Page 1

Una publicaci贸n de Lina Bedoya Casta帽o con una completa informaci贸n para estudiantes de ingles




Lina bedoya


1- Dave’s ESL Cafe This is a complete website that can help you learn and practice English. You can find tips on using idioms, slang and phrasal verbs. Take quizzes to test your knowledge and practice English-language concepts. You can also post questions and get answers on the help center and student forums. 2- English as a Second Language e-mail courses Sign up for free English courses from and you’ll get regular e-mails that will help you learn English. Choose from the following: • Beginning English • English Learning Tip of the Day • English Word of the Day • Intensive Grammar • Vocabulary

3- The Classroom by Voice of America Watch videos and listen to news stories to improve your listening and vocabulary skills. Also, find basic, intermediate and advanced activities to learn English. You can also hear English words and their meaning.

LEARN 1. In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length). Lina bedoya

2. English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, non-stressed, words. 3. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter - (most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct - Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting - Adverbs e.g. often, carefully 4. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. the, a - Auxiliary verbs e.g. am, were - Prepositions e.g. before, of Conjunctions e.g. but, and - Pronouns e.g. they, she 5. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. 6. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening. 7. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well! 8. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in each sentence. 9. Write down a few sentences, or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise. 10.First underline the stressed words, then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined words and gliding over the non-stressed words. 11.Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words, non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature. 12.When listening to native speakers, focus on how those speakers stress certain words and begin to copy this.

Tips: 1. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often 'swallowed' in English. 2. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words

Lina bedoya

well, non-stressed words can be glided over. 3. Don't focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence

Example: “circus.” The first “C” is followed by an “I” so it sounds like an “S.” The second “C” is followed by a “U” so it sounds like a “K.” The same principle applies to “cycle.” The word “accent” follows the same rule. The first “C” is followed by another “C” so it sounds like a “K.” The second “C” is followed by an “E” so it sounds like an “S.”A “G” sounds like a “J” if it is followed by “E” “I” or “Y.” Examples are giraffe, giant, gypsy, general, raging. Otherwise it sounds like “G” in “goose.” There are some exceptions to this rule, but the exceptions are usually easy words. The most common exceptions come from Germanic roots which don’t have this rule, like give, get, girl, forgive, forget.

A “C” is normally pronounced as a “K.” It sounds like an “S” if it is followed by “E” “I” or “Y.”

Lina bedoya

If “G” is followed by any letter other than “E” “I” or “Y,” then it is either sounded like the “G” in “goose” or it is silent. I am not aware of any exceptions.

* “Margarine” seems to be an exception, but the correct pronunciation is mar Garine, with the G sounding like the “G” in “goose.” The word “was” is pronounced as it is spelt.

There are rules for pronunciation of English words — they are seldom taught.

The letter “W” or a “W sound” makes a short “A” which follows it sound like a short “O,” In other words, a “W” changes the sound of a short “A” to a short “O.”

1 English words are not pronounced as they are written.

Here are some myths about the English language and phonics.

2 There are no rules to English pronunciation. 3 Good readers don't “sound out” words. 4 Sounding out is incompatible with understanding. 5 People who learnt to sound out don’t learn a “sight” vocabulary.

Examples: want, wash, wander, watch, swan, swap, wallet, waddle, wadding, waffle, wallaby. Quad, quality, quadratic.



The letter “W” usually makes a short “O” sound like a short “U.” Examples: won, wonder, worry.

Lina bedoya

6 People who sound out are just saying words. Actually, the majority of good readers sound out every word they don't recognize. In an average text, more than 95% of the words are pronounced as they are written. Of the exceptions, it is usually only one syllable that is irregular. Students, who sound out words they don’t recognize when they read


5. clothes Put on warm clothes before you head outside today. 6. order The order of these words is not important. 7. murder A man was charged with murder over the holidays. 8. air The air is so cold you can see your breath.

This morning we asked our EnglishClub Facebook fans, tweeters, and chatters to tell us which English words are the most difficult to pronounce. Here is the first batch of most difficult words according to you!

Let’s practise these words together: 1) Listen to the word. (wait for a one second pause after) 2) Say the word with me. 3) Say the sentence with me.

9. literature You can download classic literature for free online. 10. language English is a difficult language to learn. 11. onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia refers to words that sound like their meaning.

Are you ready?

12. deterioration It is difficult to watch the deterioration of a friend’s health.

1. thistle (allow a pause and then repeat with me) Be careful not to step on the thistle.

13. little If you practise, your English will improve little by little.

2. crisps Potato chips are called crisps in England.

14. assailant The assailant was caught by the police.

3. should You should not pronounce the l when you say the word should.

15. catastrophic A catastrophic earthquake struck the centre of the city.

4. would Would and wood sound the same when you say them out loud.

16. alter Don’t alter your plans just because I can’t go.

Lina bedoya

17. exclamation One exclamation mark is enough to get your point across.

22. decision It wasn’t my decision to have a picnic in the rain.

18. crocodile Captain Hook was petrified of the crocodile in the movie Peter Pan.

23. ambulance When you hear an ambulance you must pull over to the side of the road.

19. unfortunate It is unfortunate that the weather has delayed our trip.

24. law The law states that residents must clear their sidewalk when it snows.

20. six Six plus six equal twelve, which is also known as a dozen.

25. low If you bend down low, you will see where the children are hiding.

21. development The development of new technology has allowed us to receive information very quickly.

Pronunciation note: I have a Canadian accent. This is similar to an American accent. Your teacher may have a different accent, such as a British one.

Lina bedoya

Espectrograma de las secuencias /ái/ y /aí/, obtenido con un espectrógrafo

Cámara de grabación insonorizada. Laboratorio de fonética (CSIC)

Electroglotógrafo. Laboratorio de fonética (CSIC)

Lina bedoya

Fotogramas de "My fair lady" (Georges Cukor, 1964), con antiguos instrumentos para el an谩lisis de la pronunciaci贸n

Lina bedoya

Imagen con las diferencias de pronunciaci贸n de una fricativa inglesa, obtenida con tecnolog铆a de Glottal

IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH SPEAKING AND ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION SKILLS My first piece of advice is not to get too hung up on trying to sound like a native speaker. Would you start learning the piano in an attempt to sound like Mozart? The first rule of speaking English is to learn to speak clearly and concisely and remember you won't just be speaking to native speakers: There are roughly 380 million native speakers out there, but as many as a billion people speak English as a second language, you do the math. Try to avoid using idioms and slang (I always say learn it, but don't use it). It might sound clever to say "You're barking up the wrong tree," but if you use it in the wrong situation, or if the other person simply doesn't understand you, you'll only look silly when you try to explain what you Lina bedoya

meant to say, or what it actually means. There's also a saying in English "Have you swallowed a dictionary?" It is applicable to anyone who uses long, complicated words when a shorter word will do. Short sentences are just as good (if not better) than long rambling explanations. The value in what you have to say is what you say, not how clever you look or sound when you say it. So it's a good idea to try to use simple, clear vocabulary, KISS - keep it short and simple, Here's a fun video that illustrates what I mean. ENGLISH SPEAKING TIPS Get over any fear you might have of making mistakes. You will make mistakes. Be patient with yourself. Learning any language can be frustrating, but frustration won't help you, so let it go.

Grasp every opportunity you have to speak with people in English. Talk to friends who are also learning English. Go out together for coffee and only speak English to each other! Read short stories out loud and try to see, say and hear the words to reinforce your memory. Record yourself and play it back LATER, how does it sound?

Find English speaking friends:

You might not be able to find any friendly native speakers where you live, but you can find English speaking people on the Internet! If you can't find anyone who'll actually HELP you, don't worry, you'll still be able to figure out if they can understand you. Get onto Second Life. It's the one place I've found where you're guaranteed a conversation - it's an adult environment, and you won't always want to talk to the people you meet, but for every blood sucking vampire who asks if they can bite you, there are at least ten, nice people who just want to socialise. If you want a list of nice places to go, just contact me on the forum. There are several internet based voice chat programmes out there: Skype and I'm sure there are lots more. Look for people with the same interests as you. It's no good asking everyone you meet to

Lina bedoya

help you with your English, rather develop natural friendships based on your hobbies etc. Eventually you will make friends and they will be much more likely to give you correction / guidance. Join an English club or conversation group. Around the world there are many English speaking clubs, these clubs aren't just for expats but for people interested in the English way of life. They can be friendly and fun. For a list of English clubs click here. Check magazines as well as your phone book, your local newspaper and your local university. Or if there isn't one in your area - start one! Place an advertisement in your newspaper for people interested in starting a group or go to Meetup. Visit an Irish/English/Australian theme pub or British food shop, you can usually find one in the larger cities. Often, the waiters and waitresses come from English-speaking countries, the menu is often in English too! Once your English is good enough, go shopping in some tourist areas. You'll find lots of shop assistants speak very good English. If you can travel to an English speaking country, do it.

SINGING Try singing along to English songs. With friends or in the privacy of your own bathroom. Lots of the major games consoles have karaoke games nowadays, like Sing Star on the Playstation. !On the internet :- You can speak to me on Skype or in Second Life (see the forum calendar for times and dates) - you can also listen to or chat with other learners and native speakers there, or join one of the many social networking sites. They are all free, so there are no more excuses.

pronunciation and enunciation are important. Be playful. Mimic famous people, play with the different accents in films etc. I do a mean John Wayne. LEARN THE PHONETIC ALPHABET. List words that have the same sound add to the lists as you learn more words. For example words that rhyme with me:-

!On the network:- Use the pronunciation pages to improve your understanding. Use my Voice Thread to practise tongue twisters, introductions etc. !On this site:- You can find some karaoke resources and ideas on the learn English through songs page. !On the Network: You can find the words to some popular songs on the English magazine. PRONUNCIATION SKILLS Accents really don't matter any more. You can spend a fortune and waste a lot of time trying to "get rid of" your accent, time and money that you could spend learning more English. So, unless you are up for a role in a film, don't worry about your accent too much. That said, people need to be able to understand you, so Lina bedoya

Work on one problem sound at a time. Read slowly concentrating on the pronunciation of particular words. Record yourself, keep the tape and record yourself later, have you improved? Don't be shy - ask a friend to listen to the tape too. Don't worry about sounding like a native, it is more important to speak clearly and pleasantly than it is to sound like the Queen of England Even the Queen of England doesn't sound like she used to.

The most important thing to think about is can people understand you? If you have a problem being understood then find someone who

speaks English clearly and try to copy the way they speak. Pay particular attention to speed and enunciation.


by Alice White If you can pronounce correctly every word in this poem, you will be speaking English better than 90% of the native English speakers in the world.

After trying the verses, a Frenchman said he’d prefer six months of hard labour to reading six lines aloud! Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer. Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it’s written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak; Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe. Hear me say, devoid of trickery, Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore, Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles, Exiles, similes, and reviles; Scholar, vicar, and cigar, Solar, mica, war and far; One, anemone, Balmoral, Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel; Gertrude, German, wind and mind, Scene, Melpomene, mankind. Billet does not rhyme with ballet, Lina bedoya

Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. Blood and flood are not like food, Nor is mould like should and would. Viscous, viscount, load and broad, Toward, to forward, to reward. And your pronunciation’s OK When you correctly say croquet, Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve, Friend and fiend, alive and live. Ivy, privy, famous; clamour And enamour rhyme with hammer. River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb, Doll and roll and some and home. Stranger does not rhyme with anger, Neither does devour with clangour. Souls but foul, haunt but aunt, Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant, Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger, And then singer, ginger, linger, Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge, Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age. Query does not rhyme with very, Nor does fury sound like bury. Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth. Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath. Though the differences seem little, We say actual but victual. Refer does not rhyme with deafer. Fe0ffer does, and zephyr, heifer. Mint, pint, senate and sedate; Dull, bull, and George ate late. Scenic, Arabic, Pacific, Science, conscience, scientific. Liberty, library, heave and heaven, Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven. We say hallowed, but allowed, People, leopard, towed, but vowed. Mark the differences, moreover, Between mover, cover, clover; Leeches, breeches, wise, precise, Chalice, but police and lice; Camel, constable, unstable, Principle, disciple, label. Petal, panel, and canal, Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal. Lina bedoya

Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair, Senator, spectator, mayor. Tour, but our and succour, four. Gas, alas, and Arkansas. Sea, idea, Korea, area, Psalm, Maria, but malaria. Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean. Doctrine, turpentine, marine. Compare alien with Italian, Dandelion and battalion. Sally with ally, yea, ye, Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key. Say aver, but ever, fever, Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver. Heron, granary, canary. Crevice and device and aerie. Face, but preface, not efface. Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass. Large, but target, gin, give, verging, Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging. Ear, but earn and wear and tear Do not rhyme with here but ere. Seven is right, but so is even, Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen, Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk, Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work. Pronunciation (think of Psyche!) Is a paling stout and spikey? Won’t it make you lose your wits, Writing groats and saying grits? It’s a dark abyss or tunnel: Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale, Islington and Isle of Wight, Housewife, verdict and indict. Finally, which rhymes with enough, Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!!! English Pronunciation by G. Nolst Trenité

Lina bedoya

From the autor I hope all of you can learn a lot from this magazin

Lina bedoya

Best regards.

Lina bedoya