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Rabi Al-Thani 1422 - July 2001

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Editorial

The upsurge in violencethat has dogged the Middle East for the last nine months shows no signs of abating in spite of ardent American efforts to engineer a fragile ceasefire between the Muslims of the region and the Israeli state. As Muslims of the region know only too well - ceasefire or not - the Israeli state continues in her frenzied onslaught of the Muslims of Palestine.

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Reference News from around the world

The 'Umari Treaty

Massacres in Macedonia go unreported

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Corruption Epidemic

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The Pakistani Budget

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Shanghai Five agree to fight Islamic revival

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Execution of the criminal Timothy McVeigh

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Moulding the people into one Ummah

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Friend or Foe

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Anti-Muslim alliances come to the fore

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Democracy id dead... long live apathy!

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When Abu ‘Ubaydah ('Amr b. Al'Aas) (ra) arrived to open the land of Al-Quds, he requested that its people sign a treaty agreeing that their leader would be the Amir of the believers, Khalifah 'Umar b. Al-Khattab (ra). 'Ubaydah wrote to 'Umar with this, and thus 'Umar prepared his traveling gear to depart for Bait-ulMaqdis (Al-Quds).

COVER • ISSUE 3 • VOLUME 13

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The recent offer and acceptance between Vajpayee and Musharraf, of a summit concentrating on resolving the Kashmir conflict, brought to the fore how far the Kashmir peace process has really progressed. Due to take place in early July, this summit will mark the first high-level meeting between the two countries since the 'bus diplomacy' of two years ago. It will be the culmination of a series of steps undertaken since Musharraf came to power with a view to finally settling the decades old conflict and attempting to create a mutually beneficial relationship.

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Since the onset of capitalism and democracy, with the conflict and injustices it established, the thinkers in the lands in which the ideology had taken hold could see that it had serious shortcom ings. The social and economic oppression that characterised it pushed individuals such as Marx and Engel to invent the ideology of communism, another erroneous creed. Century after century, capitalism was chastised by poets, journalists, philosophers and other Western thinkers alike for its hypocrisy and inconsistencies.

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Kashmir: From Conflict to Conciliation

An Ideology on its Death Bed

General, Chief Executive, President Musharraf

First he was a General. Then he became Chief Executive. Now he is the President. On Wednesday 20th June 2001 Pervaiz Musharraf was sworn into the position of President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, watched over by the current High Commissioner of India. In fact the Indian government wasted little time in recognising the new President, becoming one of the first countries to do so. Already the Indians had stated that they recognise the General as the Pakistani head of state and this coupled with the attendance of their High Commissioner at the swearing in ceremony indicates t

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Israel: Crime or Justice

Israel and its struggle with the aggressive opposition surrounding it, has consistently been in the headlines for some time. The images portrayed show how the state of Israel and its Jewish inhabi tants are literally under siege from all sides. This, along with specific historical aspects, provides a basis for the current actions of Israel as the world looks on...

A Condition for Iman

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Iman (a belief with certainty) is the defining characteristic of the Muslim for without this he or she would be a Kafir. In the following Ayat Allah (swt) informs those who believe that there is a condition upon their Iman. "Fa laa wa Rabbika Laa Yu'minoona Hattaa yu'hakkimooka fee maa Shajara baynahum, thumma laa yajidoo fee anfusihim harajam mimmaa qadayta wa yusallimooo tasleemaa."

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The Effect of Ijtihad on Scientific Research in the Khilafah

between the Muslim World and the West is becoming increasingly apparent. This disparity takes many forms: economic, technological, military and also the standard of living via material progress. During the Ottoman period, Muslims were unable to see Islam's application, and indeed ability to provide solutions, in their ever-changing world. Looking back to the history of the Khilafah, however, we see Muslim scholars devising solutions to society's problems through the process of ijtihad.

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Letter to Tantawi

I read in one newspaper and heard on radio and television that your eminence is calling the Muslims to visit al-Quds and that you are encouraging them to make this visit at such a critical state of the Palestinian issue. In my capacity as one of the Arab Christians with whom Umar al-Farooq (ra) signed a treaty that Jews would not live with them in the holy city of alQuds, I have a right to put forward my contribution to this subject.

Trouble in the Balkans

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At least sixty-five people were arrested and eleven police officers injured in violent demonstrations in the city of Banja Luka on Monday 18 June 2001. Muslims driven out from the city in 1993 returned to the town in an attempt to rebuild a historic mosque but were hampered by Serb nationalists.

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Wisdom

According to philosophers wisdom means understanding truth for what it truly is. This, however, is an inaccurate description, since understanding truth is but a fruit of wisdom. Wisdom is related to the existence of a number of specific qualities in the thought process of the wise person. The first quality is the presence of enlightened thought. This quality enables the wise person to understand truth and to reach correct conclusions when judging realities. It also enables the individual to distinguish correctness among a sea of corruption and stray thoughts.

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Two Cats, One Monkey ('Do Billi, Eyk Bandar')

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Khilafah

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Editorial

Khilafah

Khilafah Magazine, Suite 298, 56 Gloucester Road, London SW7 4UB www.Khilafah.com, email Magazine@Khilafah.com

Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatahu,

The upsurge in violence

that has dogged the Middle East for the last nine months shows no signs of abating in spite of ardent American efforts to engineer a fragile ceasefire between the Muslims of the region and the Israeli state. As Muslims of the region know only too well - ceasefire or not - the Israeli state continues in her frenzied onslaught of the Muslims of Palestine. Arafat, his cronies, and their colonial masters promised the Muslims of the region that the 'peace process' would bring many fruits including political stability, security, international recognition and economic prosperity. Muslims, the world over, have come to realise the emptiness of such promises with the region as politically volatile as ever, with insecurity a fact of daily life, and with poor economic prospects for all. With such a realisation it seems somewhat ironic that in the adjoining continent of Asia another 'peace process' is being initiated between India and Pakistan, and not surpris ingly, welcomed enthusiastically by the USA. President Pervaiz Musharraf, the leader of Pakistan, will visit India on the fourteenth of July for a three-day trip incorporating talks about Kashmir. The Deputy Spokesman of the US State Department, Philip Reeker, said, "Pakistan and India have an opportunity to make real progress towards a reduction of tension and resolution of their differences through peaceful means". The Indian Defence Minister echoed those sentiments when he said, "India's commitment to peace, dialogue and cooperative coexistence with Pakistan remains unaltered." Predictably ecstatic, given a golden opportunity to betray the Muslims of Kashmir, the leader of Pakistan, General Musharraf, said "We should meet...I would certainly like to meet him (Vajpayee)". The Muslim land for sale in this 'peace process' is the land of Kashmir, whose inhabitants lived under the glorious Islamic rule for many centuries, after having been liberated by Muhammad bin Qasim during the time of the Umayyad Khilafah. Therein they had enjoyed political stability, security for their lives, property and deen, international standing and economic prosperity. For some time now, the government of Pakistan has been working to remould the public opinion of the people of Pakistan who still yearn for the Islamic conquests and for Islam to be at the centre of the

Published by Al-Khilafah Publications

affairs of life. By promising economic pros perity and political stability Musharraf has tried to prepare the people of Pakistan who have fought several wars with India for peace with India and for the resolution of the Kashmir issue. It is heartening to see that even in these dark days without the Khilafah to guard the interests of this Ummah and foil the plans of the Kuffar, that the masses from amongst this Ummah remain an obstacle to the treacherous plans of the colonialists and their agents from the ranks of the Muslim rulers who spend much effort and many resources to corrupt the pure nature of the masses. Those who seek to betray this Ummah by selling the blood of the Ummah for a pitiful price, should take notice of the Ummah's anger and retribution and of the fate of their likes throughout history. What we see today of peace negotiations with the occupiers of Muslim land is the natural consequence of the fact that the dis believers' surrogates are running the affairs of the Muslims. They act as watchdogs for the disbelieving Western powers; they exploit the land and the people to serve their interests and they preoccupy the Ummah with running after their daily bread, trivial problems and side issues, in order to sidetrack them from their major and only issue, which is the issue of establishing the Khilafah which Allah (swt) has made an obli gation upon them, to resume the Islamic way of life in their homeland and export the message of Islam to the whole world.

"And Allah has full power and control over His affairs; but most among mankind know it not." [TMQ Yusuf: 21]. Dr Imran Waheed

Editorial Team Jalaluddin Patel Dr Imran Waheed Fouad Hussein Baber Qureshi Badrul Rashid Taji Mustapha Abdul Hamid Jassat

Sisters Editorial Team Sameena Asghar Dr Nazreen Nawaz Zara Rahman Dr Shagufta Malik

News Team Yusuf Patel Rashad Ali Ahmad Jassat Mohammed Akmal Walid Gubara Ammar Zalloom

Publishing Team Farhad Khodabaksh Faisal Raja Nurul Amin

Internet Production Team Abu Yahya

Production Team Badrul Rashid Mokbul Hussain

No Copyrights Since Islam rejects copyrights and patents you are free to reproduce articles contained within this publication. It is our kind request that when doing so you cite the author and source of the article.

Translation of the Qur’an It should be perfectly clear that the Qur’an is only authentic in its original language, Arabic. Since perfect translation of the Qur’an is impossible, the term ‘Translation of the Meaning of the Qur’an (TMQ) has been used, as the result is only a crude meaning of the Arabic text.

Subscription details Subscription charges: £20 per annum including postage UK $35 per annum including postage USA To subscribe to Khilafah magazine please refer to: Internet Site: www.Khilafah.com or write to: Khilafah Magazine, Suite 298, 56 Gloucester Road, London, SW7 4UB Email: magazine@khilafah.com

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Quotation Chief

Executive General Pervaiz Musharraf, in a message on the occasion of 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, said: "We should pledge to cast our lives in consonance with the teachings of the Holy Prophet" He said the nation should vow on this occasion to foil all internal and external conspiracies against the country. It should work to defeat the forces work ing against peace and determine to frustrate the designs of terrorists. "Let us pledge to work day and night for the welfare, prosperity and stability of the country in the light of the teachings of the Holy Prophet", said the chief executive.

Instead of initiating the Islamic policy of redistrib uting wealth amongst the Ummah, Musharraf's regime has carried on securing more foreign loans. Loans which the unaccountable will squander away but which the impoverished masses will have to pick up the tab for in the form of higher prices for foodstuffs and energy, inflation and devaluation of their currency.

Source: Dawn

Musharraf has revealed that he aims to cast his life in the mould of secular minded politicians before him. Through his hollow reforms he aims to cast the lives of millions of Muslims in consonance with the teachings of the secular disbelieving West.

Comment

Ahmer Feroze

Rhetoric and empty gestures about Islam are second nature to Pakistan's ruling establishment. The address by self installed President Musharraf comes as no surprise. One wonders whether he truly realises the enormity of his pledge in casting our lives in consonance with the teachings of the Holy Prophet (saw). In his role as head of state the Messenger of Allah (saw) faced enormous challenges and problems. He set about addressing them according to the dictates of Allah (swt). Upon his arrival in Madinah the Messenger (saw) at once set about reconstructing a socio-political order based on the universal and comprehensive application of Shari'ah laws - as and when they were revealed. Madinan society was not simply a loose gathering of Muslims; it had a structure and coherency to it. The Messenger (saw) established a political structure to regulate the affairs of society. The new leadership in Madinah was faced with key issues relat ing to social order. Madinah had to absorb an influx of immigrants, the Muhajireen, who had left their homes, wealth and livelihoods for the cause of Allah (swt). Pakistan's problems necessitate radical and com prehensive change in the political, economic and social spheres. However Musharraf has undertaken no such reforms. He has redistributed power back to the armed forces along the same lines of that undertaken by Ayub Khan, Yahya Khan and Zia ulHaq. The secular constitution still lies in abeyance. Rather than call for a revamp along Islamic lines it is likely to be restored with some minor modifications. The federal set up of Pakistan, which enforces the repugnant idea of provincialism and nationalism remains and shows no sign of being abolished. So rather than building a nation upon the idea of Muakhah, as the Prophet (saw) had done, we see brother look upon brother as a Muhajir, Sindhi or Pathan with the associated ethnic infighting continuing.

Reference

"O you who believe! Take not into your intimacy those outside your ranks; they will not fail to corrupt you. They only desire your ruin: rank hatred has already appeared from their mouths; what their hearts conceal is far worse. We have made plain to you the Signs if you have wisdom." [TMQ Ale-Imran: 118]

"Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends/supporters (awliya) instead of believers, and whoever does that is not of Allah in anything except if you fear from them something to be feared (tuqat). And Allah warns you against Himself and to Allah is the return." [TMQ AleImran: 28]

"Give tidings to the hypocrites that for them is a painful punishment. Those who take the disbelievers as (awliya) instead of believers." [TMQ An-Nisa: 138-9]

"O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friend-

ship) is of them. Verily Allah guides not a people unjust." [TMQ Al-Ma'idah: 51]

"The unbelievers are protectors one of another: unless you do this (protect each other) there would be tumult and oppression on earth and great mischief." [TMQ Al-Anfal: 73]

"Or think you that you Shall be abandoned as though Allah did not know those among you who strive with might and take none for friends and protectors except Allah His apostle and the (community of) believers? But Allah is wellacquainted with (all) that you do." [TMQ At-Taubah: 16]

"O you who believe! Take not for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery or sport whether among those who received the Scripture before you or among those who reject faith; but fear Allah if you have Faith (indeed)." [TMQ Al Ma'idah: 57]

"O you who believe! Take not My enemies and yours as friends (or protectors) offering them (your) love even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you and have (on the contrary) driven out the Prophet and yourselves (from your homes) (simply) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure (take them not as friends) holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with them: for I know full well all that you conceal and all that you reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the Straight Path. If they were to get the better of you they would behave to you as enemies and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you for evil; and they desire that you should reject the Truth." [TMQ AlMumtahinah: 1-2]

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from around the world Massacres in Macedonia go unreported The world's media has kept silent about recent events in Macedonia. News reports and eyewitness accounts from human rights organisations show the deliberate policy of the government that has both directly and indirectly facilitated the mas sacre of Muslims. Examples of this policy include the destruction and desecration of ancient mosques such as the three hundred year old Hatuniye Mosque, which had signs of the cross all over it. Women and children have been separated from their husbands, with no explanation and no indication of their whereabouts. Whole regions such as Lipkovo are under siege from tanks and army regiments. It is very clear that the West chooses to report events and massacres only when it suits them. Hence the mas sacres of Muslims in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Albania and Macedonia go unreported since it is not in their interests to highlight them. This attitude should not surprise us. One finds that it was the same West that disarmed the Muslims of Bosnia and then allowed the Serbs to mas sacre the Muslims in the "safe haven" of Srebrenica. Indeed, the same West that handed Macedonia to the brutal Communist Josif Tito, and the same which upholds the embargoes on Iraq. When Sultan Murad I conquered this region he placed his tutor Sahin Pasha as governor of Macedonia and in the corresponding years Macedonia prospered under the Khilafah. Jilani Gulam

Corruption Epidemic Early in June, Abdul Sattar, Pakistan's foreign minister called for the international community to help combat the scourge of corruption in the developing world. He stated in a press briefing in London that, "I think that corruption is a scourge equivalent to drug trafficking or terrorism." This disease has engulfed the whole world; developed and developing countries alike. For instance, corruption is a major part of Indian gover-

nance. The Tehelka scandal shook India with its revelation that a broad range of politicians were literally cashing in. The Indonesian Corruption Watch (ICW), in its yearend report for 2000, revealed that political parties were the focus of corruption in the country. The US is plagued with corruption; past cases include Nixon's Watergate scandal, Chiquita's 'Banana war' and the buying of US congressmen. In the UK, the former Conservative government was renowned for its scandals and the present Labour government is no different in allowing big business to buy influence in poli cy making as illustrated by the Hinduja affair. Western institutions have been trying to combat corruption but to no avail. They claim causes of corruption are always contextual, rooted in a coun try's policies, bureaucratic traditions and political development. They fail to realise that corruption and its various forms are all sympto matic of one main cause - the appli cation of man-made law through the pursuit of self-benefit and interest, essentially deeply rooted in the Capitalistic ideology.

"Corruption has appeared on land and sea because of the handiwork of men" [TMQ Ar-Rum: 41] Muhammad Fawzi

The Pakistani Budget Shaukat Aziz, Pakistan's Minister of Finance has managed to procure a fifteen per cent General Sales Tax (GST) on sugar, oil and ghee. The tax was agreed with the International Monetary Fund in order to secure further funds to 'support' the ailing economy. GST on all raw materials used by industries such as iron and steel are also set to increase from fifteen per cent to twenty per cent, from July 1st 2001. The budget for the fiscal year 2001/2002 is designed to open the Pakistani market to multi-nationals and the like. Not surprisingly the stipulated IMF conditions take precedence over the needs of the Muslims

of Pakistan. The budget means that the Rs 465 billion projected tax revenues will in large be re-routed to the IMF in the form of debt servicing payments. Pakistan is a country where the population on the whole is neither rich, nor educated. They are people who toil their daily bread from their land. The imposition of such Western orientated taxes is a glaring insult to the sincere blood and sweat of those who work hard for a Halal living. How is it that those in authority, like Shaukat Aziz, manage to fall away from the straight path time and time again? Perhaps he, and others like him, should ponder over the ayah:

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made by the US to Uzbekistan alone, in order to endorse the Karimov leadership with the US seal of approval, and to furnish her with many weapons in addition to offering her "advice" in combating the Da'wa to Islam, is a very clear indication that the US is directing these regimes. It would seem that the American influence, is under threat by the sincere carriers of the Da'wa, who seek to destroy her hegemony and who aim to return to the application of Islam upon society.

Allah (swt) says: "They plot and plan and Allah plans, and Allah is the best of planners" [TMQ Al-Anfal: 30] Kysar Sharif

"Oh man, what has seduced you from your Lord Most Beneficent." [TMQ Al-Infitar: 6] Dilpazier Aslam

Shanghai Five agree to fight Islamic revival The presidents of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization member countries recently completed their two-day summit in Shanghai. The group, commonly known as the "Shanghai Five," admitted a sixth member, Uzbekistan, releasing a statement pledging cooperation in the fight against "terrorism". What dĂŠjĂ  vu! This is nothing new, as reports of such meetings by leaders who have vested interests in Central Asia conjure up memories of the past. Was it not the leaders of the Mushrikeen of Makkah who conspired in Dar al-Nadwah, to kill the Messenger of Allah (saw) in order to impede the success of the noble Hijrah that heralded the establishment of the Islamic State? Indeed, it was in such meetings like the Shanghai Five summits that the Quraish pretended to safeguard 'peace' in the Arabian Peninsula just as Akayev and Karimov claim to secure the 'independence' of Central Asia. Just as Allah (swt) destroyed the plots of the Mushrikeen then, He (swt) will also put an end to the intrigues of these rulers and their protectors. And this is not difficult for Him (swt). The number of diplomatic visits

Execution of the Criminal Timothy McVeigh The execution of Timothy McVeigh, a Gulf war veteran, took place on Monday the 11th of June, for the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, killing 168 men, women and children. The Federal government was happy to bring this execution to public attention as it regarded it as a murderous criminal act, which could only have been performed by somebody evil or insane. The Federal government of America should be careful to make such comments upon this issue, as it is in danger of making itself an instigator and performer of such criminal activities and is also in danger of labelling itself and its policies as evil and barbaric. One does not need to look any fur ther than American policy towards Iraq. An apt example is the bombing of Iraq for the last eleven years, where innocent men, women and over a million children have been killed, maimed or deformed as a result of the chemical warfare used against them by the American gov ernment. Is this not a murderous criminal activity? The American gov ernment claims to be attacking Saddam Hussein and not the people of Iraq; yet McVeigh had the same idea in mind when he plotted revenge against the American Federal government, which he believed to be

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"out of control". The execution of McVeigh was witnessed by over 300 people, which included families of the victims, government officials and media journalists. The world will insha-Allah witness the death of the criminal capitalist nation of America and all other Kuffar states when the Army of Jihad, under the orders of the Khalifah Rashidah, is unleashed upon them, calling them to account for their crimes and injustices carried out against the Muslims and Islam.

"And they (the Messengers) sought victory and help (From their Lord (Allah)), and every obstinate, arro gant dictator (who refuses to believe in the oneness of Allah) was brought to a complete loss and destruction." [TMQ Ibrahim: 15] Themina Ahmed

Moulding the people into one Ummah Recently violent protest erupted in Algeria's eastern region of Kabylia. These protests came from Algeria's Berber population who are a significant minority, accounting for 20-30% of the population. On one night more than 100,000 Berbers rioted through the streets of Algeria denouncing the army-backed regime's repression in Kabylia. They have long claimed discrimination, suffering from social and financial deprivation. Bouteflika (the ruler of Algeria) immediately announced a cabinet reshuffle involving several ministries, includ ing finance, public works and communications. However, comments from an official from the Socialist Forces Front (FFS) refuted the actions by saying "What's happening doesn't require a change in the cabinet, it's putting the whole system into question." Indeed what is required in Algeria is a change of system. The decade of problems in Algeria is what happens when a regime rejects Islam. The people of Algeria have suffered far to long and the recent events involving the Berbers illustrate the failure of man-made systems. Little does Bouteflika know that the Islamic Shari'ah caters for all people, times and places. The Islamic system that lasted for 1300 years not only governed the affairs of Muslims but

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those of non-Muslims because it is a system that has been revealed by Allah (swt), the creator of the universe.

"And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: That is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is well-acquainted with what you do." [TMQ AlMa'idah: 8]. Amin ar Rashid

Friend or foe? The Director of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), George Tenet conducted a tour of the Middle East for the purpose of bolstering the fragile ceasefire. He was joined by a whole host of highly influential Western mediators, including the European Union foreign policy chief Javier Solana, Swedish Prime Minister Goran Persson, and also the Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan. George Tenet, has requested the Palestinian Authority to prevent people from attacking Israeli positions, to end incitement in the media and to arrest militant gunmen. He follows a long line of American-Jewish politicians involved in mediating between the two sides, such as Henry Kissinger, Dennis Ross, Madeline Albright and William Cohen. This is further indication that the Palestinian leadership disregard the rule of Allah (swt):

"O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guides not a people unjust." [TMQ Al-Ma'idah: 51] Moreover it is haram to make peace with an enemy who is occupying

Islamic Land. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "Whosoever gives away a hand span of Islamic land will receive an equal hand span in hell." Therefore the obligation that lies upon the Muslims is not to find a 'Muslim friendly' mediator, but rather it is for the Muslim rulers to end the occupation of the Islamic lands by following only that which Allah (swt) has revealed. Omer Hussein

Anti-Muslim alliances come to the fore A web site run by militant Hindus in Queens and Long Island, New York, USA, was recently shut down by its service provider, only to be resurrected by radical Jews in Brooklyn a few days later. The web site advocated hatred and violence towards Muslims, which is the common factor in the alliance between the Jews and Hindus. This anti-Muslim bond has caused Hindus to march alongside the Jews in the annual salute to Israel parade on Fifth Avenue whereas the Jews joined the Hindus in a protest outside the United Nations regarding the treatment of Hindus in Afghanistan. Rohit Vyasmaan who runs one of the Hindu websites states, "Whether you call them Palestinians, Afghans, or Pakistanis, the root of problem for Hindus and Jews is Islam". Such a statement comes as no sur prise to an Ummah who has become accustomed to suffering torment and oppression at the hands of the Jews in Palestine and at the hands of the Mushrik Hindus of India. However such measures of desperation breed confidence amongst the Muslims as they have come to recognise that the formation of such organisations and the co-operation between them is merely another feeble effort on the part of the Kuffar to thwart the plans of the believers.

Democracy is dead‌ long live apathy! The turnout at the British general election dropped to an 80-year low with only 60 per cent of the electorate bothering to cast their vote. Non-participation is yet to reach the high levels of the American political system, which saw only 51 per cent of the electorate vote in last year's presidential elections. But the turnout in Britain did fall dramatically from 1997 when it was 74 per cent. Western society is overtly about gains; the 'what's in it for me' culture has detached people from politics and politicians; a detachment natural for such societies which do not feel a part of the process of decision-mak ing. Rather politics is seen as the illicit business presided over by old men in suits and ties whose actions are inextricably linked to the interests of big business. Conversely, Islam's conception of politics is far from the culture of lining one's own pockets, as it relates to the enjoining of good and forbidding of evil in society. This was in the past a natural state of being, the life-blood of an Ummah that was united by a single goal and a common conception of maintaining their unity and ensuring that the Kuffar were given the opportunity to live under Islam. Such Muslims adopted politics in order to fulfil the mission of Islam and the legacy of the Prophet (saw), whether they were a farmer, trader, scholar or ruler.

"The unbelievers are protectors one of another: unless you do this (pro tect each other) there would be tumult and oppression on earth and great mischief." [TMQ Al-Anfal: 73]

Islam encourages a thinking society not a politically unaware society like Capitalism. This is why under the Khilafah after the death of the Prophet (saw) the discussions that dominated the minds of the people were not about cricket, reality game shows or the like but rather about politics, Fiqh, Tafseer, hadith and the Arabic language. This is why within the masses, great scholars like Imam Ash-Shafi'i and Abu Hanifah, great Mufasireen like Imam Qurtubi, writ ers of the Seerah like Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, masters of the Arabic language like Al-Asmai', war experts like Khalid ibn Walid and outstanding politicians like Ibn Abbas, Harun arRashid and Sultan Abdul Hamid II were developed.

Faisal Raja

Yusuf Patel

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Kashmir: From Conflict to Conciliation

wars against the Sikhs, he was awarded the adjacent principality of Kashmir. The Treaty of Amritsar confirmed: "Maharaja Gulab Singh acknowledges the supremacy of the British government and will in token of such supremacy present annually to the British, one horse, twelve goats, and three pairs of Kashmiri shawls." The granting of Muslim Kashmir to a Hindu began a struggle that has not finished to this day. The 1947 Partition was the second major blow to strike the Muslims of the region. Established on the principle that the Muslim and Hindu majority provinces of British India would accede to Pakistan and India respectively, this resolution quickly fell apart when it came to Kashmir. Although majority Muslim, its ruler was a Hindu Maharaja who delayed accession in an attempt to gain independence. The Muslim population, already in revolt, was quickly assisted by tribesmen from across the border in an attempt to unite the land with Pakistan. Faced with this crisis, the Maharaja acceded to India, and troops from both nations went to war. The resulting cease-fire left Pakistan in control of one third of the former state with India taking the greater share, including the capital and the heartlands of the Kashmir Valley. The problem did not end here. After another war in 1965 that left the de-facto border, the line of control, unchanged, suppression of secessionist activity continued. This culminated in the mass uprising initiated in the mid-80s, marking the establishment of armed groups fighting jihad to achieve liberation. The response from the Indian side was brutal. Troops swamped the region, with killing and torture of the civilian population becoming the primary tools of containment. A generation of Muslims in Pakistan were being brought up watching the nightmare in Kashmir, and driven by their passion for Islam; support and assistance to the cause became a way of life. But by the late 1990s, with tens of thousands dead, many more injured, a population dishonoured, and a political leadership in stagnation, the conflict seemed to be in stalemate. However, as was the case in other Muslim crises around the world, a third option had been secretly initiated and was, in this case, given the name 'Track II.'

"Kashmir bane ga Pakistan, Ban ke rahe ga Pakistan." "Kashmir will become Pakistan, and will remain Pakistan after doing so." A national Pakistani slogan in support of Kashmir "We are ready for talks. Anytime, anywhere and at any level." General Pervaiz Musharraf

The recent offer and acceptance between Vajpayee and Musharraf, of a summit concentrating on resolving the Kashmir conflict, brought to the fore how far the Kashmir peace process has really progressed. Due to take place in early July, this summit will mark the first high-level meeting between the two countries since the 'bus diplomacy' of two years ago. It will be the culmination of a series of steps undertaken since Musharraf came to power with a view to finally settling the decades old conflict and attempting to create a mutually beneficial relationship. For the Muslim Ummah it is yet another astounding admission of an attempt at making peace with an enemy who has caused terrible distress and suffering to countless millions - a chronicle of shattered hopes and reckless rulers, who have failed to protect the honour of their nation or the

dominance of their deen. The impending finale to the Kashmiri saga once again reminds us of the abysmal situation that we are in. It is imperative, therefore, to evaluate the issue at hand and allow the revealing light of revelation to point to the solution.

Unfolding the Tragedy It was only after the decline of Muslim power in the subcontinent, with the rise of initially Sikh rule and then the establishment of the British Raj, that the present problem of Kashmir was created. Under the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh, the estate of Jammu was awarded to one of his Hindu leaders, Gulab Singh. Later, in 1841, Gulab Singh allowed the British to march through his territory to fight the Muslims of Afghanistan. Coupled with the sup port that he extended to the British during their

Having first come to light in early 2000, backdoor negotiations involving high-level diplomats started to be reported in the press. Spokesmen from New Delhi and Islamabad toned down the hardline rhetoric that was a staple part of the war of words over Kashmir. With Musharraf's declaration that there was "no military solution" to the Kashmir issue, and an unprecedented cease-fire announcement by the Indians, a case of terrorists having suddenly become trustworthy, it was clear that moves were underway to reach a settlement. Confirmation was received when Pakistani Ministers began almost weekly announcements of Islamabad's readiness to begin open talks, with the final declaration being New Delhi's letter of invitation to Musharraf. Thus, the unthinkable act, of abandoning jihad and establishing peace with the old enemy, was

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about to be realised.

Marshalling the Troops With the heady pace of progress, it can become all too easy to think that the idea of negotiating away the Kashmir issue and embracing a sworn adversary has taken place without resistance. Indeed, a superficial study might well leave us perplexed with the ease with which the Kashmir cause seems to have been abandoned by its most ardent protagonists. However, it has required a great deal of struggle and political manipulation to get to the stage where we find ourselves at present. A number of fronts were simultaneously opened to identify the effects of the Kashmir struggle on Pakistan, create a bogeyman on whom to pin the blame and point out the benefits of the government position. The campaign began by pointing out that the greatest problem of Pakistan was economic. This was primarily the result of the excessive drain on the national exchequer caused by the large defence budget. A resolution to the Kashmir conflict, it was argued, would reduce this substantially. Pakistan simply could no longer bear the cost of the liberation struggle. Having set the basic premise, a bogeyman was created. Inevitably this became 'fundamentalist' Islam. The largest thorns in the side of the gov ernment strategy were the Jihadi groups, both Kashmiri and Pakistani based. Having widespread support among the people and engaging in a noble cause, they held a significant amount of political clout. However, they had now become a burden. Increasingly, Pakistani newspapers became full of headlines and editorials laying the ills of the nation squarely on the shoulders of irrational Islamists, who despite having great zeal, failed to realise that compromise and concession were the backbone of international politics. Over many months the government became increasingly vociferous in ordering the Islamic groups to reduce their 'unlawful' activities. Speaking to a gathering of ulema on the occasion of Milad, Musharraf said, "the world thinks that we are terrorists and responsible for violence around the world." He urged the audience to help his gov ernment to change the country's image, saying, "Pakistan's support of the Kashmiri freedom struggle is confined only to diplomatic backing." The critical moment came with the announcement of Hizb ul-Mujahideen, the largest jihadi group in Kashmir and a wing of Jamat-i-Islami, that they had declared a temporary cease-fire. This sent shock-waves through the community, imme diately polarising opinion to either for or against negotiation. The process of moulding opinion for the peace process had taken off. Gradually the main Islamic groups started to fall into line. A lack of ideological Islamic understanding and domination by an all-pervasive atmosphere of compromise meant appeasing statements were soon issued. At the three-day International Deoband Conference held near

Peshawar in April 2001, an unprecedented resolution was passed "urging the political leadership of India and Pakistan to find a peaceful and just solution to the Kashmir problem to save the subcontinent and Asia from a nuclear confrontation." Jamat-i-Islami party spokesman, Amirul Azeem, was quoted by the Jang Newspaper on 26th May as saying, "We welcome India's talks offer but it should be meaningful, with the sole aim of implementing the United Nations resolutions on a referendum in Kashmir." Other religious political parties released similar statements. In another calculated move, Imam Bukhari of Jamia Masjid Delhi urged fellow ulema in India to "stop making irresponsible statements against India." Criticising his Pakistani counterparts, he added that Pakistani Ulema had caused "embarrassment" to Muslims in India. He further clarified his by stating both parties must adopt a "flexible stand. Violence creates violence. Violence or war is not the solution to any dispute." Clearly, the government had managed to secure the necessary fatwas legitimising its actions from both sides of the border. While the Ummah was gradually being cajoled into accepting a negotiated settlement, normalisation and integration of Pakistan's future with India continued. As an example, the Jang Newspaper reported on 9th June that "Pakistan is expected to allow import duty reductions on more than 200 Indian products in the next federal budget." This was in contrast to the imposition of IMF enforced taxation upon the ordinary citizens of Pakistan. The population became accustomed to announcements like "senior official at Petroleum ministry said on Wednesday (13th June) that domestic fuel prices, ranging from 9.4 percent to 14.48 percent has been raised as part of a quarterly price review." So while Muslims continued to bear greater burdens under ever increasing taxation, the old enemy received preferential treatment.

Diversionary Voices The solutions on offer to the Muslims in the subcontinent have always been frail, and Kashmir has been no exception. The dominant factor throughout is reliance on outside forces, particularly the United Nations. Indeed, it is sometimes stated so forcefully, as to be nauseating. In the words of Mushahid Hussain, the Information Minister in June 1999, "Pakistan will continue its moral, diplomatic, and political support to the cause of the Kashmiri people, which derives its legitimacy from the United Nations resolutions." This statement is a reflection of the dominant opinion of the leadership of Pakistan, and also the opinion imposed upon the greater part of the Ummah. It is clear that the UN is regarded as the only legitimate body from which an opinion can be acceptable. This explains why individuals have always been so eager to denounce any other basis as illegitimate. The other aspect to this statement is what it leaves out. Support of the Muslims in Kashmir is extended in every sphere except the most crucial: military assistance. Once again, this

displays a mentality conforming to the present view of acceptable international relations between sovereign nation-states. The stubborn refusal to question this basis is what lies at the heart of the continued failure to solve the Kashmir problem. A cursory glance at the actions of the UN would reveal to any observer that, far from being an inde pendent body, it is clearly under the control of the dominant world power of the time. It follows the direction set for it and undertakes actions justified for it. Thus, under US leadership, it is acceptable to supply weapons to the Taiwanese in their struggle against the Chinese, yet unacceptable for Muslims to give military aid to Kashmir. Undertaking nuclear tests results in sanctions being placed on Pakistan, but these are absent when the US choos es to renege on its signed international agreements (ABM Treaty) and increases global instability in the process by development of the National Missile Defence. Criticism is targeted at nations for not implementing the democratic system, but silence is reserved for the undemocratic basis of the UN Security Council. Far more dangerous than this acknowledged ignorance is the failure to regard Islamic thought as a viable solution to the present predicament. For a state having the title 'Islamic Republic', there is obviously a lack of confidence and a great deal of resistance to Islam being an acceptable source of guidance by a large part of the ruling structure. Thus, the words of Allah (swt) stated in Surah AlMa'idah:

"O you who Believe! Do not take the Jews and Christians for your friends and protectors. They are but friends and protectors of one another. And if any of you takes them as friends and protectors he is one of them" [TMQ Al-Ma'idah: 51]. are left ignored. The prohibition of giving allegiance to bodies like the UN, as clarified by the above ayah, must be a central part of our political thinking. This attitude has disastrous consequences for a state established to implement a precise worldview. Neglect of its fundamental basis and the implementation of a mosaic of other rules and canons has left the nation without an ideological framework or a vision of dominance. Instead, this is replaced with a plethora of contradictory and conflicting ideas and a system enforced upon a populace that is fundamentally opposed to it. Thus, while the Kashmir conflict continues to fester, voices calling for an increased internationalisation of the issue are not unheard of. What these individuals fail to realise is that the issue has been internationalised since its very inception. The international community and the UN were involved from the very first war in 1948 and resolutions have followed ever since. However, the very act of allowing foreign powers, with their

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own interests to defend, to gain a foothold in the region is what prevents a just solution. Thus, the Muslims of the region are left as idle observers while UN observers watch to ensure that the interests of the dominant power are upheld. In addition, as well as this, the approach also negates the clear injunctions of Islam. Allah (swt) states:

"Allah (swt) does not allow for the disbelievers to have any way (of authority) over the believers" [TMQ An-Nisa: 141]. To place those who reject our viewpoint towards life as authorities over us, and to accept them to judge in our disputes based on non-Islamic international law, is plainly rejected. The critical observer would find that the current economic, political and social crisis in Pakistan, far from being caused by the observance of Islamic principles, is the direct cause of the democratic Capitalist system. It is not an Islamic system that has been enforced in Pakistan over the last 50 years, but a democratic, western-law dominated system. Thus, the present state of the country is merely a reflection of the failure of the democratic system. It is the desperate attempt to avert the eyes of the nation from this glaring fact that results in the avalanche of anti-Islamist propaganda.

Realising the Potential It is apparent that the Kashmir conflict is just one symptom of the failed policies of the 'Islamic Republic of Pakistan'. With an external debt of $40 billion, economic instability and political turmoil as its characteristic features, it is the whole system of the state which is undermining any form of progress. What needs to be discarded is the concept of 'Republic', and all associated notions, symbolised in the nation's name and a refocus on the significance of 'Islamic'. Although a detailed elaboration of the Islamic political system of Khilafah is beyond the scope of this article, what is necessary is an appreciation of the Islamic ruling model. The Khilafah State is a centralised ruling structure with all mandatory powers delegated to the Khalifah. The Khalifah derives his legitimacy through the receipt of bay'ah from the Ummah. His responsibility encompasses implementation of the entire body of Islamic laws immediately in the land where he is appointed and seeks to project the influence of Islam to the global arena. Rasoolallah (saw) said in a hadith narrated in the Sahih of al-Bukhari, "The children of Israel (Jews) were ruled over by the Prophets. Whenever one Prophet died, another succeeded him, but after me there will be no Prophet, but there will be Khulafah and they will be many." The Sahabah (ra) asked, "What do you order us to do?" He (saw) said: "Fulfil the bay'ah to them, one after one. Give them their rights for Allah (swt) will question them about their responsibility."

Before we focus on the Kashmir issue, we also need to take stock of the potential that exists in the land of Pakistan. There are many encouraging signs. With a large, young and able population, Pakistan is strategically located with an ample supply of most natural resources. Historically an area of Muslim dominance, it still hosts many who are able to see the path to rising power. Coupled with a well-trained and powerful military, pos sessing nuclear deterrence, it could be well suited to rapid ascendancy.

keeping operations, the UN mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) said." Clearly, Muslim soldiers fighting various militias under the authority of the British and Americans have greater honour than defending the daily massacre across the border! The Khilafah State would, from the outset, seek to establish the principle that protection of Muslims and those oppressed by the Capitalist system requires our intervention. Not following the rules of the UN, but the rules of Allah (swt):

What Islam could give this dynamic populace is firstly a unique political worldview. Allah (swt) says:

"Surely we have sent down to you the Book (Qur'an) in truth, that you might rule between Mankind by that which Allah (swt) has shown you" [TMQ An-Nisa: 105]. Allah (swt) also says:

"It is He who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad saw) with guidance and the deen of truth, to make it dominate over all other deens, even though the disbelievers may hate it" [TMQ At-Taubah: 33]. Thus, a vision is carved out for the Ummah that their sight is on conquering and ruling the world. The McMahon Line and the Durand Line do not limit their horizons, but their vision ought to encompass gaining superiority over all other nations and systems. This vision of taking charge of the affairs of the world is what prepares the Muslim for the required actions. The Islamic hukm on the Kashmir issue is straightforward enough. Allah (swt) says:

"And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah (swt), and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women and children whose cry is, Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help" [TMQ An-Nisa: 75]. In addition the military policy would be overhauled from being meek and defensive, to one based on the projection of military might. The undertaking of military exercises and heavy investment in military research and development would achieve the desire of Islam to strike fear into the hearts of our enemies, rather than the Ummah being made to cower under foreign threats. Allah (swt) says:

"Make ready all you can of (armed) force and of horses tethered, that thereby you may dismay the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others beside them whom you know not. Allah knows them" [TMQ Al-Anfal: 60]. Included with this would be economic sanctions and blockade against targeted nations.

"And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 190]. However, what the Muslims have been led to believe is that they are incapable of this fight. They would also be stigmatised internationally if caught 'breaking the rules.' The crying shame regarding this stance is that one would imagine that the state under discussion was an incapable, weak state. Whereas the reality is that we are talking about a nuclear power that produces its own arms, tanks and missiles. Far from weak, the Ummah in Pakistan is very strong if only it realised that strength flows from the power of your ideas rather that the reach of your missiles. What is disgraceful is the report in the Jang on the 9th June stating, "An advance group of 265 Pakistani soldiers from a total contingent of some 4,000 troops has arrived in Sierra Leone for peace-

A global media campaign would also be launched exposing the hypocritical stance of the major powers in order to undermine their leadership and make Islam the accepted alternative to the global Capitalist system. Exposure of the undemocratic nature of the UN, the selective application of international law, the occupation of the Gulf by the Americans and Masjid al-Aqsa by the Jews, the shackles of international debt, as well as the discussion on proving the truth of the Islamic Aqeedah, would be prime candidates for debate. The Khilafah would utilise the sharpest minds and the smartest of Islamic politicians to undertake a worldwide drive to wrest the reins of international public opinion from the present democratic extremists and demonstrate the superiority of Islam in all spheres. Combined with an aggressive policy of reunification of Muslim land, the removal of borders and the establishment of the

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Shari'ah in totality, the Khilafah would indeed herald the birth of a new order in the world, one demanded by our deen, and the only solution to all of our problems. We should realise that the Kashmir peace process will ensure that after we have been thoroughly processed, we will be left in pieces. We must not accept the line of control but demand control of the lions in our armies. This will give us the capability to move from conflict to conquest. The establishment of the Khilafah is the necessary requirement in order to realise these aims. This is the message, which needs to resonate in the valleys of Kashmir and throughout the Muslim world. Allah (swt) says:

"And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, and if you (Muslims) do not do that (i.e. establish unity under one Khalifah), there will be fitnah and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption" [TMQ Al-Anfal: 73]. Hassan Mujtaba

First he was

a General. Then he became Chief Executive. Now he is the President. On Wednesday 20th June 2001 Pervaiz Musharraf was sworn into the position of President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, watched over by the current High Commissioner of India. In fact the Indian government wasted little time in recognising the new President, becoming one of the first countries to do so. Already the Indians had stated that they recognise the General as the Pakistani head of state and this coupled with the attendance of their High Commissioner at the swearing in ceremony indicates that they recognise Musharraf's Presidency. The position of President formerly belonged to Rafiq Tarar who speaking from his hometown of Lahore said that he had only been informed of this move a few days prior to being removed. Musharraf made two amendments to the Provisional Constitutional Order, which had allowed Tarar to continue in his position as President after the military coup in 1999 and then declared himself President with immediate effect - all this ironically in an attempt to bring himself legitimacy as a leader, in light of July's summit with Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. If one were to examine the motives behind such moves then the true nature of the betrayal of the Ummah would become apparent. For some time now the Indian and Pakistani governments have been readying their people in order to come to a lasting peaceful solution regarding the Kashmir issue. To this end the rulers of Pakistan have undertaken an elaborate campaign that has involved convincing the Pakistani people that they can no longer afford the financial cost of war in Kashmir, obtaining damning statements of Mujahideen groups from government ulema and the removal of specific ayat from educational syllabi. They have even furthered the promotion of Indian culture through various cable channels to convince the Ummah of their shared heritage with Hindu mushrikeen, through the coining of terms such as the "Indus Valley Civilisation".

General, Chief Executive, President Musharraf

“Become Muslim and be saved. If not, accept protection from us and pay the Jizya. If not, I shall come against you with men who love death as you love to drink wine” Khalid ibn al-Walid (ra) - letter to the Persians 633 CE “We should meet...I would certainly like to meet him (Vajpayee)” President Pervaiz Musharraf (Times of India) 2001 CE

However Musharraf faced an obstacle. His political opponents and more importantly the international opinion was that he is not yet a legitimate leader having taken power via a coup d'etat, as evidenced by Pakistan's suspension from the Commonwealth and pressure from other countries like Britain to implement democracy in the 'Islamic Republic' of Pakistan. Thus in order to gain legitimacy for the India-Pakistan summit Musharraf assumed the position of President. This would allow him greater success in the abandonment of Jihad; the selling of the Muslim land to the mushrikeen and the betrayal of every Muslim who once thought this man valued the blood spilt by the mujahideen in Kashmir. This from a man once hailed as a hero for his fighting in the region he now goes to give away. From the viewpoint of

those who care about the pleasure of Allah (swt), the taking of the Presidency by Musharraf is but another move in a twisted effort to capitulate where Allah (swt) forbade capitulation. It is worth taking note that those most pleased with this turn of events were the far right Hindu Nationalist BJP ruling party in India who stated that they would lay down for Musharraf a welcome fitting for a head of state. Let us examine some of the first words issued by Pakistan's latest President: "In my entire career I have never done anything for myself. God has been kind and continues to be kind to me. I bow my head before Him for all the bounties he has showered on me. I will bow in more humility as I rise" Allah (swt), the Supreme, whom you claim humbleness before has obligated the liberation of all occupied Islamic lands. The Pakistani Interior Minister was more blatant when he said: "It will not be permitted for anyone to bear arms whether they are affiliated to any mujahid or religious group. And it will not be allowed to force people to give donations and buy weapons in the name of Jihad." He then added, "There is no Jihad existing in Kashmir or Pakistan". Statements such as these demonstrate that the Pakistani government do not care for the command of Allah (swt) and also took part in the priming of the people of Pakistan for the summit, paving the way for peace by alienating those who yearn for the liberation of Kashmir at the hands of the army of the Islamic Khilafah. It is the case that until now the position of President was little more than a figurehead for the Republic of Pakistan, mostly used in ceremonies. This has changed now with Musharraf seeking to utilise the position on the world arena. Pakistan has been forced through international pressure to at least state that it wishes to return to democratic rule and the Supreme Court had declared October 2002 as the time for the next general elections. It is also widely known that Musharraf after returning the country to democracy sought the position of President rather than merely fading into history; in fact he stated as much. This move was brought forward for the summit; Musharraf intends to stay and be much more than a figurehead for ceremonies. Will the Muslims of the world stand and watch as another of their rulers discards Allah's (swt) Shari'ah and makes peace with Allah's (swt) enemy? Musharraf can declare himself Chief Executive, President or even Emperor of a prehis toric Indus Valley civilisation. The only declaration the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) are interested in is the declaration of the Amir ul-Mumineen, the Khalifah of the Muslims. Baber Qureshi

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Israel: Crime or Justice "The four great powers are committed to Zionism, and Zionism be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in agelong tradition, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desire and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land." Lord Balfour

Israel and its struggle

with the aggressive opposition surrounding it, has consistently been in the headlines for some time. The images portrayed show how the state of Israel and its Jewish inhabitants are literally under siege from all sides. This, along with specific historical aspects, provides a basis for the current actions of Israel as the world looks on. This article will attempt to establish a wider perspective to the problem and offer an alternative analysis to the Arab-Israeli conflict; it also aims to offer a solution that is consistent and comprehensive. Israel has enjoyed immunity from serious critical analysis, especially from the US, for some time. True history has been distorted. Israel is depicted as guided by unique high moral principles surrounded by barbarians whose sole aim is to murder innocents and to deny them their rightful home. On August 5th 1982, Thomas Friedman reported 'indiscriminate' bombings of West Beirut by Israel. The editors deleted the word 'indiscriminate' as inconsistent with the approved image of their Israeli ally. Ben Gurion, in a speech reported by Flapan, "Zionism and the Palestinians (pp 141-2)" from 1938 said, "in our argument abroad we minimise the Arab opposition to us," but he urged, "let us not ignore the truth amongst ourselves." The truth was that, "politically we are the aggressor and they defend themselves ‌ the country is theirs because they inhabit it and we want to come and settle down here, and in their view we want to take away from them their country, while we are still outside." This conflict has been depicted as 'right against

right' at best, a claim that the Muslim inhabitants can never accept. Current events should never be viewed in isolation of the past, and the wider picture needs to be determined before any solution can be proposed. It is well known, and indeed common sense, that the Muslim inhabitants of this region were overwhelmingly opposed to a Jewish state or to a large-scale Jewish immigration leading to dispossession from their land. "They had never been consulted at any level in the preparation of European plans for the disposal of their homeland and felt in no way bound peaceably to accept their implementation". 1 This attitude has consistently been described as 'anti-Semitism' in the US, where Lord Balfour's position is widely accepted. Lord Balfour (author of the Balfour Declaration, 1917) committed Britain to 'facilitate' the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." He also said later that, "the four great powers are committed to Zionism, and Zionism be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long tradition, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desire and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land." Clearly, the creation of Israel was planned and purposeful; yet, no serious objection to it has been given credibility. The existence of opposition is no secret. President Wilson's King-Crane Commission in 1919 sates, "the Zionists looked forward to a practically complete dispossession of the present non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine." He stressed how nine-tenths of the population was completely against this plan and

how it "would be a gross violation of the principle of self determination and of the peoples rights." This report is barely mentioned in standard history. The British were given a mandate to militarily crush the revolt that ensued with considerable brutality after the Munich agreement in 1938. Later years see the Muslims of the region still rejecting to recognise Israel, which has now become natural to the West (Israel's existence). They cannot accept responsibility for crimes committed by Europeans against the Jews. Perhaps a more appropriate response from a self-righteous moralising US should be to implement the project in New York or Massachusetts. Can we imagine the reaction from the indigenous population; would there be chants of terrorism and indiscriminate cluster bombing of civilians? Many claim to find the uncompromising attitude of the Muslims in Palestine, indeed the world over, to be unacceptable since they are receiving a territorial compromise. This may have legitimacy in some eyes, but surely it is not hard to understand why the indigenous population cannot accept such a resolution. If someone were to take over your house and then offer you a few rooms in a fair compromise, you might not be overwhelmed by his generosity, even if he were homeless, destitute and persecuted. Implementation of the plan was adopted by the American Zionist Movement in 1942 (the 'Biltmore Program').2 The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine became the official goal of the Zionist Movement. Prior to this, some form of parity between Jewish and Muslim population was looked at. In 1947 the General Assembly of the UN recommended the partition of Palestine into Israel and a Palestinian state. This was accepted by the majority of Zionists but not Begin's terrorist army (The Irgun Tsvai Leumi) and LEHI (The Stern Group). UN resolutions were considered to be non-binding as is the case today. In fact, Israel holds the world record for the rejection of UN resolutions. Civil strife broke out understandably with violence on both sides. As usual though, it is the record of Muslim violence that remains in the popular consciousness. This is far from the true story, so this article will highlight some styles and means adopted by the then terrorist Zionist organisations. On December 18th 1947 the Palmach, the kibbutz based strike force of the Haganah (the defence force of the Jewish settlement in Palestine and precursor to the IDF of today), carried out an attack on the village of Khissas, killing 10 Muslims, including one woman and four children.3 In April 1948 the Deir-Yassin Massacre occurred at the hands of Irgun-LEHI and was reported enthusiastically by the terrorist commander Menachem Begin, who took pride in the operation that left some 250

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defenceless Muslims slaughtered, including more than 100 women and children. Only three lines were recorded in the official government accounts. By May 1948, 300,000 Muslims had been displaced from land assigned to them. Personal testimonies show how the majority of Jews favoured eliminating (or murdering) all who stood in their way, including women and children, and they did just that. Begin praised his killers for their humanity, for "acting in a way no other fighting force had ever done." The Irgun command sent a message internally of congratulations on the "wonderful operation of conquest," saying, "as in Deir-Yassin, so everywhere ‌ Oh Lord, Oh Lord, you have chosen us for conquest." The terrorist organisations were well equipped and prepared by the West and had a huge advantage on the civilian Muslim population they targeted. By May 1948 they had managed to capture a large part of land assigned to the Muslims. In the 1948 massacres, 700,000 Muslims fled or were expelled from their land while the world watched on. For many years it was claimed that the Muslims fled on orders from their Arab leaders. The basis for this argument, to hide the reality, was undermined by Erskine Childers in 1961 who showed that Arab leaders tried to prevent the flight, encouraged by Israeli terror, and psychological warfare, sometimes direct expulsion was employed.4 Additional thousands of Muslim citizens in Israel were expelled from the Galilee region in 1956. Hundreds of thousands more fled, or were expelled, from the conquered territories after the war in 1967. In a detailed analysis W.W. Harris estimates that of a pre-war population of 1.4 million, around 430,000 left their homes from June to December in 1967 (most of them in June). High population losses were as a result of "a legacy of assorted fears." For example, in the vicinity of Qibya, Israeli forces commanded by Ariel Sharon had conducted a major massacre in 1953. Ariel Sharon warned the Muslims "the Palestinians should not forget 1948".5 As for the argument of Israel exists now, so we cannot remove it and it should be protected, let us examine this. The manner in which alleged Nazi war criminals are pursued to the ends of the earth does not seem to suggest the same rule applies when it comes to crimes against Jews. We just have to look at the way in which news is reported. For example, recently Israel once again broke previously agreed resolutions under the Oslo accord during which a fourmonth-old child was murdered. The world accepts it was in self-defence! Do we not remember the television pictures of Mohammad Durrah, a young Muslim boy murdered in cold blood in front of the cameras for the world to witness? It seems Ariel Sharon's apology is sufficient, while Iraq was bombed into the stone age. When Israeli's are victims, Ariel Sharon describes it as a heinous crime for which 'they' will have to pay. Bombing raids on civilian targets ensues. This is the real crime here. It is clear the Jews have worth, but the blood, land, hon-

our and dignity of Muslims is worthless. Israel has committed atrocity after atrocity as the world and the surrounding puppet regimes watch on. Indeed, Muslim rulers try again and again to initiate peace as surrogates to larger powers and solely for foreign interests. For example, King Abdullah of Jordan was killed in 1951 by a 19-year-old Palestinian boy. This action was criticised and became a commonly cited proof that Muslims will not tolerate a 'moderate' leadership that will accept the existence of Israel. It has to be said, today we have the same leaderships continuously attempting to recognise Israel through the current peace initiative. Look to Hosni Mubarrak and his consistent running around; look to the PLO and the plans of a separate state for Palestinians. Is this not the plan for which organisations such as the PLO were formed i.e. the recognition of Israel? The plan to create a homeland for Jews in Palestine is an age-old plan and today's reality has to be seen in this light. All the activity and solutions being given exposure are to achieve the ultimate crime of legitimising the terrorist state of Israel.

The Solution The Islamic view of life is established in the belief of Allah (swt) as being the Creator. The purpose of life means the worshipping of this Creator by following his (swt) revelation, and the after-life holds for man Judgment on his actions via heaven or hellfire. This is something the Jews left a long time ago. As for the claim of anti-Semitism, if there is any opposition to Israel then Allah (swt) answers:

"Say, 'Rather we follow the religion of Abraham, who was a man of pure faith (Hanif) and was not of the associators'" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 135]. Tabarsi explains 'hanif' as the one who inclines away from false religions towards true faith. So, it should be clear from this, that Israel is antiSemitic; for their policies and actions have moved away from the true faith and deen of Allah (swt). As stated above, this is not new for the Jews. Allah (swt) reminds us time again how he blessed the Jews, He (swt) says:

"Then we split the sea for you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you looked on" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 50]. Tabari relates how Allah (swt) saved them, when Moses (as) reached the Red Sea he gave it the name of 'Abu Khalid', he hit it with the staff, and

it split into two huge walls of water. Then the Jews entered as the sea was split into 12 paths, one for each tribe.6 When Pharoah reached the sea his horse was frightened, but Gibreel (as) appeared before it on a mare (on heat). Pharaoh's horse advanced, and his army followed. Michaeel (as) appeared behind the army to drive them on and the water closed in on them before the Jews.7 Allah (swt) punished the Jews when He (swt) asked them to enter Jerusalem through the gate called 'hittah' (the gate of the dome in Jerusalem toward which Moses (as) prayed 8) and prostrate, but they defied Allah (swt) and a plague was sent as punishment, killing twenty four thousand of them.9 This incident is related to us in Ayah 58 in Surah Al-Baqarah as a lesson to Muslims not to follow their path. At-Tabari relates how when Allah (swt) took the Prophet Ezekiel (as) from the Jews, misdeeds multiplied, they broke the covenant with Allah (swt) and begun worshipping idols. One of these idols was named 'Baal' (Ibn Ishaq also reports this). Allah (swt) mentions this incident in Surah 37 in verses 123-126. When this occurred Allah (swt) sent Elijah (Ilyas) to remind them, but they refused and called his way a delusion. Due to their rejection, Allah (swt) withheld the rain for three years as a punishment and reminder. Elijah (as) reminded them of their covenant and how their worship of 'Baal' was indeed delusion. It seems the Jews have never ceased to anger their Lord, and after so many blessings and miracles, they still continue to defy the covenant they made in the Torah to obey their Lord. In this light, the Israeli idol (state) is not so surprising to the Muslims who have been entrusted with the final message from Allah (swt). What is surprising is that we are making the same mistakes by not implementing Islam and conveying it the way we should. We are making the same mistake by living by the law of man and following today's idols in terms of our current rulers and regimes. What enabled the world superpowers to rally round and victimise the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) is the fact that they have a nation, systems, and indeed a way of life. Their rulers are bound by their way of life that they implement, and convey. They have systems that enable them to protect their way of life. On the other hand, there is the current Ummah of Muhammad (saw) that has abandoned their way of life in the realm of life. They have allowed their system to crumble into nothingness, and as such, without the system of Islam i.e. the Islamic Khilafah system, we have left ourselves vulnerable to the whims and desires of other states such as the US, Britain and Israel. We have lost the shield of protection the Prophet Muhammad (saw) described when he (saw) said, "The Imam is a shield from behind which you fight and from behind which you are protected." Today we see many Muslim countries, but all of them are sur-

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rogates to their Western masters, none of them are established as the Khilafah. Without the Khilafah, Islam does not exist as a way of life and so Allah's (swt) rules are not implemented, Islam is not conveyed, and the Muslims and Islam are not protected. We have to learn from the mistakes made by previous generations and return to the comprehensive system of Allah (swt). Working to establish the Khilafah is the only real solution to the Middle East crisis. Currently, any treaty, peace deal or negotiations are invalid until we have the Khilafah; this is because the treaties are the responsibility of our rightful leader, the Khalifah. The Ummah of Muhammad (saw) need to re-establish the Khilafah so that this responsibility is carried out. This is a fact known from Islam by necessity. In essence, Yasser Arafat, Hosni Mubarrak, the Saudi family or any other regime do not represent Islam or Muslims. They represent their own interests, and they cannot be compared to the likes of Abu Bakr (ra) and Umar (ra) who were legitimate rulers that looked after the affairs of the Ummah. Israel, US and Britain should not be dealing with the rulers of fifty or more weak and defeated nations; they should be dealing with the United Ummah of Muhammad (saw) under the shade of the Khilafah system with a sincere Muslim Khalifah at its helm. This time is near, and only when the Khilafah returns, will the blood, land, honour and dignity of Muslims be taken seriously. Only then will the world realise the Crime called Israel. We pray for and work for the return of the Khilafah State and the likes of Salahudin Ayubi. Then, there will be a new era, an era described even by the likes of Mier Lau (Rabbi) as the Golden Era for the Jews, under the shade of the Islamic Khilafah. We pray for the system that gave us rulers the like of Abu Bakr (ra), Umar (ra), Uthman (ra) and Ali (ra), who took the responsibility of protecting Muslims and nonMuslim citizens of the State, by implementing Islam and conveying it to the world, and not the cowards of today. Saed Khan

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Lucas, The Modern History of Israel p101 Lucas, The Modern History of Israel p192 Sykes, Crossroads to Israel p337 Erskine Childers, Spectator May 12, 1961 Al Hamishmar, April 16, 1982 Tabari, II, p50 Related by Abdullah ibn Shaddad Mujahid related and Tabarsi, I, p264 also Ibn Kathir, I, p171 Qurtubi, I, p410-411 and Zamakhshari, I, p283

A Condition for Iman Iman (a belief with certainty) is the defining characteristic of the Muslim for without this he or she would be a Kafir.

In the following

Ayat Allah (swt) informs those who believe that there is a condition upon their Iman. "Fa laa wa Rabbika Laa Yu'minoona Hattaa yu'hakkimooka fee maa Shajara baynahum, thumma laa yajidoo fee anfusihim harajam mimmaa qadayta wa yusallimooo tasleemaa." In the translation of the meaning: "But no, I swear by your lord (Allah), they will have no Iman, until they make you, (O Prophet) rule between them in whatever they dispute amongst themselves, and then they find no resistance in their souls from what you have decided, instead they sub mit with absolute submission" [TMQ AnNisa: 65]

Sabab un-Nazool (occasion of revelation) Ibn Kathir in his Tafseer reports that a Muslim had a dispute with a Jew and so he went for the judgment to the Prophet (saw). The Prophet (saw) ruled against the Muslim and in favour of the Jew. The Muslim unhap py with the verdict went to Abu Bakr (ra) for a contrary judgement. Abu Bakr (ra) asked if he had been to the Prophet (saw) and he replied "yes". So Abu Bakr (ra) refused to judge over the Prophet's (saw) judgement. So then he went to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (ra). 'Umar (ra) also asked him, if he had been to the Prophet (saw)? He said "Yes, but I want another judgement". 'Umar (ra) told the man to wait. He then went home to

retrieve his sword, and upon his return severed the man's head from his body. The Muslims began saying that 'Umar had killed a Muslim, until Allah (swt) revealed this Ayah stating the righteousness of the action of 'Umar, by His (swt) saying that no man may have any Iman until you accept the Prophet's (saw) judgement. Thus, 'Umar in his capacity as a Judge in the Islamic State executed that man as a punishment for his apostasy.

The Hadith and its Qaraa'in (Shari'i indications) pointing to the decisive obligation 1) The Ayah was sent down condoning 'Umar's (ra) action; thus we can see a Qareenah (Shari'i indication) here that the man apostatised, otherwise it would have been Haram to kill him (killing being sanc tioned by the state for apostasy). This is a Qareenah here that the Iman mentioned in the Ayah is referring to Iman in the opposite meaning to Kufr, not simply an emphatic Iman (meaning Taqwa or piety) as is in other texts. This is a decisive Qareenah. 2) The silence of the Prophet (saw) toward the action of 'Umar (ra), which would ordinarily have been Haram is another decisive Qareenah. 3) These two lead us to the conclusion that ruling by what Allah (swt) has revealed is a matter of Iman, and anyone who rejects it with knowledge is a Murtad (apostate). (Surah Ma'idah Verses 44-5 and 47)

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The Ayah and its Qaraa'in (Shari'i indications)

verb can mean a mixed group or just men.

1) Allah (swt) swore an oath upon himself (fa laa wa Rabbika- 'No by your lord…' ). This is supportive Qareenah. 2) Allah (swt) said that they find no resistance in their souls to the judgement of the Prophet (saw). (thumma laa Yajidoo fee anfusihim- 'and then they find in themselves no resistance' ) This also is supportive Qareenah. 3) Allah (swt) said that they submit with absolute submission (wa yusalimoo tasleemah- 'they submit with absolute sub mission') 4) These are also Qaraa'in that the Ayah is talking about an obligation, because: i) It is not obligatory to submit with absolute submission to a Mandoob (recom mended act), only to a Fard (obligation) are we commanded to submit with absolute sub mission. ii) Nor is it obligatory to find no resistance in our souls to a Mandoob. So the subject matter must be a Fard. iii) For extra emphasis Allah (swt) swears upon the greatest thing that He (swt) could ever swear upon, not the stars, not the sun, not the constellations, nor the fig or the olive, like in other Ayat; but no, upon Himself (swt)! The greatest oath to take, and the only one that is also Halal for the Muslims to take; to swear upon nothing but Allah (swt)!

The fact that it came in the third person, is because the Prophet (saw) is addressed regarding us. So as to say "O Prophet (saw) they have no Iman". The fact that it came in the present tense means that it can include the future, as the present tense in Arabic can include the future, so as to say, "…They will have no Iman unless they do so…" The fact that it came in the plural is interesting, as the original sabab only mentions one man, the Murtad. This indicates that the Ayah is actually talking about all Muslims, as it is in the plural, when it did not need to be. So the meaning is "all of you Muslims don't have Iman". Thus it came in an 'Aam (general) form, with no exception mentioned. Thus it is Fard upon all of the Muslims. So, it means, "O Prophet all the Muslims (men and women) will have no Iman (they will have only Kufr) unless ..." Besides all of this is the Shari'i principle "alIbraa bi 'umoom il-Lafdhee wa laa bi Khusoos is-Sabab". "The meaning is taken by the generality of the expressions, and not by the specificity of the cause (sabab)." Thus, the meaning is taken by the generality of the wording in the texts, and it is not restricted to that one man. So we are all addressed by the 'Aam (general) ruling; that we have no Iman, unless we accept the Hukm of Islam.

one of us, but rather we are actively com manded to MAKE the ruler rule by Islam, with deliberate actions. We are commanded to do action in making this happen. 3) fee maa Shajara Bayahum - "in whatever they dispute amongst themselves.." Again, this is emphasising the meaning that it is all Muslims, as it concerns whatever we may dispute in between us all. The word Maa here is Maa al-'Umoom - a general Maa, meaning in whatever and in any matter that they dispute. So in all matters we must refer to the Prophet's (saw) judgement 4) The address to the Prophet (saw) The Ayah states "till they make you (O Prophet) rule between them." It is known that any address to the Prophet (saw) is an address to all the Muslims, unless restricted. For example, the Ayah commanding Zakah: "Take Sadaqah from their wealth" is in the second person form (al-Haadhir). So is it addressing the Prophet (saw) only? Is it no longer Fard to give Zakah to the Khalifah? When those who refused to pay the Zakah argued with Abu Bakr (ra) they argued that the obligation of Zakah was only to the Prophet (saw) because the Ayah was only addressing him alone. The Sahabah (ra) fought against those who brought this argu ment and killed some of them. Thus, it is Ijma'a as-Sahabah that the command, when addressing the Prophet (saw), is a command intended for all Muslims, unless specified.

2) The words "hattaa yuhakkimooka" .

This all points to the obligation of ruling by what Allah (swt) has revealed, and it being a matter of Iman or Kufr - some of these Qaraa'in being definite and some being sup portive.

The verb (fi'l) here came in the third person (al-Ghaai'b) masculine (mudhhakkir) plural (Jama'a) present tense (al-mudharee). Additionally, and most importantly, it came in the transitive form 2 (fa'ala - yufa'ilu).

Al-Mahkoomoon (those addressed by the Hukm)

Thus, it means, "Until they all (men and women) MAKE you rule between them".

Having realised the emphasis of this ayat the question arises upon who does this Fard rest?

The difference between Hakama (form 1 fa'ala), and Hakkama (form 2 - fa'ala - with emphasis on the kaaf), is one of causation.

1) Allah (swt) says: Laa Yu'minoona.

Hakama means to rule. Hakkama (with emphasis on the kaaf) means to make some body else rule.

This is a third person (Ghaa'ib) masculine (Mudhakkir) plural (jam'a) verb (Fi'l) in the present tense (al-mudharee). Thus it means, "They all don't have Iman".

Thus, the meaning here is "O Prophet, all the Muslims (male and female) will have no Iman, until they all (male and female) MAKE you rule between them..."

The fact that it is in the masculine includes women with men, as in Arabic the masculine

Thus, it is important to note here, that we are not just commanded with a Fard, each

So this applies to all of the Muslims. We are commanded to MAKE all Muslim rulers judge between us by Islam; otherwise we would have no Iman (that is, if we knowingly go against this).

Conclusion After the Tafseer of this Ayah, it becomes apparent that all Muslims will have no Iman until they make their rulers rule by Islam, and they submit absolutely to the ruling of Islam. Anyone who knowingly goes against this (though not out of ignorance) is a Kafir Murtad (apostate), and anyone who neglects this is sinful. So come, and work for the Khilafah, as it is a great Fard, and neglecting it is neglecting the biggest prerequisite in Islam; Iman. Maajid Nawaz

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The Effect of Ijtihad on Scientific Research in the Khilafah State

"And He it is Who created the night and the day, and then sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit" [TMQ Al-Anbiya': 33].

"Then fashioned We the drop a thing that clings, then fashioned We the thing which clings like a chewed lump of flesh, then fashioned We the chewed flesh into bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it another creation" [TMQ Al-Mu'minun: 14]. These ayat provoke thought. They would inspire the Muslims to produce tools and technology that was unparalleled during this time. Some examples of these discoveries are: 路 Glass mirrors were used in Islamic Spain in the 11th Century. It was not until much later that the Venetians learned of the art of fine glass production from Syrian artisans.

A growing disparity

between the Muslim World and the West is becoming increasingly apparent. This disparity takes many forms: economic, technological, military and also the standard of living via material progress. During the Ottoman period, Muslims were unable to see Islam's application, and indeed ability to provide solutions, in their ever-changing world. Looking back to the history of the Khilafah, however, we see Muslim scholars devising solutions to society's problems through the process of ijtihad. Ijtihad means exhausting all of ones efforts in studying a problem thoroughly and seeking a solution for it from the sources of Shari'ah. Ijtihad may only be performed by those qualified to do so. The Muslim scientists carried out research and derived theories that left Europe standing in their wake. This article aims to show how, through the process of ijtihad, the level of material progress as a result of scientific research can take place in the future Khilafah State.

Muslim Achievements of the Past Although Insaan (mankind) has not changed with time, the society's requirements, and to a lesser extent the individual's requirements, do change. What does change quite rapidly are the tools Insaan uses to satisfy the basic organic needs and instincts that are integral to the Nature (Fitra) of Man. As societies expanded, so did the requirements for things such as agricultural produce and irrigation. Means of travel had to change to move Muslims to far off lands as the Khilafah took Islam

to places that were impractical to travel to by land alone; hence, ship building and navigation had to improve. All these changes did not just appear haphazardly but arose as a result of fundamental concepts and processes. The Muslims understood that Islam came to be applied to the reality, whatever that reality would be. They understood that every action requires a hukm, and when Insaan does an action he will end up utilising things or objects. It is Insaan's use of the things and objects that required the Muslims to seek the hukm of Allah (swt). In order for the Muslims to know how to apply Islam to their reality to provide solutions for their everyday lives, they needed to understand the reality. Countless ayat of the Qur'an appeal to Insaan's mind:

"And He it is Who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amid the darkness of the land and the sea, We have detailed Our revelations for a people who have knowledge" [TMQ Al-An'am: 97].

"Say (O Muhammad): Travel in the land and see how He originated creation" [TMQ Al-'Ankabut: 20].

路 Muslim engineers produced a variety of mechanical clocks, contrary to what is taught in schools today. This knowledge was transmitted to Europe through Latin translations of Islamic books on mechanics. These books included designs and illustrations of epi-cycling and segmental gears. The books further indicated that these clocks were weight driven. 路 In 1454, Gutenberg developed the most sophisticated printing press of the time. However, movable brass type was in use in Islamic Spain 100 years prior. Spain is where the West's first printing devices were made. 路 Ar-Razi, Ibn Sina, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, azZahrawi, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Baytar, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn Juljul, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn an-Nafs, al-Biruni, Ibn Sahl and hundreds of other Muslim physicians mastered the science of drug therapy for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases. In fact, this concept was entirely their invention. The word "drug" is derived from Arabic. Their use of practical experience and careful observation was extensive. Muslim physicians were the first to criticise ancient medical theories and practices. ArRazi devoted an entire book as a critique of Galen's anatomy. The works of Paracelsus are insignificant compared to the vast volumes of medical writings and original findings accomplished by the medical giants of Islam. Ijtihad allowed the Muslims to remain at the forefront. Soon, however, the doors of ijtihad closed, and with it went the Khilafah's status as the world leader with regards to issues such as technology.

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Closing the doors of Ijtihad and Decline By the 4th Century AH ijtihad and the resulting hukms had become well documented amongst the four main Madhabs (schools of thought). Some scholars were concerned by the fact that almost anybody was able to do ijtihad without any checks or balances. One of the primary factors that contributed towards the closing of the doors of ijtihad was an increasing neglect of the Arabic language. The Arabic language is the medium by which revelation becomes accessible, neglecting it, therefore, would result in an inability to derive laws from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Islam would not be able to be applied without this. As a result, the doors of ijtihad began to close, and the doors of taqleed (or imitation) opened. At one point, ijtihad became impossible, and as a result new issues and circumstances were left out without knowing the Islamic views on them. Without ijtihad the Hukm Shari' would not be able to address new problems. As a result, many Muslims began to believe that Islam was becoming outdated. Some actually began to look to the Kufr civilisation for answers to new issues. The decline of ijtihad resulted in the development of various philosophies concerning the status of the Ummah and their adherence to Islam. Some people started issuing opinions concerning the new problems without any daleel or specific methodology of conducting ijtihad. Others pre maturely jumped to answers without acquiring the necessary prerequisites for ijtihad. They claimed that ijtihad should not cease, and that the current situation provided everyone with the opportunity to perform ijtihad. By closing the doors of ijtihad, the fundamental link between the sources of Islam (the Qur'an and Sunnah), the solutions that are derived and the relationship between the solutions and the belief (Aqeedah), were severed. The Muslims did not understand why they were practicing Islam the way it was, and hence they would be unable to argue the benefits of Islam from the basis. When confronted with the Industrial Revolution and the challenge of democracy and freedom later on in the eighteenth century, the Ummah did not have the correct criteria at their disposal to judge what was acceptable from the Industrial Revolution and what was not. Inevitably, we saw the adoption of Kufr thoughts, such as pluralism, democracy and nationality.

The Renaissance Whilst the Muslims started to become more detached from their ideology as a result of the decline of Arabic and cessation of new ijtihad, Europe experienced radical developments. A change in their way of thinking occurred that broke the stranglehold that the Church and the monarchy had on society. This altered both gov ernment and the outlook of the individual. Those

whose discoveries contradicted the clergy initiated this change; Galileo was one such scientist. What resulted was a change from scholasticism to science. Scholasticism, which assumed that answers to questions about nature could be deduced from the Bible and philosophical principals, gave way to the modern view of science, where induction from accumulated evidence underpinned the original theories. The evidence produced by science was so conclusive, that the Church was forced into a compromise. Secularism, which was to forge the ideology of Capitalism, was born. Science, coupled with the adoption of the Capitalist ideology, lead to rapid technological and material advances such as the steam engine and electricity. Material progress rose as a direct result of the adoption of a new ideology. This same ideology would later be the catalyst for the division of Muslim land and the destruction of the Khilafah at the hands of the British via Mustafa Kemal. Muslims could only watch as Europe began to assert itself on the international scene.

How Ijtihad Can Aid Scientific Research So far the discussion has been on what the Ummah once was like under the Khilafah in terms of science and technology and how that position was lost. It is important to discuss how the Ummah can re-establish that same lofty position. No doubt this can only occur by the Ummah adhering to its ideology. This requires the Arabic language and ijtihad to access the sources of Islam so that solutions emanating from Islam can be extracted. In this day and age where technological change is so rapid, with issues such as cloning and specifically engineered crops, it is crucial to have an understanding of the Hukm Shari'i. Those who are qualified to do ijtihad are called Mujtahid. There are three types of Mujtahid. First, there are the Mujtahid Mutlaq. They can carry out ijtihad fi'sh-Shar. They have their own Usul al Fiqh to extract Ahkam and are not restricted. Second, there are the Mujtahid Madhab. They can carry out ijtihad fi'l-Madhab. They follow the Usul of the Mujtahid Mutlaq of that particular Madhab. Third, there are the Mujtahid who specialize in a specific issue. They can carry out ijtihad fi'l-Masaa'il. All of these Mujtahid must exhibit certain qualifications. They must be a Muslim male or female who has a high level of intellectual competence. They must be knowledgeable about the Arabic language, which enables the comprehension of the sources of Islam. They must be knowledgeable in terms of the Qur'an, circumstance of revelations, Madani or Makki ayat and ayat ul ahkam. They are required to be knowledgeable with regards to the Sunnah, abrogations and reliability of narrators of hadith as well as Usul al Fiqh. An awareness of the opinions of other mujtahideen on specific issues is also necessary. Finally, the Mujtahid must have tahqeequl manat, or compre-

hensive knowledge, of the issue on which ijtihad is being carried out. It is for this thorough understanding of the reality that the Mujtahid goes to experts or carries out the study himself. In many cases scientific research will be required. This means using either observational science or experimental science. Scientific research requires the use of empirical thinking, which should be applied strictly to science alone. Through this means, by gathering facts one may formulate a hypothesis and then develop theories. This type of thinking is simply a subset of the rational way of thinking. Knowledge gained through research is generally published in a journal. A paper has to be written justifying why the particular piece of research is significant. This paper will include details of the methods used, a recording of results and observations and then explaining what these results mean relative to what is already known. Other experts have to review this research. Science becomes knowledge by the publication of the results. Of course the Mujtahid, or the expert on his behalf in the Khilafah State, would be doing the research in order to be able to apply Allah's (swt) hukm to the reality. This process would raise the level of research being conducted, open new areas of research and increase the level of the dis coveries that would ultimately help the Khilafah State progress technologically and materially. These studies lead to an increasing wealth of scientific information in the Khilafah. This level of research has a direct link with the new discoveries and technological spin offs. Developments such as flight, the Internet, cloning, new drugs, fibre optics and Global Positioning Satellites are a result of research or application of new theories. Like the West, the Khilafah will strive to be on the cutting-edge of technology; however, the motivation behind collecting this knowledge will differ fundamentally. The whole purpose for a Muslim to carry these scientific studies is so that we would be able to worship Allah (swt) in every aspect of life, whereas the Kuffar are primarily motivated by economic reasons. Drug companies and software firms patenting designs so only they can benefit, is a direct result of this corruption. Through the application of ijtihad we can see how the Khilafah State can once again begin to assert itself on the scientific front as Allah (swt) has allowed us to do in the past. Nizam Khan

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An Ideology on its Death Bed

"Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allah has not appointed light, for him there is no light" [TMQ An-Nur: 40].

Since the onset

of capitalism and democracy, with the conflict and injustices it established, the thinkers in the lands in which the ideology had taken hold could see that it had serious shortcomings. The social and economic oppression that characterised it pushed individuals such as Marx and Engel to invent the ideology of communism, another erroneous creed. Century after century, capitalism was chastised by poets, journalists, philosophers and other Western thinkers alike for its hypocrisy and inconsistencies. For the state preached freedom and equality - but enforced restrictive laws and inequalities in practice. In time, the establishment unwillingly had to bend to public opinion, giving women the vote, 'ending' black slavery, legalising abortion and homosexuality, and withdrawing their military presence from their colonies only to be replaced by puppet rulers.

Over one hundred years ago, American journalist and poet, Walt Whitman stated:

"I say we had best look at our times and lands searchingly in the face, like a physician diagnosing some deep disease." In the year 2001, Noreena Hertz, described by the Observer newspaper as one of the world's leading young thinkers and philosophers, published an article in April winning her international acclaim entitled - "Why we must stay silent no longer!" In her essay, she describes the current state of affairs with the entire planet dominated by the corporations and multi-national companies that wield the true influence in the land and cause the oppression of the masses. The true dis ease that existed and needed diagnosing was the ideology of Capitalism itself. If these so-called 'thinkers' had truly been physicians treating the sick, they would have been charged and convicted of malpractice and gross incompetence long ago. For centuries, the population of these nations, drunk with the success that they perceived they had, driven by an unquestioning belief in the false principles they had adopted, accepted the status quo and pinned their aspirations on the promises of their politicians that there were better times to come. For over a thousand years, the Western nations were amongst the most backwards in the world. They were a humiliated people, with no real claim to civilisation and no believable aspirations to world domination. Their inferiority to the state of the Muslims, the Khilafah, and even to the Chinese and Japanese was manifest. During the renaissance they strived forward in thought, technology, mathematics and finally industry. They were intent on relieving themselves of the subjugation that the Christian, theological states had spawned and then making a place for themselves overlooking the affairs of the world. Their hard work bore fruit. They began to invade and colonise the lands that Islam had not yet reached and later to colonise the Islamic lands themselves, launching campaign after campaign against Islam to attempt to separate the Qur'an from the Muslims, knowing that this was their only recourse to defeat the Khilafah and Islam. As their calculated attacks shed drops of Muslim blood, they surged forward as a predatory animal would with the scent of the kill in the air. So they pursued their objective of world hegemony until in 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and the oriental philosopher Fukiyama remarked that we had reached the "end of history". Finally, there were no more ideological battles left, for capitalism and democracy had conquered the entire earth and established its domination over it. Ten years later, the ordinary people living in the

West are waking up and thinking to themselves what have we done! The capitalist doctrine indoctrinates its youth with the idea that life is about maximising the benefit that as an individual you receive from it, especially in terms of enjoyment and wealth. The illusion portrayed is that such actions equate with happiness and tranquillity. Generation after generation have adopted this ethic and so it is no surprise to find that it dominates every individual action, every decision, and every policy enacted in such systems. It is easy to understand that such a doctrine will result in the destruction of the social fabric, of families and of the environment. It is easy to predict that such a belief will incite wars and encourage the exploitation of the weak for the benefit of the strong. The contradictions and inconsistencies that this creates have become so obvious that the general public itself has begun to challenge the erroneous concepts that it holds and reject those who use them to manipulate them. The reality is the old adage, the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. As these corporations and multi-national companies increase in their wealth, they wield their chequebooks at governments and society in order to further secure their interests. The Western governments do not exist to take care of the affairs of the people, they exist to take care of the affairs of their financial backers and corporate companies who literally hold their nations economies in their claws. Over the past twenty years in Germany, corporate taxes have fallen by fifty per cent, although corporate profits have increased by ninety per cent. In 1999, the German finance minister, Oskar Lafontaine attempted to increase taxes on corporate firms. A group of companies including Deutsche Bank, BMW, Daimler-Benz and RWE defeated his attempt threatening to move investment and factories to other countries whose government policies suited them better. "It's a question of at least 14,000 jobs," threatened Dieter Schweer, a spokesman for RWE, "If the investment position is no longer attractive, we will examine every possibility of switching our investments abroad." One of the countries suggested by Daimler-Benz was the United States. Within months Germany had reversed its proposal and were planning to reduce corporate taxes below US levels. Within months of his bizarre election in the United States on a minority of the vote, George W Bush, son of the butcher of Iraq, opened up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to Oil drillers. He also reneged on the Kyoto treaty, which was designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and protect against global warming on the basis that it was against US economic interests, especially considering that they are facing a recession. Politics is run through financial considerations and the maximisation of profit rather than the opinions of the people. Even the academic institutions in the West, where children are supposed to be educated are not safe from direct interference. Channel One Network, a television station

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in America, provided 12,000 American schools with money and goods in exchange for broadcasting their advertising directly into the classroom. Ironically, Nottingham University in the UK accepted ÂŁ3.8 million from British American Tobacco to set up a school of corporate social responsibility. In the Republic of Ireland, a referendum was recently held on whether Ireland would accept further expansion of the European Union. The European Union needed a "yes" vote from Ireland to continue with their expansion plans. The Irish people voted "no". It is no longer surprising that the political commentators simply stated on Newsnight that the European Union would either have to wait until the Irish people are ready to "make the right answer", or "fudge" a way around the decision. The electorate of Western nations have little or no power over their governments to affect the decisions made. The decisions are made inde pendently of the electorate and then the people are urged to vote in order to delude them into thinking that they had some say in the matter. The media and politicians are unconcerned with whether the public have a deep and insightful understanding of the policies and decisions being debated. Rather they are concerned with 'voter turnout'. If the people are voting then it means that they believe that their vote matters and so they have faith in the system to solve their problems and in parliament to represent them. Hence the government is free to do whatever it wants. The game of letting the ruled participate in their own exploitation is not new. If people don't vote then it indicates that the people realise that their voice has no weight in the democracy eroding at one of the pillars upon which the system rests, destabilising the ideology and hence the capitalist's hegemony. People are beginning to realise the truth of the twisted system in which they live. Evidence enough is the ever-increasing number of people attending anti-globalisation and anti-capitalism rallies at IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation meetings. These are opposed with significant deployment of troops in order to obstruct the 'freedom of speech' of these protestors - such as at the May Day protests in London, when a small army was deployed - in order to maintain the economic interests of the nation and of big business. Recently, during Bush's visit to Sweden, there were anti-capitalist demonstrations in Gothenburg. A young girl interviewed on the BBC news exclaimed that she felt she had absolutely no say in the decisions taken by her government and unable to cause any kind of change. With this in mind, she had decided that the only recourse for action was to withdraw from society. In the recent general election in the UK, only 59 per cent of the population voted. The Labour Party was elected with an enormous majority in the House of Commons, able to pass any legislation it saw fit, commanding just 25 per cent of

the votes from the population. Three out of every four people did not vote for the current government. In the United States recently during their Presidential election, the turnout was even lower; 90 million people not bothering to vote more than the population of Britain and Scandinavia put together. In the run up to the British elections, the BBC news covered a demonstration that was occurring in favour of more ethical environmental policy. One of the demonstrators was interviewed and after exclaiming that she was not going to vote, was asked of her opinions on voter apathy. She replied, "Apathy is putting a cross on a ballot paper then pretending that everything is ok."

lect the taxes, supply the public services that Allah (swt) has obliged him to do and establish the jihad in the path of Allah (swt).

Regardless of the blaring inadequacies of the democratic systems in the West, perpetually inane solutions are suggested in order to revive the people. In the Angel Islington constituency in London, the local council offered the people free entry into a prize draw if they voted, with the chance to win ÂŁ200. Other councils considered making draws for voters, to cancel their council tax for the year. Further maniacal suggestions included the installation of ballot booths into fish and chip shops and even compulsory voting. The young are no longer fooled by the claim that their vote makes a difference. Yet these poor, oppressed people cannot find a way out.

All citizens of the state, be they Muslim or nonMuslim can elect representatives from amongst themselves to stand in the Majlis al-Ummah (Council of the Ummah) which has no legislative powers but the ability to put forward the views and if necessary complaints of the people, and to account the ruler if he rules by Kufr. The Islamic system exists to establish in reality what Allah (ra) has revealed; it is free of the contradictions and discrepancies that exist within capitalism and democracy.

The chasm that exists in the West between the ruling elite and the people is widening year by year. It is not uncommon to find the youth of the Western nations disenchanted with politics and aware of the corruption and exploitation that capitalism spreads all over the world. Further to this, they are also aware that democracy, the institution that apparently exists so that the people themselves can have a say in how they are governed has no capability to rein in these forces, nationally or internationally. More recently, even prominent politicians have acknowledged these truths. The current mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, controversially stated during his election campaign that, "Global capitalism has killed more people than the Nazi's." He was severely reprimanded by the political establishment in Britain for this statement‌ politicians in Britain are not supposed to tell the truth.

"The likeness of those who take Auliya other than Allah is as the likeness of a spider who builds a house, but verily, the frailest of houses is the spider's house, if they but knew" [TMQ AlAnkabut: 41].

The Islamic Ideology The deep contradictions that plague the Kufr ideologies do not exist in the Islamic State. As all Muslims today are aware, the hukm (legislative law) is only for Allah (swt) and it is the responsibility of the Khalifah to implement that law, col-

The definition of politics in Islam is to take care of the affairs of the people rather than the affairs of a select group of influential people. Thus we saw the righteously guided Khulafah living as part of the Ummah and not separate from her, alert to the problems that the people experienced and keen to take care of those problems. It is narrated that Umar (ra) would cry, in the fear that if a goat were to trip on a road constructed by the Muslims, and injure itself, then he might be held accountable for this on the Last Day.

Capitalism is marching on towards the edge of an abyss from which it will never return insha-Allah. When the Khilafah is established, it will provide an ideological blow to the Kuffar, and those of influence from amongst them who no longer possess the vigour, zeal or intelligence to oppose it. Those who propagate capitalism fight with all their might to maintain their position in this world, with brutality and injustice, but their struggle will be in vain as Allah (swt) has promised the believers who do righteous deeds succession in the earth. The Ummah worldwide should increase its efforts and its work to reestablish the Khilafah, to offer the final push to capitalism as it tumbles into obscurity and to show those who have seen through the spider's web of corruption and oppression of Kufr systems an alternative and a solution to these problems. When Islam returns to existence inshaAllah, you will find such people flocking to embrace Islam in their crowds and their frail, degenerate system demolished, as happened before when Allah (swt) gave the material support to the Prophet (saw) and the believers when they conquered Makkah.

"When comes the (material) Help of Allah and the Conquest (of Makkah). And you see that the people enter Allah's deen in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask for His Forgiveness. Verily, He is the One who accepts the repentance and the forgiveness" [TMQ AnNasr: 1-3]. Hani Jamal-Udin

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The 'Umari Treaty Map of Al Quds (Jerusalem) 1912

When Abu 'Ubaydah ('Amr b. Al-'Aas) (ra) arrived to open the land of Al-Quds, he requested that its people sign a treaty agreeing that their leader would be the Amir of the believers, Khalifah 'Umar b. Al-Khattab (ra). 'Ubaydah wrote to 'Umar with this, and thus 'Umar prepared his traveling gear to depart for Bait-ul-Maqdis (Al-Quds). 'Umar (ra) traveled to Bait-ul-Maqdis with his servant and only one camel to ride. He took turns riding the camel until they neared Baitul-Maqdis. When it was the servant's turn to ride, 'Umar walked. Upon reaching an area that was patched with mud and water, 'Umar raised his clothing to avoid it, and Abu 'Ubaydah (ra) commented on this, fearing that the people of Al-Quds might belittle 'Umar. 'Umar replied with his famous words: "Oh, Abu 'Ubaydah, we were once a disgraceful people, and Allah made us honourable with Islam, thus if we sought honour in anything other than Islam, Allah would disgrace us." This was the reply of the one who went to open Bait-ul-Maqdis, to open it to Islam for the honour of Islam alone. After all, he understood that if were not for Islam, 'Umar would still be in Makkah making idols out of dates, worshipping these idols, and then eating them when he became hungry. 'Umar (ra) was not a Palestinian who was proud of his nationality, nor an Arab who was proud of his being Arab, rather he was a Muslim whom Allah (swt) had made honourable with Islam. It was for Allah (swt) alone that he opened these vast lands and ruled the people with truth and justice. This was a state that united all Muslims, regardless of nationalities or origins. Once 'Umar b. Al-Khattab (ra) entered Palestine and opened it to Islam, he offered

the people of Bait-ul-Maqdis security. This was given to the people in the form of the 'Umari Treaty. It stated: "In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Beneficent. This is what the slave of Allah, 'Umar b.Al-Khattab, the Amir of the believers, has offered the people of Illyaa' of security (and Illyaa' is Al-Quds) granting them Amaan (protection) for their selves, their money, their churches, their children, their lowly and their innocent, and the remainder of their people. Their churches are not to be taken, nor are they to be destroyed, nor are they to be degraded or belittled, neither are their crosses or their money, and they are not to be forced to change their religion, nor is any one of them to be harmed. No Jews are to live with them in Illyaa' (Yes, oh Muslims, no Jews are to live with them in Illyaa) and it is required of the people of Illyaa' to pay the Jizya, like the people of the cities. It is also required of them to remove the Romans from the land; and whoever amongst the people of Illyaa' that wishes to depart with their selves and their money with the Romans, leaving their trading goods and children behind, then their selves, their trading goods and their children are secure until they reach their destination. Upon what is in this book is the word of Allah, the covenant of His Messenger, of the Khulafaa' and of the believers if they (the people of Illyaa') gave what was required of them of Jizya. The witnesses upon this were Khalid b. Al-Walid, 'Amr b. Al-'Aas, 'Abdul-Rahman b. 'Awf and Mu'awiyah b. Abi Sufyan. Written and passed on the 15th year (after Hijrah)." As previously mentioned, the Islamic State is not a fantasy or figment of the imagination. It is the truth. It was the reality that the Muslims lived. It is the Hukm Shar'i ordained by Allah (swt) in respect to Bait-ul-Maqdis. It is the

word of Allah (swt) and the covenant of His Messenger (saw), the covenant of the Khulafah' and the covenant of the believers, which was upheld by the Khulafah' and the believers after the period of 'Umar (ra) Islam looks to the land that is opened to Islam as Muslim land. It must be protected. It is forbidden to be given away, even if this means the spilling of blood and loss of life for the sake of protecting it. They understood this very well, as did the rest of the Muslims after the 'Umari Treaty. They protected the land where the Messenger of Allah (saw) was taken up to the heavens on the night of Al-Israa' Wal-Mi'raaj, defending it with all that they had, never accepting to negotiate over their land. Even after the Crusaders occupied Bait-ul-Maqdis, not one Muslim accepted to negotiate with them over it, rather they temporarily stopped fighting physically, and continued to prepare themselves until they were capable of liberating it. They succeeded in their task until Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi arrived, liberating Al-Quds from the filth of the disbelievers. The disbelievers know this, as they know the Hukm of Allah (swt) on Islamic land. They know that Al-Quds is Islamic land and that the Muslims will never give it away. They have not forgotten what the Muslims did to the Crusaders and the hate of their forefathers remains in their hearts. It is no secret that the West tries to normalise relations with the Muslims and to produce a pretty picture for us. Try as they might, however, they will never be able to erase the ayat, or to remove the Ahadith, or to destroy the Ahkam Shar'i that show us what they truly are. Translated from "Al-Waie Magazine"

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The Following is a letter from an Arab Christian George al-Za'mt to Tantawi the Shaykh of Al-Azhar that appeared in The View of Jordan newspaper Letter to his eminence the Shaykh of al-Azhar

servient to the employee whose job it is to give him the visa even before he reaches the borders of Israel or enters her airports.

Peace, mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you. I read in one newspaper and heard on radio and television that your eminence is calling the Muslims to visit al-Quds and that you are encouraging them to make this visit at such a critical state of the Palestinian issue. In my capacity as one of the Arab Christians with whom Umar al-Farooq (ra) signed a treaty that Jews would not live with them in the holy city of al-Quds, I have a right to put forward my contribution to this subject. Before I begin the discussion I would like to say that regarding whether visiting Masjid al-Aqsa and praying in it is a religious obligation on the Muslims, or if it is from the superogatory prayers (nawaafil), I have no right to oppose this issue and the matter is left to the Muslim scholars to decide. However, I am looking at this issue from another angle; which is to set out the benefit such visits bring to Israel. It is well known that under the current circumstances the necessary measures to visit al-Quds for the one who wishes to undertake such is visit is that he needs to present himself at an Israeli embassy and renew the permission to enter. The embassy has the right to look into his request and to accept or reject his application. If the request is granted then the visa is stamped with the seal of the aggressor, the state of Israel. It is not her lawful or international right to play such a role, where the visitor must extend his hand and is sub-

This employee who looks down on Arabs and Muslims with haughtiness and arrogance - I do not think your eminence that you would accept any Muslim or Coptic Egyptian to be humiliated in this way. Then in the end Israel will come to the world and say that we are a democratic state or that the Muslims come from all parts of the world to visit Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem in crowds and with ease and comfort. They perform their religious rites with complete freedom and security. Then we would have given Israel the opportunity to distort the facts, something she is trying to do now and convincing the world of. Finally, I say to my Muslim Arab brethren as Allah has addressed them in his exalted Book: "Do not be weak, do not grieve and you shall be triumphant." And I say to my Christian Arab brethren that we are not entitled to annul the Umari treaty. I extend to you the utmost respect and reverence. George al-Za'mt 4/2/2001

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Trouble in the Balkans "So tear down the minarets and mosques, And kindle the Serbian Yule logs, And lets us paint our Easter eggs, Observe the two fasts honestly, As for the remainder, do as you like. I swear to you by the creed of Milos Obilic And by the trusty weapons that I carry, Our faiths will be submerged in blood. The better of the two will rise redeemed. The 'Id can never live in peace with Christmas Day." Petar II., Petrovic-Njegos, monk, poet and prince of Montenegro, reigning 1830-1850.

At least sixty-five

people were arrested and eleven police officers injured in violent demonstrations in the city of Banja Luka on Monday 18 June 2001. Muslims driven out from the city in 1993 returned to the town in an attempt to rebuild a historic mosque but were hampered by Serb nationalists. The Serb protesters fought running battles with police in an effort to force Muslims to abandon a ceremony to begin reconstruction of the city's main mosque. All fifteen mosques in Banja Luka and ninety in the surrounding locality were blown up during the Bosnian war, when the city's twenty thousand Muslims were forced to flee for their lives. A first attempt to conduct the ceremony at the sixteenth century Ferhadija mosque was abandoned after one person was killed and thirty injured. The latest ceremony went ahead while police beat back a crowd of seven hundred nationalists using tear gas and water cannon. At the War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague, the first case for wartime sexual enslavement of Muslim women in the town of Foca during the Bosnian war has been concluded. The case resulted in the conviction of three Bosnian Serbs one of whom raped a girl the same age as his 15-year-old daughter. The sentences ranged from twelve to twenty eight years. The court heard of the horrendous accounts of rape and torture when in 1992 Bosnian Serb paramilitary soldiers overran the town. Muslims were herded into separate prison camps for men and women. Sixteen Muslim women told the court how the Serb paramilitaries entered the camps selecting women and girls as young as twelve for nightly gang rapes and sexual torture. Some witnesses sobbed and others shrieked with rage as they recalled being raped by up to ten soldiers at a time. However, these three convictions account for only the tip of the iceberg. Estimates of the number of Muslim rape victims are as high as sixty thousand. We ask ourselves at this time to whom should the Muslims turn for safety, when from the Balkans to

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Chechnya, from Palestine to Kashmir and from Burma to the Philippines, Muslims are being oppressed, 'ethnically cleansed', raped and slaughtered. In Bosnia, Muslims appealed to the international community for help and protection. The United Nations "solution" was an arms embargo affecting only the Muslims and allowing their slaughter and rape, a division of their land as well as the prohibition of return after the war, and a "Safe Haven" called Srebrenica, which the Serb forces were invited to take, resulting in the execution of seven thousand Muslim men. So we turn to Islam. What does Islam have to offer? We know that the Balkans were not always like this. For five hundred years the Balkans were ruled by a system other than the Capitalist "New World Order" in which there was little ethnic fighting. It was ruled by a system that protected the human race, mind, human dignity, private property, religion and security. It was part of a land ruled over by one man implementing the laws of the Creator. It was ruled by the just system of Islam. When Sultan Selim I, a Khalifah in the Uthmani Khilafah planned to open the land of Serbia, knowing the Serb's fighting strength and ability to cause rebellion, he suggested to the Shaykh-ulIslam that the Muslim armies should offer the Serbs Islam and if they refused they should be killed. The Shaykh-ul-Islam replied that this could not be done, since the Qur'an states,

shirk and came in droves to Islam. Following the opening of Central Bosnia, in one field 13,500 families willingly accepted Islam in Bosnia and in the following year a similar number converted in Herzegovina. So the answer is Islam. The Islamic system, being from the Creator has the solution to the problems of different ethnic groups and religions. Upon the payment of Jizya the dhimmi (non-Muslim living in the Islamic State) enjoys full citizenship rights of the Islamic State and is eligible for protection, justice and financial help when needed. Under the guidance of Islam the non-Muslim communities solved their internal problems by themselves and although the dhimmi were not required to defend themselves the Muslim armies were obliged to lay down their lives to protect the citizens of the state, whether Muslim or dhimmi.

Funeral of Kosovan children found in mass grave

What of Islam's solution for the problems of oppression, occupation and injustice experienced by our brothers and sisters in the Balkans and elsewhere in the Islamic Ummah? The answer from our Creator is Jihad to liberate these lands; not for patriotism, nationalism or self-benefit, but to bring them to the light and justice of Islam. We must hasten our work to establish our Imam who will call for this Jihad and resume the call to worship of The Creator. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "The Imam is a shield, from behind which you fight and defend yourselves." Let us not delay, for our brothers and sisters cannot wait and with Allah (swt) is the greatest reward.

"There is no compulsion in religion." [TMQ AlBaqarah: 256] When the leader of the Muslims ruled by that ayah the Serbian race was saved. Indeed, Allah (swt) says,

"Verily, it (the Qur'an) is not but a reminder to all the worlds." [TMQ At-Takwir: 27] Under the light of Islam not only justice was implemented but also people turned away from

"And why do you not fight in the cause of Allah and for those who being weak are ill-treated. Men, women and children whose cry is "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect; and raise for us from You, one who will help". [TMQ An-Nisa: 75] Sulaf Vukusic

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Wisdom According to philosophers, wisdom means understanding truth for what it truly is. This, however, is an inaccurate description, since understanding truth is but a fruit of wisdom. Wisdom is related to the existence of a number of specific qualities in the thought process of the wise person.

The first quality is the presence of enlightened thought. This quality enables the wise person to understand truth and to reach correct conclusions when judging realities. It also enables the individual to distinguish correctness among a sea of corruption and stray thoughts.

The second quality is the capacity of this thought. The wise person utilises thought in solving all problems, no matter how complex or numerous. Then, they offer the necessary methods and means to implement these solutions in everyday life. Truth is not what philosophers assume it to be; rather, truth is the thought that agrees with reality. Truth is Islam. Its proof is simply that it agrees with reality. The existence of Allah (swt), His (swt) Oneness, that the Qur'an is His (swt) word and that Muhammed (saw) is His (swt) Prophet and Messenger, are all corroborated by this. All these thoughts agree with reality and can be established and understood through enlightened thinking. As for the thoughts and ideologies other than Islam, such as Capitalism, Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism, these are all false in that they contradict reality. Understanding truth is not for the sake of truth itself; rather, it is sought so that we may abide by it and to call to it. Not abiding by truth would indicate a contradiction in the person's personality

and an inconsistency between his words and actions. Wisdom requires its owner to have consistency between his words and actions. This is not achieved unless Taqwa (fear) of Allah (swt) is present, as it is the motivation for the wise person to perform the acts of obedience and to abstain from forbidden actions. The wise individual understands the verse:

"Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do" [TMQ As-Saff: 3]. The wise individual also understands the dire consequences in this world and in the next if he rejects and ignores Islamic concepts. He understands the warning:

"But whosoever turns away from My reminder (Islam), verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection" [TMQ Ta-Ha: 124]. Refusal in calling to the truth would mean that the person is selfish, and selfishness is not associated with the personality of one blessed with wisdom; for it is the Taqwa of Allah (swt) that pushes him to carry the message of Islam to the rest of the world to rescue mankind from Kufr and from the anger and punishment of Allah (swt) in the Akhirah. This also drives him to save himself from the grievous punishment in the Akhirah. How could one who is wise not wish to win the highest levels of Paradise and the greatest prize of all: the pleasure of Allah (swt), for if he comprehends

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Wisdom the words of Allah (swt) he would, after all, understand that:

verses:

"And indeed we bestowed upon Luqman wisdom, saying: Give thanks to Allah" [TMQ Luqman: 12]. "Those who conceal the Clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after we have made it clear for the People in the Book, on them shall be Allah's curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse." [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 159]. Likewise, the Messenger of Allah (saw) also explained, "Whosoever is asked regarding knowledge and withholds it will be bridled on the Day of Resurrection with a bridle of fire." [AbuDawood]. He who is wise does not forget:

"And who is better in speech than he who calls to (the word) of Allah, performs righteous deeds, and says: I am one of the Muslims" [TMQ Fussilat: 33]. Thus, understanding Islam and implementing it, based on the drive of Taqwa of Allah (swt), will establish feelings and thoughts of responsibility towards mankind. Consequently, this will drive one to carry the da'wa to the whole world. The fruits of this wisdom are many. It allows one to measure the calibre of thoughts, to account for consequences and to master the ability of probing into the depths of men, societies, countries and groups. Furthermore, it elevates one's understanding of Islam in order to perfect its implementation. It helps one to remove obstacles and achieve goals by constructing effective plans.

"And he, to whom wisdom is granted, has indeed been granted abundant good" [TMQ AlBaqarah: 269]. The blessing of wisdom necessitates continuous thanks to Allah (swt). He (swt) is the Most Wise, and His (swt) wisdom is perfect. We are told:

"Perfect wisdom (this Qur'an), but (the preaching of) warners benefit them not" [TMQ AlQamar: 5]. The word 'wisdom' has appeared in the Book of Allah (swt) with various meanings. In the following verse, the word wisdom refers to Prophethood:

Qur'an and Sunnah: "And teach them the Book and the wisdom" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 129]. The Qur'an also uses the word wisdom to mean proofs that lead to belief in Islam:

"Invite (all of mankind) to the way of your Lord, with wisdom and beautiful preaching" [TMQ An-Nahl: 125]. While the definition of wisdom can vary, its importance is immeasurable. Oh Allah (swt), bring Your victory upon us, and bring Your victory through us. Hasten the re-establishment of the Khilafah State. Oh Allah (swt), we seek refuge in You from the Kuffar, their agents and their spies. Oh Allah (swt), we ask You to come down with Your punishment upon their necks and we seek refuge in You from their evils. Abu Abdullah, Palestine

"And Dawud slew Jalut (Goliath): and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed" [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 251]. In this next verse, however, wisdom is used regarding the learning of Islam through the

Based on this, it is apparent that wisdom is enlightened thought capable of identifying and solving problems. Its fruits include realisation of the existence of Allah (swt), the correctness of Islam, the importance of implementing and carrying Islam and implementing all that is required to establish Islam. Wisdom is not granted by Allah (swt) to a Kafir, Fasiq (a corrupt person) or one who sins heedlessly. The Qur'an confirms this in the following

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Two Cats, One Monkey ('Do Billi, Eyk Bandar') The following letter was kindly received from a reader in India I am a regular reader of Khilafah magazine from India; I would like to thank the hard working brothers and sisters who contribute to distributing this magazine throughout the world. May Allah (swt) reward the Muslims for their efforts. As all the Muslims should be aware, the need for re-establishing the Islamic Khilafah is the greatest need of the time, and rightly termed as the vital issue for Islam. However, in order for the Ummah to re-establish the Islamic Khilafah state, there stand many obstacles that need to be destroyed and exposed. The greatest of these obstacles is the plans of the disbelieving colonialists and their agent rulers throughout the world. It is upon this that I would like to write this letter. Recently there has been much hype and talk within the Indian subcontinent about the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee to Pakistan's Chief Executive, and now President General Pervaiz Musharraf. I would mention the following points regarding this event: After BJP came to power in India the political doc trine started to slowly change and shift its allegiance. Now it seems that the BJP India government under the leadership of Vajpayee has adopted a US policy instead of the 50-year-old UK policy. And according to US policy he does not want to break his 50-year-old relation with Pakistan therefore US unites India and Pakistan on Kashmir issue and uses India against China - this is very clear now. India is concentrating on the develop -

conflict among all Kashmir groups.

ment of the Agni missile advanced version, with a range of 2000 to 5000 kilometres, to cover the whole of China. Former Defence Minister George Fernandez said, "After nuclear explosion China is our number one enemy". BJP government has invited Musharraf to solve Kashmir problem. Musharraf has agreed to come to the Taj Mahal city of Agra, India in the month of July 2001

Kashmir is not a property of Pakistan and India it is the property of the whole Muslim Ummah. Allah (swt) says in the Noble Qur'an:

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said "Do not seek enlightenment by the fire of the mushrikeen". When BJP was in opposition they claimed that when they will come in power they will solve the Kashmir problem in a few days but after three years they have still not solved it. Kashmir is 50-year-old problem between India and Pakistan and more than 50,000 of our Muslim brothers have been killed by Indian government. Kashmir has become very hot issue in this continent - various Muslim groups are working for liberation of Kashmir. Through solution of Kashmir, India wants to calm the activity of Islamic groups in this region, gain vote of Indian Muslims and show the world a peace loving country. India wants Iranian gas but it comes through the Pakistani soil, so without friendship of Pakistan it not possible. The Indian government spent millions of dollar for its military in Kashmir and also face his military anger because many of her soldiers were killed - it has become necessity of India to leave Kashmir. On the other hand, we have witnessed Pakistan's freeze on military expenditure. But before she leaves Kashmir, India wants to divide Kashmir into three parts; Laddakh, Jammu Kashmir and Azad Kashmir; as well as creating

"So rule between them by what Allah has revealed and not follow their whims and desires away from the truth which came to you" [TMQ Al-Ma'idah:48]

"And whosoever does not judge according to whatever Allah has revealed such are the disbelievers"[TMQ Al-Ma'idah: 44] We pray to Allah (swt) that he gifts us with the Islamic Khilafah Rashidah soon. Aameen. T. Khan Madhya Pradesh India

? Please address your letters and questions to the Editorial Team, at the address given on page 4 of the magazine.

The Mighty Fortress Umayr ibn Sa'd al-Ansari (ra),

In future then it seems that the US will deploy its military in Kashmir by UN and watch Afghanistan, Central Asia, and help Chinese Xinyiang Muslims against China and also support the Tibet liberation movement. They will use Musharraf against Islamic groups in Pakistan and increase US military power in this region with the help of two cats - India and Pakistan. This is in accordance with the Hindi proverb: "Do Billi eyk Bandar" (two cats and a monkey).

a companion of the Messenger of Allah (saw), addressed the people and said, "O People! Islam is a mighty fortress and a sturdy gate. The fortress of Islam is justice and its gate is truth. If you destroy the fortress and demolish the gate you would undermine the defences of this religion‌Islam will remain strong as long as the Sultan [authority] is strong. The strength of the Sultan neither comes from flogging with the whip, nor killing with the sword but from ruling with justice and holding fast to the truth."

Events Diary LONDON Saturdays after dhuhr (Brothers in main hall) (Sisters upstairs) (Sundays after dhuhr in Arabic) Central Regents Park Masjid 146 Park Road, London There are many other events taking place around UK, Europe, Australia and America. Please contact circles@khilafah.com for details.

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July 2001 Khilafah

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Khilafah Magazine July 2001