18th and 19th
The Mutiny of Aranjuez: destitution of Godoy, forced abdication of Charles IV and Fernando VII placed on the throne.
10th to the 25th
Fernando VII and Charles IV leave Madrid for Bayonne (France) accompanied by their respective courts.
Cadiz declares war on Napoleon.
Napoleon issues a Decree renouncing the Spanish crown in favour of his brother, Joseph, King of Naples.
In Cadiz, Tomás de Morla orders an attack on the French squadron.
The people of Madrid rebel against the French. By the 22nd of May, the uprising has spread throughout the whole of Spain.
The French army suppresses the Madrid uprising. Firing squads conduct executions at the Moncloa.
28th and 29th
The people of Cadiz rebel, demanding a declaration of war and the surrender of the French squadron anchored in the bay since the Battle of Trafalgar. Assassination of Francisco de Solano, governor of Cadiz, replaced by Tomás de Morla.
Publication of the Bayonne Constitution.
The Supreme Central and Governing Council of the Kingdom is established in Aranjuez.
1 and 2 st
The Supreme Central Council abandons Aranjuez.
17 and 18 th
The Supreme Central Council relocates to Seville and the session opens.
Alliance and treaty with England to fight against Napoleon.
The Supreme Central Council issues a Decree recognising the American territories as an integral part of the kingdom and summoning their representatives to form part of the Council.
The Supreme Central Council issues a Decree announcing the restoration of the Spanish Parliament.
A Decree is issued by which the commission responsible for organising the Spanish Parliament is empowered to decide on representation of the American territories.
october 1809 7th
A Decree is issued convening the Spanish Parliament.
The Supreme Central Council issues a Decree announcing its removal to the Island of León (San Fernando, Cadiz).
20 and 21 th
The French army crosses the Sierra Morena.
Marshal Victor’s army reaches the Bay of Cadiz.
The French demand the surrender of Cadiz. The siege of the Island of León and Cadiz begins.
The new Cadiz Council is formed. Dissolution of the Supreme Central Council. Power is handed over to the Council of Regency.
Marshal Victor enters Seville.
The Duke of Albuquerque’s army enters the Island of León.
Battle of Bailen (Jaen).
Joseph Bonaparte enters Madrid.
Joseph proclaimed King of Spain, as José I.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
The Family of Charles IV (Francisco de Goya, 1800) Manul Godoy (Francisco de Goya, 1800) The Mutiny of Aranjuez Reception in Bayonne Abdications in Bayonne Fernando VII arriving at the Gate of Atocha The uprising of the 2nd of May Execution by firing squad at the Moncloa (Francisco de Goya, 1800) Francisco de Solano Joseph Bonaparte (Pascal Simon Gérard, 1808) The surrender of Bailen (José Casado del Alisal, 1864) Bayonne Constitution
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
José Bonaparte I, King of Spain and the Indies Caricature “The enigma of Napoleon Bonaparte’s ideas for Spain” Napoleon’s fury (Anonymous, 1809) Joachim Murat (Antoine Jean Gros, 1812) Francisco Espoz y Mina (Francisco de Goya, 1828) Juan Martín Díaz, “The Undaunted”, (Francisco de Goya, 1814-15) The Duke of Wellington (Francisco de Goya, 1814) Fernando VII (Vicente López Portaña, 1814-15) Allegory of the alliances between Spain and England (Francisco de Torres, 1809) Spain and Portugal share the spoils of the French Imperial Eagle
The Supreme Central Council is established on the Island of León.
The Supreme Central Council leaves Seville.
It is agreed to convene the Spanish Parliament on the 1st of January, 1810 and to open the session on the 1st of March.
In Bayonne, Joseph Bonaparte swears to uphold the Constitution.
The Council of Regency issues an Order on free commerce between ports in the Indies and overseas colonies and European nations.
The Council of Regency moves to Cadiz, taking up residence in the Customs building.
The Council of Regency issues a Decree convening the Spanish Parliament: “the corresponding necessary elections shall be held, the representatives shall assemble on the Isle of León in August and the session shall commence”.
A new Regency is appointed. November 1810
A Decree establishing freedom of the press is enacted.
The Council of Regency leaves Cadiz for the Island of León (San Fernando).
The Council of Regency assembles the representatives at the Island of León Town
23.m Canary Islands Grenadiers 23.n Distinguished Volunteers of Cadiz (Guacamayos) 23.o Tenerife Grenadiers 23.p 87th Regiment, The Prince of Wales’s Own 23.q 20th Portuguese Regiment 23.r 79th Regiment, The Cameroon Highlanders 23.s Defensive Line Regiment, Veterans for the Homeland 23.t Royal Spanish Guard 23.u Valencia Light Infantry Regiment, Albuquerque 23.v Provincial Regiment of Guadix 23.w Fernando VII Regiment of Dragoons 23.x Regular battalion of the Canary Islands
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Uniforms of the Spanish, Portuguese and English corps which formed the Cadiz garrison in 1810:
23.a Distinguished Volunteers of Cadiz (Guacamayos) 23.b Volunteers of Cadiz (Cananeos) 23.c Distinguished Artillery of Cadiz 23.d 88th Regiment of Foot, The Connaught Rangers 23.e English Artillery 23.f Volunteers of the Island of León 23.g Distinguished Volunteers of Cadiz (Guacamayos) 23.h Voluntary Artillery from outside the city 23.i Regular Battalion of the Canary Islands 23.j Cadiz Grenadiers 23.k Fernando VII Regiment of Patriots 23.l Queen’s Guard Infantry Regiment
hall. The representatives are sworn in at the Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. The Spanish Parliamentary session opens in the Teatro de Comedias and a proclamation on National Sovereignty and the Division of Power is issued.
A commission is appointed to draw up a constitution.
Parliament issues a Declaration on American territory representation in the Spanish Parliament.
The Spanish Parliamentary session at the Island of León closes, and removes to Cadiz.
The Spanish Parliamentary session opens in the Chapel of San Felipe Neri (Cadiz).
Swearing in the Spanish Parliamentary representatives at the Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul on the Island of León, San Fernando (José María Casado del Alisal, 1863) The Spanish Parliament in the San Fernando Teatro Real, December 1810. Act 29-1-1810. The Creation of the Regency. Diego Muñoz-Torrero. Evaristo Pérez de Castro. Marshal Victor (Georges Rouges, 1835) Map of the French positions, May 1810 (Federico Joly Höhr Foundation) Decree no. 1 of the Spanish Parliament. Decree IX. Political freedom of the press.
Battle of Chiclana.
A new Regency is appointed.
Bombardment of Cadiz with Villantroys mortars.
The Spanish Parliament issues a Decree abolishing manorialism.
Debate begins on the text of the Constitution. The Commission continues its deliberations until the 15th of October, 1811.
Debate on the text of the Constitution concludes..
The Spanish Parliament issues a Decree abolishing torture.
The draft of the Constitution is read. Speech by Agustín de Argüelles.
The Constitution is signed by the representatives, ratifying two manuscript copies, one for the Spanish Parliament archives and the other for the Regency.
The representatives and the Regency endorse the Constitution in the assembly hall of the Spanish Parliament. The Constitution is proclaimed to the people of Cadiz. One month later, on the 25th of April, the regular session of the Spanish Parliament is convened for the 1st of October, 1813.
The Spanish Parliament issues a Decree on requisition and confiscation, which now also applies to the Church.
33 Battle of Barrosa, Torre del Puerco 34 Map of the Barrosa Campaign 35 Bombardment of Cadiz from La Cabazuela 36, 37 and 38 Villantroys mortars (Palace of Whitehall, London) 39 José Mejía Lequerica 40 Agustín de Argüelles 41 Vicente Morales Duárez 42 Count of Toreno 43 Proceedings of the members of the Commission on the Constitution 44 Proceedings of the Commission on the Constitution
Treaty with Russia: The Russian Emperor recognises the Spanish Parliament at Cadiz and the Constitution.
august 1812 11th
Promulgation of the first Decree on offences of disloyalty, in particular as regards public employees. This would be followed, on the 8th of April, 1813, by the Decree on military disloyalty.
The Constitution is endorsed parish by parish, in accordance with the Decree of the 18th of March, 1812.
Battle of Vitoria.
18th The Spanish Parliament issues a Decree on the reform of convents and monasteries.
Inauguration of the new Regency: Don Pedro Agar, Don Gabriel Ciscar and the Archbishop of Toledo, Don Luis de Borbón.
The Spanish Parliament names Wellington general in chief of the Spanish armies.
The Regency orders the expulsion of the Papal Nuncio from the country, for opposing the Spanish Parliament.
Cadiz pays tribute to Wellington.
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The French abandon Madrid.
Battle of San Marcial.
Following two and a half years of siege, the French abandon Cadiz.
A Decree is issued abolishing the Inquisition.
The Spanish Parliament declares that the Decree abolishing the Inquisition shall be read in the parishes, and that the conduct of those church authorities who have disobeyed the rulings of the Spanish Parliament shall be examined.
26 -27 th
The General and Extraordinary sessions of the Spanish Parliament close.
The Regular Spanish Parliament is constituted, in accordance with the new fundamental law of the Constitution.
Inauguration of the Regular Spanish Parliament in Cadiz.
The Spanish Parliament issues a Decree on agriculture and cattle farming.
(San Fernando), in order to resume them in Madrid on the 15th of January, 1814.
The Spanish Parliament and the Regency remove to the Island of León due to an escalating outbreak of yellow fever in Cadiz, taking up residence in the Convent of the Discalced Carmelites.
The Spanish Parliament decrees the suspension of its sessions on the Island of León
Treaty of Valençay, between Napoleon and Fernando VII, whereby Napoleon recognises Fernando and his successors as legitimate Monarchs of Spain and the Indies.
The king enters Valencia and receives the Manifesto of the Persians.
The Regency and the Spanish Parliament travel from the Island of León to Madrid, arriving in Madrid on the 5th of January, 1814. Parliamentary sessions begin on the 15th.
Regular Parliamentary session closes.
Inauguration of the Spanish Parliament and removal on the following day to the Convent of the Calced Augustinians, Madrid.
Following receipt of the Regency’s report, the Spanish Parliament issues a Decree whereby the king will not be recognised nor rendered obedience until he is sworn in by Parliament, in accordance with article 173 of the Constitution.
Regular Parliamentary session recommences.
Copy of the London Gazette announcing that the Siege of Cadiz by Napoleonic troops has been lifted “The promulgation of the 1812 Constitution” (Salvador Viniegra, 1911-12) Advance of the 3rd, 5th and 6th Divisions of Wellington’s army in the Battle of Salamanca Battle of Salamanca. Charge of Sir Edward Pakenham and his 3rd Division. First page of the manuscript of the Constitution of Cadiz Cover of a copy of the Constitution of Cadiz Pages showing the beginning of Section I of the Constitution of Cadiz
Fernando VII leaves Valençay accompanied by the princes Don Carlos and Don Antonio.
march 1814 rd
Fernando VII issues a Decree in Valencia revoking the work of the Spanish Parliament. Night of the 10th to the 11th Repression and detention of the regents, ministers and representatives. Dissolution of the Spanish Parliament.
Fernando VII arrives in Madrid and starts governing as absolute monarch.
52 Battle of Vitoria 53 The Passage of the Bidassoa (J. P. Beadle) 54 Spanish caricature. Joseph Bonaparte and the French expelled from Spain, shown as an enraged bull 55 Caricature. Defeat of Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte in Spain 56 Thematically decorated fans 57 Lottery ticket for the 3rd September, 1813, in Cadiz. 58 Receptacles for miniature copies of the Constitution 59 Chateau of Valençay, residence of Fernando VII and some of his family during Napoleon’s occupation of Spain 60 Fernando VII signing the Treaty of Valençay 61 Cover of the Manifesto of the Persians 62 Engraving satirising the 1812 Constitution 63 Design of the name plaque hung in the “Plaza de la Cons- titución” (Constitution Square), now the Plaza de San Antonio (Museum of the Cadiz Parliament, Cadiz) 64 Constitutional Hallelujah, approx. 1821