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Faculty of Science

Leiden Science

Our Talents & Discoveries

The Board of the Faculty of Science Geert de Snoo Dean, Marleen van Dorst Assessor, Dirkje Schinkelshoek Executive Director, Bart de Smit Vice Dean

Content We Are Science


Research 11 Education


Science & Society


Yearly Awards


Facts & Figures


Leiden & Leiden University


Foreword Research and education, expanding our knowledge

We also take part in the bachelor programme Urban Studies, which

and that of our students: that is what we work on day

started this year. For the seventh year in succession we see the

after day. We are eager to share all our new insights with society, which we are all part of. In the coming years, the faculty’s research profile will keep focusing on two areas. In Fundamentals of Science we study the largest numbers, the smallest parts, the youngest planets and the oldest galaxies. This year, we expanded the area of Bioscience to ‘the science base of health and the environment’. After all, our research is conducted from a variety of disciplines and not only searches for knowledge about new drugs, illness and health, but also contributes to a sustainable society, in which future generations can grow up. The two areas become increasingly interconnected, for example through initiatives in the fields of data science and artificial intelligence.

numbers of students increase: 5 percent extra bachelor students, and 8 percent extra master students. A slightly increasing number of students comes from abroad. We are especially proud of the biggest achievement of our professor in Molecular astrophysics Ewine van Dishoeck, who received the Kavli prize 2018. In her acceptance speech, she shared the honour with al her young employees: their creativity and hard work brought the subject area among the best in the world. An inspiration for our faculty, where students and PhD candidates, young researchers and experienced scientists give the best of themselves every day. For science, and to make a contribution to the societal challenges around us. We are proud of all of their achievements, some of which we highlight here. We hope you will read about them with pleasure.

Sustainability is a theme in our education too, with the master’s programme Governance of Sustainability which will start in 2019.


We are science

Our community


77 Nationalities




* End 2018 including guests and honorary staff members


STAFF MEMBERS 201+ 51-200 11-50 1-10 0



Nationalities of

all students in our faculty*

*End 2018 including dual nationalities




STUDENTS 201+ 51-200 11-50 1-10 0


We are science

Our People

Employees of our support services ensure that our staff and students are able to work happily and with dedication day after day. An essential basis, including well-appointed and accessible buildings, inspiring workplaces, safe laboratories, adequate administration of student results and confirming support, is of key importance to our daily practice. All colleagues from our support departments are therefore very much appreciated. In this edition we put the employees of the Laboratory Services and the Science Education and Student Affairs department in the spotlight.

Science Education and Student Office From career advice to students to ICT in education, and from welcoming international master’s students to student administration: the Science Education and Student Office supports and facilitates the educational organisation of the Faculty of Science. This involves providing services to over 4,200 students in 8 bachelor’s programmes and 14 master’s programmes. The Science Education and Student Office is located at the educational heart of the faculty: in the Gorlaeus Lecture Hall. In 2018, a new desk was opened to further improve visibility and accessibility for students and staff. 6

2800 is the number of students that the laboratory services (CLD)

necessary chemicals are ready to use: chemical solutions are often

annually provides the practicals for. The students follow academic

readily prepared and quantities are measured to perfection. The team

training ranging from chemistry to medicine development. With four

also support students during the actual practical. “On practical days,

school lab technicians, two laboratory assistants and one volunteer,

we attend at 8:30 hrs AM; after 18:00 hrs PM, we often have to ask the

the CLD, aided by the media kitchen, makes sure that day after day the

last students to leave”, coordinator Richard van den Berg says. “There

lab requisites are clean, the rooms are tidy, and safety is guaranteed.

are times that we serve 650 students at once, divided over labs in three

On the basis of practical manuals the CLD crew makes sure that all

buildings. On those days, we really hit the ground running.”

We are science

Laboratory services


Institute for Space Research moves to South Holland SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is moving. In 2021, the institute’s Utrecht branch will relocate to South Holland. Preparations have already started in 2018. Due to the desired scientific profile, SRON was looking for a new location for her head office, which is currently situated in Utrecht. Three consortia applied as candidates, and the die was cast in December 2017. SRON’s parent organisation NWO (The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) revealed that the combination Leiden University / Delft University of Technology was the preferable one, a choice which was later affirmed by SRON and NWO’s works councils. As from early 2021, SRON will be situated at the Bio Science Park in Leiden. The year 2018 thus revolved around finalising agreements and the preparations for the forthcoming move. For example, employees of SRON visited their future work location, and possibly even place to live. The construction site was inspected: a location on the Science Campus of Leiden University, directly neighbouring the astronomy and physics institutes and the ‘Leidse Instrumentmakersschool’. Of course, the employees also looked ahead substantively. To give shape to this look into the future, researchers from SRON, Leiden University and Delft University of Technology set out to make an inventory of, and work out ideas for scientific and technological cooperation in joint workshops. In order to achieve this they discussed no less than eleven themes, varying from gravitational waves, characterising of exoplanets, and remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere to new optical concepts and detectors. The scientists were in agreement regarding the expected developments in the field and the road the various groups are planning to take turned out to correspond well. SRON researcher Pieter Dieleman shares his enthusiasm about the future move in an interview. Among other things, he looks forward to the new impulses that will develop as a result of direct contact with the more applied scientists from Delft and the instrument makers, astronomers and physicians in Leiden. “SRON, Delft and Leiden are proud of what they do. Together we can develop a wonderful package to stimulate people who want to know more.”


Leiden Science Family Day On 6 October 2018, we opened our doors to the first Leiden Science Family Day. Over 700 guests visited the Faculty of Science. With a programme full of exciting experiments, interesting lectures, guided tours, and demonstrations, visitors were given an exciting glimpse

We are science

behind the scene of our faculty. Curious faces of young and old filled the atrium of our new Gorlaeus Building. At the experiment square, children could colour flowers or make their own hair gel from scratch. Older visitors could attend one of the many lectures from our researchers, or become scientists themselves during one of the workshops. However, our faculty does not only rely on her researchers: we also opened doors that normally remain locked. During several guided tours the visitors were able to peek behind the scenes of, for example, the Fine Mechanical Department and the brand new state-of-the-art Measure Hall.


Leiden Science Run During the Leiden Science Run on 29 September 2018, a record number of 83 teams raised a record amount of € 10,566.37. All of the money went to foundation for refugee students UAF. The Leiden Science Run is a sponsored relay race in which teams of four runners each run 5 kilometres over the Bio Science Park in Leiden and Oegstgeest. The teams that participate each pay a 20-euro registration fee; in addition to this, they try to raise as much sponsoring money as they can. All of this is to support the good cause: UAF, which this year too also participated themselves with two teams. What was new about this third edition of the run was the participation of many companies from the Bio Science Park, such as BaseClear, CHDR, Astellas and Mimetas, who all sent teams. Also, apart from employees and students of the Faculty of Science, teams from the The Hague Governance and Global Affairs Faculty and other parts of Leiden University participated. Of all teams, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research’s team “Super Briljant People” raised the most money. “We find it very important that studying in university is possible for everyone and that we help each other where we can”, one of the team members said, who herself raised sponsor money in a very special way: instead of receiving birthday presents she asked friends and relatives to donate for UAF. 10

Research profile Faculty of Science

The research domain at our faculty currently

our faculty plan. In the sector plan, the long-term sector

comprises the domains Fundamentals of Science

images for the domains of Astronomy, Pharmacy, Biology

and Bioscience, the science base of health and the environment. In the following year, our faculty expects a powerful impulse for new research from the Sectorplan Beta.

and Earth- and Environmental Sciences are painted too. A second impulse for the research comes from our own university. As from 2019, the eleven university profiling areas will no longer be financed; the means thus made

The government will additionally finance the basis of scientific

(stimulants). The faculty is the driving force in two of

research in the domains of Mathematics, Computer Science,

those initiatives: one focused on Artificial Intelligence and

Physics and Chemistry, which are all relevant to us. Recently,

one on the area of keeping our planet livable. In addition,

within the faculty, much work has been done to make choices

we will pursue two beta-medical initiatives with the

on a national level too. In the spring of 2019, we will present



available will be deployed for trans-faculty initiatives


Research dossiers We are eager to share the results of our research and the insights of our scientists with society. In our five research dossiers we present part of the research of our eight institutes in an accessible way. Our sixth research dossier, Sustainable Energy, will be launched early 2019.


Sustainable Energy

Effective Drug Development

Keeping the Planet Livable

What will tomorrow’s fuel be? Scientists

From molecule to drug; fundamental and

This dossier provides insights and

think that in 2050, the transition from

clinical knowledge is needed to develop

solutions for both the present and the

fossil energies to new sustainable

new, groundbreaking drugs. Physicians,

future. How can we organise society

sources of energy will be completed.

pharmacists, biochemists, chemists and

so as to keep our planet habitable for

Scientists from various disciplines of

mathematicians from Leiden University

ourselves and all other life forms around

Leiden University conduct unique

and Leiden University Medical Center

us? Leiden researchers collaborate across

research that contributes to this search

work closely together in the hunt for the

disciplines, from biology to data science,

for new sources of sustainable energy

clues and building blocks that could lead

and from environmental economy to

and CO2 reduction.

the way to new drugs.

archeology, to answer this question.

Tags: sustainability – chemistry

Tags: drug development – cancer –

Tags: biology – ecology – sustainability

– catalysis – photosynthesis –

immunology – vaccines – antibiotics

– energy – agriculture – archeology –

governance – public opinion

– binding kinetics – drug-target

environmental sciences

interactions – data science

Data Science

The Quantum Computer

From the Big Bang to life-bearing

Researchers across the entire scientific

The worldwide race to the quantum

planets, astronomers want to understand

spectrum – including linguistics, the

computer is in full swing. This computer

every aspect of the Universe. In Leiden

environment, medicine, astronomy

can take on tasks that we can only

they focus on two key questions: ‘How

and biology – are increasingly looking

dream of today. Leiden physicists have

did stars and planets originate’ and ‘How

into smarter ways for searching data.

discovered how the Majorana particle

were galaxies and black holes formed in

A global revolution is taking place in

can be used as a building block for

the young Universe?’ A new generation

the field of data science, and Leiden

this quantum computer. Together with

of telescopes will help them find the

University is a major academic hub for

research groups in Delft, they hope to

answers. Maybe they will even detect

this discipline in the Netherlands.

build the first quantum computer.

Tags: data science – statistics –

Tags: theoretical physics – particle

Tags: astronomy – chemistry –

computer science – ethics – cultural

physics – quantum physics –

astrophysics – data science

heritage – FAIR data

cryptography – internet

signs of life on other planets.


Exploring the Universe


Our Institutes

Leiden Observatory

The Observatory’s research is part of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy, NOVA, which has been evaluated as world class – Leiden astronomy research is also classified as exemplary. Over the last years, the bachelor’s and master’s programme Astronomy have attracted growing numbers of students, many of whom are international. The PhD programme at the Observatory is exceptional, for it is presumably the largest world-class PhD programme in astrophysics across the globe. Research programmes: Galaxies and the structures in which they are embedded - Exoplanets, and forming stars and planets Education: Astronomy (BSc & MSc)

Astronomers discover farthest radio galaxy ever After almost twenty years, the record for the most distant radio galaxy was broken. Radio galaxies are colossal stellar galaxies with a super-heavy black hole at their centre, and are very rare. A team of astronomers led by PhD student Aayush Saxena under Huub Röttgering’s supervision has discovered the new distant galaxy, which is 12 billion light-years away 14

from our Earth.

Leiden Institute of Physics

Famous for its Nobel laureates such as Hendrik Lorentz and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the Leiden Institute of Physics’ research is still world leading and excellent, according to an independent evaluation. In addition, LION is a member of The Dutch Research School for Theoretical Physics, which was also reviewed as excellent two years ago. The institute currently houses four Spinoza Prize laureates. Research programmes: Theoretical physics - Quantum matter and optics - Biological and soft matter physics

New memory developed for superconducting computer Kaveh Lahabi in the group of Jan Aarts demonstrated control over a new type of superconducting memory elements. His device allows the choice of the path of socalled spin-polarized supercurrents, which contain pairs


Education: Physics (BSc & MSc)

of two electrons spinning in the same direction. Choosing a different path is like setting a bit in superconducting memory, thereby preventing energy loss. 15

Mathematical Institute

Our Mathematical Institute’s research mission is to perform high-quality research at the frontiers of mathematical knowledge. The MI has been very successful in attracting top-level mathematicians. As a second part of its mission, the institute offers education in pure and applied mathematics and statistics. Research programmes: Number Theory, Algebra and Geometry Analysis and Dynamical Systems - Probability Theory - Statistical Science Education: Mathematics (BSc & MSc) - Statistical Science for the Life and Behavioural Sciences (MSc)

Using mathematics to fight desertification PhD student Robbin Bastiaansen applies mathematics to gain insight in practical problems. By comparing mathematical models with developments in existing ecosystems, he hopes to demystify the process of desertification. His insights could help prevent the irreversible expansion of deserts, a big societal problem. 16

Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science The two research programmes form the backbone of our Computer Science research, with Data Science as an important addition. The research quality at LIACS is evaluated as very good: the very strong focus areas, the very good research output, and the close collaboration with the Leiden University Medical Center are named in particular. Research programmes: Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence Computer Systems, Imagery & Media Education: Computer Science (BSc & MSc) BSc Specialisation Bioinformatics - BSc Specialisation Computer Science & Economy - ICT

Using data science to improve speed skating In the build-up towards the Winter Olympic Games 2018, the Dutch speed skating team of coach Jac Orie used a new weapon: intensive data analysis by Leiden data scientist Arno Knobbe. He helped Orie reinterpret old and


in Business and the Public Sector (MSc) - Media Technology (MSc)

new data in order to train his athletes in a more effective way – and with success: Orie’s team won four gold medals, one silver medal, and one bronze medal. 17

Leiden Institute of Chemistry

To contribute fundamental knowledge to important societal issues such as sustainable energy and health and disease, our chemistry institute focuses on two research programmes. The LIC aims to be an international and challenging environment where young talented researchers can develop their own research lines and where education and research are intimately intertwined. Research programmes: Fundamental research in Energy and Sustainability - Fundamental research in Chemical Biology Education: Molecular Science & Technology* (BSc) - Life Science & Technology* (BSc & MSc) - Chemistry (MSc) * BSc joint programme together with TU Delft

A step closer to sustainable energy from seawater Thanks to a discovery of Marc Koper’s research group, science is one step closer to producing sustainable energy from seawater. Koper and colleagues discovered a catalyst that minimises the production of the toxic chlorine gas during salt-water electrolysis. Producing energy from salt water would relieve the rare freshwater reserves on Earth. 18

Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research With a modern and innovative approach to pharmaceutical sciences, supported by technological platforms such as the Cell Observatory, metabolomics platform, and organ-on-a-chip technology, LACDR has created a world-class innovative science-driven drug research programme. The combination of computational and experimental work is a major strength of LACDR. The bachelor’s and master’s programme in BioPharmaceutical Sciences are in high demand among (international) students. Research programmes: BioTherapeutics - Drug Discovery & Safety - Systems Biomedicine and Pharmacology

Sensing drug responses of single cells using optical tweezers Leiden drug researchers Vahid Sheikh-Hasani and Alireza Mashaghi Tabari managed to determine the response of single cells to the drug Atorvastatin by using so-called optical tweezers. This highly focused laser beam enabled the scientists to measure


Education: Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSc & MSc)

changes in the human red blood cells upon administration of the drug. Their research can help gain understanding in how drugs work, and can help develop new drugs with increased effectiveness and reduced side effects.


Institute of Biology Leiden

Both the general research quality and the PhD programme of the Institute of Biology Leiden are world class, according to the 2018 visitation. With highly multidisciplinary fundamental and applied research using a selection of model organisms, and attention to evolutionary processes and the role of the environment in biological processes, IBL represents the core of modern biological research at Leiden University. Research programmes: Animal Sciences and Health - Plant Sciences and Natural Products - Microbial Biotechnology and Health Education: Biology (BSc & MSc)

Bacteria without cell wall during stress Thread-like bacteria make cells that no longer have a cell wall under the influence of osmotic stress. This is a remarkable discovery from the lab of Dennis Claessen, since the cell wall serves as a protection barrier for bacteria against external influences. This discovery could help explain how pathogenic bacteria can hide from our immune system inside the human body. 20

Institute of Environmental Sciences Our Institute of Environmental Sciences works on important questions, which are relevant to some of the most critical problems facing humanity. According to an independent evaluation, it houses a world-leading research programme in Industrial Ecology. From the Conservation Biology programme, especially the Ecotoxicology research is considered strong and of future importance. This year, CML celebrated their 40th anniversary with a symposium in de Stadsgehoorzaal in Leiden. Research programmes: Industrial Ecology - Conservation Biology Education: Industrial Ecology (MSc) – Urban Studies (Ba) –

Better insight into competition between microbes Nadia Soudzilovskaia and Peter van Bodegom participated in a research consortium that established the global distribution pattern of micro-organisms in soils and oceans. They discovered that mostly rainfall and soil


Governance of Sustainability (MSc), starting in September 2019

acidity determine which microbes survive in a particular habitat and which do not. This knowledge is important for maintaining biodiversity. 21

Key facilities Our faculty hosts a number of high-tech key facilities that enable our research groups to perform excellent research. We also open our facilities to other parties in order for them to utilise their full potential and to enable and encourage collaboration between researchers, both for local partners and for collaborations worldwide.

NeCEN Our powerful electron microscopes can magnify an object up to ten million times. The most minute elements of biological samples and man-made structures can be studied, offering researchers the opportunity to see how individual atoms and molecules behave and structure themselves in their environment. The employed methods are suitable for a wide variety of research applications that can lead to faster and better methods for the understanding, diagnosis, cure and prevention of diseases on a molecular level. As part of the NEMI project, NeCEN together with other Dutch Universities also received a large Roadmap grant to image individual atoms and molecules in 2018. NeCEN will use this grant to strengthen its position as the national centre for (cryo)electron microscopy, commented Ariane Briegel, professor of ultra-structure biology.

Metabolomics Facility The Metabolomics Facility brings together experts in clinical metabolomics and pioneers in plant and herbal medicine metabolomics. Researchers connected with the Metabolomics Facility strive to contribute to the prevention of diseases and help improve health throughout the human lifespan. Our Metabolomics Facility works closely together with the Dutch X-omics initiative and received a 17-million-euro grant from the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research as part of the National Roadmap for Large-Scale Infrastructure in 2018. Leiden University’s metabolomics research is led by Thomas Hankemeier, professor of analytical biosciences.


NMR Facility At the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Facility, much can be learned about the structure and dynamics of proteins. Our researchers study the synthesis of paramagnetic molecules. This research strengthens the knowledge base of human health and disease, as well as energy and sustainability. In 2018, our researchers characterized the oil distribution in colonies of the oleaginous microalga Botryococcus braunii using the NMR Facility. The study, published in Plos One, is relevant in the search for third generation biofuel sources. The facility has eight spectrometers. The service was extended in order to collaborate with researchers from other universities and to take part in industrial research groups.

Cell Observatory The Cell Observatory houses cutting-edge bio-imaging technology and other facilities for visualising the dynamic structures of life, from molecule to cell. Fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, the Cell Observatory also serves as a meeting place and shared facility for scientists from all institutes of the faculty. Ultimately, research at the Cell Observatory aims to understand the fundamental mechanisms of life that are essential for making progress in tackling diseases. In 2018, our biologists published a surprising discovery in Nature Communications about so-called Toll-like receptors. These proteins are known to recognise bad bacteria, after which they activate the immune system. The presence of good bacteria, however, causes these receptors to suppress the immune system, which is desirable for example in the case of inflammation-related diseases.

The ‘measuring hall’ comprises sixteen ultra low vibration measuring platforms. It is the best facility of its kind in Europe. and one of the best worldwide. Setups for high-tech research into, for example, new kinds of superconductors, catalysis on an atomic scale and the limits of the quantum world are in place. Every single measuring platform is individually placed on ultra low vibration absorbing shock absorbers that absorb vibrations almost completely, to less than 35 billionth m/s per √Hz. A separation between the construction of the ‘measuring hall’ and that of


Ultra low vibration Platforms

the rest of the new building provides further shock absorption. Without these measures, every passing lorry on the nearby motorway A44 would influence the experiments. 23

Honorary Each year, a number of eminent scientist are appointed to occupy honorary chairs in the faculty. The Lorentz chair has an illustrious history; 15 occupants of the chair later received a Nobel Prize in Physics. In general, the honorary professors spend two months at the institute and give both advanced lectures for PhD students and staff members, as well as a public lecture for a broad audience. During the 443rd Dies Natalis of Leiden University, Thomas Hankemeier delivered the Dies Lecture.

Dies lecture

Oort chair

in the field of theoretical soft-matter

‘In the near future, it may well be possible

James Kasting is Evan Pugh Professor

physics and winner of the prestigious

for us to learn from a person’s blood whether

of Geosciences at Penn State University.

Buckley Condensed Matter Prize.

he or she is likely to suffer from Alzheimer’s

He delivered the Oort Lecture in April.

disease at a later date’, said Professor of

Kasting searches for simple life on

Oort visiting professor

Analytical biosciences Thomas Hankemeier

other planets, and is arguably one of the

Naledi Pandor currently is the South

during the 443rd Dies Natalis of Leiden

greatest thinkers in the field of planetary

African Minister of Higher Education.

University. This knowledge brings prevention


She visited Leiden Observatory as

of Alzheimer’s a step closer. Hankemeier


honorary Oort Visiting Professor of

believes the key is in metabolomics, mapping

Lorentz chair

Astronomy for Development. Pandor

so-called metabolites. These are products of

Tom Lubensky is the Christopher H.

is considered an inspirational and

metabolism, the outcome of the interaction

Browne Distinguished Professor at the

charismatic ambassador of science as a

between genes and environmental factors

University of Pennsylvania. In May, he was

tool for development, particularly in the

such as nutrition and lifestyle.

the 64th Lorentz Professor. He is a pioneer

field of astronomy.

Ewine van Dishoeck wins Kavli prize for astrophysics How are stars and planets formed? Is life outside

Introductie prijzen

Earth possible? These questions are being researched by Professor of Molecular Astrophysics Ewine van

Dishoeck. Her pioneering work has earned her the Kavli prize 2018 in the category of astrophysics, which king Harald V of Norway handed to her during a grand prize ceremony in Oslo on 4 September.

‘Van Dishoeck’s research has changed just about every aspect of astronomy’, the jury commented. ‘At one time, her specialist

Using observations, theory and experiments, Ewine van Dishoeck has

field was no more than a small research area on the periphery

made significant contributions to the knowledge of interstellar clouds:

of astrophysics, but thanks to her it is now a core theme within

large clouds of gas and dust that are the birthplace of planets and stars.

the totality of astronomy.’

and clump together to form the building blocks of complete planetary

‘What a fantastic honour. Not only for me, but also for all my

systems, such as our own solar system.

young researchers and colleagues spread throughout the world,’ Van Dishoeck responded to the prize announcement. ‘It is at

Her research is highly important in determining whether life is

least in part thanks to their creativity and hard work that our

possible on other planets. Van Dishoeck searches for possible organic

field is now in the Champions League of astronomy.’


She shows how in these clouds molecules arise that evolve further

molecules in interstellar clouds, as well as for another building block of life: water. She studies water reservoirs in the precursors of planetary

‘It is not only about pure science, but also about the fact that

systems and the water vapour around young stars. Her research

we can deliver a contribution to one of the biggest questions

generates information on the origin of water on Earth.

that mankind can ask: are we alone in the universe?’




Our vision is that students best learn science by experiencing science together and in collaboration with fellow junior and senior scientists: teaching should be research-driven in a challenging, international and diverse academic environment.

Study Associations All programmes of our faculty are represented by five study associations. These associations greatly contribute to the connection of our students and our alumni with each other by organising all sort of activities that offer students the opportunity to enrich their student life.

Our teaching is characterised by small-scale work groups, contact with diverse cultures, and innovative teaching methods. We invest in creating an inclusive teaching environment for students from all backgrounds. As a result, an already appreciable and still growing number of master and PhD students come from abroad. We encourage our students to develop an active and

De Leidsche Flesh

Chemisch Dispuut Leiden

S.V. Life

ambitious attitude and train them to become academic professionals and engaged, responsible citizens. Once graduated, our students will be able to make important contributions to resolving the challenges our society is currently facing - within as well as outside of academia.


L.P.S.V. Aesculapius

Leidse Biologen Club

Two new educational programmes In 2018, two new educational programmes were introduced: the bachelor’s programme in Urban Studies and the master’s programme in Governance of Sustainability. The English-taught bachelor Urban Studies kicked off in 2018 and is the first programme in the Netherlands to teach students how to handle current and future urban issues. It is unique in combining language and culture, social sciences, criminology, ecology and law. In the Governance of Sustainability master’s programme, students will be educated as future ‘change makers’ to improve the quality of governance solutions to major sustainability challenges. The new programme will start in 2019, and will provide students with in-depth knowledge of both the governance perspective (social sciences) and the natural sciences.

The ‘Keuzegids Universiteiten’ labelled two educational programmes as ‘Excellent’. Both the bachelor’s programme in Mathematics and the master’s programme in Computer Science received this predicate, because they meet the highest standards. Computer Science even ranks highest on the list of comparable programmes in the Netherlands. Students particularly appreciate the programme’s high quality of both scientific education and student assessment. Mathematics is not only praised by its students; also experts assess the programme as better than average. It obtained high scores on study programme, testing and coaching.


Two educational programmes labelled ‘Excellent’


Frank Takes new member Leiden University Teacher’s Academy Computer scientist Frank Takes of the LIACS is one of the five innovative and excellent teachers that have joined the Leiden University Teacher’s Academy. Fellows of the Teacher’s Academy exchange experiences and share their knowledge and skills with others at the University. Takes is assistant professor in Computer Science. During his fellowship, he wants to create a digital study environment for his students, providing them the opportunity to learn together by exchanging best practices in a collaborative document. In review sessions, for example, students could give each other feedback about their programming environment and setup for data-intensive computer experiments.

Labbuddy for better practical sessions In the second-year practical course of Biochemistry, students have to design and conduct their own research. Teacher Marjo de Graauw noticed that the students wasted precious time on practical questions, because they lacked prior knowledge. This way, less time remained for scientific discussion and the development of academic skills. She and her colleagues therefore implemented Labbuddy, an innovative e-learning tool for laboratory education. In the digital lab of Labbuddy, students can prepare themselves, find information about material and techniques, and independently design a research. Thanks to this tool, students are now better prepared for their practicals and receive, on average, higher grades.


Science communication Students create audio tour for Leiden’s wall formulas Science Communication master’s students Lotte Koemans and Mandy Meijer have developed an audio tour which takes people along all six wall formulas in the historic city centre of Leiden. In cooperation with Leiden University, the city of Leiden has painted several physics formulas on the walls of buildings. The tour of Koemans and Meijer does not only look at the formulas themselves, but also includes information on the scientists behind them. ‘We explained all the formulas by means of a daily example’, tells Meijer. ‘That way, people will realise physics is all around us.’ The tour can be downloaded for free.

Partly thanks to Roy de Winter, ship design and engineering company C-Job Naval Architects now develops optimal ships in a shorter time. The master’s student Computer Science from Leiden developed the CEGO algorithm, which eliminates the classic design cycle and makes people in the maritime optimisation process redundant. For his innovative contribution to the maritime industry and the application of insights from mathematical optimisation techniques, De Winter has been nominated for the 2018 Maritime Designer Award. ‘This research shows that interdisciplinary work can lead to great new insights’ says De Winter.

iGEM student team wins gold in Boston With the slogan ‘Say yes to stress’, thirteen ambitious Leiden students joined iGEM 2018, a worldwide competition for student teams in synthetic biology. They developed bacteria that change colour under stress. This discolouration can be used to indicate which anti-bacterial substances the bacteria cannot tolerate. The colouring bacteria make it possible to discover substances that can strengthen existing antibiotics, or that can even be combined to create new ones. After a successful crowdfunding campaign, the students went to Boston to present their results. There, they won a gold medal and first prizes for Best Model and Best Therapeutic Project. The cell lines which detect bacterial stress are available as an open source for further research.


Algorithm Data Science student designs best ship in less time


Astronomy student searches for giant rings Astronomy master’s student Robin Mentel studied hundreds of photographic plates made between 1890 and 2007 from a star named j1407. In these photos, he searched for an explanation for a strange series of star eclipses that occurred in 2007. Astronomers hypothesised that the eclipses would have been caused by a planet with giant rings, called j1407b. Mentel’s meticulous analysis however did not show any stellar eclipses in the period between 1890 and 2007. Still, an eclipse may have been missed since the measurement series contain gaps. Mentel’s research has been accepted for publication in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Exploring our universe in VR Navigating through the universe from your living room? It is possible thanks to a new computer application for VR goggles built by Marc Driessen. The Computer Science student developed a virtual reality experience of our galaxy as part of the course Human Computer Interaction. Driessen named his application Kepler VR, after the Kepler Telescope. He found that although there is a lot of astronomy data available in the NASA database, these data are difficult to understand when you’re not an astronomer. He therefore thought of something to make the data more appealing.


Highlight 1-2 Biology student describes underwater Hobbit ‘In a hole under water there lived a hobbit’: a new shrimp species named after Bilbo Baggings. During his bachelor internship at Naturalis Biodiversity Center, biology student Werner de Gier described two newly discovered species of shrimp. One of those new species stood out by its very hairy legs. Naming it, De Gier and his supervisor Charles Fransen were inspired by the most famous hobbit from Middle-earth: Bilbo Baggings. They named the hairylegged shrimp species Odontonia bagginsi, after the last name of Bilbo.

During the 34th edition of the Leiden Science Career Event on 21 March, over a thousand beta students came to Leiden to find their future jobs. They could meet up with some 60 companies from a wide variety of fields. Think of IT companies such as BearingPoint, pharmaceutical companies such as Herakles, but also governmental bodies such as the Rijnmond environmental department. Due to last year’s success, there were not one, but two professional photographers to take students’LinkedIn profile pictures. New to the event was the Entrepreneurs Café, where students could obtain information about what it is like to start your own business.


34rd edition of the Leiden Science Career Event


Science & society


Academic institutions are of vital

Our research leads to innovation and new products and patents

importance to our society. Universities

in various areas, such as the novel type of solvent NADES, or a

are breeding grounds for innovation, collaboration and entrepreneurship. Research and education at universities do not take place in a vacuum: they have direct impact on society in many ways.

prediction app for soft tissue cancer. It also helps find solutions to societal challenges and supports societal issues in several ways, our research on programming for blind kids being only one example. In addition, we broadly disseminate new insights and achievements through events and lectures for a broad and diverse audience.

Programming for blind kids Programming is an excellent career option for blind children, and a way for them to have fun and express themselves. But the existing tools for programming are often not suitable for the blind and visually impaired. Félienne Hermans’ group focuses on programming education and aims to change this. For instance, blind programmers commonly use a screen reader: a tool that reads texts aloud. ‘But sadly, these things are made to read natural language and not source code’, says Hermans. In order to make programming education accessible to blind and visually impaired children, her group will examine whether the existing tools are suitable for this group. After this, they will draw up guidelines that teachers can use to assess programming tools for inclusiveness. Youth, Teachers


Virtual cycling tours for elderly What once started as an assignment for the Master’s Programme Media Technology, has become the international market leader in the field of virtual reality exercises for the elderly. With Bike Labyrinth, co-founders Ella Keijzer and Job de Reus deliver virtual cycling tours to care institutions all over the world. People can take interactive cycling tours in over 400 different places. A screen showing the lifelike cycling routes is connected to a home trainer or exercise bike. People who cannot cycle independently outside can still discover the world in this way. In addition, they are encouraged to regularly perform physical activity.

Natuurwetenschappelijk Gezelschap Leiden (NGL) Alumni network NGL, or the Leiden Society for Natural Sciences, has close bonds with the Faculty of Science. Founded in 1870 by enthusiastic Leiden professors, NGL organises lectures and excursions about socially relevant topics from a scientific point of view. This year, the grand public lecture of Kavli Prize winner Ewine van Dishoeck attracted more than 400 visitors. In addition, NGL organised four other lectures and an excursion to Janssen Biologics. Alumni, General Public

Science & society



Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters (VO-S) Anyone, from student to staff member, who once was – or still is – connected with the Leiden Observatory is welcome to become a member of the VO-S. The VO-S organises a wide range of events on recent developments in astronomy, from scientific lectures to community events. It also accommodates each year’s Oort lecture. This year, the VO-S celebrated its twentieth anniversary together with Astronomy student association L.A.D.F. Kaiser. Alumni

New type of solvent A medium that is neither solid nor liquid: meet NADES. In 2011, Leiden biologists discovered and patented this novel type of solvent, which is formed by combining solids into a viscous liquid. It is able to solve substances which are neither water nor lipid soluble. Meanwhile, the industry has picked up this new solvent. In 2018, NADES was incorporated in an anti-ageing product and a new chicken feed product. The applications are endless, and include drug delivery systems and long-term vaccine storage. ‘The discovery of NADES has now progressed from science to industry and is starting to impact on society’, say inventors Young Choi and Rob Verpoorte. Industry 34

Highlight 1-2

Prediction app for cancer Researchers from the Mathematical Institute and the Leiden University Medical Center have developed a prediction app for patients suffering from soft tissue sarcoma, a type of cancer. Tumor growth at the site of surgery and at other sites is common, but there is considerable variation between patients. Clinicians can now use the new prediction app. It predicts a patient’s probability of surviving 3, 5, and 10 years from the time of surgery, as well as the probability of developing a local recurrence, based on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. The model also provides information on treatment options. Healthcare

Hortus botanicus Leiden Netherlands and one of the oldest in the world. The Hortus is a renowned institute for its plant collection and (living) plant research. This year, the Hortus welcomed 171,000 visitors. In April 2019, the three-year Horizon 2020 project Big Picnic will come to an end. The Hortus was one of the 19 participating parties. Within the framework of this project, the Hortus organised several Science Cafés about various subjects, such as potatoes, beans, pollinators, vanilla, and grain. Due to its success, the Hortus will organise another series of Science Cafés in 2019 and 2020. The Science Cafés proved that a botanical garden is a great place to let science, public, professionals and the business world talk to each other, taste together, and

Science & society

Hortus botanicus Leiden, founded in 1590, is the oldest botanical garden in the

let both young and old feel at home. General Public, Youth, Teachers, Alumni, Academics


Ladies’ Days in Physics, Astronomy, and Computer Science Every year, Leiden University organises Ladies’ Days together with National expert organisation on girls and women in science and technology VHTO, especially for girls. The event started as the Ladies’ Physics Day 2014, and was extended to include astronomy and computer science in 2016. Ladies’ Days aim to let girls in 5th and 6th grade of pre-university education become acquainted with an academic study in astronomy, physics or computer science. During the event, girls learn more about what these studies comprise, and what possible future job opportunities there are. They also get to know female students, staff and alumni. Youth

Lorentz Center The Lorentz Center is an international center that coordinates and hosts workshops, based on the philosophy that science thrives on interaction between researchers. For more than two decades, the center has facilitated international groups of researchers to discuss scientific problems. The focus lies on brainstorming and sharing ideas in a low-key setting. This year, the Lorentz Center introduced a diversity fund, ensuring that anyone can join their workshops. At the end of 2018, the center organised the workshops Life Sciences with Industry and Physics with Industry, in collaboration with NWO. In 2018, the Lorentz Center hosted 79 workshops, for more than 3100 academics from some 60 countries. Academics, Industry


Yearly Awards Each year, the Faculty of Science awards three prizes: two for excellent research and one for excellent teaching. Both research prizes are established from the C.J. Kok Fund, which was raised from the assets of Mr C.J. Kok. Research and education are closely interwoven in our Faculty and excellent education is indispensable to successfully translate research findings into high-quality educational programmes, both on a bachelor’s and master’s level. Therefore, in addition to the C.J. Kok Awards, the Faculty grants an annual award for teaching.

Criteria for winning C.J. Kok Public Award

Faculty Award for Teaching

Our staff, students and alumni decide who is awarded the C.J. Kok

educational committees nominate their favorite teacher. The chairs

Public Award by voting for their favourite nominee. Nominees are

of our study associations and the assessor from the Faculty Board

also presented on the online channels of our faculty, which enables

form the jury and decide who will be awarded the Faculty Award for

candidates to campaign within their personal networks for their

Teaching. Nominations are assessed on the following three criteria:

nomination. Voting starts mid December and closes at noon on the

• Didactic skills.

day of our Faculty’s New Year reception.

• The ways in which the teacher establishes connections between the

What makes a thesis a winning one? A jury, consisting of renowned

course and recent developments in relevant fields of research. • The ways in which the educator teaches from a multidisciplinary perspective and connects his/her own research field with other fields

staff members, makes its selection based on the thesis itself and the corresponding recommendation, which is usually written by the (co) promotor of the PhD student or his or her scientific director. The main

within the (natural) sciences.

Yearly awards

C.J. Kok Jury Award

Our students play a key role in this election: student members of the

criteria for assessment are: • The scientific quality, such as innovative content for its field of research, other disciplines, and science in general. • Do the research results bear direct relevance to society? • Is the thesis easily accessible and clearly written? • Career prospects after being promoted, if this information is available.

Find out more about this year’s nominees on the

Members of the 2018 jury are the professors Carel ten Cate, Miranda

following pages and read their full stories online:

van Eck, Bas Edixhoven, Marc Koper and Koen Kuijken. 37

Alireza Mashaghi Tabari

Winner C.J. Kok Public Award 2017 ‘The C.J. Kok prize has given additional visibility to our

fundamental problems as well as addressing problems that affect

single-molecule protein folding research, our newly

society. In particular, I am excited about finding useful links between

developed circuit topology technology, and has in general boosted our efforts to bridge medicine and science.’ Alireza Mashaghi Tabari won the 2017 C.J. Kok Public Award for his revolutionary research into proteins that help other proteins fold, combining physics and medicine. Over the last year, he was approached for new collaborations by Leiden University scientists from the Institute of Biology and the Mathematical Institute, as well as researchers from Sweden, USA, and Germany. Mashaghi leads the Medical Systems Biophysics and Bioengineering group and is known as a driven scientist. ‘I am fascinated by solving


physics and medicine or pharmacy.’ Together with his team members, Mashaghi is exploring completely new ways of thinking in medicine, inspired by concepts developed by physicists. Having led research teams at MIT and Harvard University, Mashaghi came to the Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research in 2016, an institute he says has been at the forefront of pharmaceutical sciences for decades. ‘Leiden has a strong history in physics; several university hospitals are close by, and TU Delft is around the corner. In a way, this environment is similar to Boston, which is dense in academic and industrial groups with a variety of expertise.’

Stéphanie van der Pas

Winner C.J. Kok Jury Award 2017 Bayesian statistics, artificial hips and hereditary

According to the jury, the thesis stood out because of its scientific

diseases: they all appear in the winning thesis of

depth, variety in topics, relevance, and the quantity of results.

techniques that support researchers in the field and ensure that common mistakes occur less frequently.

More exceptional yet is the recognition from the field. Van der Pas’ thesis had already formed the basis for eight scientific articles and directly influenced how statistical analyses are performed and interpreted.

Van der Pas applies pure mathematics in a way that takes human error and unexpected situations into account.

After graduating, Van der Pas has been dividing her time between education and research as well as between theory and

Van der Pas investigated sparsity constraints. These are models in which

practice. At the MI, she works on the theoretical side of statistics.

many actors may contribute to the modeled effect, but only a few actors

Furthermore, she is involved in collaborations with clinicians

actually do. Such models are used in many fields, including genetics and

at the LUMC, developing the ideas from her dissertation and

astronomy. Van der Pas proved that the so-called horseshoe method is

putting them into practice. ‘Theory and practice provide a good

optimal for separating the true signals from the noise.

interaction, and the two sides can inform and inspire each other.’

Yearly awards

Stéphanie van der Pas. She describes new statistical


Kristian Rietveld

Winner Faculty Award for Teaching 2017 ‘I did not know that I could become even more

Rietveld. ‘My student assistants and I expect students to come up

proud of you’, Kristian Rietveld’s late father said

with solutions themselves – to prepare them for the future, when

when Rietveld won the Faculty Award for Teaching last year. Strikingly, Rietveld Sr won the C.J. Kok Award in 1985. He bought a computer with the

they encounter new problems in science or business. Students do not learn from ready-made answers; they learn most when we help them unravel the subject matter.’

prize money, which the young Rietveld learned to

Rietveld wants to use the prize money to replace the current ARM

use. The rest is history.

development boards with RISC-V-architecture development boards. ‘This new open-source processor is more basic and makes it easier

Rietveld currently teaches three courses: Operating Systems,

for students to fully understand and learn how to optimise software

Computer Architecture, and Programming Methods. Regularly,

for a specific architecture. In addition, it enables students to even

his lectures run late because of interesting discussions. In his

study the source code of implementations of this architecture.’

courses, self-reliance and realism are points of focus. ‘We throw our students into the deep, but in a supervised manner’, says 40

C.J. Kok Public Award

Nominees 2018 Leiden

Leiden Institute of


Leiden Institute of




Advanced Computer Science

Yamila Miguel

Martin van Hecke

Sander Hille

Alfons Laarman

The deep storms that rage on Jupiter

Programming mechanical metamaterials

Preventing errors in critical systems

‘Jupiter hides its secrets very well.

‘When we started working

Interdisciplinary research on mathematical models for biological systems

In the upcoming years, we hope

on the new research field of

‘The plant hormone auxin does

certificate that shows consumers,

to lift the veil a bit.’

nanomaterials, I could hardly

not show itself easily. We are

companies and governments

explain it to my students.

like Sherlock Holmes; trying to

alike: this software will do exactly

But I thought it would be

track it down using models and

what it is supposed to do.’

interesting. And I was not

targeted measurements.’

‘You want some kind of


Find out more about this year’s nominees on the next pages and read their full stories online:

Yearly awards


C.J. Kok Public Award

Nominees 2018 Leiden Institute of

Leiden Academic Centre

Institute of

Institute of


for Drug Research

Biology Leiden

Environmental Sciences

Marjolein Soethoudt

Jeroen Bussmann

Bjørn Koch

Paul Behrens

Order in attempts to develop cannabis-like medicines

Improving the design of drug-delivering nanoparticles

A start to overhear the communication with our gut bacteria

‘The research tools we identified

‘Now that we better understand

‘There are hundreds or thousands

We can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by cutting down meat consumption

to understand how cannabis-

what happens to drug-delivering

commensal species in the

‘A change in food choice is

like synthetic drugs work will

nanoparticles after injection, it is

microbiome, which are either

feasible, and could be realised

improve preclinical trials and

possible to design better methods

innocent or helpful. It would be

much faster than technological

reduce the need for animal

to apply them and to increase

valuable to know them better.’

solutions to environmental


their potential.’


Find out more about this year’s nominees on the next pages and read their full stories online:


C.J. Kok Jury Award

Nominees 2018 Leiden

Leiden Institute of


Leiden Institute of




Advanced Computer Science

Jorryt Matthee

Kyrylo Bondarenko

Lisanne Rens

Hao Wang

Identifying the origins of galaxy formation

The search for mysterious neutrino particles

The maths behind our cells ‘I find it fascinating how cells,

Making problem solving more efficient

‘We are starting to understand

‘The discovery of a sterile neu-

that behave as individual units,

‘Our new advancements are

that galaxies – even those in the

trino will significantly change

can somehow together create

applicable for many real-world

very distant universe – can no

our whole research area. I hope

intricate patterns and functioning

problems, like the vehicle routing

longer be treated as simple dots

my research will hasten this


problem where we want to

of light, ignoring the resolved


minimise the costs in the delivery service or calculate the quickest route for an ambulance.’

Yearly awards

structure we see.’


C.J. Kok Public Award

Nominees 2018 Leiden Institute of

Leiden Academic Centre

Institute of

Institute of


for Drug Research

Biology Leiden

Environmental Sciences

Qingju Zhang

Maarten Doornbos

Boris Zacchetti

Sofia Gomes

Sugar synthesis: the making of safer vaccines

Tinkering with bacterial production

‘This research is the starting

Drug binding kinetics as predictor of for potential medicines

base for developing synthetic,

‘I want to enhance the predictive

performances of Streptomyces

Cheating belowground interactions - Diversity, ecology and distribution of cheater plants

sugar-based vaccines without

value of lab assays for final

bacteria, which produce

pathogens, with a lower risk of

efficiency in the patient.

antibiotics and valuable enzymes.

inducing illness in the vaccinated

Ultimately, better assays

My discoveries could contribute


contribute to bringing novel safe

to the availability of cheaper or

medicine to patients faster.’

novel products, like antibiotics.’

‘I was able to enhance the

‘By focusing on cheater plants, my colleagues and I gained better insights on how green plants work together with the beneficial fungi at their roots, as part of one of the most widespread mutualisms on our planet.’

Find out more about this year’s nominees on the next pages and read their full stories online:


Faculty Award for Teaching

Nominees 2018 Leiden

Leiden Institute of


Leiden Institute of




Advanced Computer Science

Marcel van Daalen

Martin van Exter

Peter Bruin

Michael Lew

Course: Radiative Processes

Course: Optics

‘Feeling like you truly understand

‘I like to show students how

something about physics or

mathematics is a powerful tool

Courses: Multimedia Systems, Multimedia Information Retrieval

the Universe is a wonderful

to get a quantitative grip on the

Course: Topology Interdisciplinary research on mathematical models for biological systems

experience. My main goal is

way things work.’

‘A lecture is more effective if

fundamentals and paradigms

you treat topics from a different

with the students, which

angle compared to the written

improves all of us as a result.’


Yearly awards

sharing that experience.’

‘I like to explore scientific


Faculty Award for Teaching

Nominees 2018 Leiden Institute of

Leiden Academic Centre

Institute of

Institute of


for Drug Research

Biology Leiden

Environmental Sciences

Edgar Blokhuis

Isabelle Kohler

Joost van den Brink

Stefano Cucurachi

Courses: Statistical Thermodynamics and Calculus 2

Amongst others: bachelor course Systems Pharmacology and master course Bio-analytical mass spectrometry

Courses: Basic practical 1 and 2

Course: System Earth

‘It makes my day if students

teaching is one of the most

express their wonder about an

exhilarating and energizing

experimental observation

activities that an academic can

during lab-work.’

engage in.’

‘Besides being knowledgeable and providing structure, it is even more important to be able to inspire your audience.’

‘I want to enhance the predictive value of lab assays for final efficiency in the patient. Ultimately, better assays contribute to bringing novel safe medicine to patients faster.’

Find out more about this year’s nominees on the next pages and read their full stories online:


‘Sharing knowledge through

Staff 2018

Students 2018

148 Full Professors

4471 Total students


Assistant & Associate Professors

2818 Bachelor students





PhD candidates

39% Female

Master students

365 Guest PhD candidates

962 Intake bachelor students 2018

121 PhD Defenses


5 Cum Laude PhD Defenses

Intake master students 2018*

* Enrollments first semester, September 2018

For an overview of our awards, appointments and prizes in 2018 visit

Diplomas 2017-2018 P-in-1*




Honours College







Cum Laude






Summa Cum Laude





* First year completed within one year.

Facts & figures



1815 - 2018

Amsterdam London



in .




30 min.


The Hague









Strategic cooperation international Europe

University of Edinburgh - University of Cambridge - University of Oxford - Imperial College London - University College London - Helsingin yliopisto (University of Helsinki) Lunds universitet - Universiteit van Amsterdam - Universiteit Utrecht – KU Leuven - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris - Université ParisSud 11 - Université de Strasbourg - Universität Heidelberg - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München - Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg - Université de Genève - Universität Zürich Università degli Studi di Milano - Universitat de Barcelona


• Tsinghua University • Xi’an University distances by train


• Universitas Gadjah Mada • Universitas Indonesia 48

Environmental sciences Leiden • 124,417 residents, 1 in 12 is a student • Historical city centre • 6,5 km ring of canals in original state • Birth town of famous Dutch painters like Rembrandt and Jan Steen • Leiden Bio Science Park with 106 biomedical companies and the largest number of bioscience start-ups in the Netherlands • Close to the beach, Schiphol airport and only a few hours from other European

Leiden University • Broad range of research: Fundamentals of science, Life sciences, Health and wellbeing, Law, politics and administration, Languages, cultures and societies • Founded in 1575, oldest university of the Netherlands

Facts & figures

cities such a London, Paris and Rome.

• 600 professors • 15 Nobel prizes • 21 Spinoza prizes • 26,900 students


Leiden Science ‘Our Talents and Discoveries 2018’ Editorial team

English language editing

Bryce Benda, Dennis Hoencamp, Hilde Pracht, Jeroen

Heleen van den Berg

Scharroo, Marjolein van Schoonhoven, Geert de Snoo, Ron van Veen

Design Creja ontwerpen,

Contributing writers Bryce Benda, Hilde Pracht, Jeroen Scharroo, Marjolein


van Schoonhoven


Photo credits


Page 6 & 7 Pim Rusch - Page 8 ESA - Page 9 Monique

Faculty of Science, Leiden University

Shaw - Page 10 Jordy Kortekaas - Page 14 NASA/ESA/

Marketing and Communications Department

Humble Heritage Team - Page 22 Monique Shaw - Page 24

P.O. Box 9502

James Kasting: Penn State, Tom Lubensky: University of

2300 RA the Netherlands

Pennsylvania - Page 23 Monique Shaw - Page 25 Fredrik

Hagen, NTB Scanpix - Page 31 - Franz Anthony -

+31 715271928

Page 32 Bike Labyrinth B.V. - Page 36 Monique Shaw; Marc de Haan Portraits of C.J. Kok Public Award 2018 nominees and Faculty Award for Teaching 2018 nominees: Pim Rusch. Photos C.J. Kok Jury Award nominees 2018 provided by nominees. All other photos: image library Leiden University or Faculty of Science.


Faculty of Science P.O. Box 9502 2300 RA Leiden  +31 71 527 69 90

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