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REVISTA DE COMUNICARE I MARKETING COMMUNICATION AND MARKETING JOURNAL Anul III, nr. 5, octombrie 2012 3rd Year, No 5, October 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069 - 0304

Cuprins Contents SECTION 1 JOURNALISM AND SOCIAL MEDIA - NEW BORDERS The ethics of journalism – some constraints of accuracy…….… 5 Nicolae MELINESCU Facebook, between socialization and personal image promotion …….……………………………. 13 T%nase TASEN&E, Nicoleta CIACU, Mihaela L. SANDU The role of the new technologies in the coverage of media events. Case study of the royal wedding of Prince William of the United Kingdom and Catherine Middleton ………………………….…. 25 Rodica Melinda +U&U (Non) value in women`s magazines ………………………...…… 39 Denisa CHIRI&SECTION 2 COMMUNICATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS AND SOCIAL CHANGES Mass media and the management of political crisis during the election of 2009…………………………………..…… 53 Cristina ARITON-GELAN, +tefan GEORGESCU Conflict and Social Change: Three Sociological Traditions…… 67 Rari2a MIHAIL


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A british-romanian channel of communication during the czechoslovak crisis in 1968 ………………………….. 77 Marian ZIDARU The Romanian Principalities as a Subject of Interest of the Russian Diplomacy ………………………………...……… 89 Gabriel MICU SECTION 3 CURRENT TRENDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION L’importance de la communication interne dans les entreprise: cas du groupe OCP ………………………………………………. 99 Driss M. BAAKIL, Youness M. BOUTHIR Motivational dominants and value orientation in organization.. 119 Mihaela L. SANDU, Georgeta C. COZARU, Maria PESCARU

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 5-12

Abstract: There are many Romanian professional journalists who have been and still are the pride of their profession, who strive for the accuracy and the reliability of their reporting. Two contrasting truths have been colliding head-on in a puzzling situation. The present research gave me the challenging opportunity to try and at least to attempt to find out why the good work of good professional columnists, reporters, correspondents and media outlets does not leave its mark on the public/audience of Romanian extraction living across the Atlantic.

THE ETHICS OF JOURNALISM – SOME CONSTRAINTS OF ACCURACY Nicolae MELINESCU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences

Keywords: Media outlets, accuracy, professional columnists, ethics.

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1. Introduction While I served as permanent correspondent of the Romanian National Television in Washington D.C. American Romanians asked me, on several occasions, which was the most reliable media outlet in Romania. Hard to answer such a question and I wanted to discover why they were so concerned with reliability and trust. One source of their concern might come from a later conclusion of Professor Peter Gross who wrote, “There are media owners, often politicians themselves or hangers-on to a political party who exert an inordinate control and manipulative power over journalism and journalists. The combination of political and economic power wielded over the heads of journalists has resulted in a Romanian journalism that is often, most particularly when involving controversial, socio-cultural and even economic issues of interest to politicians and government officials, decidedly unprofessional� (Gross, 2009, p. 4). Such a somber and very perceptive conclusion left the American Romanians at a loss whenever they wanted accurate information about their country of origin and the things happening there to their relatives and friends. However, that did not make them better informed or less interested in Romanian current events. On the contrary most of those I had the chance to know and talk to tried sometimes even feverishly to get to the heart of the matter and identify the very source of accurate, reliable news from Romania. On the other hand, there are many Romanian professional journalists who have been and still are the pride of their profession, who strive for the accuracy and the reliability of their reporting. Two contrasting truths have been colliding head-on in a puzzling situation. The present research gave me the challenging opportunity to try and at least to attempt to find out why the good work of good professional columnists, reporters, correspondents and media outlets does not leave its mark on the public/audience of Romanian extraction living across the Atlantic. Whenever a controversial media product reaches the public, some ethical and moral values are quoted more often than not. Ever since the pamphleteers of the XVIIIth century, continuing with the realists of the XIXth century, ending with the objectivists of the recently demised XXth century, professional ethics and morals were 6


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either the support or the attack weapon in controversial media debates. James A. Jacksa and Michael Pitchard devised a standard system to try to make sense of apparently confusing matters. They concluded, “Metaethics attempts to assign meanings to abstract language of moral philosophy. Normative ethics provides the foundation for decisionmaking through the development of general rules and principles of moral conduct. Applied ethics is concerned with using theoretical norms to solve ethical problems in the real world” (Jaksa & Pithcard, 1994, pp. 12 - 18). Nevertheless, media ethics causes, remarked the quoted authors could not simulate the realities of the competitive market place, they can offer an intellectual moral foundation for future generations of practitioners. Such an abstract tract of debate leaves out the very fabric of communication via the printed press, radio and television. Even at the time of the great digitalization and of satellite communications, geographical distances are still perceived by the above-mentioned American Romanians when they attempt to know accurately what happens “back home”. Moreover, I think that this is the point where a remark is most welcome. It is true that some of the newly ”naturalized” immigrants from Romania try to become true Americans as fast as possible, throwing overboard the good things that they have brought over from their ethnical extraction. Yet, there is a significant number of American Romanians whom I had the pleasure to meet who have become more and more interested in the events in their country of birth, once they settled, got a good job and saw their children set out to live the American dream. 2. The Romanian media responsibility Under the circumstances, the Romanian media has a growing responsibility. First, it is read, listened to and watched by the American Romanians day and night via Internet. Second, most of the national dailies, the national radio and almost all the national TV stations, public or private, feed the production of their local American sisters for the Romanian communities, providing news and comments as a second reliable source. This implies, again a thorough respect of some basic rules of the trade itself. Because, as Daniel Berkowitz concluded, “In essence, the relationship between reporters and their sources has long been depicted as a battle for power over public opinion and public consent. Journalists end up in a role of protecting 7


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society from corruption, while officials in government and business take on the tasks of protecting their own interests at all costs� (Barkowitz, 2009, p. 103). As early as 1986, some years before the fall of the Iron Curtain and before Romanians both from Romania and the US could communicate freely, Louis W. Hodges concluded that “ethical situations are usually complex affairs in which a moral agent (the one making the ethical decision) commits an act (either verbal or nonverbal) within a specific context with a particular motive, directed at an individual or audience, usually with some consequence either positive or negative� (Hodges, 1986, p. 35). Publications, radio and televisions programs produced in the US by American Romanian media outlets, have become exactly the moral agent that communicates but the problem is, again the truthfulness and the fairness of such communications. Usually, Romanian media providers from the US work on a very tight budget, and they cannot subscribe to the services of the major Romanian news agencies, Agerpres, and Medifax, so they fall under the umbrella of the Romanian mainstream media and take over stock, pack and barrel their production. There is an option, nonetheless. The US Romanian media local products could be shared among local newspapers, radio and TV studios that address a Romanian public in the Romanian language. Unfortunately, this has not happened too often so far. The unpleasant outcome is that such producers isolate themselves inside a limited community and reach few resources from advertising and commercial promotions. For obvious reasons, media ethics cannot stimulate the harsh circumstances of competition grinding media outlets both in Romania and in the American Romanian communities. Ron F. Smith concluded that there should be at least five realistic and practical objectives: - stimulating the moral imagination; - recognizing ethical issues; - eliciting a sense of moral obligation and personal responsibility; - tolerating disagreement (Smith, 2003, pp. 385-400). Such lofty guidelines may sound inspirational but the reality in the field is completely different. First because the American Romanian media operations work on very limited resources, most of them being a sort of romantic brainchildren of some prosperous businessmen. Second, they address a public/audience that is torn 8


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between becoming more and more American, eager to fall into pace with fellow Americans at work and in society as a whole, and maintaining some sentimental links with its land of origin. 3. The ethics of journalism The ethics of journalism has never been and is not even today an exercise in itself just for the sake of correctness and duty. The impact of ethical journalistic products reaches trust and objectivity, which are crucial for long-distance communication such as that between American Romanians and their country of birth. “Most people think that objectivity in journalism” Robert Parry wrote in 2010, “is an aim, not a method. And many citizens scoff at this intention, since they have little idea of the methods journalists might be employing. Yet the notion that the aim of objectivity is insufficient without unity of method to put it into practice is as valid as ever” (Parry, 2000, www.washingtonmontly.com, accessed 15 may 2010). Yet objectivity, no matter how cherished it might be in the news rooms and video-editing suites, becomes as elusive as ever as long as the basic means and standards of media production falls under the ax of commercial interest and advertising financing. This is all the more true in the case of American Romanian media outlets that have to rely on small business owners, lawyers, medical doctors, dentists, who, generally cannot afford large investments in promoting their products or services within communities with low buying potential. Should they stick to the old adage: ‘poor but honest?’ They could not be much worse if they did, but they highlight a fairer chance of remaining in the focus of American Romanian communities as reliable sources of information. All in all, such a relationship may prove a long trek up the steep slope of building the public trust. At least, in the case of video productions the very picture of the communicator, be he/she an anchor, a stringer or a moderator, works the magic of a two-ways relationship. As Mathew A. Kerbel put it, “trust is in your eyes. It’s your ability to make eye contact through the camera with thousands of people you cannot see. Trust is in the way you look at people” (Kerbel, 2001 p. 69). Structured interviews (Grix, 2001, pp. 76-78) and group interviews carried out in Chicago, Detroit, Hollywood-Florida, and San Francisco Romanian communities from June 2002 to 2005 and in Washington DC and New York areas from June 2010 to March 2012 9


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revealed a certain pattern of trust that the Romanian-language audience from the US place on different media from Romania according to age and occupation. Younger people tended to access mainly the on-line format of the main dailies and they showed more interest in the social news and the sensational stories rather than in editorials and comments. University undergraduates and degree holders preferred the American mainstream media and watched one of the Romanian language TV local programs not more than once in ten days. Most popular on-line publications were the supermarket-format tabloids for young people with lower qualifications who were also the most attracted by the new info-gadgets connecting them to music and gossip networks. Older people (above 40) up to early retirement age preferred the tv channel that distributes (now via web, as well) ten major TV stations, including sports and entertainment. The public Romanian TV channel specially designed for Romanians living abroad, TV Romania International, proved to be most popular among seniors, out of whom a large majority had little or no knowledge of English and, therefore, had no abilities to watch the American channels, to read American publications or listen to American radio stations. Although it took off rather slowly, television for Romanian-speaking audiences developed in areas like Chicago, New York, Portland, Washington D.C. but their in-house production is extremely limited. A large part of the daily broadcast is covered by programs relayed from the major TV operations of Romania. News programs are less popular than debates and talk-shows but their influence in opinion-making is hard to establish, their popularity depending on the charisma of the person/persons anchoring such debates. Many of the people interviewed on the matter admitted that they were aware that the programs they liked most were biased but that did not matter much, once more, due to the personality of those anchoring them. One of the disturbing conclusions produced by the interviews was that mainly people in their 30s and early 40s were inconstant viewers who jumped from one Romanian TV channel to the next in search of novelty. That should have been a major concern for the producers of such channels because this habit could not provide a constant audience even for the best programs, they require a strong cross promotion to attract a stable audience and their advertising on several occasions were blank shots in the dark, translated in a drop in advertising revenues. It could also be interpreted as a sanction for a lack of consistency in programming 10


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and a loss, if there had been one, of ethical values. The ascendance of facts and information over opinions could generate a new attitude of the Romanian-speaking audience from the US to accurate and reliable sources, but that may take some time, considering the superficial view people have on these media outlets. Political bickering and a search for editorial practices close to a sensationalist approach have eroded the trust in such providers that should find a common language for their productions addressing Romanians living abroad. Lee B. Becker and Tudor Vlad rightfully concluded that “a defining characteristic of news organizations is their need for story ideas, as these ideas are the raw material of news. The structure of the organizations and their routines result from this need, and these structures and routines, in turn, shape the final news product” (Becker & Vlad, 2009, p. 69). Ideas alone do not stabilize an audience after years of swinging from one outlet to another. It is rather the moral standing and the ethical approach that, in my view, may bring back part of the audience that navigate among channels, columnists, correspondents, always in search of accurate, convincing journalism that might bring light on the confusing events form their mother country and from their immediate neighborhood. Returning to professor Peter Gross, quoted previously I think that is best to acknowledge what he pointed out, namely that “readers, listeners and viewers have recognized what the journalists and the news media enterprises and their editors, directors and journalists continue to deny with growing vehemence: the news media and their journalism have become increasingly biased politically and socioculturally; accuracy, completeness, fairness and balance, and opinionfree reporting are often lacking” (Gross, 2009, p. 5). 4. Instead on conclusions Journalists not lead to abandon the standards that make good, reliable media. It is my belief that the trend detected by professor Gross is not an irreversible course and that a mature audience can be won back both by the Romania-speaking media in the US as well as by the mainstream media from Romania, once commercial and tabloid habits are substituted by professional ethics and the never-ending search for accuracy and truth.

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5. References Becker, L. B. & Vlad, T. (2009). News Organizations and Routine. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch. New York & London: Routledge. Berkowitz, D. A. (2009). Reporters and Their Sources. In K. WahlJorgensen & T. Hanitzsch. New York & London: Routledge. Grix, J. (2001). Demystifying Postgraduate Research. From MA to PhD. Birmingham: The Birmingham University Press. Gross, P. (2009). The Romanian Media and the Never-ending Democratization Process. In Jurnalism 6i Comunicare, 4(3). Hodges, L. W. (1986). The Journalist and Professionalism. In Journal of Mass Media Ethics 1, no.2, (Spring/Summer). Jaksa, J. A. & Pithcard, M. S. (1994). Communication Ethics: Methods of Analysis, 2nd. CA Wadsworth: Belmont. Mathew R. K. (2001). If It Bleeds, It Leads, An Anatomy of Television News, Boulder CO: Westview Press. Parry, R. (2000). He’s No Pinnochio. In Washington Monthly, www.washingtonmontly.com, accessed 15 May 2010. Smith, R. F. (2003). Groping for Ethics in Journalism, 5th edition. Ames, Iowa: State University Press.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 13-24

Abstract: The following study sets its target on the identification of motives that leads the internet users in Romania to use Facebook online social network, the frequency of their login, the manner young men interact within Facebook and its implications in the process of socialization and selfimage promotion of the Internet users in Romania. At the same time, a different goal of this research is to identify the relationship between at least two uses of Facebook social network, which is for socialization and for promotion of social image of the individuals. Keywords: facebook, brand, personal image, social media, survey, socializational

FACEBOOK, BETWEEN SOCIALIZATION AND PERSONAL IMAGE PROMOTION TDnase TASENEE „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences Nicoleta CIACU „Constantin Brâncoveanu” University of PiteUti Faculty of Communication and Administrative Sciences, Br%ila Mihaela SANDU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a Faculty of Psychosociology

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1. From self-image compilation to the management of reputation By defining an image, we use „the representation of attitudes, opinions or preconceptions belonging to an individual, a group of persons or to the public opinion of the respective organization” (TaUnadi, Ungureanu, 2001, p. 89). An image is a sum of factors, both physical and psychological that • influences every type of social communication by filtering the information and orientation of perceptions; • contributes to the formation of attitudes and behavior; • determines the stability and the direction of representation, both positive and negative. In other words, the Halo effect in individuals is a generalization of a person characterization beginning with a particular feature. If we say of somebody that he is good or bad with something, we may develop a tendency to proceed with similar evaluations. How often is Halo effect present? It can be find whenever a student is subject to evaluation, when a person takes part in the employment process, in sport competitions, when shopping for specific product etc. We draw conclusions and we are judging people according to the social groups they belong to (“Tell me who your friends are and I’ll tell you who you are”). Our first impressions on certain people strongly affect our future opinions of those people. Personal branding is needed to help us obtain more fans, improve success rate and indirectly, more personal benefits. Beginning with the development of virtual public environment, the term of “public image” turns into “reputation” that is actually, the most visible and sensitive part of the public image, “in a phase where the audiences do not get the image with its multiple dimensions, but they only receive the key and most visible aspects (audiences become superficial, under the circumstances of informational overexposure)” (CiUmaru, 2012, p. 83). Diana-Maria CiUmaru replaces the concept of “image construction” with the “management of reputation”, “as a reflection of the “estrangement” and diversification of audiences and of the dynamics of the symbolic construction.” (CiUmaru, 2012, p. 83). Moreover, the reputation has a fundament that specialists refer to as “trust”, that can be in direct proportion to credibility and authenticity. 14


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In the context of Internet development, characterized by lack of credibility and authenticity because of its numerous examples – it is even more difficult to efficiently coordinate one’s image or reputation that is created in the new public environment which is the Social Media. 2. Social Media, the new public environment that sets reputation Social Networks (as part of the Social Media) represents the online support for social interactions that is specific for each individual according to the interest to share ideas, pictures, videos etc, within a community. Social Media that includes Facebook, among other networks, accelerates communication among users, unlike traditional media that provides content but does not allow its viewers or listeners to participate to the creation or development of content. At the same time, these online platforms of socialization have led to reconfiguration of social relationships and the society in its whole, concurring largely to the acceleration of globalization process. These socialization networks (Hi5, Facebook, Twitter, MySpace etc.) are a useful instrument of the self-image management, online fun or support of various causes. Social Media was also called “a real revolution”, where “the reader becomes producers, into a new public space, where our perceptions of reality are radically altered, the relationships are entering a new phase of evolution, to multidimensional communication” (B%d%u, 2011, p. 11). One more definition available online, retrived from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/facebook.html, specifies that “Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues”. Facebook social network has been founded on February the 4th 2004 and it has a number of 906,895,580 members in 213 countries (retrieved from www.socialbakers.com on August, 28th, 2012). Thus, the site has been created considering at least five reasons, as it follows: - The market – its members can post, read and respond to other posted messages; - Groups – it allows the creation of virtual communities according to mutual interests of its members; 15


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- Events – it allows its members to announce an event organized by them or by others, to invite their friends to this event and to monitor those that accept or decline the invitation. - Pages – it allows its members to create and promote a public page (public person, politician, singer, company etc) which is built around a specific idea; - Instant communication – it allows all its online members to instantly communicate by means of chat room. By the end of August 2012, Romania was situated the 34th among world nations with approximately 5 million Facebook profiles (4,963,760 to be exact, according to data provided by facebrands.ro), and the rate of accession among general population is 22.58% and 63.68% among population with Internet access. Demographically speaking, the gender approach is (50% men, 50% women), and the individuals aged 18-24 represent 30% of the total number of users, people between 25 and 34 years old - 30%, aged 35-44 represent 15%, aged 16-17 – 8%, aged 13-15 represent 8%, people aged 45-54 represent 5%, and people 55-64 represent 2% and over 65 years old - 1%. Thus, the young population segment between 13 and 34 years old represents 78% of the total number of Facebook users in Romania. According to data provided by www.socialbakers.com we notice an increase of the number of users of the age segments 25-34 years old and 35-44 years old with more than 80,000 profiles created in the past 3 months for each segment and the segment 45-54 years old has approximately 40,000 profiles created in the past 3 months. Thus, we notice an “aging” of the Facebook population, in the context of insignificant increase of Facebook profiles of the segments of age 1315, 16-17 years old and 18-24 years old. From the point of view of social cohesion that can be the subject of political communication, a study performed by Tasen2e T%nase and Nicoleta Ciacu (2010), have proven the fact that in 2010, the social network of Facebook did not facilitate interaction of large groups, but of only its individuals, as members of large groups. (p. 185) Nonetheless, we may emphasize that Facebook has concurred significantly into reconfiguration of social communication in Romania considering the urge of its users to create and promote an image of themselves in this online community, to enlarge their group of friends and to interact with new ones. These aspects shall be developed further on in this study. 16


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3. Methodological aspects 3.1. Study objectives O1: Identification of motives that led the Internet users in Romania to use Facebook online social network and identification of frequency of their login. O2: Identification of the manner of interaction of young people using Facebook and its implications in the socialization process and the selfimage promotion of the internet users in Romania. O3: Identification of the relationship between the use of Facebook social network and the promotion of individual self-image. 3.2. Hypotheses of study Hs1: We suppose that the motives of using Facebook are socialization and promotion of self-image. Hs2: Even if the declared scope of Facebook users is the socialization and creation of online communities with shared interests, we suppose that the self-image is more carefully promoted by women than by men. Hs3: We suppose that a large part of the users like to point out their location by using Facebook Check-in Places application. Hs4: We suppose that solitary pictures are prevailing and also those of groups of friends. Hs5: We suppose that personal information shared by individuals on their Facebook page refer especially to their birth date and their studies. 3.3. Participants to this study The research method used for the above mentioned objectives is a questionnaire applied in the online environment on the site www.tashy.ro/facebook2012, during June 1 – 30, 2012, on a sample of 303 respondents. The online quiz, entitled “Socialization and branding with Facebook 2012” has been promoted on several pages and Facebook groups of more than 1,000 members and on the blog page www.tashy.ro. The collectivity of this research is represented by the Romanian Facebook users. This collectivity comprises the individuals that were available and completed this questionnaire. Thus, the sample was randomly constituted and not by default. The respondents were the 17


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actual base of the sample and the results of the research can be extended to all Facebook users in Romania. The research developed with a random sample made up of 303 individuals (147-48,5% men, 156-51,5% women) that had the availability to answer on-line to all questions of the quiz. Average age of the subjects was 28.6 years old. As regards their marital status, the majority were single (34%), followed of those in a relationship but still not married (30%) and those that were married (23%). The other participants have been included in other categories, their presence percentage being less smaller. (divorced – 9%, widower – 3%). The profession of quiz participants is different, and it varies from office holders, designers, economists, managers, medical care, with the largest part being represented by students. 3.4. Research instruments The unit of observation sets the object of this investigation and the poll unit is the one that comprises the information. The unit of observation in this study is represented by the Facebook users in Romania and the poll unit is represented by those that filled in the quiz. The online quiz contains 13 questions according to three major approaches such as: - The context of Facebook development in Romania, modalities, frequency of login and connection means. (Questions: 1. What year did you star your profile on Facebook?, 2. What was your reason for joining Facebook?, 3. Do you see Facebook as a means of socialization, self-image promotion, business promotion, cause promotion, other scope?, 4. How often do you sign in to Facebook?, 5. What is the means you use most to check your Facebook account?) - The role of Facebook social network within social interaction (Questions: 6. How many friends do you have in your friends list on Facebook?, 7. What kind of friends do you have of your Facebook list?, 8a. Have you ever met in real life the persons you met on Facebook social network?, 8b. If yes, how many persons you met on Facebook have you actually met in real life?, 9. What followed next after your first encounter?) - The role of Facebook social network in promotion of self-image of individuals, as part of a virtual community (Questions: 10a. To point out your location, do you use the application Check-in Places?, 10b. What are the places you usually check-in?, 11. How many 18


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pictures of yourself have you posted on your Facebook profile so far?, 12. What stances were you in your most frequent posted pictures?, 13. Which of the following personal data below have posted on your Facebook account?) 3.5. Collection and analysis of data Data have been interpreted by means of individual analysis of each item as well as with the help of association tables. The majority of participants in this study have a small history (2 years) as users of Facebook, part of them joined the network in 2012 (112 persons, 37%) followed by those with 3 years since first login to Facebook, 82 persons, 27.1%. The other respondents have either a small history too (1 year, account created in 2011, 21.5%), or older than 3 years (2008, date of account creation, that is 6.6%, 2007 2.3%, and 2006 - 2.3%). As concerns the Facebook version, 67% have stated to use the new version, Facebook Timeline, and 33% the classic one.

Figure 1. Users login history on their Facebook profile The majority of users see Facebook as a socialization site (73.6%), while 11.9% of them use the site for self-image promotion. The fact that Facebook is seen as a means of socialization is also supported by the motives that the users consider when logging in to the site, such as sharing: “It was a trend and I had the opportunity to contact more persons that I did not meet directly”, “to get in touch with friends, relatives etc.”, “I left the country and I had to maintain contact with my family and Facebook was easy means to do it”, “to get to know people and have more friends to communicate with”, “It’s a form of communication, available to almost anyone and these 19


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days everybody has a Facebook account” and curiosity “it was something new in Romania, different and more attractive than Hi5”, “curiosity… I guess that it’s as if you don’t exist unless you have a Facebook account”.

Figure 2. Reasons of using Facebook Login to the site is performed daily, even several times a day, which is a fact confirmed by 73.3% of the users and those that use the site one a day 13.53%, those that use the site two or three times a week (10,89%) or one a week (0,99%), and the other users only login to the site rarely (several times a month or even monthly).

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Figure 3. Frequency of Facebook login The means the users have for logging in is their laptop (women – 52.2% and men - 47.8%), followed by their desktop (57.6% women and 42.4% men), facts that confirm the high recurrence of logging in to the site. Other respondents use their smartphone and a smaller group uses their I-pad.

Figure 4. The most used tool for logging in to Facebook Most of the Facebook users (60 - 19,8%) that took part in this study have a list of 300-500 friends. 18,5% of users have a list of 500-1000 friends, 18,5% have more than 1000 friends and less than 21


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18% of users have less than 300 friends. In both men and women, their list of friends is approximately even listing both genders. As concerns the frequency of face-to-face dating with persons the users have met on the site, this is larger in men (57,8% - yes), and women are less likely to meet such persons (63,8% - no). Both men and women have confirmed to have had other meetings, but few ever turned into relationships (54 in men and 45.9% in women). To point out their location, only 33.3% of users turn to check-inplaces application, most accessed being restaurants and cafes (29.04%), malls (15.51%), clubs (15.51%), universities (12.54%) and cinemas (10.89%). Airports and railway stations are less checked in (8.25%), so are theatres and museums (6.60%) and public markets (5.61%). Promotion of self-image is achieved by users when posting pictures and video captures, most of them showing exclusively their image (40.6%). 38,9% of the pictures they posted on the site are of their group of friends, 15.2% represent their family and only 5% of the pictures are of their spouse or husband. The most popular on Facebook are the pictures of singles that receive more than 38% appreciation with a “like�, as well as those of group of friends (32%). However, the quiz evinced that the funny pictures are also appreciated (16%) as well as those representing nature stills (8%). Moreover, as regards personal information, the most used reference made public by the site users is the date of birth (88.45%), their high school and/or college data (79.87%), their native place (77.23%), real name and surname (76.90%). The users’ personal information that they made public in a smaller percentage is their political view (21.45%), phone number (17.16%) and actual address (13.53%).

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Figure 5. Personal information disclosed on Facebook 4. Conclusions The main objective of this study, which has been previously set in the introductory section of this research, is referring to Facebook as an important means in the socialization process and a method of selfimage promotion of the Romanian Internet users. This study confirms its first hypothesis that is more than 73.6% of the users login to Facebook for the purpose of socialization, while only 11.9% are interested in promotion of self-image. Even if the declared aim of Facebook is socialization and creation of online communities with shared interests, the self-image is more likely to be promoted by women than by men. The third hypothesis of the study confirmed only partially, thus, only 33.3% of the respondents like to point out their location by using Facebook Check-in Places, which is in fact conditioned by the means of Facebook logging in with a smartphone or I-pad. Users tend to let their friends know about their whereabouts when they correspond to their status and self-image. The most visited places by users in Romania are restaurants and cafes, malls and clubs. The following hypothesis that confirmed following our study was that referring to self-image compilation and management and so, 23


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more than 40% of the pictures posted on Facebook are the ones of singles and groups of friends. The final hypothesis of this research confirmed entirely. Thus, most respondents can be found on Facebook by their personal data and correct information referring to education. Personal information that are disclosed by the least of the users are political orientation, phone number and residence address. Facebook constitutes a large platform where anyone can buildup the “image of self”. This site contains a search engine of individuals according to their age or e-mail address, which is an instrument used in many countries in the recruitment process of various companies. According to data made available on Facebook, any user may be looked up by scholars or managers, and for this reason the Facebook users have to create their page with care. Everyone should have their own strategy regarding self-branding on Facebook and should consider not just their usual network of friends, but also professional objectives, if possible. “On Facebook, you are what you post” and the first impression that comes while viewing one’s personal page can be a match point. 5. References B%d%u, H. M. (2011). Tehnici de comunicare în Social Media. IaUi: Editura Tritonic. CiUmaru, D. M. (2012). Social Media 6i managementul reputaIiei. BucureUti: Editura Tritonic. Dean, A. (2010). What is Facebook?. Retrived from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/facebook.html. Tasen2e, T. & Ciacu, N. (2010). Contribu2iile Social Networks în reconfigurarea socialului din România. In Analele UniversitJIii “DunJrea de Jos” din GalaIi, Fascicula XX, 5(5). TaUnadi, A. & Ungureanu, R. (2001). RelaIii Public [ebook]. Retrived from biblioteca-digitala.ase.ro/biblioteca/carte2.asp?id=185. http://www.socialbakers.com. http://www.facebrands.ro.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 25-38

Abstract: The paper approaches the implications and effects of the new media on the events considered of historical and worldwide importance, media events. Starting from the features of the media events defined by Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz in 1992, the article analyses them in a recent media event, the royal wedding of Prince William with Catherine Middleton, in April 2011. The objective of the article is to evaluate the influence of the new technologies and establish the degree of fragmentation or amplification of the effect of television, considered by Dayan and Katz sole “performing agent”.

THE ROLE OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COVERAGE OF MEDIA EVENTS. CASE STUDY OF THE ROYAL WEDDING OF PRINCE WILLIAM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND CATHERINE MIDDLETON

Keywords: new media, media events, royal wedding, television, social media

Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication Sciences

Rodica UEU University of Bucharest

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1. Introduction For the first time in the history of the British royal weddings, the new technologies are involved in promoting and covering the event. The objective of the article is to highlight the influence of the new technologies on the event that apparently comes under the classical definition of the media events, the way it was created and developed by researchers Daniel Dayan and Elihu Kats in 1992. The paper analyses the live broadcasts and the news stories on the royal wedding of prince William of Great Britain and Catherine Middleton in 2011, as presented by the public services of television in Britain and Romania, but also by online posts during the wedding day, before and after the event (the official BBC and TVR websites, Facebook, twitter, blogs). The hypothesis of the article it that the effect of television, regarded as sole performing agent of a media event by Dayan and Katz, is enhanced by the involvement of the new media. 2. Media events: classical definition Media events are events of historical importance, broadcast live on television, powerful and influential to the degree of transfixing nations or population at a global level. Dayan and Katz regard media events as a distinct television genre, bearing distinct features, different from any other television programs. The media event breaks the broadcast routine, replaces the scheduled program of a television channel, and the public becomes both witness and a participant in a historical event. The event creates a monopole, in the sense that all the channels turn to that particular event and broadcast live from the same ceremony. Another specific feature of the media events is also the live broadcast: everything we see on the TV screen is developing in front of the viewer without any editing or pre-recorded intervention; both the pictures and the commentary are happening live. As a matter of fact, the television channels are not at all involved in planning the media event, which is initiated and organized by public institutions, political actors or sports committees. The role of the television is of mere vehicle of transmission of the information. Media events are pre-planned events, previously announced and promoted, so that the public is prepared and anxiously wait to witness the ceremony. The 26


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journalists, skeptical by nature, suspend their normally critical attitude and adopt a ceremonial, even reverential approach. The event is cause for celebration for families and friends gathered in front of the TV set of for individuals which never met each other before but celebrate jointly in public places such as parks or streets, where giant screens are showing the event. The message, the way impressive mass audiences receive it nationally or globally, is of reconciliation. The role of the message is to integrate societies in a collective heartbeat and restate a renewal of loyalty to the society and the legitimate authority (Dayan, Katz, 1992). According to the narrative dimension, Dayan and Katz subdivide media events in contests, conquests and coronations. Any sort of competitions, from sports to political races fall under the definition of contests, conquests are triumphant missions, historical accomplishments of extraordinary individuals, while coronations mainly relate to rituals of passage such as weddings, coronations, funerals of personalities. According to Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz, the division corresponds to the three types of authority defined by Max Webber: reason, charisma and tradition. Referring to the nature of these types of authority, Dayan and Katz identify two categories of media events: transformative and restorative. The first category refers to a radical change of the existing social establishment, and the public is called to support the transformation. Restorative events are “past events, remote or recent; they suspend the present and allow audience to relive the past, by experiencing ancient order and traditions which or long lost� (Coman, 2011, p. 21). Among the researchers, the path opened by the theoretical model advanced by Dayan and Katz followed two major directions. One of the directions followed the critical evaluations, by which several authors analyzed, argued and added new ideas to the model identified by Dayan and Katz (Carey, 1998, Couldry, Hepp, 2009, Rothenbuhler, 2009). Researchers which adopted the types of media events developed by Dayan and Katz took used the specific features in analyzing different media phenomena (Coman, 2003). 3. Traditions and new technologies The royal wedding of prince William of Great Britain with Catherine Middleton, in April 29, 2011, is a restorative media event, which falls under the definition of coronations. As a matter of fact, the 27


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first major British media event was the marriage of Princess Mary, in 1912, when the newspapers, citing the Duke of York, named it “the royal wedding”, “the national wedding”, and even “the popular wedding”. Later on, with the help of the television, the monarchy was portrayed in fairytale colors at the coronation of the Queen Elisabeth II, when the British subjects participated at the royal event from their own living room (Cannadine, 1992). Sixty years later, the grandson of Elisabeth II, Prince William, weds his sweetheart, Catherine Middleton, and the wedding is announced and planned according to the classical protocol of the royal wedding. The communication department of Clarence House, the official residence of Prince Charles, the father of the groom, started to feed, on the official royal website and via the social network twitter, information about organizing the ceremony and the pre-wedding visits of Kate and William as fiancées. In order to keep the interest high and provide the news for those interested to joining the ceremony in the street or thorough media channels, the organizers, both the Royal House and the British Government, created an official wedding website, http://www.officialroyalwedding2011.org/. The domestic and international media coverage went beyond the usual event from the engagement ceremony, in February 2011, and used every pretext to broadcast stories about the event they called “the wedding of the century. The explanation for the unusual worldwide interest in the wedding lies both in the traditional and historical importance of the ritual of passage for a future British king and in the human interest raised by the love story of William and Kate. They marry for love, but cannot be united in front of God without a royal wedding ceremony, witnessed by the entire planet. In the case of coronation, the tension raises around the magic of the ritual: “will everything go according to the plan?”(Katz, 1992, p. 36). Before Dayan and Katz published their book on media events, Roger Silverstone pointed out that when broadcasting events which enthrall very large masses of audience, such as royal weddings or coronations, the television favors actions and heroes from the traditional tales (1988). Even if neither Diana or Kate are commoners (the first was part of aristocracy and the later comes from the upper class) the media, inspired by the popular culture model used in the case of Princess Diana, portray Kate as a modern Cinderella, brought to the world of the fairy tales by the prince who eventually marries her. On its webpage especially created for the event, so that the participants 28


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from the audience may post comments, photos and videos, Caitlin Mckay says: Best sign in the Mall crowd: Checkmate Kate - you've taken the king. The “wedding of the century” created a media monopolenon only on the day of the actual event, but also during the preceding days, when the news stories about the ceremony and the documentaries about the royal family replaced the usual programs of the television channels. As a matter of fact, the Romanian Public Television used the theme of the wedding to re-launch its own news channel. The promotional video of the royal wedding is complementary to the promotional of the news channel and is broadcast on the channels of the Romanian public service of television (TVR1, TVR2, TVR3, TVR Cultural, TVR International) and posted on YouTube and the social network facebook: On Monday, April 25, TVR Info starts the marathon project “The Royal Wedding”. The only Romanian channel broadcasting the whole ceremony of the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, live from London. According to the visual grammar, the TVR promotional video includes all the elements necessary to identify the event and the intention of the broadcast channel. The 20 minutes video has relevant pictures with Kate and William, the backdrop of Westminster Cathedral and Buckingham Palace, but also close ups and details of a woman’s hand touching the ribbon of a gala gown and a man’s hand butting the sleeves of the shirt. The teasing frames suggest the preparations of the TVR correspondents for the royal wedding and lead to the idea that there will be one man and one woman. In the interval 25-29 April 2011, TVR Info transmitted daily, between 7 and 8 p.m, special editions, entailing live studio debates and documentaries about the royal wedding. For the news editions of TVR1 and TVR2, correspondents Mihai Constantin Ui Ruxandra Gheorghe transmitted live from Buckingham Palace and Westminster Cathedral, while the producer of the team, Rodica Sutu, fed special reports and interviews with the royal guests and participants from the crowd. The British service of television included, on its news and general interest channels, as well as on their website bbc.co.uk, on everyday in the last weeks before the event, information about the guest list, wedding menu, rehearsals etc. On April 28th, BBC News 24 broadcast: Amid the last minute preparations on Thursday, Prince William took time for an impromptu walkabout on The Mall, near Buckingham Palace, shaking hands and 29


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chatting. He spent the evening with the Prince of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall and Prince Harry. The event was broadcast live by the BBC, ITV and Sky, using a procedure called “press pool�, through which two or more media organizations share the same transmission (they jointly place cameras in pre-established position, according to the agreement with the organizers of the media event) and they feed live pictures and sound for the rest of the national and international media. The pictures establish the setting of the event, which bears symbolical significance for the British monarchy, and the commentaries provide additional information, interpreting the meaning for the audience in front of the television sets in their living rooms: The house of kings, Westminster abbey, for a thousand of years the cradle of royal power, today the setting to royal wedding (BBC News 24, 29.04.2011). The purpose of the event is underlined, visually, by relevant pictures and sound, such as the bells of Westminster Abbey, and from a narrative perspective, the message is interpreted in the reverential key the organizers established: There are wild screams from the crowd as William and Harry emerge, resplendent in their military uniforms. The princes wave back with big smiles on their faces. William gives another wave to the crowds outside the abbey as the bells ring out in celebration. In the doorway, he takes off his white gloves and hat - and quickly smoothes down his hair (BBC News 24). The commentaries of the BBC correspondents keep the ceremonial tone specific to the media events from the coronation category. Peter Hunt, the BBC royal correspondent, twits: Good Morning from W Abbey. The stage is set for a personal commitment by 2 people - and a moment of renewal for the monarchy The details of the royal protocol, as elements of tradition which symbolize the continuity of the British monarchy, are obviously broadcast by the BBC cameras, and interpreted by the royal correspondents: The Queen and Prince Philip are now entering the abbey to a dramatic trumpet fanfare from the State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry or The London Chamber Orchestra is playing Crown Imperial as the couple, holding hands, bow to the Queen. The bbc.co.uk website posted an interactive map of the route of the royal wedding, an initiating passage that Prince William has to undergo in order to become and adult, ready to become a sovereign when the time comes. The same route was taken, at the middle of the last century, by the grandmother of William, the current British Queen, when she wedded Prince Philip, in 1948, and 4 years later, 30


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when she was crowned Queen. It’s not only Prince William who has to undergo a ritual of passage, but also Catherine Middleton: she arrives at the Abbey in a car, escorted by her father, and, after the ceremony, leaves in the royal carriage, escorted by the royal guards, as Duchess of Cambridge. Back in 1982, like a modern Cinderella, Diana Spencer came escorted by the police officers at Saint Paul Cathedral and left under a new identity, under royal escort, as Princess of Wales (Katz, 1992). 4. The influence of new media The marriage of Prince William with Catherine Middleton was the first royal wedding where the promotion and coverage was also performed by the new media, additionally to the television broadcast. What is interesting to observe is that not only the television service used the internet and social media to promote their message, but also the institutions traditional by definition, the royal house and the Westminster Abbey. All along the ceremony, Clarence House twitted exclusive information and promoted the content of the wedding website and their Flickr account, where exclusive photos were posted: Prince William and Catherine Middleton have written their own prayer or Want to see the flowers up close? Visit our Flickr. Westminster Abbey twitted: Westminster Abbey has a 3D app of the inside of the Abbey, showing the route Catherine Middleton will take. According to the website of the promotion, PR and marketing multimedia company News Broadcast Network, the participants and the member of the audience generated over 90.000 Twittermessages, 200.000 status updates on Facebook and 145.000 blog posts. Blogger Sylvie Barak states on kitguru.net, a platform dedicated to the new technologies, that in 24 hours interval more than 10 million posts were registered on the social network Facebook, where people commented on the clothes of the participants or on the religious and military ceremony. More than 6 million worldwide audiences followed on their personal computers the live streaming generated by Associated Press, UK Press Association, CBS and Entertainment Tonight. YouTube posted recorded videos from the official website of the royal family, which became so busy that encountered distribution problems at the prime time of the ceremony transmission. On his blog, Patrick McCurdy comments that the main difference between the fairy tale wedding of William and his parents’ is the changed media landscape, 31


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by the instant availability of thousands of media channels and multiple narrative possibilities for the main actors, participants and viewers. Similarly to the death of pop star Michael Jackson, fans experience mutual feelings regarding the royal fairy tale and interact with admirers from different places in the world through social networking, while following the event live on TV or online (McCurdy, 2010). The two protagonists of the royal wedding, William and Kate, were assigned the almost impossible mission to maintain the protocol of the ceremony while making it accessible to a mass audience, to show distinction while identifying with an everyday couple of young lovers (Dayan&Katz, 1992). The Archbishop of Canterbury declares to the BBC reporter: "Very excited, very positive. I always look forward to weddings and this is a really rather special one, and just getting to know the couple a little bit and seeing how they think about it has really been a very positive thing. They strike me as deeply sensible, realistic, but also people with strong ideals about marriage and about other things". Catherine Middleton got personally involved in decorating the Westminster Abbey: We can now see inside the abbey for the first time since it was shut for public viewing on Tuesday. It's been transformed with a red carpet and an avenue of field maples. Apparently, Miss Middleton was very keen to bring nature into the service. After today the trees will be planted at Highgrove House. Maples, by the way, traditionally represent modesty (BBC News 24, 29.04.2012). The choice of a British designer, Sarah Burton, from Alexander McQueen, to create the wedding dress, fueled the national pride of the participants from the audience. Jo Elvin, the editor of the fashion magazine Glamour UK, twits: So pleased for Sarah Burton, what an amazing job she has done at McQueen in tragic/trying circumstances. Amazing achievement (author’s note: the suicide of designer Alexander McQueen, the creator of the fashion label). The BBC website posted some of the twitter messages which came from the fashion bloggers. Amy Georgina, impressed with the simplicity and elegance of Catherine Middleton’s dress, twitted: Oh my god, it looks amazing! Almost Grace Kelly - esque. I'm in tears already!! The English and France Chantilly lace on the bodice and on the skirt of the dress was handmade by the Royal School of Needlework; the lace flowers incorporate the four symbols of the United Kingdom: the rose, thistle, daffodil and shamrock. The BBC website noted that: The dress has a long full skirt, the top is a fitted bodice with long French 32


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Chantilly lace sleeves. The tiara has been loaned to Kate by the Queen. The train is 2.7m long. Prince William’s clothing choice for his wedding day also shows his intention to adjust the traditional and protocol elements to his current activities and duties. Gentelmansgazettes.com points out that William chose to wear the scarlet red Irish Guards Mounted Officer’s uniform in the Guard of Honor Order, on which decided to display the famous wings of the RAF on his light blue Garter Sash as well as the Garter Star and the Golden Jubilee Medal. Gentelmansgazette.com said that it was for the first time in almost 40 years when a member of the British royal family wears the red uniform at a wedding. “The last time a red uniform was worn by a groom in a Royal wedding was in 1973 when Captain Mark Phillips, at the time an officer with the 1st Queen’s Dragoon Guards, married Anne, Princess Royal” (Schneider, 2011). On the backdrop of the traditional ceremony, William and Kate expressed their genuine love and affection through simple gestures: the television catches the admiration in William’s eyes and, reading his lips, the words “You look beautiful” can be easily guessed. Even though they display a reserved attitude, smiling and waiving to the crowd on the wedding route, the camera caught them holding hands for a few seconds, while the royal carriage passed under an arch: The couple briefly held hands in the carriage as it passed through the gateway, but cameras caught the personal exchange before the waving resumed (bbc.co.uk, 29.04.2011) When coming out in the balcony at Buckingham Palace, Kate can’t help saying “wow!” at the sight of millions of admirers acclaiming them. In the ovations of the crowd, screaming: kiss, kiss, kiss, the bride and groom kiss not only once, by twice, to the obvious delight of the crowd. The display of affection and free expression of emotions would have seemed unthinkable at the wedding of Prince William’s parents, in 1982, when the camera caught what it looked like Prince Charles holding back a tear (Birnbaum, 1998, Katz, 1992). By reinterpreting the tradition, William and Kate succeeded to obtain what Abeles called continuity between traditional structures and rational-legal ones, demonstrating the persistence of traditional forms in modern societies. The analysis of the live broadcasts, live streaming and YouTube and social networks posts showed that the event was celebrated in the family or in the street: all along the route of the wedding, from 33


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Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey to Anglesey, in Scotland, where the couple lived while William activated as RAF pilot, to London, in Hyde Park, or the live broadcast was followed by concerts, or in Australia, on the beach. According to the measurements of the Newsbroadcast Network, in the case of television alone the audience was 2 billion viewers. The website bbc.co.uk posted the messages and comments of the people who came in the streets of London especially for the royal wedding ceremony: With all the bad things happening in the world, it’s a moment of happiness to share, proud of being British. BBC News 24 interviewed Sean, who came back from Dubai and watched the ceremony live on the giant screens in Hyde Park, together with thousands of other people: Having this just brings people together. It's a global community, it's not just English, not just British - there are so many communities from across the world that is part of this (BBC News 24, 24.04.2011). In the feature story producer Rodica u u recorded for TVR Lord Anthony St. John, lord-in-waiting to the Queen Elisabeth II for over 40 years, underlined the historical importance of the royal wedding, in the context of the changes brought to the constitution (TVR1, 27.04.2011). Interviewed by the same Romanian producer, BBC World Service journalist Deborah Vogel explained the excessive media interest: Journalists from here or elsewhere are always accused of going after negative stories. Now we have a positive story. Something exciting, colorful, part of our British history and tradition (TVR1, 01.05.2011). The website bbc.co.uk publishes a Twitter post of Glen Shorey, which sums up the message of reaffirming the loyalty to the monarchy, as symbol of legitimate authority: Royalist or not, seeing Will and Harry in their uniforms sent a tingle down my spine... and reminds me this is significant history. In the light of the events which marked the beginning of the 21st century, Eric Rothenbuhler demonstrated that media events continue to exercise a restorative role in society, and offer a shared sense of humanity and membership in the global community. 5. Conclusions The royal wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton bears all the features of the media events identified Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz in 1992, but also brings new elements that might add to the definition developed by the two researchers. In their book Media Events in a Global Age, Nick Couldry and Andreas Hepp underlined 34


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the increased connectivity to the global events due to the help of the internet, without stressing the role or the relationship between different types of media involved in covering the media events (2009). This article exemplified the transmission of different types of media products, through different media platforms, for the same media event. The paradigm of technological determinism, issued by Marshal McLuhan by the famous saying “the medium is the message” (1965) can be applied to the manner in which the public institutions, media organizations, independent journalists and all those who chose to communicate one way or another their experience of participating to the “wedding of the century”. In the case of the social media such as Facebook or twitter, the messages were short, direct, in an informal language, while traditional media adopted a ceremonial, reverential speech. The television broadcast live the entire ceremony, while on the YouTube were posted the most relevant moments, according to the users’ selection. In a time when the royal family needed new myths and symbols “to reconstruct its public image and reaffirm its legitimacy” (McCurdy, 2010), the organizers of the event proved that they know how to use the new technologies to efficiently deliver the message. According to the audience data presented in the article, the importance of the British royal wedding was increased by the involvement of many different types of media in delivering the information. The live streaming on the web, the blog posts, and the comments on social media provided information which were complementary to the live transmission of the television channels. Whether they choose case studies the category of coronations, contests or conquests, the researchers which approach media events from different perspectives must take into account the technological development and the exigencies and involvement in the production of the media messages of the audience. In the case studied in the article, the complementary functioning of television and new media contributes heavily to the increase of the importance of the event, but the audience ratings do not state what percentage of the viewers of the royal wedding used social media, or if those who used social media followed the event on television, on live streaming on the internet, or on the giant screens in the streets or parks. In the future articles and research papers, the authors ought to allocate a significant part to the role, degree of involvement and relationship between the different 35


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types of media operating on a convergent market while covering the media events.

6. References Books: Katz, E. (1992). Media Events. The Live Broadcasting of History, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Cannadine, D. (1992). The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the Invention of Tradition. In Hobsbawn, E. & Ranger, T., (eds), The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Coman, M. (2011). Media events – O paradigm% la grani2a dintre antropologie Ui Utiin2ele comunic%rii. In M. Coman, (eds.), Media Events. Perspective Teoretice 6i Studii de Caz. BucureUti: Editura Universit% ii BucureUti. Coman, M. (2003). Mass Media, Mit6i Ritual - O perspectivJ antropologicJ. IaUi: Polirom. Couldry, N., Hepp, A., Krotz, F. (2009). Media Events in a Global Age. London: Routledge. Dayan, D. & Katz, E. (1992). Media Events.The Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. McLuhan, M. (1965). Understanding Media: The Extension of Man. McGraw-Hill: New York. Rothenbuhler, E. (2009). From Media Events to Ritual to Communicative Form. In Couldry, N., Hepp, A., Krotz, F. (eds), MediaEvents in a Global Age. London: Routledge. Silverstone, R. (1988). Television, Myth and Culture. In Carey, J.(eds.), Media, Myth and Narratives, Sage Publications: London. Online Barak, S. (2011). Royal Wedding: 6.8 million people comment on FaceBook, on http://www.kitguru.net/channel/event/slyvia/royalwedding-6-8-million-people-comment-on-facebook/. Retrieved on 29.05.2012. McCurdy, P. (2010). Media Events 2.0-The Royal Wedding of William and Kate, on

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http://patrickmccurdy.wordpress.com/2010/11/16/media-events-2-0the-royal-wedding-ofwilliam-and-kate/. Retrieved on 20.05.2012. Dayan, D. & Katz, E. (1992). Media Events.The Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, on http://www.officialroyalwedding2011.org/. Retrieved on 20.05.2012. Schneider, R., S. (2011), The Royal Wedding I: Ceremony Uniforms & Clothes, on http://www.gentlemansgazette.com/royal-weddingceremony-uniform-clothes/. Retrieved on 02.06.2012. http://twitter.com/#!/ClarenceHouse. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11767495. http://www.tvr.ro/articol_2012.php?id=101953. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJLp6vSr5to. http://www.facebook.com/video/video.php?v=1340235723928.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 39-52

Abstract: Dedicated to a specific audience, women willing to be professionally successful and financially independent, the current magazines for women tend to alter the feminism`s mission stated at the beginning of the XXth century. It seems that the “new woman”, promoted by those magazines, has a single purpose: not to hide anymore her sexuality. The pages dedicated to this „liberation” abound in diets, pieces of advice, testimonials of a “more exciting sex”, daily sensuality, leading towards a new point of view. Does the feminism exposed by nowadays stars drag the attention of potential readers? Which are the basics of this new type of feminism? A potential answer can be obtained by analyzing the main glossy and mass-market magazines published in Romania. Leaving aside the international or local brand, any magazine for women attempts to change features of the collective mentality, regarding both the loyal female readers and the secondary audience, represented by men.

(NON) VALUE IN WOMEN`S MAGAZINES Denisa CHIRIEG University of Bucharest Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication Sciences Ph.D Student

Keywords: Third wave of Feminism, women`s magazines, utilitarian, diva, sexualized image

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1. Introduction This paper aims to reveal or to deny the existence of feminist features included in women`s magazines. Content analysis is mostly used for glossy and mass-market magazines in print edition or online, which appeared in May 2012. The results might reinforce general ideas about women`s magazines, as their utilitarian function or their feminist demands, but meanwhile might raise a question whether the same women`s magazines do not use a sensual image of Woman, in order to sell well. 2. A brief history of feminism An analysis on women`s magazines, as one of feminism`s cultural products, couldn`t omit to define feminism as a concept. During the third wave of feminism, one witnesses a confusion of sense, for instance, a soap opera site states to be a feminist attempt dedicated to Romanian women (www.telenoveleonline.ro, 2012). Taking in account this example and the sexualised image of Woman promoted by magazines a few questions arise: what does “feminism” mean nowadays? Is it the third wave of feminism meant to change radically the ideas born during the previous “waves”? To what extend does sex sell well? Following the events of today via newspapers, television, radio and the internet one cannot help seeing or hearing references to many concepts ending in ”ism”. „Feminism” is no exception, as ”capitalism” or “communism”, it seems to be suitable for any context. In 1913 Millicent Fawcett, a leader of the British campaign for women’s suffrage, claimed that the women’s movement at that time was one of the biggest events taking place in the history of the world: “But the women’s movement aims at nothing less than raising the status of an entire sex – half the human race – to lift it up to the freedom and value of womanhood” (Karen, 2000, p. 2). For June Hannam, professor at University of West England, feminism is more than a fashionable topic: it is, in fact, a cultural and political movement with a tremendous history: “(Feminism) changes the way women think and feel and affects how women and men live their lives and interpret the world. For this reason it has provoked lively debates and fierce antagonisms that have continued to the 40


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present day” (Hannam, 2007, p. 2). Central to feminism is the view that women’s condition is open to change. “At its heart is the belief that women’s voices should be heard – that they should represent themselves, put forward their own view of the world and achieve autonomy in their lives” (Hannam, 2007, p. 2). Women’s rights, women’s emancipation or woman movement were all used by feminists at different times and places to describe their goals and deeds. Behind labels, there were complex meanings: “Women’s rights campaigners demanded that women should have formal equality with men in the law, politics and in civil society. In the course of making these demands, however, some began to question whether women should simply be seeking to enter a world that was defined by men and shaped by male values. Instead they argued that women were different from men and that ‘feminine’ qualities should be valued in the public as well as in the private sphere. This tension between equality and difference has been present in feminist debates since the late eighteenth century” (Hannam, 2007, p. 4). Feminism nowadays includes a dose of ethnocentrism, as the priorities of white, middle-class Western women, in particular, the achievement of the vote and equal rights, are mostly publicized. The concerns of women in other parts of the world – for clean water, decent food and access to health care are then either marginalized or seen as somehow “less feminist”. The ferment of new ideas, both political and economic in late eighteenth-century Europe provided the perfect conditions for feminist concepts to develop. Political thinkers and philosophers of Enlightenment emphasized the importance of a universal human nature and the ability to reason. Universality, however, did not seem to encompass women. Men were thought to be rational, objective and scientific in their thinking, while women were seen as emotional, sensual and being a barrier to social progress. The French Revolution of 1789 added a new dimension to these debates: “It raised the question of what it meant to be an active citizen in the new republic and opened a space for women to take political action” (Hannam, 2007, p.19). In revolutionary France, Olympe de Gouges issued a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, arguing, clearly and forcefully, that woman is born free, and equal to man (Walter, 2005, p. 29). At the same time, far more women were being 41


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educated, at least to read and write. All through the century, conduct books were addressed directly to women, though they mostly recommended the ‘womanly’ virtues of piety and charity, stressing the central importance of modesty. But more women themselves were also writing and publishing, as Mary Wollstonecraft (Walters, 2005, p. 34). Her first book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) was the most influential text written by a woman in this period. She argued that women were just as capable as men of exercising reason, but had been encouraged to see themselves as governed by their feelings, by existing only to please a man. All in all, women needed education to develop their character and to enable them to contribute to a new social order. Rapid urbanization and industrialization also emphasised the women’s domestic role. Waged work increasingly took place away from the family and became identified with men and masculinity. As consequence, women’s paid employment was seen as marginal and so, the view that women’s natural role was in the home, reinforced. They found hampered by their lack of education and were excluded from most professions. Involvement in the anti-slavery campaigns encouraged women to question aspects of their own social position. They drew an analogy between the position of slaves on plantations and their own sexual, legal, emotional and physical slavery to men within marriage (Hannam, 2007, pp. 20-25). Utopian socialists added a further dimension to the debates around women’s emancipation in the 1820s and 30s. Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon envisaged a new communal society that would be free from all inequalities, including gender inequality. Socialist women also took part in the revolutions of 1848 in Europe that challenged conservative regimes and sought to achieve representative governments and a range of civil liberties, by raising their own demands. In France Jeanne Deroin called for women’s participation in public affairs and argued that only with the end of male privileges in politics could a new society be achieved. She disseminated her views through her own journal, La Voix des Femmes.(Hannam, 2007, pp. 26 - 27). By 1920 women had gained the vote in most countries in Europe and North America. Suffragists in France and Italy had to wait until after the Second World War until 1971 that Switzerland finally conceded voting right. The belief, that women achieved the vote as a 42


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reward for their war services, does not stand up to close scrutiny. Women gained the vote in the liberal democratic governments created after the war, including Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Germany where it was assumed that women would support moderate governments against attack from both the left and the right. (Hannam, 2007, p. 74). After the First World War organized feminist movements began to grow in strength outside Europe and North America. Developed in a context of nationalist and anti-colonial movements that sought greater independence and autonomy, feminists still asserted the right to speak for themselves (Hannam, 2007, p. 104). The end of the war brought also a change in attitudes to sex and morality. The 1920s provided a new ground for advocates of birth control (Hannam, 2007, p. 123). However, the idea of birth control and free love was cautiously promoted, due to the anxiety of national governments. Interwar period and the 1940s, 1950s were subject to an intense discussion about peace and the role of women in building a new world. What is sometimes termed as “second-wave” feminism emerged, after the Second World War, in several countries. In 1947, a Commission on the Status of Women was established by the United Nations, and two years later it issued a Declaration of Human Rights, which acknowledged that men and women had ‘equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution’, as well as mother’s privilege to ‘special care and assistance’. Between 1975 and 1985, the UN organized three international conferences on women’s issues, in Mexico City, Copenhagen, and Nairobi, where it was acknowledged that feminism constitutes the political expression of all concerns and interests of women from different regions, classes, nationalities, and ethnic backgrounds. A remarkable variety of Western women picked up their pens and write about being women, rights and responsibilities. One of the most influential was the French writer Simone de Beauvoir. Her writings add up to a remarkable exploration of one woman’s experience; women from all over the world confessed that Beauvoir’s The Second Sex (1949) had helped them to see their personal frustrations in the general condition of Woman. Simone Beauvoir argued that women have been denied full humanity, meaning the right to create, to invent, to find sense for life in projects, prerogatives dedicated to men (Walters, 2005, p. 97). The second-wave of feminism brought to public attention the 43


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Lesbian feminism, in the late 1960s. Besides denigration and rejection, some lesbians insisted that they were central to women’s liberation because their very existence threatens male supremacy (Walters, 2005, p. 107). In 1968, feminists in Atlantic City decided to protest in an unique way against Miss America beauty contest, by inviting women to throw their bras, as symbols of the social pressure assumed, in order to conform to unrealistic standards of beauty (Hannam, 2007, p. 133). From this moment on, a woman`s body began to be seen differently and the feminism itself faced an explosive period through America and western Europe. The body itself turned into an important issue, as one of the most urgent concerns of second-wave feminism has been the woman’s rights over her own body: “Western feminists have often addressed questions about beauty and the value placed on a woman’s external appearance – an issue which may seem, but only at first glance, superficial. Partly driven by the tantalizingly glamorous media images that swamp us, some seek refuge in an anxious, often ruinously expensive, pursuit of the latest fashion. Others may turn to more desperate and self-destructive measures: dieting to the point of anorexia (which may alternate with compulsive eating and bulimia), or anxiously seeking the self-mutilation that is cosmetic surgery” (Walters, 2005, p. 110). As young women took advantages of the opportunities presumed by a higher education, they were less interested in a future bounded to a home dominated by a man, as their mother would accept. Married women began to work in larger numbers. They were hired in part-time and low-paid jobs, which prompted them a feeling of independence. It was not until the black civil rights movement and the protests against Vietnam War, however, that provided the perfect occasions for women to challenge gender roles (Hannam, 2007, p. 137). The 1970s meant a more powerful struggle for freedom than ever before. Women were expected to conform to particular ideals of femininity, creating a feeling of being imposed from outside. Magazines abound in pictures representing perfect bodies, perfect lives. Feminists drew attention that consumerism, through advertising used women`s sexuality to sell well and moreover made them believed this was the truth about being beautiful. The pleasures of sex and women`s erotic desires were emphasized as well as the right to define their own sexuality, followed by the demand of ending the 44


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discrimination against lesbians. The family was viewed as a key domain of women`s oppression. Feminists called for equal payment and paid housework, child care facilities and contraceptive advice. During the 1970s supported campaigns took place in most countries of Europe and in North America. The aim was to legalize abortion, ensuring that women had the right to choose by their own will whether to have or not an abortion. Education also provided to be a background for challenging conventional ideas about gender roles. As more women obtained higher education, they highlighted the fact that women were almost invisible in academic disciplines, being rather defined by men. Feminist demanded the existence of women`s studies, in order to provide information about women`s lives, struggle for rights and to raise new questions about women`s destiny. As consequence, this demand affected the nature of academic studies themselves: courses about women`s liberation were introduced, rediscovering the pioneering texts, as an evidence of women`s political activism (Hannam, 2007, pp. 142 - 144). The decade 1976-1985, called emphatically the “the decade of women” can be characterised through a greater mobilization of women and the publicity made to the inequalities faced by them all over the world. The year 1975 was declared by the United Nations as International Women`s Year, which gave feminists a stimulus for more demands. At first, they focused on women`s work, then they take in account the private sphere of a woman (Hannam, 2007, pp. 147 - 150). If in the 20th century, ‘first-wave’ feminists demanded civil and political equality, the ‘second-wave’ feminism concentrated on sexual and family rights for women. ‘The personal is the political’ was a popular 1970s slogan that some contemporary feminists seem to want to reverse. “The political is reduced to the merely personal, to questions of sexuality and family life – which, of course, also have political implications which still, and urgently, need to be considered” (Walters, 2005, p. 137). A third wave of feminism, as contemporary to postmodernism is not a quite accurate term for June Hannam: “What has happened to feminism since the heady days of the women`s liberation movement? Is there still a space for feminist politics in a world in which older political certainties appear to have collapsed with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War? How should feminists deal with 45


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new political allegiances and conflicts- fundamentalist Islam against the corruption of the West, civil wars between ethnic groups or the increasing gap between rich and poor nations?” (Hannam, 2007, p. 139). The world has changed and the feminism itself become more fragmented than ever, making the author questioning whether the women`s movement has lost its momentum. There is a third wave of feminism, mostly used through media, which somehow reinforced the attacks on women`s gains. The critique of second wave came as a “defensive reaction of a male establishment“, stating that there is no longer a need for feminism now that women won their legal, economic, political and private rights. On the other hand, even feminist authors criticized the second wave for its incomprehensible preoccupation for rape and sexual harassment. Besides historical achievements, the conclusion of The World Health Organization in 2000 was that feminism has to continue its mission. For instance, one in five women had been physically or sexually abused at some time in her life. The third wave of feminism is the “wave” of a new millennium. It is reckoned to address to a new generation of women with different patterns, priorities and contradictions. Despite inherent debates, one feature is certain for distinguishing the waves of feminism: the third one is the point of view of non-white Western women. For instance, it is Burundi women`s turn to get together in order to demand their rights (Hannam, 2007, pp. 161 - 165). This new context is explained as an evolution in feminism` development, thanks to the Internet and the academic involvement: “The long, and at times radically innovative, history of feminism is all too easily forgotten. When ‘second-wave’ feminism emerged in the late 1960s, it seemed, at the time at least, unexpected, surprising, exciting. One big difference during the years since then has been the way Western women have become much more aware of other feminisms – not just in Europe, but across the world – that, hopefully, may challenge our cherished ideas and certainties, and undermine any complacency that we may have developed” (Walters, 2005, p. 139). 3. Women`s magazines as expression of feminism “When I recently asked some women in their early 20s – some of whom were university-educated, others working, and all, clearly, beneficiaries of earlier battles for women’s rights – whether they 46


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considered themselves feminists, or indeed had any interest in feminism, most of them replied, flatly, no. The very term itself, one woman claimed, sounds stuffy and out of date. Feminism, she felt, has become, on the one hand, a playground for extremists – she termed them ‘fundamentalists’ – who had nothing useful to say to women like herself. On the other hand, she argued, feminism has become ‘institutionalized’, and she compared it to communism: it demands commitment, not simply to ideas, but to a generalized ideology. Moreover, she added, it is nowadays just another academic subject. You can get a degree in ‘gender studies’ and that, she felt, is the real kiss of death: proof, if any were needed, that feminism is no longer urgently relevant” (Walters, 2005, pp. 3 - 4). The kind of feminism implied by women`s magazines might complete the description above: it contains the same phrases about emancipation, freedom or beauty, repeated in more articles, but there are some issues that renders a magazine for women readable. The first and probably, the most prominent feature of women`s magazines is the optimistic tone. Any magazine dedicated to a feminine breathes out lust for life, love, work, shopping, leisure. For instance, the article “Get ready to meet your love!” (http://www.elle.ro/Lifestyle/Relatii-Cuplu/Pregateste-te-sa-intalnestiiubirea-1616277?p=1, 2011) reveals, starting with its own title, that one has to “break” from reality, in order to be emotionally fulfilled. The editor`s plea for love starts from a concrete example, a film, “an easy story about a meeting” (http://www.elle.ro/Lifestyle/RelatiiCuplu/Pregateste-te-sa-intalnesti-iubirea-1616277?p=1, 2011), in the end dragging the conclusion that we should leave behind the clichés about being or not being with a certain person: “I almost hear you saying that this can happen only in movies. Well, things are different and I wonder whether our failure to find one`s beloved is due to some mental barriers, that we build ourselves” (http://www.elle.ro/Lifestyle/Relatii-Cuplu/Pregateste-te-sa-intalnestiiubirea-1616277?p=1, 2011). This optimism, inherent to women`s magazines couldn`t exist without the intimacy established between editor and reader, realized through the familiar style adopted: “if <to be ready> means first of all to have met yourself, then you are proceeding on the right track. In order to meet someone, you have to admit that the Other exists. And, how could you possibly accept the other one, unless you accept 47


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the

unknown from you?” (http://www.elle.ro/Lifestyle/RelatiiCuplu/Pregateste-te-sa-intalnesti-iubirea-1616277?p=1, 2011). Moreover, the virtual intimacy editor - reader creates credibility. One loyal reader`s metamorphosis, who received cosmetic treatments by winning a contest, can only emphasize the idea that a certain women`s magazine deserves to be read and in the end, any reader could be the next lucky winner. Glossy magazines for women often provide articles with a certain philosophical appeal, comparing with the mass-market titles, taking in account the fact the readers of the previous category are generally well-educated urban professional upper-class woman (http://cheapsubscriptions.co.uk/marie-claire-magazine/, 2012). Even though glossy magazines propose an “upper” style, their intellectual touch isn`t nothing more than a popularization feature meant to create more approval among readers for the ideas spread through a certain article. This kind of popularization has its own limits, in women`s magazines a deep idea can be concretised thanks to quotations, paraphrases and personal thoughts about the subject itself, as follows: “To love means to be bound (with the most powerful link ever, as we all know it from Giordano Bruno`s writings, don`t we? <Vinculum vinculorum amor est>, meaning that <the link of all links is love itself>. But, in order to let yourself overwhelmed by such a link, you have to let yourself discovered in the first instance. Searching rationally to be loved, you are overprotected, because our will is such a powerful force, that makes invulnerable in front of what we want deeply inside. More than a strong will, we need desire. Which is definitely something else. To agree that you want to fall in love. To be available for it” (http://www.elle.ro/Lifestyle/Relatii-Cuplu/Pregatestete-sa-intalnesti-iubirea-1616277?p=1 2011). The utilitarian function of women`s magazines consists in sections meant to teach readers how to cook, how to treat light health problems, how to become successful woman business or how to maintain one`s weight. A reader can seldom find an article revealing legislative news, for instance (Felicia, nr. 27, 5 - 11 mai 2012, p.8). “Tricks” for beauty are an essential chapter in women`s magazines. In glossy titles, those rubrics cover a significant editorial space, while the mass-market ones condense in 2-3 pages the information about the newest cosmetics. Editor`s suggestions are always sustained by the authorised opinion of a beauty specialist. Thus, in order to elucidate the dilemma of eye shadow, the beauty 48


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editors suggest that “electric colours on eyelids are in vogue, but also the natural, minimalist make-up. In the end, you can choose any colour that really looks good on you. All you have to know is that dark shades favour the young eyes, while the women over 35 years old should prefer make-up in pastel, sweet, light tones” (Felicia, nr. 27, 5-11 May 2012, p. 8). These are the ideas of magazine`s editors, completed by the invited make-up artist, who shows to the reader what it has to be done for a perfect special make-up: “you should seriously take in account the clothes, that you are wearing and so, to create a harmony between them and the make-up (...) The chosen shade is generously applied over the whole surface of the upper mobile eyelid, then the eyelash line is marked with ink” (Felicia, nr. 27, 5 - 11 May 2012, p. 8). Make-up and fashion style are supported in glossy magazines, by appealing to celebrities of the moment, by reference to their beauty, a common reader can be as bright as they are (http://www.tabu.ro/cum-s-te-machiezi-ca-heidi-klum/, 2012). For instance, in the rubric “BeautyInsider” the beauty editor states that drawing the outline of the eyelid with blue as Diane Kruger (the feminine star from “Troy”) does, would create a cheerful and sexy look. Fashion pages benefit of t suggestive pictorials, irrespective of the type of women`s magazines previously assumed. The parade of clothes and accessories leaves behind fashion editor`s suggestions, pointing a few concise combinations: “For a special evening choose a raglan blouse with large sleeves and a short black satin shirt. A big black bag, a pair of elegant cream shoes and a necklace will accessorize that outstanding outfit” (Felicia, nr. 27, 5 - 11 May 2012, p. 15). As a permanent rule, the prices of the articles presented by models are highlighted, only seldom they are missing. Health and implicitly sports are major pillars of what a modern woman is supposed to be. As a consequence, mass-market and glossy magazines for women don`t neglect this aspect. If glossy magazines are more oriented towards relaxation, sport and leisure, mass-market magazines tend to tilt the balance towards health as a major theme. Thus, readers learn that naturist remedies are worthy for several diseases and much more, one can detect in time the appearance of a certain disease. Articles in this category are often accompanied by a specialist`s approved opinion, which approaches them to the genre of popular scientific press: readers find out that untreated gingivitis 49


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can lead to the loss of teeth, detoxification cure removes pains, fatigue and helps in slimming, acacia flowers combat insomnia and depression” (Felicia, nr. 27, 5 - 11 May 2012, pp. 22 - 23). Modern woman is also interested in correct nutrition, both for keeping her weight, but also for reaching a sense of well-being. Women`s magazines promote the “goddesses” (Balle, 1988, p. 566) of the day, each brand has its own prototype, with whom readers could identify. Glossy magazines rely on the kind of successful, sensual, powerful, refined woman (Nicole Kidman on the cover of „Elle” in December 2008, Jessica Simpson on the cover of „Glamour” in December 2009 or Diane Kruger on the cover of “Cosmopolitan” in September 2010),

while mass-market titles promote the medium class, traditionalist woman (The cover of „Ioana”, April 2011, depicting a common young). Another distinction, that can be observed in the manner of determining the goddess of the month, seems to be related to the membership of the editorial board itself. The versions of international glossy brands tend to use for cover the image of stars abroad (www.facebook/cosmopolitan.romania, 2011), while local massmarket magazines mainly focus on the image of a Romanian star (Jojo on the cover of „Ioana horoscop”, May 2011 and Ilinca Vandici on the cover of „Felicia”, May 2012.). Thus, Ilinca Vandici, the star of mass-market

magazine “Felicia”, tells of her last professional achievements (master, her role in the soap opera “Narcisa salbatica”, the ongoing of the tv program “Ministerul de secrete”), sending an optimistic message to readers: “The best school is to learn during the action” (“Felicia”, nr 247, 5-11 May 2012, p. 4). The detached attitude regarding sexuality, promoted by women`s magazines captures the attention of readers, beyond any moral comment. For instance, in a top ten most read articles on the online version of “Tabu” (http://www.tabu.ro/categorii/lifestyle/, 2012), two articles related to sexuality occupy the second and third place, overcome by an article on the Cannes Film Festival 2011. The tone is direct, incisive, wishing to demolish any taboos: “Among all primates, males have the largest penises”, “Married men masturbate more often than those who don`t have a relationship” or “Nudity in ancient Greece was more than acceptable. It was really appreciated. However, erection in public was an intolerable matter” (http://www.tabu.ro/20-deadevaruri-legate-de-sex/, 2012). No matter how exciting these articles would be, the statements made are seldom proved by a source of documentation. The 50


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groundless fact that “women with higher education are more open to oral sex” (http://www.tabu.ro/20-de-adevaruri-legate-de-sex/, 2012) leaves the impression that the article is rather a personal creation of the editor, worthy of being posted on a blog rather than being published as a piece of news. Articles, which are yet based on a source, “sin” by quoting it vaguely, which indicates poor documentation or in fact the lack of it: “Hours of lost sleep during early life extremely affects us in the second part of our lives. This is the result of a study conducted in the United Kingdom. The fact, that we sleep too much or too little, seriously affects the way we think and can age our brains by up to seven years” (http://www.tabu.ro/durata-incorecta-a-somnului-ne-poateimbatrani-cu-sapte-ani/, 2012). Empowerment, one of the goals of old feminism, is found in the current form of the feminine press under the label of exhortations to an outstanding career (The article „Avanseaz% în carier%...ACUM!” („Advance in your career...now!”)- „Cosmopolitan”, Romanian edition, May 2012, p. 142) and an explosive affective life. If women don`t have

reasonable grounds to support that they are professionally discriminated against, what happens inside the family requires always an improvement- at least this is the impression left by the permanent rubric “Relationships” of each brand. “Cosmopolitan” promotes the boldest attitude about life and love: the modern woman needs to know what she wants from her partner and get it („Cosmopolitan”, Romanian edition, May 2012, p.88): “And what if we tell you that you can feel that great sensation throughout your body, not just in one area? Does it look surreal? (...) You only need more concentration on the prelude. COSMO indicates the steps to follow...” („Cosmopolitan”, Romanian edition, May 2012, p. 88). The pictures themselves speak about the magazine`s direction: a woman on the verge of orgasm implies, with no additional words, the idea that a woman`s desire doesn`t need permission to be happening. Cosmopolitan`s pioneering is continued by the new generation of women`s magazines, published exclusively on the Internet. For instance, one of the most appreciated brands (2.500.383 people visited kudika.ro during August 2011, http://www.sati.ro/index.php?page=filter_all&site_id=136&tip_gr=toate&fil ter_on_period=1), kudika.ro, aims to reveal all the secrets of Kama

Sutra, for a better sex (http://www.kudika.ro/articol/relatii~tips/2238/slideshow/1/1-Orgasm-prinpenetrare.html, 2012). Following the both examples, one can ask 51


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whether the contemporary Woman hasn`t been somehow converted into a sexual object, paradoxically by women editors. 4. Conclusion Women`s magazines as expression of feminism follow some of the values promoted by the current, such as self-confidence, self-care or demand of professional, social equality. During the third wave of feminism, one could notice the sexualized image of Woman`s body. Is it a mark of self-esteem, an attempt to challenge more the stereotypes related to women`s sexuality or is it such just a marketing strategy for more selling the magazine itself? No matter what is the right answer, women`s magazines were and will be a value itself for disseminating 5. References Books: Balle, F. (1988). Médias et société. Paris: Montchrestien. Offen, K. (2000). European Feminisms. In 1700-1950: A Political History, Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press. Hannam, J. (2007). Feminism, Edinburg Gate, Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited. Walters, M. (2005). Feminism: A very short Introduction, Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Revues: “Cosmopolitan”, Romanian edition, nr 5, May 2012. “Felicia”, nr 247, 5-11 May 2012. Online: http://www.cosmopolitan.ro. http://cheapsubscriptions.co.uk. http://www.elle.ro. http://www.kudika.ro. http://www.sati.ro. http://www.tabu.ro.

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REVISTA DE COMUNICARE I MARKETING U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag.53-66

Abstract: In our days a crisis (economical one, cultural, of values or teaching the society) became a quotidian fact, a fact state, and the word is entered in the current vocabulary of the political peoples, of the leaders of institutions, columnists and large masses. The existence, almost daily of the speech which touches in a way or another the crisis problems, their situations in the most different institutions as well as the need to understand them, control and anticipate them, made that more and more political leaders, management specialists and practitioner of public relations, take charge of the “crisis management” or “crisis communication”. Mass media has played a major part in the management of the crisis blown up in the presidential elections in 2009. The target of the present work is the all aspects analysis of this crisis and the way it has been handled by the media in 2009.

MASS MEDIA AND THE MANAGEMENT OF POLITICAL CRISIS IN ROMANIA DURING THE ELECTION OF 2009 Cristina ARITON-GELAN „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a

Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences tefan GEORGESCU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a

Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences

Keywords: crisis communication, media speech, political crisis, election, e- crisis

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1. Introduction Election is a democratic form of the single parties or alliances formed from several parties are â&#x20AC;&#x153;duelâ&#x20AC;? in a competition policy. They are in competition for conquest into the electorate and the ultimate goal being to reach power. To collect as many votes each participant in the competition's interest to think about a strategy as viable, in full accordance with the wishes of the electorate. It is important that parties and candidates to know the levers and mechanisms of an electoral campaign, to be clear that the choice of the candidate, whose image has to be perfect, it represents the time, whereas a determinant knew campaign cannot transform a candidate without credit and prestige in one competitively. The electoral campaign should have a good management, to develop a plan well thought, to determine the steps that need to be made, to provide the elements which have not been stored in the agenda, if possible, and to act for the purpose of future action and, where appropriate, to counteract the negative effects that may occur during the electoral process. The collection of information about voters and their wishes, based on surveys, census, fieldwork and any other methods used to obtain information that more closely resemble reality are indispensable in an electoral campaign. Lack of deep analysis of the situation of the electorate can be harmful because an incorrect assessment of the existing situation, of the public opinion can result in erroneous approaches. Communication is another important element during the election campaign. It fosters exchanges of information between actors of the socio-political environment. Politicians are tempted to submit platforms schedule and to propagate a favorable image, and consumers to access your policy information. The quality of communication depends understanding the problems facing the population, durability of relations established, political structure relationships with target audience segments where information has been gathered and who will receive support in the political structure of tenders (Boboc, 2010, p. 99). A beneficial purpose of communication is to choose a suitable message in the right time. This message must 54


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capture to be convincing, credible, and finally to determine the voters to vote. As is recognized by most political scientists, the main cause of the crisis of political parties is the need for access to a limited resource, this been power, governance, resource which, in Romania, can be obtained by the competition every four years. 2. Communication media during the crisis Specialists in political sciences considers that any crisis is defined by a combination of a strong, capable to affect the primary purposes of political leaders, a very short time before the situation to evolve in a way that you don't want them and the effect of surprise. Any political crisis involves a political conflict. The political conflict is taking place in the high standards of information. There are forums, there are blogs, there are even games on the websites of political parties or political actors on entering a lot of voters. Political parties require their leaders to publish their curriculum vitae and mailing addresses on their sites. Confrontations between political parties begin to move from the street and in the protocol on the Internet, becoming so e-conflicts (Boboc, 2010, p. 99). In the study titled “History conflict and e-conflict between political parties in Romania”, published in The Political Sphere, Ion Boboc described the situation of political conflicts thus: „Access to Government grants and authority, this being defined as an ability to make decisions on a policy internally and externally of a country and to influence the decisions of other parties. At the same time, the authority, as a second source of conflict, confer advantages, including material, therefore it is the second largest source of political conflict. (...) A third source or cause that powers political conflicts between the supplying party shall be represented by customs established over time, sometimes in a full history of the relationship between parties. These customs may establish true historical traditions, conflict, based on precedent created in relations between the parties, especially between the dominant” (Boboc, 2010, p. 99). Theories of communication considered that the political crisis type conflict is a form of communication, just as is the association or cooperation. This fact is explained by the fact that relations between the warring parties calls for some form of communication, as can be seen easily not only in the case of industrial conflict, police actions or 55


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disputes between individuals, but also in the case of wars +tef%nescu, 2004, p. 15). Axiomatic speaking, an e-crisis is a moment of great significance to society and, necessarily, the attention of the media. The role of the media varies depending on the nature of the crisis or conflict and of the nature of the society in which you spend. In many cases the actual crisis media adds a different kind of crisis: the media crisis. This happens most often when to try to be the justification for excessive use of some phenomena and actions, are aggressively counterattack of ways, either denying the seriousness of the facts and emotions evoked. Experience shows that in such situations there is a chain reaction: the indifference and cynicism causes reactions rejection; self-flagellation result in the loss of public confidence; underestimating the audience reactions lead to the aggravation of the crisis; while ignoring the importance of journalists result in the loss of the relationship with public opinion. It is known, too, and that the media are more attracted to the "unfortunate events" than the current ones, because they have a potential of more to produce emotions. Then, the work of journalists seeking information is less supported in situations of crisis, because they take precedence over the emergency measures to be taken, which will be determined on journalists to call on other sources (typically less informed) or to rule opened against some action taken. Therefore, supporting journalists in their work attract their confidence and their understanding, becoming a factor limiting the negative effects of the crisis (Chiciudean , 2002). Due to the fact that most people are informed of the press in respect of most of the events, the technical management of abnormal situations are added and a problem of management of the communication. Patrick Lagadec argues that the communication problems an organization faced with a crisis takes place on four levels: communication within each organization, communication with the public organization, communicating with the actors of the crisis and communication with the press Lagadec, 1993, p. 34). Numerous situations of communication crisis showed the role of the general staff of the cooperation between journalists and public relations specialists in the elimination of negative consequences of the crisis. However, everyday experience and a rich bibliography specialized points out that the two groups of professionals support the 56


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often tense relations, and that each of them considers negative work of the other categories. 3. The context of the conduct of the election campaign from October 23 - December 6, 2009 Ballot for presidential elections by the end of 2009 took place in a context marked by the superimposition of the three types of seizures with the trend of chronic: a moral crisis, extended for a long time and agonizing; an economic crisis for whose resolution in 2009 have not taken the necessary measures both the ignorance and electoral reasons and an political crisis based on some turbulence stirred held by some interest with moments of apparent lull. These types of crisis have contributed to the emergence of a general confusion of Romanian citizens in terms of landmarks in value. The most visible part of the confusion regarding the value of the Romanian society marks was and is represented by the distance all the deeper they separated on politicians by citizens. As a result of the completion of the great coalition Government between the Liberal Democratic Party and Social Democratic Party, preceded by D.A. Alliance and support of the Social Democratic T%riceanu’s Government, accentuated the perception that all parties and all politicians “are the same”, since there were tensions between the parties that (apparently) have developed irreconcilable “Partnership for Romania”. Long after they have experienced the most visible politician’s demagogy of the public space, citizens have come to no longer believe that unions of opponents are authentic forms of sacrifice of pride and interests on behalf of a group of national causes. The period 2005 - 2009 was marked by successive political crises, step by step while addressing a broad parliamentary coalition against President Traian B%sescu, considered a generator of conflicts. Suspension of Traian B%sescu from Office of President in 2007 was a radical measure to stop the presidential authoritarianism. Since its formation in December 2008, the Cabinet Coalition PD-L - PSD, it was obvious that the Boc’s Government had meant to paralyze internal dynamics of the PSD in preparation for the elections. A natural consequence and, therefore, predicted was that of triggering, near the start of election campaign of a new political crisis aimed at ensuring his re-election of President Traian B%sescu tools in office. In this context, sensing the disadvantage of acceptance to govern 57


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alongside the main adversary in a time of economic crisis began, the campaign team of PSD candidate came to the conclusion that we must be prepared by the Boc’s Government. Another moment punctuated in the political crisis is marked by the dismissal of the Romanian Minister of the Interior, Dan Nica, who belonged to PSD, in the latter part of September 2009. This was followed by withdrawal from the ruling Social Democratic Party and Government by unleashing a crisis for the first time of a dismissal of the cabinet through a motion of no confidence. That meant the PSD government left of the party regain the strategic initiative. But, it was, however, immediately lost due to the fact that PNL was the one who sparked the winning vote of no confidence against the Boc’s Government has sided with PSD only at the last moment. All these hesitations and changes of direction were not just the result of the lack of professionalism in the political management of the Social Democratic Party, but also expression his lack of national strategic unit. Moving the centre of decision-making at the level of national leaders at the local leaders (one of the main innovations of Geoan%’s mandate) made it impossible to adopt a uniform strategic lines and maintaining a speed of action and reaction. The specifics of the election campaign of 2009 consisted in the fact that debuted in full political crisis, the Boc’s Government (consisting of the PDL and the PSD) was deposed, in Parliament, by an alliance consisting of the PSD, PNL, UDMR, PC and minorities. All of the specifics of the campaign held and emphasizing the political crisis by rejecting Croitoru’s Government. Despite alloying the conjectural - the first time to the suspension of President Traian B%sescu, in 2007, the second time in the fall of the Government parliamentary Boc - this alliance not supported one candidate for President’s residence, but has advanced its own candidates. Construction of the campaign, in terms of the image, thus simultaneously a struggle between President Traian B%sescu, claimed by PDL, and a parliamentary alliance which oppose, composed of PSD, PNL, UDMR, PC and minorities, but does not counter put his opponent's B%sescu one, but several, namely three: Mircea Geoan%, Crin Antonescu, Kelemen Hunor. There were laws and disputes, decrees, decision of the Parliament. In this sense we can remember The Law of the National Integrity Agency that UDMR had stated that no one will vote if it is proposed that the last form project promoted by the Justice Minister, 58


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Monica Macovei, minister proposed to the PDL. The Law ANI was passed by Parliament only after the coming of the Minister Chiuariu, so after leaving PDL from Government. A dispute on the same law took place in Government. As regards the investigation of the various dossiers on DNA, leaders of the UDMR stipulated that these cases are tackled political, the prosecutor general of Romania being the proposal of the President Basescu. Also, the existence of a chief on DNA at the proposal of the Minister of Justice (PDL) was Hungarian leaders to believe that records pending research to have a political court. The reality of financial crisis in Romania was initially denied, there step by step it was accepted, to be exploited in terms of the electoral. If the first part of 2009 Emil Bocâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Government announce spectacular plans of "struggle with crisis", close to the election campaign has brought to light the true intentions: to defer major decisions which have a social cost, until after the presidential election. Strategic concern was maintaining the rate of the exchange rate of lion / euro 4,2-4,3 and the payment of pensions and wages due, so that people may not take its anger and panic to be manifested by a vote of protest to President Traian B%sescu's address. The Romanian Government to implement the FMI economic program, which was, in essence, the improvement of public expenditure, offering instead a massive financial aid. 4. Newspapers and television in the election campaign of 2009 The electoral campaign for the election of the President is not involved, in terms of image, shaping and imposing an alternative sequel to Traian B%sescu, a division of the electorate being antiB%sescu depending on the opponent, which he felt closest. The message given in unison during the campaign of B%sescu's opponents was that he should no longer earn a five-year term and that would be disastrous with B%sescu for Romania. In the face of such attitudes, told the press the election campaign for the current President was often commented upon with hostility. Traian B%sescu considered press trusts are used to influence political decisions and for favors and attacked Antena 1 and Antena 3, which it has accused of dealing with his campaign, he also, incidentally, the personal site, a movie with pictures of politicians and patrons joking trusts media. Traian B%sescu stated, during the 59


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campaign, that in terms of the press was free, but it was only compromised. In such a climate, the campaign staff of Traian B%sescu has focused attention by the internet, in view of the fact that the election was desired message to be received of young voters between 18 and 35 years, the users of the internet, and on the other hand that it wanted the acceptance message for the Romanians living abroad which have much less access to the written press in Romania but surely have access to the internet. One of the ways to communicate with the electorate through print media and to make known the message of the election was the statements in the press database of candidates during the election campaign. Traian B%sescu was in a less media attention in a positive sense, i.e. the major dailies have turned his attention the following: Jurnalul NaIional [National Journal] - of the total space given to presidential candidates, 83% had as topic on President Traian B%sescu (77% - negative tone); Cotidianul [Daily newspaper] dedicated Trajan B%sescu 74% of the space given to the candidates (83% -negative tone); Gândul [The Thought] gave the President-in-Office space-62% of the total granted to candidates (59%-negative tone); România LiberJ [Romania Free] and Evenimentul Zilei [The Daily Event] took a more balanced coverage both in terms of space and the tone used. Candidate Kelemen Hunor has also stated on many occasions electoral program in newspapers and by means of press agencies. Outside the electoral program, the candidate of the UDMR of the Union's political ideas exposed, as well as post-election strategies. It gave the same attention to both the central and local publications, there are so many intervention during the election campaign in print media Kelemen Hunor candidate. Thus, on 23 October, when she participated in a series of meetings with the electorate, with representatives of civil society and of the Hungarian community in Deva, Kelemen Hunor held a press conference, as informing local Servus newspaper. Interventions in the press had it on October 24, in the local newspaper Monitorul de Vrancea where Kelemen Hunor has expressed views on Croitoru’s Government. Hunor Kelemen's interventions are noted and in the Capital newspaper where he shooting a siren on the increase of the share of TVA, but also in Academia CaIavencu newspaper. Ziua [Day] newspaper of October 26 plays interview Kelemen Hunor in which he discussed the issue of autonomy. România LiberJ [Romania Free], October 26 free edition, focuses on the presidential candidate's UDMR and reports start Hunor 60


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Kelemen's campaign. Gândul newspaper [Thought newspaper] reported confession of 28 October surprise presidential candidate UDMR, Kelemen Hunor, made a “working breakfast with the press” held in St. George. Another meeting with the press Kelemen Hunor had it in a press conference in Aiud on November 8, when he told the newspaper Libertatea [Freedom] his platform program. On 11 November Kelemen Hunor argued for the Evenimentul Zilei newspaper and Bihoreanul newspaper that if not included in the second tour he will support Crin Antonescu. At the beginning of the campaign Crin Antonescu benefit from the image of a viable alternative. It is very tempting, had constructed a story, poor and honest man, intellectually supported by prestigious intellectuals, some restaurants and even in his own camp Traian B%sescu. His relationship with Dinu Patriciu and own little presidential program, and, in some instances, completely impracticable, seemed both aspects unexploited press. Conflicting messages that Crin Antonescu proceeded to give the electorate, were those who were confused and subverted the profile. For example, his attacks against Mircea Geoan%, very unconvincing and mild, despite the fact that it was presidential candidate PSD opponent directly for accession in the second, left the semblance of "batter", thus validating the hypothesis of Ion Cristoiu whereby the two would have divided already the first and second position in the state. This aspect was then commented upon and exploited to a maximum of media. Mircea Geoana tried to give an image of a pacifist, unifying President, flexible with opponents and their ideas. His image of fine diplomat and successful was tempting, but is has been associated with negative connotations. Mircea Geoan% was considered dummy of Vanghelie, Patriciu, Hrebenciuc and Vântu. At the beginning of the campaign he had trouble attracting the entire electorate PSD, always being under the party's score. Then press submit it to us as taking over the reins from one of the most retrogrades political leaders reached the President of Romania, PSD not to reform the party and remove him from under the dominion of ghosts of communism, but as a political vassal. In this context, the most important idea voiced in the press was that he does not have how to win elections because it has no clear identity card and is not a genuine candidate. This idea has been advanced as a result of statements and contradictory views on which candidate he has expressed. An example of this may be the position that Geoan% had it vis-à-vis the agreement with the FMI: before the 61


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initialing of the document considered that it was a very bad thing, a huge mistake, and when the second phase could not be accessed because of the crisis the Government considered a source of money is absolutely necessary for Romania. In view of the fact that television is the means of communication with the public with the highest impact on individuals, and during the electoral campaign it played the same role, being received by electoral message all walks of life. Electoral message received both audio and video is mightier than the communication of ingress through the print media or on the Internet, which is why we tend to believe that a major role in the election campaign of 2009 it had television. Traian B%sescu appeared to televisions not so much as expected. Traian B%sescu's appearances on television were regular transmission of the message of the election was clear and simple. It must be noted that, in the first tour, the two participation of Traian B%sescu within the show You decide! 5 years for Romania, i.e. the debate Antonescu - B%sescu from Cluj Napoca, of 14 November from Reality TV broadcast during opening hours 15:00 - 16:15, hosted by journalist Mihnea M%ru2% and the debate Antonescu – B%sescu Geoan% from 20 November at the House of Parliament, hosted by Robert Turcescu and aired on Antena 3, Reality TV and TVR1. Also President Traian B%sescu has focused on appearances at three trading posts, OTV television, participating in the show's Dan Diaconescu on 4 December; B1TV, participating in the “Godfather” show, hosted by Radu Moraru on 12 November and 4 December and Pro TV, where he participated in shows like "News - Service of the Romanian Comedy", "Promoter", and “Happy Hour” by C%t%lin M%ru2%, shows where he promoted the image and not to his message. Presidential candidate Traian B%sescu, posted a set of common on television, to which all the masses, his electoral message heading towards all classes and walks of life. Apparent or not, it has displayed a lighter attire, who wished to convey and communicate with the public viewer directly. It is notoriously famous purple sweater, which triggered a wide debate on the “violet flame”. Hunor Kelemen's appearance in television broadcasts for the campaign was quite small, which is rarely invited to debates and electoral issues. In the news the inserted television election campaign representative UDMR, Kelemen Hunor, had 19 appearances. Strategy adopted by the staff of the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania 62


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was still before the start of election campaign for their candidate to participate in various television shows. First participation in the electoral campaign of Kelemen Hunor was at the show “You decide for Romania”, from 29 October to TVR1. On November 11, the candidate of the UDMR he participated to a political talk show, hosted by Sanda Nicola on Kanal D. Alongside Oana Dobre, journalist at Evenimentul Zilei, Nicola made a brief summary of the climb the candidate on the political scene, presenting it as a possible successor of Marko Béla. Through each occurrence on the bottom candidate state high function that attempted to convey his message to the electorate in a way, having a stylish attire, impeccable posture and attire. Broadcasts it touched sensitive points, such as by unitary indivisible versus multiethnic State, issues of language, ethnicity and religion in relation to the seriousness and competence, as well as many topics related to the reduction of taxes, cancellation of flat-rate tax, restructuring of the Central Administration, the law on remuneration of the single health system crisis, retraining programs. In the formation of enlargers Crin Antonescu's what is important is the oscillation between rational discourses, speeches that come from the public and kindness with which he outlines his position vis-à-vis the presidential representative of PSD, Mircea Geoan%. His speeches are better than at the end of his rivals, he speaks freely and attract the attention of the whole minutes, managing to mobilize through a rational discourse focused on social themes. Crin Antonescu is presented as a candidate who has backbone: he criticize the B%sescu when nobody dares to do so, has the critical positions in a variety of problems to T%riceanu, chairman of his party, made the criminal complaint against Monica Iacob-Ridzi on the basis of investigations by the press, agreed that two parliamentary investigative commission to be led by the liberals, the PSD was reluctant to take on this responsibility. Image of Mircea Geoan% as indicated it in televised debates in which he participated, is constructs a politician who campaigned against-criticism addressed to Traian B%sescu is a key element of his campaign. His appearances did not foresee the solution Geoan%. Geoan%'s decision to participate in a single televised debate with B%sescu was a great error as this single meeting benefited from an increased interest on the part of voters, as “a beginner in the campaign knew that Traian B%sescu is best to direct confrontations” 63


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(http://www.ziare.com/miron-mitrea/psd/miron-mitrea-despre-cele12-greseli-care-au-dus-la-infrangerea-lui-geoana-986824). The weak performance of Mircea Geoan% at debate shaped the image of a politician who does not know very well the major problems of timeliness: three successive questions, Mircea Geoan% balked at a clear answer, giving the sensation that it has mastered the sources of the figures that you invoke or even correctness of its claims. However, some TV stations have attempted to promote this candidate in the presidential race, as others have done this for other candidates. An illustration of this can be done by bringing attention to the involvement of the media business in the management of the CNA. Thus, the CNA sent letters of warning stations Antena 3 and Realitatea TV for the lack of balance in how the materials were treated candidates running in the first part of election day. In the first round of elections, Antena 3 has received a fine of 7,500 lei for deviations in terms of negative comments made by some of the invitations to the broadcast address of the candidate Traian B%sescu, and on election day, at the second ballot, he received the letter of notice for the same reason. In the same position were unplayable on the general statements made by Ion Iliescu, who repeat the word "change", and the issue of the 11 aired a synchronous with Mircea Geoan%, but not with President Traian B%sescu http://economie.hotnews.ro/stirimedia_publicitate-6675615-antena-3-realitatea-atentionate-cnapentru-lipsa-echilibru-prezentarea-candidatilor.htm). Political scientists claim that the origin of the crisis concerns the negative aspects of the involvement of the political crisis, attributing the causes of phenomena related to the failure of the political leaders, of the lack of the possibility of Government, issues of inconsistency and incoherence of political system, and the inability of the political power to solve negative situations arising at a specified time. For historians, the increase in military power states, emphasizing the modernization process, are the causes which lead to the birth of crisis. Psychologists consider the crisis as dissolution of identity of individuals, their sense of evaluation and due impulses instinctual signifying a collective unconscious influence of forces. Pursuing these issues in connection with the events of the last part of 2009, we can conclude that the election campaign of 2009 took place against the background of a crisis of political, economic and moral, that was managed with the finesse of the media, sometimes biased tone for certain parties entered in the presidential race. 64


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5. Conclusions The impact of television, the media in general, has resulted in directions such as: shaping perceptions about reality, the appearance of political experiences, which were the basis for the common public opinions and political actions, submission of common patterns of behavior (marked which attitudes and behaviors are acceptable in the society at various times). For all audiences learned how to behave in the electoral situation and how to evaluate political institutions and their representatives. Showing why it matters and what doesn't, what is understood by the dominant groups, which come under the category of standards of justice and morality, media have highlighted the links may be established between events, presenting a set of values that the different types of audiences they could consider, in whole or in part, the representative of them. Thus, the media have become agents of social control, social integration and homogenization, both by currents of opinion that they were formed, and the power they exercised it upon policy makers, as regards compliance with the current, prompting the latter sometimes to make certain statements or to take certain decisions under pressure (Dobrescu & Bârg%oanu, 2001, p. 166). Through all these media have influenced and have created a universe of interpretations with degrees of likely regarding the background of the electoral campaign for the presidential nomination in 2009. 6. References Books: Chiciudean, I. (2002). Gestionarea crizelor de imagine [Crisis management of image], BucureUti: Comunicare.ro. Dobrescu, P. & Bârg%oanu, A. (2001). Mass media 6i societatea [Media and society], BucureUti: SNSPA. Lagadec, P. (1993). Apprendre à gérer les crises [Learn how to manage crises], Paris: Editions d’Organisation. tef%nescu, S. (2004). Media 6i conflictele [Media and conflict], BucureUti: Tritonic. 65


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Online: Boboc, I., Conflict istoric Ui e-conflict între partidele politice din România [„The historic conflict and e-conflict between political parties in Romania”]. In Sfera Politicii [Political Sphere], no. 123 – 124, on www.sferapoliticii.ro/sfera/art6-boboc.html. Retrieved on November 12, 2010. http://www.ziare.com/miron-mitrea/psd/miron-mitrea-despre-cele-12greseli-care-au-dus-la-infrangerea-lui-geoana-986824. Retrieved on November 20, 2010. http://economie.hotnews.ro/stiri-media_publicitate-6675615-antena-3realitatea-atentionate-cna-pentru-lipsa-echilibru-prezentareacandidatilor.htm. Retrieved on November 20, 2010. www.hotnews.ro/arhiva_avt/2183.doc. Retrieved on November 24, 2010. http://www.sferapoliticii.ro/sfera/123-124/art6-boboc.html. Retrieved on November 24, 2010. www.adev%rul.ro. www.capital.ro. www.evenimentulzilei.ro www.gândul.info.ro www.infopolitic.ro www.jurnalulna2ional.ro www.mediafax.ro

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag.67-76

Abstract: To a considerable number of sociologists, conflict is of utmost importance in explaining social evolution. The present paper deals with three established orientations, which constitute the unavoidable point of departure for any contemporary approach of conflict and social change: Durkheim treats social conflict as a symptom of a dysfunction; Weber and Simmel consider it as a normal social relation, while Marx sees social conflict as the driving force of the entire society. Despite their diversity, these explanations share a quasicommon characteristic: the priority granted to certain factors – demographic, technical or economic — in explaining social evolution is guided by value judgements. That is why the normative dimension is never completely absent from sociological theories, when considering either social conflict, or social change.

CONFLICT AND SOCIAL CHANGE: THREE SOCIOLOGICAL TRADITIONS RariHa MIHAIL „Dun%rea de Jos” University of Gala2i Faculty of History, Philosophy and Theology

Keywords: conflict, social changes, sociological traditions, Marx

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1. Introduction Among the fundamental concepts of old and new social philosophies and sociological theories, conflict is in almost all cases the main one. First and foremost, conflict evokes” the classic antinomies between integration and fracture, consensus and dissensus, stability and change” (Birnbaum, 1998, p. 257), oppositions evinced by the sociologists concerned, among others, with identifying the determining factor in social change. Conflict is frequently perceived as a sign of dysfunction, in point of both social analysis, and as a common term. This perception has unavoidably given rise to certain questions to which the analysts have provided extremely diverse answers. To what extent is conflict a normal and legitimate regulating instrument for the antagonisms among individuals and groups? Which forms of conflict may be seen as normal or acceptable? Which are the basic criteria according to which a conflict may be assessed in certain moments as functional and in others as dysfunctional, integrating and disintegrating, positive and negative? And, last but not least, why are conflicts important in social change? Conflict is extremely important in explaining social evolution to a large number of sociologists. But the diversity of theories, either classic or modern, researching a primum mobile of change, proves that it is a difficult topic that cannot possibly be exhaustively treated in a brief paper. That is why our purpose is to evince three established orientations, which may be seen as the common point of departure for any modern approach of conflict and social change. More precisely, our focus lies on Marx’s theory, which explains conflict in terms of social classes and exploitation relations, and then contrasts it with the perspectives proposed by Weber and Simmel, also taking into account in this context Durkheim’s conception on conflict seen in relation to ”the determining factor of what we call civilisation” (Durkheim, 2001, p. 281). Social conflicts are omnipresent in social life (Boudon & Bourricaud, 1990, p. 90). Even if most sociologists agree that conflict is inherently present in social life, some of them start from the premise that social conflict is a symptom of a dysfunction, while others consider it as a normal social relation, or the driving force of the entire society. 68


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2. Conflict as a pathological social form An important philosophical and sociological tradition considers conflict as the antithesis of the social, the sign of the latter’s dysfunctionality. In his works on political philosophy, Hobbes is the first to raise the issue of the foundations of order, in an “already quasi-sociological approach” (Birnbaum, 1998, p. 257). It became the point of reference in explaining the conditions of conflict formation. Thus, in Hobbes’ opinion, the struggle against everybody is specific to the natural society, where force is used without any restraint in fulfilling everyone’s desires. Despite that, people are able to confine their own passions in order to build together a social order accepting the power of Leviathan. So, a civil peace may be instituted among them, able to increase on its own the collective welfare. Thus, social order would presuppose absolute domination and strict social control, enabling the disappearance of conflicts in modern society. That is why order would become incompatible with disputes of any nature, being their absolute antithesis. Conflict decrease thus appears, in the tradition of the political philosophy represented by Hobbes, as the unavoidable end of human history. Since violence and conflict are unavoidable in nature, Hobbes believes that only society is capable of abolishing violence. The finally pacified society takes the place of the confrontation-shaken society. This evolutionist vision automatically reduces to almost zero the place of conflict expression (Birnbaum, 1998, p. 261). Hobbes’perspective on social order was also the departure point for the integration theory initiated by Durkheim, focusing on the importance of the collective conscience, conflict as a socially dysfunctional sign, and pathological state. To Durkheim, society consists of a set of interdependent parts. In fact, most functionalist thinkers see society as an integrated whole, consisting of closely-knit structures (Giddens, 2000, p. 612). Durkheim, just like Parsons, makes an analogy to the physiology of the human body. Each of the body parts are specialised, individually contributing to keeping the organism alive. However, unless they work conjointly in perfect harmony, the life of the organism would be in danger. It is the same with society, according to Durkheim. For the society to have a continuous existence in time, its specialised institutions – the family, church, education, the political system– 69


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should act in harmony. The continuity of society depends on the cooperation among its members, their consensus in point of the basic values. Social roles and cultural models, set against the background of the collective conscience, initially appear as external to those assuming them, just like the role written by a playwright appears first as external to the actor playing it (Duverger, 1973, p.103). The moderating role of society on the individuals it contains, its moral authority belong to the realm of social regulation. It contains, in its turn, three inextricably inter-connected elements: the organization of the group members around a social-economic hierarchy, the legitimacy of this order, passion moderation. Also, social regulation allows the passage of the infinite human desires into the closed and hierarchically ordered world of the social passions. Only that this situation cannot possibly last forever, since cyclicity is specific to social life as well. Any deficit of social regulation results in anomy, and conflict is only a consequence of this state of facts, a symptom of a social dysfunction present in all contemporary societies. Economic anomy plays an important role with Durkheim (cf. Nisbet), generating conflicts especially during the periods of economic growth, as the individuals are no longer aware of the limits of their claims. When the social rules guiding their conduct and aspirations lose their power and become mutually incompatible, or in case they have to yield their place to others under the pressure of social change, social conflicts are bound to occur. As a result, the absence of strong collective rules forces the actors into a wild competition, and consequently, into social conflicts. Durkheim does not just remark the existence of pathological conflicts in modern societies, but he proposes a solution to remedy them: intermediary groups. Their main role is to put forth the solution to the â&#x20AC;&#x153;sociological monstrosityâ&#x20AC;? (Durkheim, 2005), viz. the ever wider gap between isolated individuals and the state. Through these intermediary groups, the interactions among the individuals of the same group, and also between employees and employers, are intensified. The result should be the moderation of the passions of their own members, so that professional morals may allow for the settling of conflicts. Durkheimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vision on social integration was not only confirmed, but also strengthened by the new arguments of functionalism. Any conflict occurs, in his view, as a dysfunction, but without the claims being passed to the representative organisms of the 70


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groups. In Merton’s opinion, the conflict between the individual and society aimed at confining desires (according to Durkheim’s conception), becomes an internal conflict between the purpose and the means of the action performed by the social actor. With no intention of going further with these analyses, the present paper will however progressively review other forms of conflict considered as socialising (even in the integration theories). Yet, a question is imperative: to what extent or how far can conflict be seen as an element of socialisation? 3. Conflict as an element of social regulation Approaching social conflicts as elements of social pathology, according to Durkheim’s vision, was contradicted by authors such as Max Weber and Georg Simmel, who see conflict as a normal form of any social relation. Opposing the functionalist perspectives, Weber states that, beyond any function, what really matters is only action founded on values. Hence an approach of conflict meant to avoid any structural determinism. To Weber, the point of departure is the actors themselves. The purpose of his approach is to understand their participation in conflicts, the reasons they give to their own involvement, as well as the reasons for the cessation of this involvement. According to Weber, struggle is a social relation to the extent in which activity is guided by the intention to impose one’s own will against the resistance of the partner(s) (Weber, 1971). This power struggle involves competition in view of getting opportunities that the others want as well. Only the elements involved in this competition are very diverse: physical strength, intellectual skills, organizational skills, charisma, and even certain demagogical techniques. Despite the fact that individuals try to impose their own will by means of such contrasting elements, they do not give up their approach. The struggle never ends, as “in reality, and according to the experience we have today, the elimination of struggle will be impossible” (Weber, 1971). In this manner, Weber sees conflict as an irreducible social relation. Peace is only a state which eliminates violent means, but not the possibility of conflict, as it uses different means for the latter. Conflict is in fact irreducible due to the polytheism of values. The rationalisation movement (law) and the monopoly of legitimate 71


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violence manage to eliminate only the violent forms of conflict, not the conflict itself. While to Durkheim the origin of conflict was unique, originating in the situation of the labour division, Weber detaches himself from this vision, on the grounds of its limitation to the economic aspect only. Thus, the focus lies only to a small extent on the actors’ own will to impose their power as individuals vying with one another. Unlike Durkheim’s point of view, conflict is perceived by Weber as “normal” in all societies, stating the impossibility of its disappearance. As a result, conflict is not inherent to just a certain stage in the evolution of humanity, considered as dysfunctional. Since Weber, the notion of conflict has acquired a new dimension, as it is indispensable to the social world. So, it loses its “pathological” character and changes into an analytic concept valid in any social system. Contrary to what the functionalist sociology or the theory of Durkheim’s corporatism is trying to prove, certain researchers promote the idea of conflict as an efficient means of socialisation, as groups do not come all out of Jupiter’s rib. On the contrary, they form and assert themselves in conflict and confrontation. Besides, the elimination of repulsive and destructive energies does not lead to a richer collective life. This approach, also supported by Georg Simmel, considers conflict as a factor of socialisation, as it is an integral part of life in society. Getting his inspiration from the same interactionist tradition as Weber, Georg Simmel grants conflict a considerable social importance. Society needs not only association, but also competition. ”Conflict, one of the living forms of interaction that cannot be performed by one individual, represents an association process. The dissociation factors - hatred, envy, need, desire – are the causes of conflict. Thus conflict has the mission to solve these divergent dualisms; it represents a means to rebuild a certain unity, even at the cost of completely destroying one of the parts in conflict” (Simmel, 1995, pp. 13-14). Therefore conflict is not a disastrous cause of a dysfunction (Lallement, 1997, p. 172), but a source of regulation, unifying in character, integrating at the same time the various social fields and forms: family, political party, industry, church... That is why, the confrontation among the actors, and not the structures, appears as a positive process of social life, as Simmel does not see it as 72


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“pathological”. This confrontation is able to provide unity, even if it does not always lead to a harmonious society, and it is not the sign of a lack of integration of the social system. The antagonism belongs to the process of socialisation, that is why conflict is just an extension of an already existing hostility. Conflictive relations do not produce a social form, but are always in “correlation with certain unity-creating energies”. Unity is founded on the concord and cohesion of social elements, in opposition to their disjunction and exclusion. But a unity also means the global synthesis of the individuals and energies that constitute a group. The mutual repulsions among individuals generate a social system, as they create a balance among various groups. Moreover, society itself needs a quantitative relation of harmony and dissonance, sympathy and antipathy, in order to have access to a definite form. Simmel agrees to the theory according to which competition is based on the principle of individualism, but it shows that it may also play a socialising role. Conflict may even have beneficial effects since it gives the individual the feeling that he is not completely crushed in a social relation, it manages to structure social relations, and strengthens, if not creates, social identity. Besides, Simmel estimates that a conflict with the exterior reinforces the internal cohesion of a group, contributing to the increase of its centralisation. From Simmel’s perspective, the extension of the dualism of interhuman relations on all the social relations is not the result of an economic dysfunction or a dysfunction of a different nature, but instead it constitutes the invisible fabric of social life. That is why conflict is perfectly normal and represents a vital operation mode of society. This vision, contrary to Durkheim’s, was often criticised. Durkheim presumes that the presence of conflict is just a reverse of social regulation, in the sense that conflict is born from a deficit of social regulation. As previously mentioned, to Durkheim conflict is a pathological state, and social regulation is a society’s moderating tool of the individual (allowing the hierarchisation of social passions) as a moral authority. Yet one cannot possibly draw the conclusion that according to Simmel any conflict favours social regulation. “Simmel emphasizes that when the conflict aims at the mere destruction of another, then it is no different from vicious murder, and its unity function tends to zero. Dealing with conflict as a form of socialisation therefore presupposes the exclusion of this extreme case” (Watier, 2003, p. 73). 73


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4. Class conflicts A third approach has taken a central place in the intellectual and ideological debates of the 20th century, standing out by its placing the utmost importance on class conflicts in the evolution of our societies. The arguments put forward may be easily evinced if one takes into account for instance the explanation provided by Marx to social classes and class struggle. According to Marx, societies are divided in classes with uneven resources. Since there are such marked illegalities, there are also interest conflicts “incorporated” into the social system. These interest conflicts, when they reach a certain point, turn into active class struggle, which may generate processes of radical change. That is why, according to some of his interpreters, Marx insisted on the fact that these conflicts, originating in people’s divergent interests, are not accidents of social life (Sitton, 1996, p. 358) within each society, and that there are permanent conflicts in any society. Thus, he evinced the idea of conflict as first and foremost a conflict of interests, and finally a separation line shall appear between those desiring change and those opposing it. Also, as seen before, Marxist theory considers that the category of social conflicts only includes those conflicts that constitute the main driving force of social change. In Marxist logic, social conflicts are the expression of a contradictory mode of production, first contributing to the latter’s stimulation, only to end in bringing about its disappearance. To emphasize this idea in other words, Marx shows that the capitalist production is alive due to the contradictions of the capitalist society, and develops by means of social conflicts. This Marxist conception on the relation between social classes and social conflicts is thoroughly analysed by the sociologists of the past century, who saw a relation between either social conflicts and the authority relation, or social conflicts and labour conflicts, or even social conflicts and the postindustrial society. Discussing the opposition between the classic theories of conflict as the explanatory element of social change, it seems the more justified if one takes into account that Marx’s perspective, which is at the basis of many contemporary theories of social conflict, does not insist too much on the confrontation between social groups. It may 74


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thus be concluded that, in Marx’s model, conflict rather belongs to ”pathology” than ”normality” (Birnbaum, 1998, p. 263), since the occurrence and escaladation of conflicts are confined to an intermediary historical period: the triumph of capitalism and private property. At the beginning of the history of mankind, in primitive societies, harmony was reigning supreme. Presumably, it is possible for harmony to reappear only at the end of human history, in the communist society, together with the disappearance of any form of political power, that is any source of conflict. This time limitation of conflicts proves that along their centuries-long evolution societies rather tend towards community integration. So in a radical change of the traditionalist perspective, Pierre Birnbaum argues that ”for Marx and for Durkheim alike, conflict is equally ”pathologic”, as to both the ”normality” is the integration process of the social system” (Birnbaum, 1998, p. 264). In societies where a certain form of ”pathology” operates, confrontation seems somehow to result from a dysfunctional distribution of the social roles, which is generated, in Marx’s view, by the private ownership of the production means, and in Durkheim’s opinion by hereditary conveyance or even by an excessive specialisation. That is why, to both researchers of social life, conflict is just a transient state in the evolution of society, being automatically followed by community integration. To Marx, only the society which eliminates private ownership and the inequities it generates manages to eliminate the disagreements among people, and thus social integration is no longer menaced in any way. On the other hand, Durkheim considers that the eradication of confrontations is mostly connected to the functional application of the social labour division. 5. Instead of conclusions As it may be seen, all these approaches of social conflict, which is more or less visibly connected to social change are partly pertinent, and partly debatable. Despite certain abusive generalisations, the descriptions of the pathological or normal character of the social conflict are doubled by partially true explanations. Still, one should admit that these explanations share a quasi-common characteristic: the priority given to certain factors – demographic, technical, or economic - in explaining social evolution is guided by axiological judgements. That is why the normative dimension is never completely absent from 75


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the sociologists’ theories, no matter what their focus is, i.e. social conflict, or social change. 6. References Birnbaum, P. (1998). Conflictele. In R. Boudon (coord.), Tratat de sociologie, BucureUti: Humanitas. Boudon, R. & Bourricaud, F. (1990). Dictionnaire critique de la sociologie, Paris: PUF. Durkheim, É. (2001). Diviziunea muncii sociale, BucureUti: Albatros. Durkheim, É. (2005). Sinuciderea. Studiu sociologic, Bucure ti: Antet XX Press. Duverger, M. (1973). Sociologie de la politique, Paris: PUF. Giddens, A. (2000). Sociologie, BucureUti: All. Lallement, M. (1997). Istoria ideilor sociologice, vol. 2, Bucure ti: Antet. Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1958). Opere, vol. 3, BucureUti: Politic%. Simmel, G. (1995). Le conflict, Saulxures: Circé. Sitton, J. F. (1996). Recent marxian theory: class formation and social conflict in contemporary capitalism, New York: State University of New York Press. Watier, P. (2003). Georg Simmel: sociologue, Editions Circé. Weber, M. (1971). Économie et Société, Paris: Plon.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 77-88

Abstract: The forces of the Soviet Union and of Poland, Germany, Bulgaria and Hungary invaded Czechoslovakia in the night of August 20-21st 1968. According to a NATO document in the decision of invasion took by the Soviet leaders “there was possibly a fear that Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania might form a little entente”. Soviet action in Czechoslovakia was seen by NATO analyst as a “holding operation” rather than a further stage in a programme of Soviet expansion. These analyst believed that the continued strain in SovietRomanian and SovietYugoslav relations inject a notable element of uncertainty into the situation.

A BRITISH – ROMANIAN CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION DURING THE CZECHOSLOVAK CRISIS IN 1968 Marian ZIDARU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a

Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences

Keywords: Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Michael Stewart, Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu

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The forces of the Soviet Union and of Poland, Germany, Bulgaria and Hungary invaded Czechoslovakia in the night of August 20-21st 1968. The Soviet leaders inheriting an empire based largely on the use of force, have long had the problem of ensuring of cohesion of the structure within which evolutionary an centrifugal forces have been at work. On this problem of cohesion there was a long post-war record of sharp disputes with Yugoslavia, Albania and Romania, as well as of internal trouble in the Soviet Zone of Germany, Poland and especially the Hungary of 1956. According to a NATO document in the decision of invasion took by the Soviet leaders “there was possibly a fear that Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania might form a little entente”. Soviet action in Czechoslovakia was seen by NATO analyst as a “holding operation” rather than a further stage in a programmed Soviet expansion. These analyst believed that the continued strain in Soviet-Romanian and Soviet-Yugoslav relations inject a notable element of uncertainty into the situation. They didn’t exclude the possibility of a further increase of soviet pressure, up to and including military action against Romania and or Yugoslavia. They also recommended the Western governments to consider the question of helping both Rumania and Yugoslavia in coping with such pressure, in anticipation of the possibilities that these countries might seek such assistance (Zidaru Marian, 2010, p. 164). At 6 September the British Prime Minister discussed with the Foreign Minister and the Secretary of Defence on the possibility on a Soviet attack against Yugoslavia and Romania. They agreed they could expect a greater impatience with Romania and Yougoslavia if they continue to criticize Soviet policy in Czechoslovakia. In the opinion of British officials the occupation of Romania would not touch western vital security interest but was another matter for the balance of power in Europe and the Security of NATO (Zidaru Marian, 2010, p. 167) In this context the British Government made an attempt to encourage the Romanian Government to maintain his position of resistance the Soviet attempt to implement The Brejnev Doctrine by force. So in the first decade of September Michael Stewart, the British Foreign Secretary, arrived in Bucharest. At 9 September, in the morning, he had a meeting with Romanian leader, Nicolae Ceausescu. Nicolae Ceausescu expressed his satisfaction at Michel Stewart’s visit. He believed that relations between Britain and 78


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Rumania were developing well. There had been a number of valuable visits to each country in recent months (in 1967/1968) and a number of important agreements had been reached. Stewart referred to the forthcoming visit of Lord Brown (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfred_Brown,_Baron_Brown) to open the Industrial Exhibition. He understood that the Rumanian Government thought Wedgwood Bennâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Benn) visit important and interesting Nicolae Ceausescu said this was so. Rumania was undertaking a vast programme of economic development witch offered wide opportunities for co-operation. Romania and Great Britain were living in a world where economic co-operation played an important part in the development of relations between States. He believed that within the framework of peaceful co-operation in Europe conditions could be created in which a recourse to force would be impossible. Michel Stewart said that the future of Europe did indeed depend on this. As regards Rumaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development programme, he thought that British industrial firms could be of great help. He mentioned in this connection those who were working on great help. He mentioned in this connection those who were working on irrigation projects in Rumania. The development of this co-operation depended however on a guarantee of peace, and he looked forward to exchanging views with the President on the larger European questions President Ceausescu said that Britain and Rumania had to make their own contribution to the climate of peace and co-operation. As regards economic relations between the two countries, Rumania was mainly interested in developing her industrial potential in the field Britain had experience, achievements and great productive capacity. The two countries were already co-operating there had been important results and Rumanian enterprises were very satisfied with the manner in which the co- operation was taking place. Here and there might be deficient or delays but this was not the main problem. The main difficulty was to create financial means for payment for this cooperation. Here again some progress was being made. There were particularly important opportunities in the fields of agriculture and irrigation. The Rumanian Government aimed to bring two and a half million hectares under new irrigation before 1975. This was an ambitious programme. But 1968â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drought and the long-term problem of world food production had decided the Rumanian Government to proceed. Co-operation with Britain in irrigation would therefore be 79


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particularly welcome. Stewart said that this was just the way in which Britain could help. He added however that he hoped it would be possible for Sir John Chadwick to have easier access to the technical departments. When Vasile Pungan visit London was free to contact any Ministry he wished. President Ceausescu said that this question would probably solve itself. At present economic co-operation was regulated by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and other organizations had a somewhat restricted role to play. The new measures of economic re-organization would be introduced in the autumn, and the Ministries and enterprises would then need to have more contact with abroad. The problem here was organizational and did not arise from any reservation on the part of the Rumanian Government. Foreign Secretary Stewart said there was one other question affecting British- Rumanian commercial relations witch he wished to raise in general terms. This was the unsettled claims. Because of opinion in informed circles and in Parliament this question affected trade relations. Nicolae Ceausescu agreed that trade relations were affected. He thought it was huge time to end the problem on acceptable terms. He thought it would be acceptable to have no claims at all and particularly those advanced by the Shell Company. Michael Stewart said that he was just as much in favor of a settlement, but he did not think it could take the form president Ceausescu suggested. He thought that the Shell Company’s approach was reasonable since advantage to Rumania. He hoped the Rumanian Government would give a constructive reply to the Shell Company’s approach. Ceausescu favored a comprehensive settlement. The Rumanian Government had settled in this way with the French, United States, Netherlands, Greek and Swedish Governments. A piecemeal approach would be more difficult. Stewart said that if progress could be made with the Shell Company they would be glad to re-open general negotiations on claims in London. Ceausescu suggested that experts of the two sides should be in touch. It would be necessary for both sides to take a step forward it a settlement was to be reached. Ceausescu referred to Wedgwood Benn’s visit. He thought there were good opportunities for co-operation in the scientific field. Stewart said that he understood Benn was considering the question that had been put to him in Bucharest and that the Working Parties under the Agreement for Technical Co-operation were making good progress. Commenting on a reference by Stewart to his speech on Anglo-Rumanian relations to the National Assembly last year, Mr. 80


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Ceausescu said that he thought the two Governments could express satisfaction over the state of their bilateral relations. They could also biped to widen their co-operation in order to solve other problems in the field of European security (Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, FCO 28/41). Michael Stewart said he would be glad to hear the Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s views on European security. Until recently prospects for a better East-West understanding had been bright and bilateral relations had been improving amongst the countries of East and West Europe. The signature of the Non-Proliferation Treaty had been another landmark and he was glad that Rumania had been amongst the early signatories despite reservations she had expressed previously. There had been other encouraging signs. Unhappily recent developments had damaged the trust can which all this progress depended this trust and the Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s views had been echoed unanimously in Parliament. The prospects for better understanding although it had to be recognized that would be more difficult. President Ceausescu said that the Rumanian Government agreed that over the past few yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; positive steps had been taken towards European security. He also believed that a majority of European States had co-operated in doing so on the basis of a more realistic approach to the situation in Europe. He could not conceal that the Federal German Government had not come forward sufficiently to keep in line with this tendency. The reiteration by the Federal Government of old and rigid position did not encourage this positive development. He criticized three things in particular. First, the Federal Government claimed to be the sole representative of Germany. Secondly, they refused to recognize the second German State. Thirdly, they refused to recognize the existing frontiers as the final frontiers of Germany. The attitude of the Federal Government on these three points maintained tension and uncertainty. Ceausescu went on to say that Stewart would know the attitude of the Rumanian Government to recent event. The Rumanians thought there was no justification for the action that had then been taken. It seemed that agreement had been reached Moscow. He thought that action should be taken to put this into effect. The Rumanian Government believed that what had happened should not hinder progress towards better understandings amongst European States. Indeed it might be even more necessary now to work towards this goal in order to reach solution to existing problems which would 81


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banish once and for all the possibility of the use of force between States. This however presupposed agreements and that there would be safeguards and guarantees to make good promises made. All States should work towards this aim. There would be those who said that dĂŠtente was now no longer possible since that for it had been destroyed. They might even seek to exploit recent events to create such a situation. The Rumanian Government on the other believed that all States should step up their efforts to improve relations altered by the recent events. Ceausescu then said that he wished to tell Stewart frankly of the continued importance he attached to the problem of Germany. The recognition of two German States and the establishment of relations with both would have a great influence on the course of events. The fact was that two States existed in Germany and would continue to exist for some time to come. Recognition would be a great stride forward towards a healthy relationship in Europe. Stewart said he thought Ceausescu was right in saying that Germany was at the heart of the European problem. But there was a different way of looking at their problem. He could understand why Mr. Ceausescu saw the German problem as he did. Britain and Rumania had every reason to entertain fears of an aggressive Germany. The events of the fact that the Federal German Government through its present ostpolitik had been seeking better relations with Eastern Europe. They had abandoned the Hallestein Doctrine. The Federal Government had specifically ruled out all attempts to alter Germanyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frontiers by force: which took the same view, added significance to this undertaking (Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, FCO 28/41). Stewart went on to say that it had been agreed at Potsdam that Germany should be treated as a unity and that its frontiers should be determined at a peace treaty. In the same way the Allied Powers had been accorded certain rights in Berlin. These rights were being challenged from time to time. In view of this he did not think that the view of the Federal Government, which the British Government shared, that a final settlement should await a peace treaty was unreasonable. Stewart added that the fact that East German troops had taken part in the occupation of Czechoslovakia would not encourage either the British Government or the Federal Government to look with favour on the idea of recognizing East Germany. Stewart said that the questions of recognition and the frontiers were 82


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not matters on which we should expect to reach agreement immediately. It must see whether, while accepting that they adopted different attitudes to these problems, anything could be done meanwhile to improve relationships. This was precisely what the Federal Government had been trying to do and why they had been disappointed at being rebuffed by the Soviet Government. Turning Mr. Ceausescuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comment on Soviet action in Czechoslovakia Michael Stewart agreed that it should not make this an excuse for giving up all attempts at reaching understanding between East and West. But it would be easier for British Government to know what would be the best thing to do if they knew why the Russians had acted as they had. Could Mr. Ceausescu say to what extent the Russians had really been concerned about the security of the Warsaw Pact as a whole and how far they had been concerned about liberalization in Czechoslovakia? Could Mr. Ceausescu also say why the Russians had invaded Czechoslovakia without allowing time to see how the agreements reached at Cierna and Bratislava were working out? President Ceausescu said that the problems Foreign Secretary Stewart had touched on were complicated. We should proceed from the central problem of Germany which was a matter of deep concern for all who had suffered at the hand of Hitleriste Germany. It was not enough to restate known positions of this problem. Politicians were called upon to find solutions. For this daring was needed. They should disregard what proved an obstacle in the way of a settlement in Europe. What had happened in Czechoslovakia could be interpreted as a reflection of old attitudes with regard to Germany. There was a real fear of action which a future Government in Germany might take in support of her claims. At one time the Rumanian Government had appreciated the attitude of the Federal Republic, but the Germans should have gone further and at a quicker pace. Ceausescu thought that Germanyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Allies could help her to reach a better understanding with other European State. In politics one did not do all one wanted to do but might prove necessary Security in Europe was a general necessity and it was intimately connected with the attitude of the Federal Republic. In the absence of a new approach it was difficult to see how progress could be made. There should therefore be a fresh analysis in order to reach a solution. A shock might have to be administrated but the time for this had perhaps not yet come. 83


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Stewart then asked whether Mr. Ceausescu could answer the third question he had put to him, namely why the Russians had acted so soon after the meetings at Cierna and Bratislava? Ceausescu said this was difficult since he had not been present on either occasion or even when the final decision to intervene had been taken. In all logic such a position should have been avoided. When he had done analyzing all the pros and cons about these developments he found he came back to the maintenance by the Federal German Republic of their claims as the cause of the trouble. With regard to the Mr. Ceausescu had expressed that Germany’s frontiers might be altered by force, Stewart said he hoped he could persuade Mr Ceausescu to take a more favorable view of the Federal Government’s attitude. He thought Mr. Ceausescu under-estimated the efforts the Germans had made to improve relations with the countries of Eastern Europe. Whatever view he might take of the Federal Republic none of Germany’s allies in Europe would lift a tinker to alter any frontier in Germany’s favour; and the Germans knew this. For this reason Mr. Ceausescu’s fears had no reality (Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, FCO 28/41). As regards East Germany, Stewart thought it was fair to ask whether that State would exist without the very considerable military support it received from the Soviet Union. No one doubted that Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Great Britain were real countries. But there was not the same certainty about East Germany. For British Government to recognize East Germany would be tantamount to accepting that Soviet Union had the right to do things which were specifically ruled out at Potsdam. It was particularly unreasonable to suggest these immediately after Soviet troops had been used in Czechoslovakia. This would look like offering the Russian a reward for their actions in Czechoslovakia. Stewart went on to say that way responsible for Nazism. They had grown up with a Government which had sought to improve its relations with Eastern Europe. If these efforts were rebuffed the young people might think in terms of some other approach. Stewart reminded Ceausescu that the NATO countries in the communiqué issued after their meeting at Reykjavik in June had made it clear that if the countries of the Warsaw Pact were interested in a reduction of forces in Europe this would be reciprocated. NATO was engaged in a military and technical study to see how this could become a reality. 84


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Despite recent event they could still make progress in this direction even though they disagreed on Germany. Ceausescu said it seemed that they were not in disagreement as to the future of Germany. The problem of a final settlement was not a topical issue. Young people in Britain, Rumanian or Russia looked at these problems without preconceived ideas. He liked the thinking of the young. They were not hampered by old prejudices. Ceausescu then said Mr. Stewart had asked how Britain could be expected to recognize East Germany. His answer was: in the same way as Rumanian had recognized the Federal German Republic. Politicians should recognize facts. There were two German States. Failure to recognize this could cause many other difficulties and promote tension and distrust. Stewart said he did not wish president Ceausescu to think that the British Government did not wish to see Germany reunited if that was what the German people wanted. The forcible division of Germany gave the German people a justifiable grievance. At this point Stewart said that as Mr. Ceausescu knew he would be meeting the Press. He did not wish to cause his Rumanian hosts any difficulties. Was there anything Ceausescu would wish him to say? Mr. Ceausescu suggested that Mr. Stewart might say that they had discussed bilateral relations and international problems with a view to continuing progress towards dĂŠtente. They had considered it important to try to prevent this process being stopped. In answer to Michael Stewartâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s question Ceausescu said Mr. Stewart might say that Czechoslovakia was mentioned in this context. The meeting ended at 1 p.m (Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, FCO 28/41). Conclusion During this meeting the two political leaders identify a series of problems of cooperation between Britain and Romania. They agreed to cooperate in the economic field and to continue to inform each other in the general problem of the European Security. In spite of different opinion regarding the German problem in Europe, they agreed that Soviet action in Czechoslovakia must not hinder progress towards better understandings amongst European States. They also agreed that it should not make this an excuse for giving up all attempts at reaching understanding between East and West. Both Great Britain 85


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and Rumania convicted Soviet invasion in Czechoslovakia. The Soviet image in the Third World has suffered as a result of the invasion. Third World reaction had shown how strong a moral indignation can be when it does not interfere with other interest or commit one to action. Revulsion was almost immediately expressed by Governments and public alike throughout much of the Third World. After the invasions it was difficult for Russians to establish a satisfactory image in these countries. In spite the fact that for everyone became clear that the Soviet government will use military force to prevent it, empire from falling apart, the military intervention of the Soviet and their satellites has discredited orthodox communism. The Soviet action in Czechoslovakia has applied the brakes to the liberation process in that country but it has not solved the fundamental Soviet problem of how to cope with pressure for change in Czechoslovakia, in Eastern Europe and, indeed, within the USSR itself. The gap between the rulers and ruled in Eastern Europe satellites had increased and more people than ever had been watching for the day of change not only in Czechoslovakia but also in the Soviet Zone and elsewhere. And this day will come twenty years later bringing the end of the Red Empire.

References Archives Documents: Public Record Office, Kew Gardens, FCO 28/41, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Record of Conversation between The Foreign Secretary and The President of The State Council of Rumania at The Council of State, Bucharest, at 11.30 A.M. on Monday, 9 September, 1968â&#x20AC;?. Articles in Books: Zidaru, M. (2010). NATO and the political implications of the Czechoslovak Crisis in 1968. Some British documents. In The River and the Time, Etnographic Muzeum in Tutrakan, Tutrakan.

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Online document: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfred_Brown,_Baron_Brown. Retrieved on September 30, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Benn. Retrieved on September 30, 2012.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 89-98

Abstract: The Russian intentions to annex the two Romanian Principalities to the Romanov Empire have remained constant, given the increase in the French influence in Constantinople, and the modification of the Romanian Principalities’ status, in the sense of annexing Moldavia and Wallachia, became of interest at the beginning of the 19th century. Most of the nobility from the Romanian Principalities did not grasp the idea of simply turning into instruments of tsarist policy towards the Ottoman Empire, so the Romanians were faced once again with the situation of choosing the “alliance” formula most favorable to their objectives. Keywords: tsarist Russia, Romanian Principalities, Ottoman Empire, Napoleon, Saint Petersburg, Alexander I, Romanov, Constantinople

THE ROMANIAN PRINCIPALITIES AS A SUBJECT OF INTEREST OF THE RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY Gabriel MICU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a

Faculty of Communication and Political Sciences

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Given the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812) unfolding and the rise of the Napoleonic France, the political elite of the Romanian Principalities was put in the situation of choosing the most favorable “alliance” formula, given that the representatives of the lower and middle classes no longer believed in the good intentions of tsarist Russia concerning an improvement in the status of the Principalities. The Ottomans tried to settle the dispute with tsarist Russia, generated by the deposing of the rulers in the two Romanian Principalities, by replacing the grand vizier Hafiz Ismail Pasha, in November 1806, with Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha, and that of Reis Efendi Ahmed Vasif Efendi, in October 1806, with Galib Efendi (Seyyid Mehmed Said). The sultan of Constantinople considered that the “greed or bias” of these Ottoman dignitaries had generated this political-diplomatic situation, so that, given the situation, one could still opt for the acceptance, when occupying the thrones of the two Principalities, of the rulers deposed in 1806, “provided that they would prove, from here on, concern over respecting with full attention the clauses..”(Veliman, 1984, p. 683) specified in the Hatti-Sheriffs of 1802. The sultan hoped, thus, that tsar Alexander I would not insist for the reconfirmation in rule of the deposed rulers...” (Veliman, 1984, pp. 682 - 683), so that the Porte would request ambassador Andrei Italinski that “the issue be postponed until an informative note will be sent from Petersburg and a letter of answer will arrive” (Veliman, 1984). According to the instructions received from Saint Petersburg, ambassador Andrei Italinski handed over an ultimatum to the Ottoman Porte, warning that if in three days term the sultan did not reinstate on the thrones Constantin Ipsilanti and Alexandru Moruzi, he would leave the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Disgruntled by the Ottoman Empire’s refusal to implement the provisions of secret article 4, of the treaty agreed upon in 1805, which stipulated free passage of Russian warships through the straits, tsarist Russia threatened to break diplomatic ties. Shortly after, the chief commander of the Russian armies, stationed on the Dniester line, general I. I. Michelson, received the order to invade Moldavia 90


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(October 16 1806). The war started despite the fact that meanwhile the Porte accepted another request of Russia, on October 3rd 1806, and notified Andrei Italinski that princes Alexandru Moruzi and Constantin Ipsilanti, previously deposed by the sultan under the influence of the French diplomacy, were reinstated in their rights. Following the decision of the sultan of Constantinople, ambassador Andrei Italinski wrote, on October 6th 1806, in a letter sent to tsar Alexander I, that “the Porte has bowed to the will of His Imperial Majesty” (Radion, 2006, p. 77). The actions of the French diplomacy alongside the Ottoman Porte affected Russia’s interests in the Oriental Problem, so that, after the military occupation of the Romanian Principalities by the Russians, Reinhard, the French consul to IaUi, was arrested and expelled from Moldavia, at the end of 1806. The gesture of the Russian authorities would severely affect the French consulate activity in the Romanian Principalities in the conditions of the development of the Russo-Turkish war (1806 - 1812), as well as the fluctuations in the Franco-Russian relations. Despite the efforts undertaken by the Ottoman diplomats, as well as the optimism shown by ambassador Andrei Italinski, tsar Alexander I ordered, on November 11th 1806 that the Russian imperial troops enter the Romanian Principalities without any prior declaration of war. The occupation of the Romanian Principalities by the Russian armies in November - December 1806 is in direct connection with the counteraction against France’s actions in the European Orient, which contravened with the interests of tsarist Russia. Tsar Alexander I declared that the Romanian Principalities were occupied “temporarily and not with the intent to annex them to Russia and neither with the intent to take them from the Porte” (Radion, 2006, p. 78). On December 15th 1806, Constantin Ipsilanti entered Bucharest, accompanied by general I. I. Michelson and read a proclamation of the tsar through which he was notifying the inhabitants of Moldavia and Wallachia that the purpose of the Russian occupation represented, based on the compliance of the authorities of the two countries, the deployment of military actions needed for “the 91


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consolidation of the countries and the full attainment of their rights” (Radion, 2006, p. 78). In such a situation, the Ottoman Porte was forced to officially declare war on tsarist Russia, on December 15th 1806, a decision made public in the two Principalities through the manifest of December 24th 1806. In an informative note, from November 2nd 1806, addressed to Merfeldt, the ambassador of Austria to Saint Petersburg, baron Budberg, the foreign affairs minister of tsar Alexander I, showed that Russia only wanted to bring back the Porte “to the principles of which it has distanced itself despite its interest and commitments” (Radion, 2006, p. 78), and in a declaration on behalf of the Saint Petersburg government, the same Budberg, on November 4th 1806, stated that “the occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia did not have any other purpose but that to persuade the Porte to reestablish the old existent relations between the Porte and Russia according to the treaties” (Radion, 2006). The Russian intentions to annex the two Romanian Principalities to the Romanov Empire were not new, so that, given the rise in the French influence at Constantinople, A. R. Voron2ov, the tsarist Russia minister of foreign affairs, suggested to the tsar, ever since 1803, to occupy the Principalities under the pretext of defending “these Turkish provinces” from the French threat. At the same time, Adam Czartoryski, the new foreign affairs minister of tsar Alexander I, suggested to him, in the memoir from January 11th 1806, the need to modify the status of the Romanian Principalities, in the sense of annexing Moldavia and Wallachia. The general consul of Russia in the Principalities, I. F. Bolkunov, tried at the same time to convince the Moldavian nobility to demand themselves the entrance of the tsarist troops in Moldavia. The Russian political and military maneuvers have drawn the attention of the American consul from Smyrna, Robert Wilkinson, who informed Washington about “the banishment – decided by the Porte, of the rulers in the Principalities, Constantin Ipsilanti and Alexandru Moruzi, about the failed attempt of compromise with Russia, then about the entrance of the tsarist armies in Moldavia, Wallachia and Dobrogea, as a result of the outbreak of the war...and, finally, about the peace negotiations meant to take place 92


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in Bucharest, negotiations for which the consul did not foresee too many chances because of the territorial claims stated by Russia” (Vitcu, 2000, pp. 19-20). The majority of the nobility from the Romanian Principalities did not grasp the idea of simply turning into instruments of tsarist policy towards the Ottoman Empire. The diplomatic intervention of ambassador Andrei Italinski, in a conference held with Reis-Efendi, on March 24th 1806, in which the Russian representative let him believe that “Russia, as a protector of the two Christian countries would not allow Pasvan Oglu to attack Wallachia” (Holban, 1939, p. 5). A special emissary of the tsar, sent to Constantinople, at the beginning of April 1806, with the mission “to summon the sultan to declare upfront if he is in favor of Russia – England or in favor of France” (Holban, 1939, p. 5), best revealed the interests of tsarist Russia. In order to convince him, “the tsar’s emissary explained to the sultan that aid from France would arrive very late, and in the meantime Russia would occupy the Romanian Countries and Bulgaria ...” (Holban, 1939, p. 5). Referring to those historic moments, historian Rodion Palaghia wrote: “in those circumstances, the Romanians saw themselves again in the situation of opting for the most favorable, to their own objectives, «alliance» formula, in the political orientation of the Romanian an essential change had arisen, especially in the representatives of lower and middle classes, in the sense that they no longer believed in the good intentions of Russia, because the tsar had deceived their hopes of improving the status of the Principalities, since it had participated already at the dividing of the Polish state” (Radion, 2006, pp. 80 – 81). After the French victory at Friedland (June 14th 1807), Napoleon I will establish, on June 25th 1807, with tsar Alexander I at Tilsit, on the river Niémen, “sinon une amitié, du moins une alliance en apparence solide” (Radion, 2006, p. 55), materialized into three international Russo-French diplomatic acts: The Treaty of Peace and Friendship, (the) separated and secret Articles of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and the Treaty of offensive and defensive alliance between France and Russia. At Tilsit, the two emperors have divided 93


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the spheres of influence in Europe, accomplishing “an alliance...to divide the world: to Napoleon – the West, to Alexander – the East” (Radion, 2006, p. 93). Historian Benoît Pellistrandi wrote referring to this alliance, the following: “L'alliance franco-russe de Tilsit (1807) devait constituer aux yeux de Napoléon l'axe de stabilisation de l'Europe. La domination française en Alleniagne et en Italie, la marginalisation de l'Autriche affaiblie par des défaites successives, la lutte contre l'Angleterre demandaient que la paix avec la Russie soit garantie” (Pellistrandi, 2000, p. 28). The fall of the Ottoman Empire, visible in the first decade of the 19th century, allowed France and tsarist Russia to negotiate without the permission of Turkey, areas of influence and territories under the suzerainty or domination of the Ottomans, such as the Romanian Principalities. “Depuis Tilsit, les impérialismes français et russe sont, en vérité en situation de concurrence, moins peut-être sur le plan territorial que sur le plan symbolique et politique. À cet égard, la volonté d'Alexandre d'obtenir des équivalents à chaque avancée de Napoléon le montre bien” ” (Pellistrandi, 2000, p. 29), Benoît Pellistrandi wrote. In the new geopolitical context, doubled by the Russo-Turkish war which was in full effect, the tsarist Russia’s policy towards the Romanian Principalities would meet a visible change in the autumn of 1807. At the beginning of the Russo-Turkish conflict, A. I. Budberg, tsarist Russia’s minister of foreign affairs would declare that the Russians did not want to annex Moldavia and Wallachia, but only the existence of some normal political relations between Saint Petersburg and Constantinople. Appointing in the position of chancellor of count Rumian2ev determined the shift of the main focus of the tsarist external policy towards the South-Eastern European region, having as a purpose, mainly, the division of Ottoman territories, given that Rumian2ev was convinced of the fact that: “the two eyes of Russia are the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea” (Radion, 2006, p. 59). The ambassador of tsarist Russia to Paris, P. A. Tolstoi, warned about the fact that Napoleon “who came back from Spain, shall deal with the...North” (Radion, 2006, p. 60), but he was ignored. This represented the convergence point between the two emperors who, at 94


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those times, dominated Europe, respectively Napoleon I and tsar Alexander I. “In the battle fought for the conquest of hegemony on the continent and the kneeling of England, Napoleon took into consideration with great attention the situation of the Ottoman Empire and the two Romanian states under its suzerainty” (Radion, 2006, p. 60), historian Sergiu Columbeanu wrote. Emperor Napolen I did not acknowledge in the documents signed at Tilsit that the Romanian Principalities belonged to tsarist Russia, but, on the contrary, he insisted to note their evacuation by the Russian troops. Napoleon I tried to delay as much as possible the annexation of the Romanian Principalities, and even tried to make the tsar pay “plus cher cette acquisition” (Radion, 2006, p. 60). However, Napoleon I admitted through the secret Convention from Erfurt (October 21st 1808) the legitimacy of incorporating the Romanian Principalities in the tsarist Russia, which represents a proof of the fact that “the skill of Russian diplomacy had triumphed once again” (Radion, 2006, p. 61). The secret objective of the French emperor was, in fact, to gain the Russian alliance in order to defeat Great Britain while the Russians needed the alliance with the French because they wanted to extend their borders in the direction of the Danube inlets and Constantinople. The Russian interest towards the Romanian Principalities shifted as the events from the international relations arena evolved, in the context of the new political alliances, so from the idea of drawing them in, with the support of France, in “the sphere of influence” of tsarist Russia, they reached the idea of their direct incorporation in conformity with the provisions established at Tilsit. In the Russo-Turkish peace treaties started at Slobozia, on August 12th 1807, there was also the mentioning that the Russians, as well as the Turks, will abstain, until the signing of peace, from any interference in the administration of the Romanian Principalities.

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Conclusion The withdrawal order of the Russian armies was, however, called off by tsar Alexander I, as a result of the advice of its foreign affairs minister, A. I. Budberg, who believed that the only part favored by the previously named decision was the Ottoman Porte. The denouncement of the secret agreement by the French in 1809 will save, for the time being, the Romanian Principalities, but this was the mark for the huge political-diplomatic effort which the Romanians will make for the entire 19th century, and later on, to conserve the national entity, for freedom and national sovereignty. Thus, the Romanian Principalities would become the center point of a fierce diplomatic confrontation between the Great Powers interested in ruling over the Danube inlets and to conserve or destroy the unity of the Ottoman Empire. References: Boicu, L. Principatele Române în raporturile politice internaIionale. Secolul al XVIII-lea [The Romanians Principalities in the international political relations. The XVIIIth century], IaUi: Junimea. Carpentier, J. & Leburn, F. (1997). Istoria Europei [The History of Europe], BucureUti: Humanitas. Columbeanu, S. (1976). ContribuIii privind situaIia internaIionalJ a ]Jrilor Române între anii 1806-1812 [Rontibutions regarding to the international situation between 1806-1812]. In Review of History, Tomul 29, Nr. 5, 1976. Holban, T. (1939). Documente române6ti din arhivele franceze (1801 - 1812) [Romanian Documents from French Archives (18011812)], BucureUti. IonaUcu, I. & B%rbulescu, P. Gh. (1971). RelaIiile internaIionale ale României în documente (1368 – 1900). Culegere selectivJ de tratate, acorduri, convenIii 6i alte acte cu caracter internaIional [The International relations of Romania in documents. Selective collections of treaties, agreements, conventions and other documents with international character], BucureUti: Politic%.

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Pellistrandi, B. (2000). Les relations internationales de 1800 à 1871 [The international relations from 1800 until 1812], Paris: Armând Colin/HER. Radion, P. (2006). Principatele Române în politica externJ a Rusiei (1815 – 1856) [The Romanian Principalities in Russia’s External Policy (1815 – 1856)], BucureUti: Oscar Print Publishing. Veliman, V. (1984). RelaIiile româno-otomane (1711-1821). Documente turce6ti [The Romanian-Ottoman Relations (17111821). Turkish Documents], BucureUti. Vitcu, D. (2000). RelaIiile româno-americane timpurii. ConvergenIedivergenIe [Early Romanian-American Relations. ConvergencesDivergences], BucureUti: Albatros.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 99-118

Abstract: La communication interne se voit attribuer de nombreuses fonctions des plus élémentaires (transmission des informations) aux plus élaborées (impliquer et motiver le personnel, communiquer la crise). Ces fonctions sont plus ou moins développées selon le degré d’importance accordé par l’équipe dirigeante et sa place occupée au sein de la structure organisationnelle. Par ailleurs, la communication interne est en principe omniprésente en entreprise d’une manière ou d’une autre. Elle concerne la transmission des informations que les responsables souhaitent effectuer ou faire partager avec leurs collaborateurs. Elle exige également l’écoute de leurs problèmes sociaux, de leurs réclamations, suggestions ou proposition afin d’améliorer les conditions du travail et du climat social (motiver le personnel, les informer du devenir ou les décisions prises, éviter les conflits sociaux, etc.).

L’IMPORTANCE DE LA COMMUNICATION INTERNE DANS LES ENTREPRISES: CAS DU GROUPE OCP Driss M. BAAKIL Université Hassan 1er. de Settat Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Khouribga Youness M. BOUTHIR Université Hassan 1er. de Settat Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion

Keywords: Communication interne, entreprises

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1. Introduction générale Dans le contexte actuel de mondialisation des économies, de la vivacité de la concurrence et la multiplication des échanges d’informations tous azimuts, les réseaux et les techniques de communication connaissent un développement sans précèdent. Ce qui a imposé dans le management des entreprises modernes, l’instauration d’un système efficace de la communication aussi bien au niveau interne qu’externe. D’ailleurs, « la logique de la communication globale repose sur une cohérence entre les différents modes d’expression de l’entreprise externe et interne afin d’en rechercher des synergies. Il semble difficile de développer une image externe sans se soucier de l’adhésion et de l’implication du personnel qui constitue le premier vecteur d’image d’une entreprise et l’acteur de la mise en œuvre de sa politique» Demont-Lugol, Kempf, Rapidel, Scibetta, 2006, p. 257). Dans ce sens, la communication interne revêt une importance capitale dans la compétitivité et la performance des entreprises. Il convient maintenant de bien communiquer au sein de l’organisation afin de bien gérer ses ressources humaines, de mobiliser ses compétences et d’obtenir l’adhésion de tout son personnel pour atteindre ses objectifs communs. En fait, les moyens de communication interne ont connu une évolution croissante et continue dans le temps et dans l’espace. C’est ainsi que vers 1890, apparaissent les premiers journaux internes au sein des entreprises comme supports de communication avec le personnel. Cependant, il fallait attendre environ tout un siècle pour que la fonction de communication interne soit vraiment identifiée comme fonction stratégique et à part entière. Les années 80 verront s’institutionnaliser « les chargés de communication interne » ou « responsable de communication interne » ; puis, par la suite, vont naître les premières agences de conseil et d’audit en la matière. D’autre moyens, vont voir le jour avec le progrès technologique notamment en télécommunication et l’Internet, pour donner un coup de pousse à la fonction en l’occurrence, l’intranet, les visioconférences, télétravail, etc.

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Par conséquent, la communication interne en entreprise doit préconiser le bon fonctionnement de la structure organisationnelle et culturelle. Pour certains, elle est accusée, aujourd'hui, de sa responsabilité de dysfonctionnement du travail de la fonction Ressources Humaines (RH) du fait qu’il investit plus de temps et d’énergie à communiquer. Elle est donc perçue comme source de problèmes de productivité, source de malentendus avec la pléthore des informations échangées et de désaccords en matière de canaux de transmission à tous les niveaux hiérarchiques. Pour d’autres, la communication interne est considérée comme le parent pauvre de la GRH pour plusieurs entités économiques. Les besoins en matière de communication se sentent avec acuité, au sein de la plupart des entreprises de nos jours aussi bien sur le plan horizontal, transversal et surtout et vertical. C’est le manque ou l’insuffisance de communication en interne explique en grande partie les causes de l’absence ou de la faiblesse des résultats obtenus et des performances constatées. Au-delà de ce débat théorique de la nécessité ou non de la communication dans les entreprises, notre attention sera focalisée principalement sur la mise en lumière du concept de la communication interne comme une fonction stratégique au sein des entreprises modernes. Par ailleurs et afin de limiter notre champ d’investigation, nous proposons d’étudier la communication interne au sein de l’une des plus entreprises industrielles marocaines à savoir le Groupe ‘’Office Chérifien des Phosphates’’ (OCP). Ce dernier qui est considéré comme le premier producteur et exportateur mondiale des Phosphates et dérivés, emploie presque vingt milles personnes répartis sur plusieurs centres régionaux d’extraction et de production. Dans le cadre de cet article, nous allons présenter le cadre théorique du concept de communication interne au sein des entreprises. Nous mettrons en relief le degré d’importance de la communication interne au sein des entreprises marocaines en analysant l’expérience de l’OCP en la matière. 2. Définitions et objectifs de la communication interne 2.1. Définition de la communication Le verbe communiquer vient de “mettre en commun” des faits ou “partager”. La communication c’est l'action, le fait de communiquer, d'établir une relation avec autrui, de transmettre 101


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quelque chose à quelqu'un, l'ensemble des moyens et techniques permettant la diffusion d'un message auprès d'une audience plus ou moins vaste et hétérogène et l'action pour quelqu'un, une entreprise d'informer et de promouvoir son activité auprès du public, d'entretenir son image, par tout procédé médiatique ou canaux. Une entreprise peut être amenée à communiquer avec les publics qui l’intéressent, dans différents buts. En général, on distingue plusieurs typologies de la communication de l’entreprise adressées à divers publics-cibles (la communication politique, orientée vers les collectivités publiques nationales ou locales, la communication sociale visant à créer des attitudes et des comportements positifs à l’égard de cause d’intérêt général, la communication financière, dirigée vers les actionnaires de l’entreprise, les banques et institutions financières, la communication commerciale ou marketing orientée essentiellement vers le client, la communication interne, c’est à dire celle qui est dirigée vers le personnel de l’entreprise, etc.) En somme, ces différents types de communication interagissent ensemble de manière complémentaire en vue de construire le capital marque et forger une bonne image de l’entreprise auprès de ses différents partenaires (actionnaires, banquiers, fournisseurs, client, pouvoirs publics, concurrent). L’objectif central de la communication global s’inscrit dans la construction d’une image de l’entreprise visant à fédérer le personnel en interne et à valoriser la notoriété de l’entreprise en externe auprès des autres partenaires. Afin d’identifier le contenu du concept de communication en particulier celui effectuée en interne des entreprises, nous proposons quelques définitions. En effet, selon Westphalen: « la communication interne englobe l’ensemble des actes de communication qui se produisent à l’intérieur d’une entreprise. Ses modalités varient d’une organisation à l’autre. Elle n’intervient qu’à l‘intérieur de l’entreprise établissement/organisation. Elle a pour cible exclusive l’ensemble des salariés de l’entreprise, quels que soient leur statut, leur métier, leur formation, leur lieu de travail ou leur ancienneté » (Westphalen, 2004) Une autre définition de la communication précise qu’elle “est destinée aux différents personnels de l’entreprise pour les informer sur l’entreprise, ses objectifs, son fonctionnement, ses résultats, ses difficultés, etc. au-delà de l’information, il s’agit de mobiliser, d’entraîner l’adhésion des salariés, de créer un sentiment d’appartenance de manière à améliorer le fonctionnement global de 102


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l’entreprise et à favoriser la construction de l’image. Cette image de l’entreprise dépend aussi de l’image diffusée par ceux qui travaillent en son sein” Demont-Lugol, Kempf, Rapidel, Scibetta, 2006). En plus, nous pensons que les véritables déperditions de la communication interne résident d’abord dans le filtre qui résume assez bien les difficultés de la communication entre les différentes parties internes de l’entreprise. Il peut s’agir de la quantité et la qualité des messages transmis, le feedback attendu, l’interprétation des informations reçues, etc.). Seulement, la précision des objectifs de la communication demeurent au cœur des préoccupations de la mission de communication en interne en fonction des parties concernées. 2.2. Les objectifs et la place de la communication interne La communication interne est l’élément central qui permet la circulation et l’échange réciproques des flux d’information entre plusieurs parties concernées (la direction générale et le reste du personnel, tous les membres de l’entreprise quelque soit son niveau hiérarchique). Elle est répondra aux attentes d'informations toutes aussi irrépressibles que légitimes des salariés ; on ne peut pas demander à des hommes de participer à une œuvre collective en aveugle, ils ont besoin de comprendre ou l'entreprise va, ils ont besoin d'être reconnu pour leurs compétences, ils ont besoin d'être écoutés. Une bonne communication a un effet positif sur le climat interne, sur l'opinion que les salariés ont pour l'entreprise et sur son image globale. De son côté, Béatrice (Vacher, 1997) dans son livre intitulé « la Gestion de l'information en entreprise » déclare qu'en matière d'information et de communication en entreprise, les responsabilités sont partagées: le personnel doit écouter, promouvoir des projets collectifs, coordonner et coopérer. Elle montre également que l'information et la communication sont des armes économiques pour l'entreprise en ce sens que les décisions sont prises de façon collégiale et concertée, car la société évolue vers une civilisation dominée par l'information et sa maîtrise est la clef de toute réussite en entreprise. Toujours, ce même auteur propose de pérenniser et transmettre le patrimoine de connaissance qui s'est accumulé tout au long de la vie de l'organisation; identifier les points sensibles, pas seulement au sens de l'activité, mais plus dans le sens de la compréhension collective des employés d'une même organisation. De l’embauche au licenciement en par le développement et le renforcement de la politique de l’entreprise la communication est ce 103


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qui est le plus important au sein de la fonction GRH. Il existe à ce niveau, plusieurs objectifs (Béon, 1995, p. 126) de la communication interne dont les plus importants sont les suivants: La diffusion d’une information pertinente permettant à chacun de comprendre l’entreprise, de s’adapter en permanence aux aléas, d’être autonome et efficace à son poste de travail. L’échange, l’enrichissement réciproque, la coordination et l’interactivité entre personnes ou entités. Enfin, l’adhésion à une ambition, des valeurs, des projets communs et la solidarité de tous. En outre, la communication interne se voit attribuer de nombreuses fonctions des plus élémentaires (transmission des informations) aux plus élaborées (impliquer et motiver le personnel, communiquer la crise). Ces fonctions sont plus ou moins développées selon le degré d’importance accordé par l’équipe dirigeante et sa place occupée au sein de la structure organisationnelle. Parmi ces fonctions, on peut citer : - La fonction logistique: circulation de l’information dans le sens descendant, ascendant, latéral. - La fonction managériale: animation et implication de tous les membres de l’entreprise quelque soit leur niveau hiérarchique pour la réalisation des objectifs. Assistance à la DRH dans l’organisation du travail en matière de recrutement, de suivi des carrières, d’élaboration des plans de formation, des conditions de travail/d’hygiène/de sécurité, etc. - La fonction économique: fédérer le personnel, véhiculer une image en interne forte et valorisante, évaluation des performances sociales, etc. - La fonction sociale: développer la relation entre l’entreprise et son personnel à travers l’instauration de l’écoute, la création de climat social, le partage des mêmes valeurs, le développement d’un sentiment d’appartenance fort à l’entreprise, prise de conscience des problèmes sociétaux ou écologiques, la recherche de consensus en cas de crise, etc. Par ailleurs, la communication interne est en principe omniprésente en entreprise d’une manière ou d’une autre. Elle concerne la transmission des informations que les responsables souhaitent effectuer ou faire partager avec leurs collaborateurs. Elle exige également l’écoute de leurs problèmes sociaux, de leurs réclamations, suggestions ou proposition afin d’améliorer les 104


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conditions du travail et du climat social (motiver le personnel, les informer du devenir ou les décisions prises, éviter les conflits sociaux, etc.). S’interroger sur les rôles dévolus à la communication interne revient à reconnaitre sa place au sein de l’entreprise en particulier dans la fonction RH et à lui attribuer ses véritables missions de circulation de l’information, d’écoute du personnel et d’implication des salariés dans la réalisation des objectifs communs de l’entreprise. Sans une bonne communication assurée par la fonction RH, on aboutit à des employés frustrés, surtout, s’ils devaient exécuter une tâche quotidienne sans savoir pourquoi ou en cas exceptionnel dans une situation de crise. Dans ce dernier cas, nous pouvons dire que “passant l’essentiel de sa vie active en entreprise, récepteur constant de message sur la nécessaire cohésion des équipes, le sens de la mobilisation, l’impératif de rentabilité, l’importance des procédures qualité, on conçoit que la crise introduise un bouleversement psychologique sur le salarié d’autant plus fort que l’entreprise a pu avoir une responsabilité effective dans l’affaire en cours. Le choc initial risque d’être amplifié par le traitement communicationnel de crise. Le fait d’apprendre par la presse les informations essentielles relatives à son entreprise lorsque celle-ci est plongée dans une crise, est un facteur majeur de démotivation qui risque de perturber longtemps après la fin de la crise” (Libaert, 2005, p. 109). C’est là qu’intervient une bonne communication aussi bien pour expliquer le pourquoi du comment d’une tâche, pour d’un côté faire circuler l’information et d’un autre les motiver. Elle sert également en cas de crise pour préparer le personnel à accepter cette situation désagréable et bouleversante de sa vie active. Fréquemment, la communication interne se borne à des actions ponctuelles de la fonction RH. Or, les modifications de comportements souhaitées exigent une poursuite des efforts au quotidien afin d’attendre les objectifs de l’entreprise. Ce qui explique le rôle stratégique de cette activité qu’il faut lui donner la place qu’elle mérite non pas dans la fonction RH mais surtout au sein de sa structure organisationnelle notamment attachée à la direction générale. En effet, si la direction générale perçoit la communication interne comme l’une des simples composantes du social, elle risque de passer au second plan après les problèmes classiques de la GRH. Dans ce cas, la communication interne devient une activité de soutien à la fonction RH utilisée en cas de nécessité (transmission de messages ou d’informations liées à une décision ou autres). Si la communication 105


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interne prend la place qu’elle mérite que ce soit au sein de la fonction RH en autant que service d’attache mais autonome, soit une fonction à part entière, cette fonction stratégique peut jouer pleinement son rôle et avoir ses propres stratégies et démarches de fonctionnement et d’évaluation. Dans la logique de suivi et d’évaluation, on peut dire que „bien que quelques responsable de communication affectent encore de prétendre que la communication ne peut être chiffrée, les professionnelles les plus expérimentés estiment au contraire que la complexité des problèmes rend nécessaires ces approches quantifiées et leur mise en perspective dans le temps. Ils reconnaissent ainsi que les tableaux de bord constituent des outils très précieux pour présenter les enjeux et pour défendre les projets et les budgets de communication auprès de leur direction (Libaert, Marco, 2006, p. 2). Par contre, le fait de l’attribuer parfois à la fonction communication au sein de l’unité organisationnelle chargée du commercial ou marketing, la communication interne peut rencontrer un problème d’identité, d’harmonie, de cohérence et de synergie entre la ce type de communication tournée essentiellement vers externe. En plus, certaines entreprises rassemblent toutes les activités de communication au sein d’une même direction, fonction confié à un directeur de la communication (Dircom). Cela peut faciliter la cohérence entre la communication en interne et en externe et favoriser leurs synergies. Mais, elle risque de se retrouver sous l’influence des techniques marketing (marketing interne ou marketing RH) surtout lorsqu’elle est destinée à jouer le seul rôle des relations publiques internes avec le personnel. Dans d’autres cas, la communication interne devient une fonction à part entière, rattachée directement à la direction générale. Elle devient par essence une fonction stratégique par son levier managérial. Mais, elle risque sa légitimité naturelle et d’être perçue par le personnel comme un simple relais de persuasion et de manipulation adoptée par la haute sphère hiérarchique (porte-parole de la direction générale). En tout état de cause, la communication interne quelque soit son attachement organisationnelle demeure incontournable. Elle a pour mission de contribuer simultanément au bon fonctionnement de l’entreprise et à la satisfaction des attentes. Communiquer en interne c’est aussi et surtout établir des relations de travail harmonieuses entre les membres de l’entreprise. Ces relations passent par l’écoute 106


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réciproque, le dialogue, la considération et la reconnaissance. Mais, quelles sont les différentes méthodes de communication en entreprise? 2.3. Les différents types de la Communication interne Pour toute organisation la communication interne s'avère nécessaire et même stratégique. C’est un outil efficace pour améliorer l'efficience de l'organisation, renforce la cohésion du groupe et stimuler la motivation, l'enthousiasme, l'efficacité et la capacité d'innovation des salaries. Chaque entreprise a de ce fait un type de communication propre à elle. La Communication descendante ou hiérarchique Ce premier type, s'adresse à l'ensemble des salariés. Elle part du haut de la pyramide hiérarchique vers les employés et les ouvriers C'est la communication du «haut vers le bas». Elle a pour but de diffuser les informations réglementaires (règlement intérieur, mesures de sécurité...), résoudre les conflits internes et informer et expliquer un projet à l'ensemble du personnel. Les supports utilisés dans ce type de communication sont le journal interne ou la lettre interne, les réunions, les notes de service, les panneaux d'affichage, le serveur Intranet, la messagerie interne (mail) ou le fax… La Communication ascendante ou salariale Ce type de communication part des salariés pour remonter vers la hiérarchie ou la direction. C'est la communication dite du «bas vers le haut». Elle peut être provoquée et organisée par les syndicats ou toute autre comite, comme elle peut être spontanée. La «communication ascendante» permet de vérifier et de détecter d'éventuelles anomalies en matière de communication interne dans l'entreprise et faire remonter par la suite à la direction les réclamations et les attentes des salariés, à travers un dialogue et une écoute active. Ce type de communication peut passer par la forme des tracts, de dialogue, de boîte à idée, de journal syndical, d'affichage, des lettres ouvertes, des débats, des réunions d'expression, des sondages, etc. La Communication horizontale ou latérale Cette dernière favorise l’échange de l’information entre les différents acteurs de l'organisation, de collègue à collègue, il n’y a ici aucune notion de hiérarchie. C’est un échange d’égal à égal. Ce type Communication a pour objectif d'intégrer à la prise de décision et surtout à l'action de partage de connaissance entre les différents acteurs d'une entreprise. L’information horizontale se fait 107


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naturellement dans les petites structures où tout le monde se connait et les occasions de dialogue sont fréquentes. Elle doit en revanche s'appuyer sur une organisation plus lourde dans les moyennes et les grandes structures: (magasines, tableaux, affichages). Elle permet de rassembler son personnel, de fonder (l'esprit de maison), et indirectement de mieux coordonner le processus de croissance. D’autres distinctions sont souvent utilisées pour étudier la communication interne d’entreprise, notamment: • La distinction entre les niveaux de la communication: plusieurs auteurs distinguent quatre niveaux de communication selon leurs natures et leurs fonctions: niveau intrapersonnel, niveau interpersonnel, niveau groupe et niveau organisation. • La distinction entre la communication formelle et informelle: la communication formelle est une communication qui suit les canaux structurels de l’organisation. En général c’est une communication plus verticale. La communication informelle est une communication interpersonnelle entre individus. Elle est souvent de nature horizontale. • La distinction entre les directions de la communication (verticale, horizontale et diagonale): les directions de la communication interne et externe se référent aux flux des messages par rapport à la structure hiérarchique de l’organisation et par rapport à la nature du public-cible. Concernant les outils usuels en communication, ces derniers sont aussi bien variés que variables selon le style de management pratiqué au sein de l’entreprise, en tenant compte le degré de développement de son système d’information, en fonction de l’importance des budgets alloués aux investissements en communication interne et selon le degré de qualification de ses ressources humaines et leurs compétences en communication. Dans cette logique, on peut dire que l’échange oral demeure le moyen de communication interne le plus naturel et le plus immédiat. Il est à la fois simple, peu onéreux et efficace. Cet outil peut être froid ou chaleureux, respectueux et sincère ou non, indifférent ou impliquant, volontaire ou involontaire, etc. La communication orale peut se faire de manière formelle et structurée (l’entretien individuel, la réunion d’information, la réunion de travail ou de concertation, les séminaires, les conférences, etc.), mais aussi de manière informelle (bouche à oreille ou rumeur ou encore échanges cordiaux dans les couloirs de l’entreprise). Elle peut être accompagnée des documents 108


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ou complétée par la rédaction d’un écrit (compte rendu ou Procès verbal, enregistré sur support magnétique ou électronique). Par ailleurs, la communication interne peut adopter les moyens écrits. Si la communication écrite demeure dominante, son support évolue: le papier est progressivement remplacé par les moyens électroniques pour des raisons de modes (étiquette de modernité), d’efficacité (c’est le moyen le plus user, le plus rapide, etc.) ou de conscience sociétale et écologique (protection de l’environnement avec l’adoption du principe zéro papier). Elle peut revêtir plusieurs formes telles que la note d’information ou de service, la boite à idées, le journal d’entreprise, l’affichage ou la signalétique, le compte rendu de réunion, la revue de presse, le livret d’accueil, le bilan social, le rapport annuel d’activité, la lettre au personnel, les vêtements de travail, etc. En outre, nous constatons que ces dernières années, les moyens de communication informatiques et audiovisuels (d’Almeida, Libarert, 2007, pp. 31-77) ont pris une place importance dans les entreprises modernes notamment celles de grande taille mais ils ne cessent de se développer davantage dans des modestes dimensions (les PME). Ils améliorent et facilitent d’une manière nette la diffusion de l’information et aident à sa compréhension, sa mémorisation et son assimilation. Si l’utilisation classique de certains outils de communication écrite en interne est largement répandue et ne pose pas problèmes (rétroprojecteur, vidéo projecteur, téléphone fixe ou mobile, etc.), d’autres, plus sophistiqués et souvent mal maîtrisés. Ces derniers doivent faire l’objet de beaucoup de prudence (messageries électroniques, téléconférence, etc.). On peut citer quelques moyens de communication interne de nature informatique et audiovisuelle comme l’Intranet, le film d’information, la téléconférence, le téléphone mobile ou fixe, la radio d’entreprise, la sonorisation, etc. Mais, qu’en est-il de la communication interne au sein du Groupe OCP ?quels sont les moyens de communication les plus utilisés? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous proposons d’étudier cidessous, le cas de cette grande entreprise industrielle marocaine. 3. L’expérience d’OCP en matière de communication interne En tant que leader national et international en matière d’exportation et valorisation des phosphates, le Groupe OCP a pris conscience que la communication interne peut jouer un rôle crucial 109


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dans la gestion de ses ressources humaines. Elle est “capable de mobiliser, motiver le personnel vis-à-vis de son travail et de leur entreprise; développer le sentiment du personnel vis-à-vis de son travail et de leur entreprise; développer le sentiment d'appartenance et la participation; contribuer à la réussite de l'entreprise; faire corps dans un esprit d'équipe” (d’Almeida, Libarert, 2007, pp. 31-77). Dans ce sillage, le Groupe s’est investi dans les technologies de l’information afin de se doter des outils les plus performants et les plus préconisés en matière de communication interne. 3.1. La place de la communication interne dans OCP Sur le plan organisationnel, la communication interne est rattachée, au sein d’OCP, à la Direction de Communication. Un tel attachement paraît évident. Cette dernière prend directement les ordres la direction générale. En effet, elle se trouve bien placée, d’un point de vue hiérarchique, pour avoir accès à l’information et au contenu des messages à diffuser, ce qui constitue un avantage de poids. Toute fois, le problème qui peut être soulevé est que la direction de la communication peut considérer souvent ses métiers comme essentiellement basé sur la communication externe. Par conséquence, la communication interne ne viendrait plus qu’une simple « traduction » interne la communication externe. Un cas de figure qui vide cette fonction de sa mission essentielle et l’éloigne de son rôle pour lequel elle a vu le jour. Aujourd’hui OCP sait que son succès passe, entre autres, par le dialogue avec ses collaborateurs, et que la communication interne se forme auteurs d’une nécessité d’identité. Cette identité permet à ses employés de savoir comment se comporter en son bord et à ses partenaires de la distinguer d’une autre compagnie. Généralement, cette identité passe par des symboles forts (logos, documents, slogans, etc.) mais elle existe également au travers de la manière de travailler et de régler la vie « en société ». 3.2. Les méthodes et supports de communication à l’OCP Nous essayerons ici, de définir les supports et les méthodes utilisés pour porter le message qu’OCP désire faire passer, en fonction bien entendu du type de l’information et à la cible à laquelle elle est destinée. Pour garantir la crédibilité de l’information et souligner le sentiment de professionnalisme mais aussi de qualité et d’indépendance vis-à-vis la direction pour les collaborateurs, cette 110


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dernière fait appel à des sociétés spécialisées extérieures pour la réalisation de certains de ces supports. Une bonne communication interne nécessite des moyens à la hauteur qu’elle se donne. En fait, le Groupe OCP utilise un panel varié et plus large d’information lui permettant d’avoir plusieurs méthodes de diffusion adaptées à diverses situations, et à chacun des collaborateurs de trouver l’information plus facilement. 3.2.1. Un site Intranet Il s’agit de l’outil qui a le plus révolutionné la communication interne ces dernières années à OCP car il a définit une nouvelle manière de penser à la transmission des informations. Ses pages, accessibles uniquement depuis un ordinateur de l’entreprise ou avec une connexion sécurisé depuis l’extérieur (on parle alors d’extranet), sont un portail pour les collaborateurs pour accéder à une importante source d’information et d’outils. Ce réseau interne est un véritable lien qui permet aux agents éloignés géographiquement de mieux se connaître et de mieux échanger entre eux. L’intranet d’OCP est qualifié d’évolutif et actualisé en permanence.il contribue à assurer une diffusion instantanée et transparente d’informations et de données à l’intérieur de l’entreprise. Ce moyen de communication interne permet le partage des ressources, des annuaires, des actualités, des bases documentaires, mais aussi, constitue, un moteur de recherche performant pour retrouver une information à partir d’un mot ou d’un thème. En résumé c’est outil performant qui permet à chacun de s’informer, d’échanger en temps réel, d’accroître ses compétences techniques et ses performances et de créer de nouvelles relations de travail. Avec intranet, « l’information est accessible à tous les salariés et ce sans besoin d’intermédiaire » (Perreti, 2003, p. 323). En outre, la tendance au sein d’OCP est de créer des portails fonctionnels spécialisés (par exemple, celui de la direction des ressources humaines, de la direction financière, de la direction du contrôle de gestion ou autres). Ce qui offrira un ensemble de services de communication de qualité et un système d’information interface entre les différentes unités organisationnelles et entre les divers centres de production du Groupe.

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3.2.2. La messagerie électronique L’autre grand moyen de communication et d’échange est incontestablement la messagerie électronique surtout avec la disparité géographique et territoriale des centres administratifs et de production du Groupe OCP. En quelque années, l’e-mailing a gagné une place de premier rang pour les échanges entre et avec les collaborateurs, au point de supplanter le téléphone et le courrier écrit. Il donne au salarié plus de liberté du fait qu’il n’est pas obligé de répondre instantanément dès qu’il reçoit un message, contrairement au téléphone. Via cet outil, on n’hésite pas à mettre en copie une ou plusieurs personne (s) liée (s)de près ou de loin à un échange d’informations. Ce qui crée un nombre très important de messages reçus quotidiennement et rend plus difficile le filtrage des informations nécessaires. Ce qui représente un aspect de limitatif de ce type de moyen de communication interne. 3.2.3. Le e-learning De plus en plus les entreprises adoptent des solutions d’elearning afin de permettre l’accès rapide et en temps réel à des outils de formation en autodidacte et de réduire substantiellement leurs coûts de formation. L’adoption de cet outil qui est certes en relation directe avec la formation mais aussi avec la communication interne, est à ses débuts à l’OCP et son utilisation se sent encore timide malgré tous les avantages qu’il offert et les gains qu’il permet d’obtenir. A côté des nouvelles technologies de communication subsistent les moyens écrits à diffusion large ou restreinte, des moyens oraux traditionnels ou innovants et des moyens audiovisuels. 3.2.4. Le magazine de l’entreprise Le groupe OCP a un magazine intitulé « OCPLEMAG ». Ce dernier, selon l’éditorial du premier numéro : (« est fait pour vous, les quelque 20000 collaborateurs de l’entreprise, et sera, demain, réalisé en grande partie avec vous et par vous. Ce magazine interne a pour objectif de vous tenir informer de toute l’activité du Groupe, de mettre en valeur le travail de chacun de vous, mais aussi de permettre à tous ceux qui le souhaitent de s’exprimer à travers l’ensemble des rubriques. Quelque soit le site sur lequel vous travaillez, vous avez désormais la parole, que ce soit pour parler de votre travail ou pour aborder tout sujet qui vous tient à cœur. »). 112


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On constate alors, que c’est un moyen privilégié de communication interne, il a l’avantage d’être souple et contrôlable, mais on lui reproche souvent d’être hiérarchique et pas assez interactif. D’un point de vue technique, le magazine est attirant visuellement afin d’inciter les collaborateurs à le lire. Pour sa rédaction, un comité est chargé de le faire comme tout autre magazine. Elle définit la ligne éditoriale et le contenu de chaque numéro. Elle vérifie et modifie, selon le besoin, les articles réalisés par les rédacteurs – qui ne sont forcément des membres du comité – et l’on voit parfois même intervenir des comités de lecture chargés de valider la maquette avant son tirage. 3.2.5. La documentation La documentation est un mode de communication très varié puisqu’il rassemble tous les moyens d’information permanents. Lorsqu’on parle de documentation, on pense essentiellement à des salles où sont rassemblés les documents –livres, rapports, fiches technique, notes,…etc.- qu’il peut être utile de consulter. Ce type d’information est généralement très prisé dans l’entreprise puisque chacun peut y trouver ce qu’il cherche de manière relativement rapide. Conscient de l’importance ce de ce moyen de communication interne, OCP s’est doté des Unités Locales de Documentation (ULD) située dans chacune des zones d’activités pour être proches des utilisateurs. Ces unités en plus qu’elles offrent une documentation riche aux collaborateurs, elle préserve l’histoire et la mémoire du Groupe. Ainsi, on peut y trouver des documentations très précieuses que l’on ne peut trouver nulle part. 3.2.6. Autres moyens de Communication interne au sein d’OCP L’OCP utilise d’autres moyens classiques et modernes pour communiquer en interne. Les réunions en téléconférence ou en visioconférence : permettent d’éviter les déplacements coûteux. Malheureusement, elles sont en général moins productives qu’une réunion en confrontation physique. - La vidéotransmission permet la diffusion occasionnelle d’une information dans n’importe quelle zone géographique via un média télévisuel. Cette technique peu utilisée car couteuse permet de retransmettre en direct le discours d’un dirigeant à tous les autres dirigeants en même temps. 113


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- La vidéo : elle a une place dans le relief de la communication interne. Elle permet de ponctuer un message ou une idée et est généralement produite pour un événement particulier. On pourra utiliser une vidéo pour présenter une usine, un projet ou une stratégie, avec des chapitres marqués, très informatifs (beaucoup de chiffres, de description…). Un reportage apportera une chaleur humaine et permettra une meilleure compréhensive des problèmes. Une série de témoignages illustreront une analyse ou permettront l’ouverture du un débat. Toutes fois, la vidéo n’est que très rarement un média de communication interne en soit. Elle permet plutôt de surligner un point précis et nécessite par ailleurs une explication ou un commentaire plus détaillé. - Le contact: l’encadrement humain est le premier animateur de la communication de proximité et celui le plus proche du salarié. A OCP, de par la nature de l’activité, c’est celui qui est le premier confronté aux problèmes et est un excellent relais de l’information. Il est nécessaire de lui donner les outils, formations et informations nécessaires à la bonne réussite de son travail. - Les réunions: est le premier outil de communication interne dans l’entreprise, la réunion apporte ce qu’aucun autre moyen de communication ne peut apporter : l’échange. L’OCP utilise ce moyen car il permet de rassembler rapidement un maximum de points de vue. L’objectif de chaque réunion est soit d’obtenir l’information, soit de prendre une ou plusieurs décisions. On peut distinguer entre les réunions de service et les réunions interservices. * La première forme est plus un lieu de travail et d’échange qu’un moyen de communication. Elle doit être parfaitement organisée en amont et sa finalité connus de tous en laissant le temps aux participants pour se préparer et son déroulement obéit un ordre du jour fixé auparavant. * La deuxième forme, en revanche, permet de resserrer les liens entre deux ou plusieurs services devant travailler ensemble. Se finalité est de déterminer les règles de communiquer entre leurs membres et de révéler les attentes réciproques et les manières de fonctionnement. Une autre forme de communication interne est utilisée à l’OCP, il s’agit des ateliers métiers. Ces derniers rassembles des collaborateurs d’un même métier mais ne travaillant pas ensemble, parfois dans des entités ou filiales différentes. C’est outil important 114


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d’échange qui permet de découvrir les méthodes de travail et permet l’échange des idées et par conséquent le développement des activités de tout un chacun. - Les séminaires ou conventions : la principale différence entre ces deux formes de communication se situe dans le nombre de participants. Ainsi, on parle d’une convention lorsque le nombre des participants est supérieur à 200 sinon on parle d’un séminaire. Dans les deux cas l’objectif est le même : faire comprendre une politique interne, faire adhésion à un choix stratégique, expliquer un plan d’action, présenter un nouveau projet, faire le point sur la vie de l’entreprise…en un mot, informer un groupe de personne sur un ou plusieurs point. Concrètement, c’est le cas, dans l’OCP, lors des séminaires réalisés par la Fondation Agricole dans les différents sites du groupe pour informer de l’utilité et du rôle de cette dernière. Egalement les séminaires sur l’état d’avancement de la nouvelle prime de performance, de la mise en place d’un nouveau portail RH, etc. De tout ce qui précède, l’on peut conclure qu’l’OCP est très conscient de l’importance de la communication interne et de ses effets. En effet, le Groupe est riche par son expérience et utilise des supports et méthodes variés et diversifiés pour véhiculer des informations en interne. Ces moyens l’on peut les qualifier de classiques, mais ils ont toujours leur place et leur rôle est primordial, et modernes en s’adaptant avec l’environnement qui connait l’émergence des nouvelles technologies de communication et impose, ainsi, ses lois et ses règles. Ces outils sont de plus en plus exploités mais sans supplanter les outils classiques, pour donner en résultat un panel varié et diversifié de moyens de communication interne qui répond aux attentes de chacun des collaborateurs à l’intérieur du Groupe. 4. Conclusion générale L’absence d’une communication laisse le champ vide pour l’interprétation des messages reçus. L’expérience a montré que de multiples désaccords, d’incohérence et d’incompréhension sont survenus fautes de communication. Plus encore et contrairement aux messages produits volontairement par l’entreprise pour ses différents publics, la circulation se fait parfois via des voies informelles. Ce qui peut entraîner une déformation du contenu du message émis. En interne, l’instauration de la communication permet d’informer le 115


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personnel des objectifs assignés, expliquer les difficultés éventuellement rencontrées et éviter une dégradation de la mise en application de la décision. Ainsi, la communication interne résout les problèmes de motivation et de décloisonnement des collaborateurs, parce que le décloisonnement implique non seulement de mettre en place des réseaux favorisant la circulation informelle de l’information, mais également de vaincre des barrières comme tradition, des mentalités conservatrices ou attitudes négatives. La communication s’attaque à la non transparence, à la résistance au changement et la hiérarchie bloquante. Elle permet, en revanche, d’inculquer les valeurs de l’entreprise, des attitudes positives d’appartenance, des comportements favorables aux changements… et contribue à conforter la légitimité de l’entreprise aux yeux de ces partenaires indispensable pour mériter leur implication dans l’amélioration de son efficacité et dans son développement. Une bonne communication interne de qualité est un moyen d’intégrer les collaborateurs constitue un instrument privilégié pour créer et entretenir un bon climat de travail. Les outils permettant d’engendrer la communication interne sont nombreux et variés. Ils s’adaptent aux besoins de situations particulières. Les communications, orales ou écrites, les entretiens, les séminaires… sont autant de sources avec lesquelles il faut travaille pour communiquer. La communication interne est à la fois le reflet des objectifs et des ambitions d’une entreprise (offre) mais également un moyen de mieux comprendre et échanger avec les collaborateurs de celle-ci (demande). Définir l’objectif de la communication interne, c’est réponde à une problématique de demande et d’offre, d’une part, la demande di collaborateur, ce qu’il désire savoir, ses attentes et objectifs, ses inquiétudes, etc. D’autre part, l’offre de l’entreprise par ses messages, ses projets, ses stratégies de développement et son image et identité qu’elle désire partager avec ses collaborateurs. Cependant, une communication interne n’évite pas les crises et n’est pas suffisante pour satisfaire pleinement tous ses collaborateurs. Elle reste certes, un outil managérial indispensable pour la gestion des ressources humaines, mais pas suffisant pour réaliser avec lui seul la performance et l’excellence de l’entreprise.

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5. Bibliographie Béon, P. (1995). Comment développer la communication interne, Paris: Nathan. Bres, J. B. (2001). « La Communication interne de l’entreprise ». Mémoire de Fin d’Etude, Université de Technologie BelfortMontbéliard. Chergui Hali, F. (2007). La communication interne: outil de gestion des ressources humaines: Cas de Poste Maroc, in Mémoire de Fin d’Etudes, ISCAE Maroc. d’Almeida, N. & Libarert, T. (2007). La communication interne de l’entreprise, 5ème Edition Donud. Demont-Lugol, L., Kempf, A., Rapidel, M., Scibetta, C. (2006). Communication des entreprises: stratégies et pratiques, 2ème Edition Armand Colin. Libaert, T. (2005). La communication de crise, 2ème édition Dunod. Libaert, T. & Marco, A. (2006). Les tableaux de bord de la communication, Edition Dunod. Peretti, J. M. (2003). Tous DRH, Edition Organisation. Rapport du Groupe OCP. (2012). « OCPLEMAG », Numéros 1, 2, 3, 4,5. Sekou, S. (2007). Le rôle de la communication interne en entreprise: Cas de la compagnie de filature et de sacherie COFISAC, IPG Dakar. Vacher, B. (1997). La Gestion de l’Information en Entreprise, Edition Organisation. Références webographiques: Intranet d’OCP. http://grhmaroc.over-blog.com.

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U.A.S. Revista de Comunicare i Marketing, anul III, num%rul 5, octombrie 2012 I.S.S.N. 2069-0304 Pag. 119-136

Abstract: In order to establish a competitive working climate, new management methods started to be used in modern organizations, stress being laid upon development, communication, conflict solving, motivation, employees’ involvement in decision taking process, group activities. New practices have thus appeared, more and more sophisticated in the management of human resources, centered upon valorization of human relationships involving persons working in the same organization, promotion of team working, career development in an international context. Due to the new circumstances, management of the human resources has become an array of norms, values and beliefs expressing the organization’s philosophy concerning its relationships with its members.

MOTIVATIONAL DOMINANTS AND VALUE ORIENTATION IN ORGANIZATION Mihaela LuminiHa SANDU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a Faculty of Psychosociology Georgeta Camelia COZARU „Andrei +aguna” University of Constan2a Faculty of Psychosociology Maria PESCARU University of PiteUti Faculty of Education Sciences

Keywords: organizational communication, decision, management methods, organizational culture

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1. Theoretical aspects of communication within organizations Communication is an extremely complex process: it is accomplished by means of several types of languages, it can be disturbed by various factors, it depends upon the context where it takes place and is specific to each individual, can occur at different levels. Certain mental processes and our attitudes prevent us from keeping an open mind when communicating, determining us to look at each other as though through perceptive "filters". The qualities of the communicational process depend first and foremost upon the abilities of the management team to promote a coherent and efficient style within the organization. Communication has to facilitate the optimal movement of information, to provide motivation to the employees, to stimulate their sense of responsibility, to offer them rewards. The communicational dysfunctions within the management team are also felt at the other levels of the communicational system. If the communication between managers and employees is not clear and systematic, then the personnel lack the essential references which should provide motivation and should mobilize energies. If the information provided by the subordinates to the management lacks in content, then the entire structure of the decision-making process is vitiated. When the communication between the company's employees is not complete, then the work productivity is decreased and the psycho-social climate becomes debilitating. Anzieu and Martin (1970) raised awareness upon the elements of communication and its orientation. According to them, communication is the totality of the psychological and physical processes which allow for the relating of one or more persons to one or more persons, in order to reach some goals. Therefore, the following are essential in the communicational act: 1. the relationship between individuals and groups; 2. the exchange or passing and receiving of information; 3. the change in the behaviour of the parties involved, whether willing or not. This outlook on communication is also found in the work of Baylow Ch. Mignot X (1991, p. 10), where it is stated that: "By 120


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communicating and communication we understand the relating of human spirits or, if we prefer, of human brains". The two authors underline the fact that communication is aimed towards a finality, whether that is understood or not as such by the parties involved. The main problem in studying communication lies in establishing the content and the means by which to transmit it. As far as the content is concerned, it can be extremely varied. Communication conveys images, concepts, ideas - it has informational content - it facilitates the manifestation of emotional behaviours, it produces psychological dissonance or consonance, effects of acceptance or refusal, of concordance or lack thereof (related to its affective-emotional content), is serves to transmit needs, aspirations, incentives for action - motivational content - it initiates, triggers or stops activities, it helps manifest resistance to efforts - volatile content. To sum up, "our entire psychic life is involved in the specifically human communication, which differs by its extended contents from the intra-human communication" (Zlate, 2000, p.187). In the speciality literature (Cuilenburg, 2000) there is a consensus when defining the organization: â&#x20AC;&#x153;the institutionalized framework in which several individuals work together in order to reach a certain goal." Or: "social systems within which the goal-means relationships are predominant", or: "a dynamic ensemble of relationships between human beings, instruments and the environment, with a given finality." The commercial or non-profit organizations are systems of information processing. "the organizations may be defined as networks where the information is received, sorted and directed towards numerous hierarchic and functional centres". Having its roots in the Latin term communis which means "common", at the basis of the verb "to communicate" (to do something in common, by both giving and receiving), the concept of communication overlaps to a certain degree with that of information, putting an emphasis on the mutual interpersonal giving and receiving. The original and profound significance of the word is revealing and is not content with its current and common meaning. Today, to communicate means: to inform, to make known, to notify, to say; or as far as human beings, social communities etc are concerned, to put in a relationship, in contact with, to talk or to be related to, to lead to (Cuilenburg, 2000). 121


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In an organization, communication is based upon three fundamental aspects: the speed of communication, the meaning and the consistency of the message. Information and communication are two different, but interdependent concepts. Information relates persons to certain pieces of information, it brings to attention, it casts news, it gives indications or directives. The transmitter (source) transmits the message to the receiver, this being a simple way (going only). Example: a note, a report, a conference etc. Communication is a process which relates people to other people. It is an act which involves an exchange, a reciprocity, consisting in a new message (coming and going). Example: a conversation (which is not reduced to a monologue), a debate, a reunion where everybody can express themselves etc. What is common to the many definitions given to the concept of communication is that it should consist in transmitting information by a source (transmitter) to one or more receptors (receivers) by means of channels and means of communication under the form of symbolic (coded) messages and retransmitting a message (reply) by the receiver to the transmitter. Each organization may choose the communication means according to their "informational capacity". The informational capacity of a communicating system refers to the "degree to which that system determines the personnel of an organization, within a given interval, to accept a change in their perspective". The professional talks or work meetings: the perceptions and judgements of the participants make the object of a mutual informing process which creates the reference framework for a collective vision. Haney, in his classic study Communication and organizational behaviour (1960) states that: "Nowadays an organization needs communicative performance at a higher level than ever. The main demand for our organization is to guarantee to a higher and higher degree an organizational climate adequate to the needs that the organization's members are confronted with". In an organization we meet individuals with different backgrounds and personalities: different social origins, biographies, opinions, ideals etc. All of this makes the communicating process more difficult and, moreover, gives place to a pseudo-communication. "(...) the main obstacle of any form of communication (...) lies simply in the difference". 122


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Success both in business and in social life is directly related to the ability of posing efficient questions and of obtaining adequate answers. "When we ask the questions, we largely control the subjects that are being discussed and we will never get stuck in boring conversations" (Pease, 1994). The informational system represents the totality of methods, procedures and means used within the informational process, which is the integrated ensemble of operations such as gathering, transmitting and processing of data, systematizing, analysing, storing and using of information (Rusu, 1993, p. 127). Within a company we gather, select, analyze, group, interpret and elaborate models of response adequate to the goals of the business. The informational system must integrate any useful information coming from the environment and serving to the understanding and interpreting of meaningful facts. 2. Professional motivation 2.1. Conceptual delimitations In contemporary psychology, motivation has a central position, being the key to understanding and explaining of different psychological, individual or group phenomena and processes. Etymologically, the word "motivation" comes from the Latin "movere" and it means to move. Motivation is the sum of intrinsic and extrinsic energies which initiate and direct the behavior towards a purpose, which once it has been reached determines satisfying a given necessity. Nuttin bases his definition of motivation on the relational understanding of behavior, setting as starting point the dynamic character of the relationship between the individual and the environment. In his book, he shows that "the general and abstract term of motivation will be used to designate the dynamic and directional aspect (whether selective or preferential) of behavior. Motivation is what, in the end, is responsible for the fact that a behaviour is oriented, preferably, towards a category of objects rather than towards another one" (Nuttin, 1985). From this definition we may deduce that motivation is an ensemble of internal factors determining behavior. Al. RoUca understands by motivation the totality of intrinsic motives of conduct, whether native or acquired, whether conscious or unconscious, both simple physiological needs and abstract ideals. 123


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Pantelimon Golu defines motivation as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the subjective model of objective causality, a psychologically replicated causality, accumulated throughout time, transformed and transferred by learning and education into intrinsic acquisitions for the individualâ&#x20AC;? (Golu, 1973, p. 366). This explains the ability of the person to act "spontaneously", on their own. According to the author, motivation links the individual to the world and keeps them in the sphere of the external determinism, which is vital for the developing of the person. On the other hand, it operates a certain disruption in the chain of external causes, thus gradually assuming the function of "dominant command point" in the behaviour of the individual. 2.2. Motivational factors In the studies on motivation, productivity and employee satisfaction, five elements were found to be important for the members of the group and for the productivity and individual satisfaction among its members: 1) technical organization of the group 2) social structure of the group 3) individual motivational task 4) rewards received for the work 5) satisfactions obtained as a member of the group Technical organization of the group - it refers to the organization imposed upon the group by means of the tasks of the members in specialised activities which must contribute to the success of the group. It is the most evident element, easy to manipulate in order to improve group efficiency. Many studies have shown the limits within which the improvements can be brought to term in this sole direction, because of the relationship between group efficiency and member motivation. Group efficiency is dependent both upon technical organization, and upon member motivation. The social structure of the group - This social structure is comprised of social relationships developed in the population when its members have been working together for a long period of time. Relationships go beyond these ones, which are specific to the technical organization for accomplishing the group task. They satisfy the individual's needs for association, friendship, belonging. They 124


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specify these activities and interactions that the individual must adhere to, if he or she is about to be accepted as a member of the group. The individual motivational task - The will of the group's members to contribute with their services to accomplishing the group's tasks is another element which research showed as being important in the working environment and which must be met: â&#x20AC;˘ how successful the group is in accomplishing the tasks â&#x20AC;˘ the degree to which the group satisfies the individual needs of the members, making them want to work Barnard named the first condition "group efficacy" and the second condition "group efficiency". Extrinsic rewards - The extrinsic rewards that employees receive as payment, work satisfaction, interest in their job, function or status within the company and are usually considered as being the most important for their work motivation. The economic and financial results are the most important, but research has shown that so are the non-economic rewards, obtained through interesting, provoking, responsible work. As high-level jobs are paid better and demand better skills and higher responsibility than low-level jobs, there seems to be a closer association between the level of the work and the extrinsic rewards. The highest extrinsic level, the highest needs of the employees for financial reward, interesting and skilful work that is recognized, as well as status are all satisfied. Intrinsic rewards - The research has also shown how important it is for the employee to be liked and accepted as a member of the group. The membership or the intrinsic rewards are the highest prizes for the employee. Beginning to be accepted as a member or becoming a leader in the work place requires sacrifices and/or expenses. But in attendance of values and norms, the members' needs for association, friendship, approval, support are met. 2.3. Impact of motivation on performance Motivation must not be considered and interpreted as a purpose in itself, but as a means for obtaining higher performance. Performance is a higher level of goal achievement. From the perspective of various forms of human activity (playing, learning, working, creating) what most interests us is the value of motivation and its propulsive efficiency. 125


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The relationship between the intensity of motivation and the level of performance is dependent upon the complexity of the activity (task) that the subject needs to accomplish. Psychological research has shown that in simple (repetitive, routine, with automatized components, with few solving alternatives) tasks, the higher the intensity of the motivation is, the higher the performance is. However, in complex (creative, full of content, with many solving alternatives) tasks, a higher intensity of motivation is associated, up to a point, with an increase in performance, which then decreases. In complex tasks, the presence of more alternatives of action makes the action of the motivational impulse more difficult, its increasing intensity being unfavorable to the discrimination, discerning and critical evaluation. Both under-motivation and over-motivation may lead to a decrease in efficiency: in the first case because of the insufficient mobilization of the individual for the task difficulty, in the second case because of the tense state which arises, in the context of an excessive narrowing of the area of interest, which leads to the apparition of an inadequate or discordant behavior. Motivational optimum varies according to the psychic structure of the individual, the nature of the situation they are involved in and the action of psycho-social contextual factors. In order to organize a practical approach for optimizing the industrial activity we must underline the fact that in the context of a motivation with a general character we see the development of a motivation specific to a certain practical situation (the activity in a certain job, for example) the intensity of the resulting motivational vectors can be evaluated by means of a motivational index, calculated for each vector, for groups of vectors or for the totality of the vectors resulting from the given situation. 3. Methodological aspects 3.1. Scope of the research In the current context of a continuous economical and social change, this paper studies the elements of change in the attitude and the ways in which motivation may influence the attitude towards working. 126


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3.2. Hypotheses Hs1. We presume that there is a link between the motivational dominants and the orientation towards values; Hs2. We presume that there are significant differences between men and women as far as motivation and orientation towards values are concerned; Hs3. The type of the institution and the studies influence motivation and orientation towards values. 3.3. Material and methods The study was made within a number of private and state companies, with a focus on those employees who were responsible with being in contact with the clients, in functions which involved public relationships. The lot of subjects was chosen by randomization, on layers, out of the total number of existing subjects, employees with various professions, working in the said organizations, in functions which involved public relationships, so that the lot was representative for the specifics of the two organizations. The chosen sample is comprised of a total of 230 subjects, 120 of which from the state sector (61 men representing 50.8% and 59 women representing 49.2%) and 110 from the private sector (50 men representing 45.5% and 60 women representing 65.5%). The structure according to educational level for the sample is thus: â&#x20AC;˘ in the state sector: secondary education - 3 persons, representing 2.5%, highschool education - 47 persons, representing 39.2% and college education - a number of 70 persons, representing 58.3%; â&#x20AC;˘ in the private sector: one person has secondary education; 62 persons have highschool education, respectively 42.7% and 47 persons have college education, representing 42.7%. When doing the research we used the OV questionnaire for measuring the orientation towards value and the DM questionnaire for motivational dominance. The comparative study for education shows that in the state sector there's a larger number of persons with college education whereas in the private sector the higher percentage is that of people with highschool education. 127


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3.4. Results and discussions In order to verify the first hypothesis assumes there's a link between work motivation and the orientation towards values, we have used a correlational plan by means of which to establish the correlation between the score obtained by the subjects for orientation towards values and the score obtained for work motivation. Because one of the variables is not normally distributed, we have used the Spearman rang correlation coefficient (see Table 1).

Spearman's Totally Value orientation Totally Dominant motivational

Totally Totally Value Dominant orientation motivational Correlation 1,00 ,37** Sig. (2-tailed) 23 ,00 N 23 Correlation ,37** 1,00 Sig. . (2-tailed) ,00 23 N 23

**Corela2ia este semnificativ% la un prag de 0,01

Table 1. Correlation between value orientation and motivational dominants As we may infer from Table 1, there is a significant correlation between value orientation and motivational dominants, positive and weak (v=0,37; p<0,01). This shows that, as the motivational level has an increase in value, so does the level of orientation towards the real values of the company. We do not however know which of the motivational dominance components, or value orientation respectively, correlates with each of the subcomponents of the other dimensions. For finding this we will make correlations between each component of one dimension and the total score of the other dimension.

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Totally Value orientation

Correlation

Spearman's

Sig. Dimension Correlation ,30 Sig. ,00 N 23 Dimension Correlation ,38 Sig. ,00 N 23 Dimension Correlation ,28 Sig. ,00 N 23 Dimension Correlation ,26 Sig. ,00 N 23 Table 2. Correlation between value orientation and the components of the motivational dominants

From Table 2 we may infer that value orientation has a significant, positive and weak correlation with the leadership dimension (v=0,30; p<0,01), with the expertise dimension (v=0,38; p<0,01), with the relational dimension (v=0,28; p<0,01) and with the subsistence dimension (v=0,26; p<0,01). By studying the other global score we may observe that the motivational dominants have a significant, positive and weak correlation with the personnel dimension (v=0,47; p<0,01), with the lucrative dimension (v=0,40; p<0,01) and with the conservative dimension (v=0,53; p<0,01). Thus, we may conclude that the first hypothesis is completely confirmed, as there is a significant, positive and weak correlation between work motivation and value orientation. The second hypothesis assumes there's a significant difference between men and women as far as work motivation and value orientation are concerned. The first variable, value orientation, is normally distributed and we will use, in order to verify the existence of differences, the "t Student" test for significant differences between the averages of two independent samples. 129


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Independent Samples Test Levene Test for T Test for equality of Equality if averages Variants F Sig T D Sig. (2-tailed) 1,44 ,23 ,51 22 ,60 ,51 224,365 ,60

Total Variants Unequal variances

Table 3. Difference between men and women as far as value orientation is concerned From the data presented in Table 3 we notice that there is no difference between men and women as far as value orientation is concerned, the opinions of the two groups being homogenous under this aspect. Because the second variable is not normally distributed, the "t Student" test for significant differences between averages would not be relevant. Therefore, we preferred using a non-parametric test, the Mann-Whitney test, for rank differences. Gen Totally Male dominant motivational Female Total

N 111

Average ranks 127,27

119

104,52

Sum of ranks 14127,00 12438,00

230

Table 4. Differences between men and women as far as motivational dominants are concerned We can notice there's a significant difference between men and women as far as work motivation is concerned (Z=2,59; p<0,05), as the motivational level in men is significantly higher than the motivational level in women.

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In order to see which of the motivational components mark the difference between men and women we resumed the procedure for the dimensions of motivational dominants. Dimension Dimension Leadership expertise 4650,000 5988,000

Dimension relationship 6327,000

Mann5894,000 Whitney U Wilcoxon W 11790,000 13128,000 13467,000 13034,000 -1,226 -,552 -1,410 Z -3,879 Asymp. Sig. ,220 ,581 ,158 ,000 (2-tailed) a. Grouping Variable: Gender Table 5. Differences between men and women as far as motivational dominants are concerned The results presented in table 5 show that there is a single component which marks the difference between men and women under this aspect. It is the component of leadership, where men are significantly more motivated than women from the point of view of leadership (Z=3,87; p<0,01). In other words, the leadership opportunities are a powerful motivational incentive, significantly more important for men than for women. From this data we can state that the second hypothesis is partially confirmed, as we were able to find significant differences between men and women only for the "motivational dominant" where men are significantly more motivated than women. At the level of the components of the motivational dominants we have proved that the only component which marks the difference between men and women is that of leadership. The third hypothesis, which assumes that the type of institution and the education influence work motivation, can be proven by studying the effect that the two independent variables, type of institution and education, have on the dependent variable, value orientation, and on the dependent variable, work motivation. The technique we will be using will be that of variance analysis (ANOVA Univariat). The variable "type of institution" has two intensity degrees: state institution and private institution, whereas 131


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the "education" variable has three intensity degrees: secondary school, highschool and college. Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: Totally value orientation Source Sum of D Average of F squares square Corrected 1166,141 233.228 5 ,42 model Intercepted 623885.462 1 623885.462 1122,8 Institute 177.368 177.368 1 ,31 Education 603.629 301.814 2 ,54 institution* 217.078 108.539 2 ,19 education Errors 124463.446 22 555.640 Total 5894241.000 23 Corrected 125629.587 22 total a. R Squared = ,009 (Adjusted R Squared = -,013) Table 6. Variance analysis for value orientation

Si ,83 ,00 ,57 ,58 ,82

For the dependent variable "value orientation" we do not notice any significant effect determined by the independent variables (see table 6). Moreover, there are no opinion differences as far as education or type of institution are concerned when discussing value orientation. When analysing the dependent variable “motivational dominant”, we notice the existence of a main effect of the “education" variable (F(2,229)=5,26; p<0,01) (see Table 7). Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: Totally dominant motivational Source Sum of df Mean F Sig. squares type squares Model 11952,350 5 2390,470 ,001 4,559 corrected Interception 857964,492 1 857964,492 1636,164 ,000 Institute

471,593

1 47,593

132

,091

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Studies

51516,706

institute*studies 1927,467

2 2758,353

5,260

,006

2 963,734

1,838

,162

Error

117460,172

224 524,376

Totally

7534686,000

230

Totally 129412,522 229 corrected a. R Squared = ,092 (Adjusted R Squared = ,072) Table 7. Variance analysis for motivational dominants The "education" variable therefore influences the dependent variable "motivational dominants". In order to see what the direction of this influence is, we used a post-hoc test, Bonferroni. The Bonferroni test is similar to the "t test" by which we study the existence of significant differences between the averages of the three groups determined by the independent variable. Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Total dominante motivationale Bonferroni (I) Level of Education

(J) Level of education

Primary

High school University Primary University

High school

Mean Std. error Sig. difference (I-J) 14,8 11,65 ,613 4,0 11,64 1,00 -14,84 11,65 ,613 -10,84 3,04 ,001

University

Primary -4,00 11,64 1,000 * High school 10,8 3,04 ,001 Based on observed means. The mean difference is significant at the ,05 level. Table 8. Effects of education on the motivational dominants

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The results presented in Table 8 show that the effect is generated by the significant difference between the subjects with college education and those with highschool education (Bonferroni=10,84; p<0,01), meaning that those with college education have asignificantly higher motivational level than those who only graduated highschool, as is shown in the following figure. 4. Conclusions In the context of an extraordinary organizational dynamics, with deep changes at the level of state and private institutions, we take into consideration, first and foremost, the rapid change in people's attitude. An important role in this direction is played by motivation, as a factor of influence for the attitude to work. Moreover, we have tried to outline and define the role and importance of the motivational factors in influencing the attitude towards work in general. We have chosen a large sample which allows us, on the other hand, to make a comparative study based on various category variables, and on the other hand in order to guarantee it's representative. The descriptive statistics made, both for tag variables and for continuous variables show, however, that there are two categories of distributions: some of the variables have a normal distribution whereas others do not have a normal distribution. Since the difference lies precisely within the variables we are trying to correlate, we could not use parametric statistic methods, since a non-Gaussian distribution does not allow us to use the average as a representative indicator of the central tendency. Therefore, we have preferred using nonparametric statistics in order to respect the scientific value of this paper. The general purpose of this paper was to identify the correlation between value orientation and work motivation. In order to do this we have started from a series of hypotheses which assumed that there is a difference between men and women as far as motivation and value orientation is concerned, but also that the type of the institution and the education level influence work motivation and value orientation. We have mainly used a correlational research design. In order to test the hypotheses we have also used tests for the significant 134


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difference between averages. Because the last hypothesis assumed the existence of two independent variables acting simultaneously on a dependent variable, we appealed to variance analysis as the sole method allowing for studying this aspect. Based on the correlational studies we have proven the existence of a significant positive correlation between value orientation and motivational dominants. However, the correlation is not a strong one, only 13.6% of the variation of these variables can be explained by means of this correlation (0.37x0.37). A high motivational level determines an attitude favorable to value, low motivation implies an attitude characterized by ignoring values in general. Furthermore, value orientation is significantly correlated with all the components of the motivational dominant, although the positive correlation is also a weak one. There is a stronger correlation between work motivation and the components of value orientation, even though per ensemble there is no strong correlation. The second hypothesis can be studied through an inferential method. As one variable is normally distributed and the other isn't, we have used a parametric test in the first case and a non-parametric test in the second case. There were no significant differences between men and women as far as value orientation is concerned, but these differences do appear when we analyze the motivational dominants and we notice that the motivational level in men is significantly higher than in women. Moreover, the only motivational dimension marking this difference is that related to leadership. It would seem that this satisfies more the male subjects than the female ones. For the third hypothesis we have used ANOVA univariat, where we proposed the analysis of the effects determined by the two independent variables, the type of institution and the level of education, one at a time, on the two dependent variables, work satisfaction and value orientation. We have found the existence of a single main effect, the one of education on motivational dominants. According to this effect, subjects with college degrees have a significantly higher motivational degree than those with high-school degrees.

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5. References Baylow Ch. & Mignot, X, (1991). La communication, Paris: Nathaw. Coman, C. (2001). RelaIiile publice - principii 6i strategii, IaUi: Polirom. Coombs, T. (1999). Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing and Responding, London: Sage. Cuilenburg S. N. (2000). `tiinIa comunicJrii, BucureUti: Humanitas. Dumitrescu, L. I. (2002). Acebergul organizaIional. Managementul pJrIii nevJzute, Sibiu: Burg. Golu, P. (1973). Motiva2ia, un concept de baz% ĂŽn psihologie. In Revista de Psihologie, no. 3. Hutu C. A. (2002). CulturJ organizaIionalJ 6i leadership, IaUi: Casa de editur% Venus. Muchielli, A. (2002). Arta de a influenIa, IaUi: Polirom. Nuttin, J. (1985). Theorie de la motivation humane, Paris: P.U.F. Pase G. (1994). Limbajul vorbirii, BucureUti: Polimark. Rusu C. (1993). Management, BucureUti: Expert. Vl%sceanu, M. (2003). OrganizaIii 6i comportament organizaIional, IaUi: Polirom. Zlate, M.. (2000). Fundamentele psihologiei, BucureUti: Pro Humanitatea. Zlate, M. (2004). Tratat de psihologie oganizaIional-managerialJ, (vol.I), IaUi: Polirom.

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