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OKLAHOMA COUNTY VITAL SIGNS volume 1, edition 6 July 2011





Preparedness Edition

Welcome to the latest issue of Vital Signs. This issue focuses on community preparedness as it relates to Oklahoma’s most prevalent natural disasters such as tornadoes, wildfires, and snow. In the past decade, Oklahoma has received 34 major disaster and emergency declarations from the federal government. Perhaps more remarkable is the fact that Oklahoma is the only non-coastal state listed among the top five states with the greatest number of disaster declarations, ranking third behind California and Texas and ahead of Florida and New York. Oklahoma County is one of nine Oklahoma counties listed nationally among the top 30 hardest-hit disaster counties. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 Oklahoma County experienced 27 flood events, 81 hail storms, 26 snow and ice events, and 23 tornadoes. The format of this Vital Signs differs from previous issues in that each weather-related phenomenon will feature unique diagnoses and prescriptions, rather than one allencompassing diagnosis and concluding prescription. Additionally you will see an example of each disaster as it occurred in 2010, a year that ran the gamut of extreme weather events including an ice storm, tornadoes, hailstorms, earthquakes and floods that led to four major disaster declarations and one emergency declaration by the Federal Emergency Management Authority. You will also find helpful tips on creating an emergency preparedness kit and emergency response plan for your home. In light of the individual and community needs that arise in times of weather-related disasters, United Way of Central Oklahoma is compelled to support disaster response and recovery efforts as part of its Community Preparedness focus area. In doing so, United Way of Central Oklahoma assists with the coordination of community resources and volunteers as part of the City of Oklahoma City’s Emergency Response Plan. This is a role that our staff takes very seriously, and we stand ready to partner with other local agencies to support our community through any means necessary. If you have comments, please call the United Way staff at 405-523-3532 or send an email to

Best regards,

Michael E. Joseph Chair, United Way Research and Community Initiatives Advisory Committee Director, McAfee & Taft

On May 24, a string of severe thunderstorms developed over parts of western and central Oklahoma producing seven tornadoes. These storms caused widespread destruction in seven central Oklahoma counties. United Way of Central Oklahoma, United Way of Canadian County and United Way of Logan County are all working with their respective Partner Agencies to ensure immediate and long term needs are met.


DISASTER DECLARATIONS There are two types1 of declarations: Emergency Declarations and Major Disaster Declarations. Both types authorize the president to provide federal disaster assistance. The types differ by cause and the type and amount of assistance provided. An Emergency Declaration can be declared for any instance when the president determines federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts. The amount of emergency assistance is capped at $5 million per event unless continued assistance is needed to alleviate a threat to lives, public health, and safety. A Major Disaster Declaration can be declared for any natural event – including hurricane, tornado, earthquake, snowstorm, or drought – as well as fire, flood, or explosion regardless of cause, that the president believes has caused damage that is beyond the response capabilities of state and local governments and disaster relief organizations. A Major Disaster Declaration provides a wide range of federal assistance programs for public infrastructure and, on rare occasions, individuals.

BASIC DISASTER DECLARATION AND REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE PROCESS Incident Occurs State Emergency Management Authorities and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) conduct joint preliminary damage assessment (PDA) PDA is submitted to governor for review and authorization to request federal assistance If authorized, governor submits declaration request to president through FEMA regional administrator FEMA regional administrator forwards declaration request with a recommendation to the Director of FEMA, who makes a recommendation to the president President issues appropriate disaster declaration and authorizes FEMA to proceed with assistance programs FEMA designates the area(s) eligible for assistance and the types of assistance available

1. Federal Emergency Management Agency


DIAGNOSIS: SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS – TORNADOES When it comes to weather, Oklahoma is perhaps best known for its tornadoes. Between 2000 and 2010, 579 tornadoes occurred in the state of Oklahoma.2 In 2010 alone, 102 tornadoes occurred statewide, setting the record for the third-highest amount since the National Weather Service (NWS) began its record keeping 61 years ago.2 Of the 102 tornadoes, 90 occurred during May—a month notorious for producing intense tornadoes.2

WHATEVER MAY COME For the 23 tornadoes that occurred in Oklahoma County between 2000 and 2010, nearly half developed in May—three of which were EF3 or greater in strength.3 May 1999 and 2010 stand out because they have the greatest number of tornadoes on record since 1950. 4 May 1999 Total number of tornadoes for the month: 90 59 tornadoes on May 3rd • Seven F-2 rated tornadoes • Six F-3 rated tornadoes • Two F-4 rated tornadoes • One F-5 rated tornado The 90 tornadoes that occurred in May contributed to the annual total of 145 in 1999, setting the record for the highest annual total since recordkeeping began in 1950. May 2010 Total number of tornadoes for the month: 90 55 tornadoes on May 10th • Eight EF-2 rated tornadoes • Four EF-3 rated tornadoes • Two EF-4 rated tornadoes The National Weather Service began using the Enhanced Fujita Scale in 2007, explaining the differences in ratings between 1999 and 2010. The scales are discussed in detail on the following page.

2. National Weather Service Norman Forecast Office 3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 4.


OKLAHOMA TORNADOES’ IMPACT ON THE F-SCALE RATING SYSTEM In 1971, Dr. Theodore Fujita published the Fujita Scale (F-Scale) to categorize tornadoes by intensity, destruction area, and estimated wind speed based on damage.3 The F-Scale became the basis for categorizing every U.S. tornado on record since 1950. However, the tornado outbreak that devastated central Oklahoma in May 1999 highlighted some of the flaws in the F-Scale rating system, particularly that the wind estimates were too high in the F-Scale.3 The community of Moore, Oklahoma served as a primary source of research for meteorologists, emergency managers, and engineers in their efforts to expand the national F-Scale. Now, when the National Weather Service provides an official Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale rating, they first identify a damage indicator based on the construction and description of the building they examine, and then identify a degree of damage based on the observed damage of the surrounding area.3 They repeat the process with several structures before determining a final EF rating. For more information on the EF Scale and a list of the 28 damage indicators used during assessments visit http://

THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) NATIONAL SEVERE STORMS LABORATORY5 RECOMMENDS THE FOLLOWING SAFETY PROCEDURES: If inside a structure (e.g. residence, building, school, mall): • Go to a shelter area such as a safe room, basement, storm cellar, or lowest building level. • In lieu of a basement, take shelter in a central, interior room (e.g. closet or hallway) free of windows and doors. Try to put as many walls as possible between you and the outside. If inside a trailer or mobile home: • Evacuate as soon as a tornado warning is issued and go to the nearest sturdy building or storm shelter. If outdoors with no shelter: • If driving, pull over and stop as soon and safely as possible. Do not attempt to outrun a tornado in a vehicle. • Lie flat in the nearest ditch, cover your head with your hands, and watch out for flying debris. Do not take shelter under an overpass or bridge.

5. NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory


DIAGNOSIS: SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS – HAIL Hail, regardless of size, can cause damage to structures and vehicles within a matter of minutes. On the afternoon of May 16, 2010 central Oklahoma was pummeled with golf ball, tennis ball, and grapefruit-sized hail. Drifts of hailstones reached depths of one to five feet across Oklahoma City and remained on the ground for more than 12 hours following the storm.3 In the storm’s aftermath, insurance companies processed more than 700 hail-damaged vehicles per day and assessed multiple neighborhoods in northwest Oklahoma City, where more than 90 percent of the homes required roof replacement. 4 Damages from the May hailstorm were estimated at approximately $500 million in central Oklahoma, with cars making up $80 million of the expenses. 4


At the first warning of hail, move indoors immediately and stay away from windows. If driving, pull over as far to the shoulder as possible. Remain in the vehicle. If possible, angle your vehicle so the hail hits the front windshield. Windshields are designed to withstand pelting objects, whereas side and rear windows are not. Attempt to lie down and keep your back to the windows. Cover yourself with a blanket if one is available.




DIAGNOSIS: THUNDERSTORMS – LIGHTNING In an average year in the United States, lightning kills more people than hurricanes and nearly as many people as tornadoes.7 According to the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN)8 Oklahoma ranks sixth nationally in cloud-to-ground lightning flash densities. Based on data collected between 1996 and 2008, NLDN measured 14.6 lightning flashes per square mile, or 1,017,989 flashes per year.8 Only two other states, Florida and Texas, experienced more lightning flashes per year.8

THE NOAA3 RECOMMENDS THE FOLLOWING SAFETY PROCEDURES: If outdoors: • Avoid open areas and stay away from tall trees or utility poles. • If you hear thunder, seek shelter immediately. Fully enclosed buildings with wiring and plumbing are the safest shelters. • Do not take shelter in a shed or under a picnic shelter, covered porch, or carport. • If a building is not readily available, take shelter in a hard-topped, metal vehicle with its windows closed.

6. Progressive Insurance 7. National Weather Service 8. National Lightning Detection Network


DIAGNOSIS: THUNDERSTORMS – FLOODS According to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), floods are the most common natural disaster in the United States.9 Due to their rapid development and momentum, flash floods are the number one weather-related cause of death in the United States.2 Heavy rain from a thunderstorm can cause flash floods to develop in low-lying areas in under six hours. On the morning of June 14, 2010, central Oklahomans witnessed the devastation of flash flooding first hand when one to three inches of rain fell per hour throughout parts of Oklahoma City.2 Rain totals reached an excess of nine inches within a few hours, flooding neighborhoods, closing interstates, and stranding motorists on their morning commute.2 According to the preliminary damage assessments conducted following the June 2010 floods, 221 homes were impacted.1 Only two percent of those impacted residences were covered by flood insurance and estimates of total individual assistance costs surpassed $1 million.1


Make a flood plan and discuss evacuation routes and methods with every member of your household. Itemize and take photographs or videos of your possessions. Keep valuable items, such as family heirlooms, on the upper floors of your home if possible. If in a car, avoid areas already flooded, especially if there is rapidly flowing water. Do not attempt to cross flowing streams. Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most vehicles, causing loss of control and stalling. A foot of water will float many vehicles. Road beds may be washed out under flood waters. Never drive through flooded roadways – you do not know the condition of the road under the water.

FLOOD INSURANCE: DO I NEED IT? By Rod Chew, State Farm Insurance Agent Many people believe flood damage is covered by their homeowner’s insurance policy. However, flood insurance is a separate policy made available in most areas by FEMA. To be eligible for flood insurance, your community must participate in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). You can find out if your community participates by calling your insurance agent or by checking the NFIP website at If you are located in a designated flood area, you likely have flood insurance as mandated by your mortgage company. When you live in a lower risk area, you qualify for the “Preferred Risk Policy.” This preferred risk coverage has a much lower premium than coverage for those in higher risk areas. In fact, the premiums for this preferred risk policy begin at $49 for contents and $129 per year for both building and contents. As with most insurance policies, there are limits to the coverage NFIP provides. If you need more coverage than what can be provided by NFIP, your insurance agent can help you secure additional flood coverage with another private company.

9. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)


DIAGNOSIS: DROUGHTS AND WILDFIRES During the summer months, Oklahoma’s infamous extreme heat combines with a lack of rainfall to create droughts, often referred to as flash droughts because of their rapid onset.10 Despite the floods of early July 2010, nearly half of Oklahoma experienced a flash drought during August as temperatures soared across the state.10 Wildfires begin discretely and spread rapidly, especially during times of drought. Since 2000, there have been 49 fire disasters declared in Oklahoma.1 In 2011, the continuing drought conditions have contributed greatly to the series of wildfires that occurred during the months of March and April. These persistent wildfires have led to nine fire disaster declarations1, and much of Oklahoma continues to experience severe-to-extreme drought conditions.2

FEMA1 AND THE AMERICAN RED CROSS11 RECOMMEND THE FOLLOWING SAFETY PROCEDURES: During times of drought: • Make every effort to conserve water and energy in your home and workplace. Pay attention to water bans or limitations your local community may establish during a drought, such as watering every other day and/or in the early morning or late evening. • Stay hydrated and wear loose-fitting, cotton clothing in extreme heat. • Educate yourself and others about the dangers of sunburn, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, and other heat-related conditions. • Frequently check on older neighbors, persons with disabilities, and infants during periods of extremely hot or cold weather. Preparing for wildfires: • Create a 30-foot safety zone around your home. To do so, remove vines, shrubs, and other landscaping from the sides of the house, keep tree limbs at least 15 feet away from chimneys, remove highly flammable vegetation (e.g. pine and fir trees), keep grass at a maximum of two inches tall, and clear the surrounding area of leaves, brush, and dead limbs. • Select building materials and plants that resist fire. • Regularly clean out your gutters. • Listen and watch for air quality reports and emergency warning information. • When a red flag fire danger warning is issued, do not grill, use chimeneas, light candles/torches, or discard lit cigarettes outdoors. • Use caution when entering a burned area, as hazards such as hot spots may exist and can flare up without warning.

10. Oklahoma Climatological Survey 11. American Red Cross of Central Oklahoma


DIAGNOSIS: BLIZZARDS AND ICE STORMS Central Oklahomans began 2010 after having just experienced a massive, record-setting blizzard on Christmas Eve 2009. Locally, snow totals ranged from 10-14 inches and set the record for the most snow to fall on a single day in Oklahoma City.2 Motorists were forced to abandon their vehicles and all local interstates and turnpikes were closed as blowing snow produced snow drifts at least three feet deep.2 Within five weeks of the Christmas Eve blizzard, Oklahomans experienced another winter storm that produced significant accumulations of ice, snow, and sleet.2 The extensive damage caused by both the December 2009 blizzard and January 2010 winter storm warranted nearly $68 million in FEMA assistance to the state of Oklahoma.1

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE12 RECOMMENDS THE FOLLOWING SAFETY PROCEDURES: Before winter weather occurs: • Check your vehicle’s battery, antifreeze, engine oil, windshield wipers and fluid, lights and hazard lights, heater, defroster, brakes, and tires. • Keep a can of de-icer, windshield ice scraper, small broom, and blankets in your vehicle. • Check road conditions before traveling and be aware of your local snow routes. • Maintain a full tank of gas throughout the winter season in case you are stranded. If you are stranded in your vehicle during a blizzard: • Remain in the vehicle. Do not leave unless you can see someone nearby. • At night, turn the dome light on when the engine is running to signal rescuers. • Turn on the engine for about 10 minutes each hour and run the heater to stay warm. • Make sure your exhaust pipe is clear of snow. If possible, crack a downwind window for ventilation to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. When temperatures fall below freezing: • When using a fireplace or space heater, use safeguards and check ventilation. Have the chimney flue cleaned prior to the start of winter and do not burn paper in the fireplace. Make sure the chimney flue is open prior to starting a fire and keep the fireplace screen closed when in use. Completely extinguish the fire before going to bed or leaving the house. • Open cabinets to help warm water pipes and keep all faucets dripping continuously. • Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow, pushing vehicles, or walking in deep snow.



VEHICLE ACCIDENTS.3 12. National Weather Service Omaha/Valley, Nebraska Weather Forecast Office


DIAGNOSIS: EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes large enough to cause damage are rare in Oklahoma, with 11 damaging earthquakes occurring in the last 129 years.13 The largest damaging Oklahoma earthquake occurred in 1952 near El Reno and measured a magnitude of 5.5.13 The community of Jones, Oklahoma experienced multiple earthquakes in 2010, including a magnitude 4.0 quake on January 15th, 2010.13 On the morning of October 13, 2010, individuals across central Oklahoma felt the magnitude 4.3 earthquake centered five miles east of Norman.13

FEMA1 RECOMMENDS THE FOLLOWING SAFETY PROCEDURES: Before an Earthquake Identify potential hazards in your home. This includes: • securing shelves to walls; • placing heavy objects on lower shelves; • storing breakables or potentially toxic chemicals in cabinets with latches. During an Earthquake If indoors: • Drop to the ground, take cover under a sturdy piece of furniture, and remain there until shaking stops. • Use a doorway only if it is nearby and you are certain it is a load bearing doorway. If outdoors: • Remain outside. • Move away from buildings, especially exits and exterior walls, and into an open area. After an Earthquake • Open cabinets with caution. • Check on neighbors who may require special assistance. • Inspect utilities for gas leaks, electrical system damage, or water line damage.




EARTHQUAKE INSURANCE: WHAT SHOULD I CONSIDER? Earthquakes are not covered by a standard homeowner’s insurance policy. Rates for a separate earthquake policy vary and are influenced by the age of your home, whether your home is made of wood or brick, the consistency of soil your home sits on, and how close your home is to a fault line.14 Ask your agent if the policy covers the dwelling only, or if it will include the contents of your home and accessory structures such as garages.14 Also consider the policy’s deductible, as they may range from two to 20 percent of the replacement cost.14 Finally, the amount of insurance you buy should be based on replacement and reconstruction costs, not the market value of your property.14

13. United States Geological Survey 14.


Janienne Bella



CEO, American Red Cross


Central Oklahoma

Insider’s Perspective

From our office near downtown Oklahoma City, we could see the thick smoke towering above the horizon – almost like a plume that elevates from an erupting volcano. It was late in the afternoon on April 7th, 2010, and dozens of residents from eastern Oklahoma County were being forced to flee a series of unforgiving wildfires tearing across the Heartland. The American Red Cross of Central Oklahoma was already at the fire command post handing out hundreds of meals and hydrating beverages to fatigued firefighters when volunteers rushed to open an evacuation shelter at the First United Methodist Church in Jones. The sun had set, but the flames were still raging in the distance as I approached dozens of first responders from all across our state working together to keep lives and property safe. It was rejuvenating and humbling to watch how grateful these men and women were for something as simple as a cheeseburger and bottle of water or Gatorade. And for some, a “thank you” was enough. The next day members of our Disaster Action Team gathered with state officials to assess the damage from the fires and evaluate the needs of those who were affected. This is just one example of how the American Red Cross responds to natural disasters. Last year, the Central Oklahoma chapter provided immediate emergency assistance to more than 4,800 individuals and engaged 4,704 volunteers to deliver the mission of the Red Cross. In addition to responding to disasters, we have a team of staff members and volunteers who educate Oklahomans on the importance of preparing for tornadoes, lightning, hail, floods, fires, ice and snow. In 2010, we taught life-saving skills including First Aid and CPR to more than 81,000 people in central and western Oklahoma. The American Red Cross continues to operate under the 1905 Congressional Charter to provide national relief to all citizens. Despite this close relationship with the federal government, the American Red Cross is not a federal agency, nor does it receive federal funding on a regular basis to carry out its services and programs. It receives its financial support from voluntary public contributions and from cost-recovery charges for some of its services, such as the provision of blood and blood products and health and safety training courses.


BASIC DISASTER PREPAREDNESS KIT With Oklahoma’s ever-changing and ever-present potential for extreme weather, every Oklahoman should have a disaster preparedness kit in their home and vehicle. Collect kit supplies and store them in any easy-to-carry container, such as a large backpack or duffle bag. The American Red Cross11 and FEMA1 recommend including the following supplies in a preparedness kit: • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Water: Collect a three-day supply of commercially bottled water; store at least one gallon per person per day. Non-Perishable food: Select ready-to-eat, salt-free, whole grain items and canned items: Canned meats, fruits, and vegetables; Peanut butter, jelly, crackers, granola/trail mix, cookies, hard candy, instant coffee; Vitamins and/or food items for individuals with special dietary needs. Standard First Aid Kit Portable weather radio or television with extra batteries: The National Weather Service recommends NOAA Weather Radios that continuously broadcasts updated weather warnings. Prescription medications: Prepare a seven-day supply. Clothing and bedding: Store one complete set of clothing and footwear per person, as well as sleeping bags and/or blankets and plastic sheeting. Sanitation supplies: Include toilet paper, feminine supplies, personal hygiene items, disinfectant, and soap. Copies of important personal documents: Personal medical information, proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, and insurance policies. Cell phone with chargers Emergency contact information: In-state and out-of-state family members/friends. Manual can opener Flashlight with extra batteries Multi-purpose tool Matches in waterproof container Whistle Tube tent emergency shelter Extra set of car keys and house keys Cash, traveler's checks, and/or change Special items: Evaluate the needs of everyone in your household, including pets, and include supplies necessary to meet their special needs. Items might include hearing aids with extra batteries and glasses; baby bottles, formula, and diapers; pet leash, food, and bowl.

FAMILY EMERGENCY PLAN To create a family emergency plan, sit down with all the members of your household and discuss how you will contact each other during an emergency, as well as where you will seek shelter or evacuate to during different scenarios. Once you have agreed upon a plan, write it down and keep it in your emergency preparedness kit. You should also prepare small cards with emergency contact information for each member of your household to carry with them at all times. The American Red Cross11 recommends including the following details in your emergency plan: Two places to meet • Right outside your home (in case of a house fire). • Outside your neighborhood (in case you are unable to reach your home or need to evacuate the area). Emergency contacts • Choose someone outside your area code, in case your local phone service is overloaded or out of service. • Make sure everyone has the emergency contact’s information written down or programmed into their cell phones. • If you are separated during a disaster or not together when a disaster occurs, instruct everyone to call the emergency contact as soon as they are safe. The emergency contact will help relay everyone’s location. • If you have pets, include information on area animal shelters that will board your animal should your home become unsafe, and/or pet-friendly hotels where you can stay together. • Post emergency numbers by phones and teach children how to call 911 . Evacuation routes • Should you need to evacuate your neighborhood, decide where you will go and how you will get there. • Discuss multiple routes you can take in case roads are impassable. Home safety • Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home. Test the detectors monthly according to manufacturer’s instructions and replace batteries twice a year unless your detector is equipped with an extended life battery. • Purchase fire extinguishers. Communicate where they are stored and how they are used to members of your household. • As a family, learn basic safety procedures such as CPR and First Aid, as well as how and when to turn off water, gas, and electricity in your home. Practice your plan • Review and practice your plan at least twice a year with every member of your household. • Make sure young members of your household are familiar with evacuation routes and confident in their abilities to seek shelter by themselves should they be alone or separated.


COMMITTEE MEMBERS Research and Community Initiatives Advisory Michael E. Joseph, Chair Eric S. Eissenstat, Vice-Chair

Special thanks to the following individuals who volunteered

Successful Kids

their time and expertise to serve as professional reviewers

Ms. Allison Loeffler Dr. Carol Hardeman Ms. Lonnetta Smith Strong Families Mr. Chad Wilkerson Mr. Craig Knutson Mr. Jim Buchanan Mr. Steve Shepelwich Mr. Michael Davis Ms. D.J. Thompson Healthy Citizens Mr. Jon Lowry Ms. Jackie Jones Ms. Mary Anne McCaffree, M.D. Ms. Linda Larason Independent Living Mr. Jim Roth Mr. Cordell Brown Ms. Christi Jernigan Dr. Doug Reed Ms. Deborah Copeland Community Preparedness Ms. Nancy Anthony Mr. Doug Rex At Large Ms. Jane Abraham Mr. Drew Dugan Mr. James Elder Mr. Steve Kreidler Mr. Perry Sneed Mr. Tim TallChief Mr. Robert Toler Mr. Tim O’Connor

STAFF MEMBERS Debby Hampton Blair Schoeb Ashleigh Sorrell Rose Katy Bergman


for the first volume of our revised Vital Signs format. Community Volunteer Reviewers: Jane Abraham, City of Oklahoma City David Barnes, Oklahoma County Emergency Management Frank Barnes, Oklahoma City Emergency Management Cordell Brown, Price Edwards and Company Lou Carmichael, Variety Care Family Health Brian Corder, NineCollective Dean Findley, Oklahoma City Fire Department Jennifer Gooden, City of Oklahoma City Christi Jernigan, Oklahoma County Social Services Mike Joseph, McAfee & Taft Jon Lowry, Oklahoma City-County Health Department Doug Reed, University of Central Oklahoma Doug Speheger, National Weather Service-Norman DJ Thompson, Oklahoma Council on Economic Education Jennifer Thurman, Homeless Alliance James Tittle, American Red Cross of Central Oklahoma Leroy Walser, Choosing Excellence, LLC.

United Way of Central Oklahoma Staff Reviewers: Heather Elmenhorst Sheena Karami Rachel Klein Kitt Letcher Amy Montoya Crystal Stuhr

BIBLIOGRAPHY American Red Cross (n.d.). About Us. American Red Cross of Central Oklahoma (ARCCO) (n.d.). Be Prepared. ARCCO (n.d.). Wild Fire Safety Checklist. Haley, J. (2010). Do you need earthquake insurance? Retrieved from at Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (n.d.). Flood Hazard. FEMA (n.d.). Basic Disaster Supplies. FEMA (2010). Oklahoma – Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Retrieved from FEMA – 1926 – DR, declared July 26,2010. FEMA (n.d.). Disaster Search Results. FEMA (n.d.). Extreme Heat Hazard. FEMA (n.d.). Earthquake Hazard. FEMA (n.d.). Earthquake Preparedness at Home. FEMA (n.d.). Prepare for a Wildfire. FEMA (2008). Public Assistance Policy Digest. FEMA P-321. January 2008. Mecoy, D. (2010). Losses from Oklahoma’s May storms likely to top $1 billion. June 3, 2010. Retrieved from National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) (n.d.). Information adapted from NFIP Preparation and Recovery article. National Lightning Detection Network (2009). Number of Cloud-to-Ground Flashes by State from 1996 to 2008. Retrieved from VAISALA. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2010). Tornadoes reported in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma between 01/01/1950 and 11/30/2010. Retrieved from the NOAA Satellite and Information Service, National Climatic Data Center. NOAA (2011). Precipitation and Drought Information for Oklahoma and North Texas. NWS Norman Weekly Drought Briefing Updated: 4/14/2011. NOAA (2010). Monthly and Annual Tornado Statistics for the State of Oklahoma (1950-2010). Retrieved from the National Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma. NOAA (2010). The May 16, 2010 Hail Storm in Central Oklahoma. Retrieved from the National Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma. NOAA (2010). A Review of the January 28-29, 2010 Winter Storm. Retrieved from the National Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma. NOAA (2010). Record Setting Rainfall and Significant Flooding over Oklahoma. Retrieved from the National Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma. NOAA (2009). A Review of the December 24, 2009 Christmas Eve Blizzard. Retrieved from the National Weather Forecast Office, Norman, Oklahoma. NOAA (2007). Enhanced F Scale for Tornado Damage. NOAA (n.d.). Fujita Tornado Damage Scale. NOAA (n.d.). Weather Safety: Lightning. Information adapted from Safety and Preparedness Worksheet. Retrieved from the National Weather Service. NOAA (n.d.). How to prepare for a winter storm. Retrieved from the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office, Omaha/Valley, Nebraska. National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) (n.d.) Information adapted from preparedness guide. Retrieved from the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory. NSSL (n.d). A Severe Weather Primer: Questions and Answers about Hail. Retrieved from the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory. Oklahoma Climatological Survey (2010). August 2010 Climate Summary. Painter, B. (2010). 90 tornadoes in May ties Oklahoma record for most in a month. August 19, 2010. Retrieved from Progressive Insurance (2010). Hailstorm Tips. United States Geological Society (2010). Magnitude 4.3–Oklahoma. USGS (2010). Magnitude 4.0 – Oklahoma.



United Way of Cent ral Oklahoma P.O. Box 837 Oklahoma City, Okla homa 73101 www.unitedwayokc.o rg 405 -236-8441

Vital Signs is a publication of United Way of Central Oklahoma. For questions or comments, please contact Blair Schoeb, Sr. Vice President, or Ashleigh Sorrell Rose, Director of Research,


Vital Signs: Community Preparedness  

Research document containing data relevant to central Oklahoma.

Vital Signs: Community Preparedness  

Research document containing data relevant to central Oklahoma.