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UNISEMINAR


Prüfungsskript  

Business English  3      

       

 

Winterthur, März  2013  


Einleitung

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I n h a l t s v e r z e i c h n i s  

Einleitung .........................................................................................................................................................  3  

Exam HS  2012  .....................................................................................................................................................  5   Exercises  HS  2012  ........................................................................................................................................  5  

Solutions HS  2012  .......................................................................................................................................  18  

Exam FS  2012  (Studienordnung  2009)  .................................................................................................  33   Exercises  FS  2012  (SO  2009)  ................................................................................................................  33  

Solutions FS  2012  (SO  2009)  .................................................................................................................  44  

Exam FS  2012  (Studienordnung  2006)  .................................................................................................  55   Exercises  FS  2012  (SO  2006)  ................................................................................................................  55  

Solutions FS  2012  (SO  2006)  .................................................................................................................  67  

Exam HS  2011  (Studienordnung  2009)  ................................................................................................  77   Exercises  HS  2011  (SO  2009)  ................................................................................................................  77  

Solutions HS  2011  (SO  2009)  ................................................................................................................  88  

Exam HS  2011  (Studienordnung  2006)  .............................................................................................  100   Exercises  HS  2011  (SO  2006)  .............................................................................................................  100  

Solutions HS  2011  (SO  2006)  .............................................................................................................  113  

Exam FS  2011  .................................................................................................................................................  126   Exercises  FS  2011  ....................................................................................................................................  126  

Solutions FS  2011  ....................................................................................................................................  138  

Exam HS  2010  (Studienordnung  2009)  .............................................................................................  150   Exercises  HS  2010  (SO  2009)  .............................................................................................................  150  

Solutions HS  2010  (SO  2009)  .............................................................................................................  162  

Exam HS  2010  (Studienordnung  2006)  .............................................................................................  175   Exercises  HS  2010  (SO  2006)  .............................................................................................................  175  

Solutions HS  2010  (SO  2006)  .............................................................................................................  187  

Exam FS  2010  .................................................................................................................................................  199   Exercises  FS  2010  ....................................................................................................................................  199  

Solutions FS  2010  ....................................................................................................................................  211    

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Einleitung

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Exam HS  2009  ................................................................................................................................................  224   Exercises  HS  2009  ...................................................................................................................................  224  

Solutions HS  2009  ....................................................................................................................................  236  

Exam FS  2008  .................................................................................................................................................  248   Exercises  FS  2008  ....................................................................................................................................  248  

Solutions FS  2008  ....................................................................................................................................  258  

Exam HS  2007  ................................................................................................................................................  269   Exercises  HS  2007  ...................................................................................................................................  269  

 

Solutions HS  2007  ....................................................................................................................................  277  

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009) Points Distribution 1. Reading 2. Language 3. Writing

20 points 20 points 20 points

1. Reading 1.1.

Reading

Read this article from the Financial Times and answer the questions on the following page. Business bows to growing pressures By Alison Maitland 1

The language of responsibility has spread so rapidly in business that it is now turning up in some surprising places. In the UK, envelopes pop through the letterbox stamped with the Royal Mail’s website and the exhortation: “Read our CSR report”.

2

Whether the acronym for corporate social responsibility means much to the average customer is a moot point. That may not matter. Messages such as this, or the small print in drinks advertisements that urge customers to enjoy alcohol “responsibly”, are not directed at the public so much as governments, regulators, investors and employees.

3

A decade ago, few companies with social and environmental programmes were willing to speak out about them for fear of attracting closer scrutiny, and possibly shouts of “hypocrisy”, from campaign groups. Today, many companies feel they cannot afford not to talk about what they are doing, even if this does make them more vulnerable to attack. Rising expectations of business are being given extra impetus by continuing revelations of corporate malpractice, particularly in the US. 133


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4

Companies that find themselves subject to greatest scrutiny include those with dominant market positions, such as former state-owned utilities; those dealing directly with consumers, such as banks and retailers; those producing essentials such as food or drugs; and those exploiting natural resources or depending on supply chains in low-income countries, such as oil producers and clothing manufacturers. Trust and responsibility have become valued additions to the CEO lexicon. Some talk of responsibility as a moral obligation.

5

Mervyn Davies, chief executive of Standard Chartered Bank, which does business in more than 50 developing economies, says that the pursuit of profit is not enough, that companies need principles and that employees want to see those principles in action. “I don’t think companies can just go about doing their business and ignore what’s happening around them and not make a contribution,” he says.

6

Others justify it on business grounds. “We know very clearly that companies which adopt and embrace corporate responsibility are more likely to create wealth and shareholder value than those that do not,” says Michael Fairey, deputy chief executive of Lloyds TSB. “The business case revolves around the creation of employee motivation, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty.”

7

Is there clear evidence that responsible business boosts financial returns? Many studies have examined whether there is a link. Those that have established a connection easily outnumber those that have found no link or a negative correlation, according to Risk, Returns and Responsibility, a report by the Association of British Insurers that reviews the evidence.

8

Determining cause and effect is not always straightforward, however, especially given the lack of consensus about what corporate responsibility entails. Environmental initiatives, such as cutting energy use, can obviously reduce costs. A report by Innovest Strategic Value Advisers for the UK’s Environment Agency finds “strong evidence” of higher financial returns, business opportunity and competitive advantage for companies that are environmental leaders, although it says it is not always clear if these are due entirely to environmental governance. One example of superior investment returns is the Winslow Green Growth Fund in the US, which has outperformed its benchmark over one, three and five years. 134


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9

Measuring intangibles such as employee morale or brand loyalty and linking them directly to improved financial performance is much harder. But chief executives seem convinced by the anecdotal evidence that employees care about their company’s reputation. “CEOs are telling us over and over again that when they are talking to groups of new graduates, this is an area on which they are questioned,” says Robert Davies, chief executive of the International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF), which has been promoting responsible business practices for 14 years.

10

He says labour rights, human rights and environmental standards are hot topics and financial companies get asked about investments in ethically or environmentally questionable projects. Companies are right to be concerned about what current and prospective employees think. They can have a big impact on reputation, not only by how they behave but also by what they say to outsiders. Three-quarters of the British public say they would believe an employee’s word about a company’s social and environmental record over that of a corporate brochure or advertisement, according to Mori, the pollsters.

11

The biggest incentive for companies to behave properly is the damage caused when they do not. Take Citigroup, the world’s largest financial services company, which has seen its share price dragged down this year by a series of legal and regulatory problems that have cost it billions of dollars. The image last month of Chuck Prince, Citigroup chief executive, apologising for banking law violations in Japan is a powerful one. Mr Prince has been trying to instil ethical behaviour in the group since his appointment a little over a year ago.

12

Companies, of course, can obey the law and behave ethically while not involving themselves in wider social concerns, but both are increasingly seen as crucial elements of responsible business. The damage caused by corporate malpractice can be both immediate and enduring. “CEOs are talking more about [corporate responsibility]. Are they taking responsibility? Some are. Some are not,” says Mr Davies at the IBLF. “The tragedy is that, so often, they have to be hit by a crisis.”

13

Institutional investors are increasingly concerned about this type of crisis and the ethical, social and environmental risks that companies run. Last month, a group of leading European investors called on investment banks and brokers to 135


Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

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provide more mainstream research on both governance and social and environmental management. Big investors see the way that companies handle issues, such as obesity or human rights, as a measure of the overall quality of their management, says Mr Davies.

14

For growing numbers of companies in the supply chain, responsible practices are no longer a matter of choice. Vodafone, for example, requires its suppliers to comply with its new code of ethical purchasing, designed to provide safe and fair working conditions. Vodafone says terminating a contract with a supplier would be an act of last resort, but the threat is there.

15

Miles White, chief executive of Abbott Laboratories, the big US pharmaceuticals group, is clear that spending money on sending cut-price HIV/Aids drugs to Africa is a cost of doing business. “If I do not provide our products in Africa, governments will license our intellectual property to others who can. Governments will intervene,” he says. Greater government regulation to enforce corporate responsibility is one of the demands of non-governmental organisations. They can be expected to continue to lobby for it as long as they perceive a mismatch between the rhetoric and the way some companies behave.

16

For multinationals in particular, it requires unrelenting effort to ensure high standards by every employee at every site in every country in which they operate. But unless they do, their credentials will be jeopardised. Witness the way that the reserves scandal at Royal Dutch/Shell has undermined its pretensions to leadership as a “sustainable” oil company. Companies that fail to make all the connections on corporate responsibility increase the risk of damage to shareholder value and fuel cynicism among the public and campaigners. Few CEOs acknowledge this openly.

17

One who does is Peter Bakker, head of TPG, the Dutch-based logistics group that has formed a long-term partnership with the United Nations World Food Programme. “You cannot go out claiming that you are going to help save some hungry people,” he says, “and make a complete mess of your accounting, or take a huge pay rise as an executive, or pollute the environment.”

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

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1.1 Reading • •

Read the whole article and find the paragraphs which contain the following ideas. Write your answer in the space provided on the answer sheet. An example (0) is given.

Example:

(0) Companies which act ethically are more likely to make profits  paragraph 6 a)

A scandal at a financial company  paragraph 11

c)

The views of a CEO  paragraphs 9, 17

b) d) e) f)

g)

The expectations of major investors  paragraph 13 Types of companies that are under most pressure  paragraph 4

Use of product advertising to promote a CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) message  paragraph 2 A company putting demands on supplier  paragraph 14 A crisis at a major oil company  paragraph 16

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009) 1.2.

• •

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Vocabulary

Find words and expressions from the article that have a similar meaning as the expressions a-m below. Write your answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. An example (O) is given.

Example: (0)

process of trying to achieve something (paragraph 5) = pursuit

b)

open to being criticised (paragraph 3) = vulnerable to attack

a) e)

d) e) f)

g) h) i) j)

k) l)

m)

careful examination (paragraphs 3, 4) = scrutiny making full use of (paragraph 4) = exploit

something you must do for ethical reasons (paragraph 4) = moral obligation increases / raises (paragraph 7) = boosts

exceed in quantity (paragraph 7) = outnumber

actions that break the law, an agreement or principle (paragraph 11) = violations teach people to think, behave or feel in a partieular way (paragraph 11) = instil behaviour continuing for a very long time (paragraph 12) = enduring

trying to persuade people to support (paragraph 15) = lobby

bringing a legal agreement to an end (paragraph 14) = terminate

what you will do if everything else fails (paragraph 14) = act of last resort put in danger/under threat (paragraph 16) = jeopardised

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2. Language 2.1

• • •

Matching these expressions to the correct function (3 points) Match the expressions (1 - 6) to the correct function (a - g). Fill in the correct answers on the answer sheet provided. An example (0) is given on the answer sheet.

(0) Look, let’s sleep on it.

d. Avoid making a decision

2. I think we could work with that.

a. Being vague

1. What would you say to a discount?

b. Making a suggestion

3. Are you saying you can deliver that many items in f. Checking for exact information that colour? 4. We’re lookin at an initial order of 20 units.

g. Describing your needs.

6. Somewhere in the region of $ 350.

e. Reaching agreement

5. If you won’t do a discount, we’d like a free sample.

2.2.

• • •

c. Introducing a condition

Matching sentences (3 points)

Match the two parts of the sentences to form useful expressions for discussing solutions to problems. Fill in the correct answers in the spaces on the answer sheet. An example (0) is given on the answer sheet.

(0) They could consider

e. reducing the delivery costs.

2. So, that’s now 11 participants with

d. the company chairman, then?

1. Would you mind going

f. over the audio-visual equipment?

3. Can I just check that we

a. start at 9 am and finish at 5 pm?

4. I’d like to

c. confirm that we’ll be in room B.

5. Well, actually, what I meant 6. Let me just make sure

g. was that I’ll bring a video camera 139

b. that I can have access to the computer


Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009) 2.3.

• • •

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Transformations

For questions 1 - 7, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. DO NOT CHANGE THE WORD GIVEN. You must use between three and five words, including the word given. Write your answer on the answer sheet provided. An example is given (0).

Example: 0.

My boss was too impatient to read the report to the end. that

My boss was so impatient so that he did not read the report to the end. 1.

The moment I returned from my trip to New York, I got an email asking me to go back.

No sooner

No sooner did I return from my trip to New York, than l got an email asking me to go back.

2.

Adam had never found a job so rewarding until he started working for himself. Never

Never had Adam found a job so rewarding until he started working for himself. 3.

If inflation doesn't slow down soon, we're in for a bad time. Unless

Unless inflation slows down soon, we're in for a bad time. 4.

Although the team was unsure about the project, they accepted it. spite

The team accepted the project in spite of their doubt about it.

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009) 5.

The latest scandal will make her resign.

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forced

She was forced to resign due to the latest scandal. 6.

CEOs may sound very enthusiastic in their reports, but you should always make sure you have hard evidence. how

No matter how CEOs may sound in their reports, you should always make sure you have hard evidence. 7.

At the meeting, I wanted to raise the topic of staff motivation. bring

At the meeting, I wanted to bring up the topic of staff motivation.

3. Writing

Your clothing manufacturing company in Switzerland has recently set up a project clothing production site in Pakistan. The first evaluation of this project site has revealed two main positives: faster production and cheaper employment. However, there are a number of negatives: noise, dust and too many machines in one room. Your manager has asked you to write a report on the evaluation results of this project. So far you have written the introduction and some of the findings. Finish the findings, making sure you cover the rest of these bullet points: • •

discuss the second example of success regarding the new site discuss the key failures of this project, particularly in terms of unfair working conditions

Then add a conclusion and a recommendation about the Pakistan production site. Write your answer in 160 - 180 words.

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Report

Pakistan production site

The aim of this report is to evaluate the successes and failures of our project production site in Pakistan. It will also make a recommendation regarding whether or not the project should be continued and what changes need to be implemented in order to improve working conditions. Findings: General

A new production site in Pakistan was established in January of this year. The driving factor behind this project was reduction of production costs. After nine months of operation an evaluation of the project has now produced results that can help us make a decision as to whether we should continue with the factory in Pakistan or we should return our production site to Switzerland. Successes

(i) The results show that the production rate at the Pakistan site is faster. Production has risen by 30%, which is a considerable increase in just nine months. The reasons for this number are number of employees employed at any one time and longer working hours per individual worker. (ii) The project has also been successful in setting up a highly efficient communication structure. This proved beneficial to us when it was discovered last week that one of the chemicals constituted a health hazard. Due to modern means of telecommunication such as skype and an efficient staff running the factory we could act quickly to amend the situation. Failures

So far, local human rights groups have twice protested against what they see as ‘inhumane’ working conditions for the peasant farmers, now employed as factory workers. Accusations against us include claims by their spokespersons that the working hours per individual worker are ‘far too long’ and that wages are ‘ridiculously low’. 142


Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

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Conclusion

There is no doubt that we have made considerable progress in economic terms by setting up the factory in Pakistan, but it is equally clear that we must take the allegations seriously if we want our company’s reputation to remain unblemished. Recommendation

While I do not recommend closing down the project production site, I do recommend meeting with the leaders of the newly formed trade union to renegotiate the terms of contracts.

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

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Answer Sheet 1.

Reading

1.1

Reading (1 point each)

1.2

Vocabulary (1 point each)

(0)

6

(0)

Pursuit

b.

13

b.

vulnerable to attack

a. c.

d. e. f.

g.

11 9,17 4 2

14 16

a. c.

scrutiny exploit

d.

moral obligation

e.

boosts

f.

outnumber

g.

violations

h.

instil behaviour

i.

enduring

j.

lobby

k.

terminate

l.

act of last resort

m.

jeopardised

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Solutions HS 2010 (SO 2009)

2.

Language

2.1.

Matching function

(half a point each) (0)

d

2.

a

1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2.3.

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2.2. Matching sentences (half a point each)

5.

c

6.

e Transformations (2 points each)

had Adam found

5. 6. 7.

d

4.

g

2. 4.

2. 3.

f

so impatient that he did

3.

e

1.

b

(0) 1.

(0)

did I return

inflation slows down soon in spite of their doubt was forced to resign matter how

to bring up the topic

145

f

a c

g

b


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