work” is conjugated as “work” in the 3rd singular person ______ d) “Yes/no question” means questions to find out information ______

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e) You use auxiliary verb in positive (affirmative) sentences _______ f) The adverb of frequency “usually” means 10% _______ g) In the simple present, the verb “to be” is used to make negative sentences and questions _______ h) The simple present is used to talk about temporary actions ______ VI- Complete the sentences with the verb into parenthesis. Use Simple Present and Present Progressive. 1. Look! Amanda (go) _______home. 2. Linda (wear) _______ a raincoat and sweeter and she (carry) ____ an umbrella. 3. Jenny usually (walk) _____ to school, but today she (take) _____ the bus because it (rain). 4. The taxi (leave) _____ at 8.00 and (arrive) ______ at the trains station at 8.15 5. The first English class (begin) _____ at 8 o’clock.

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Guía de Inglés II  

Guía de Inglés II de la Universidad Nacional Tecnológica, UNNATEC