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Year XVIII – n. 45 / Special Issue

Virtus et Scientia

Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana 1551 - 2014

www.unigre.it

Poste Italiane S.p.A. - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 - (conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n. 46) art. I, comma 2 e 3 - Roma/Aut. n. 52/2009 - tassa pagata - Taxa perçue

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Information Journal of the Pontifical Gregorian University

WALKING

WITH THE CHURCH

Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam

Re-reading

TRENT AND VATICAN II

THE CRY OF PEACE The virtuous circle

OF THEOLOGY


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Books

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EDITORIAL | F.-X. Dumortier, SJ

2

2 6

“Gregoriana” 4

Gregoriana

FOCUS ON

O’Malley John

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Re-reading Trent and Vatican II | J.W. O’Malley, SJ The Cry of Peace. Testimonies | P. Pegoraro

The Council of Trent. Myths, Misunderstandings and Unintended Consequences

R.P. John O’MALLEY S.I., Georgetown University

The Council of Trent. Myths, Misunderstandings, and Unintended Consequences Il Concilio di Trento. Miti, incomprensioni e conseguenze involontarie

At the Pontifical Gregorian University, various events are held, throughout the academic year, mainly of a scholarly nature, but also of notable religious, social or cultural relevance. In cooperation with the journal Gregorianum, this series publishes the texts of the papers given during the most significant of these events, thus making them available to all.

pp. 42 • € 7 GBPress 2013

12 marzo 2013

ACADEMIC LIFE

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The Virtuous Circle of Theology | Interview with Fr. Dariusz Kowalczyk, SJ

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The Necessary Dialogue Between Charism and Legislator | Interview with Fr. Yuji Sugawara, SJ Facing the Challenges of a Changing World | Interview with Fr. Lloyd Baugh, SJ Year of Faith. A Formative Occasion | S. Barlone, SJ The Role of the Word in the Easter Vigil | J.-P. Sonnet, SJ

15 18 20

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“Analecta Gregoriana” 322

G E R A R D

W H E L A N,

S. J.

REDEEMING HISTORY Social Concern in Bernard Lonergan and Robert Doran

Whelan Gerard Redeeming History. Social Concern in Bernard Lonergan and Robert Doran pp. 254 • € 27 GBPress 2013

FROM PAST TO FUTURE 22

Studying at the Roman College in the Past | M. Coll, SJ

24

St. Aloysius Gonzaga’s Rooms | M.A. Croce

”Bernard Lonergan’s social concern took root in 1930 and remained a key factor guiding his intellectual career until he died in 1984”. Succeeding chapters offer a biographical overview of Lonergan’s intellectual development and his interest in articulating how we are called to collaborate with God’s plan to redeem history. The author also suggests that there are two reasons why many students of Lonergan’s thought are not aware of this social concern. First, early in his career Lonergan made a strategic decision to address foundational questions in philosophy and theological method that constituted what he understood to be a “withdrawal from practicality for the sake of practicality”. Second, by the end of Lonergan’s life his exploration of foundational reflection and to make explicit how it should be applied to issues of social concern. The book concludes with comments on convergences between the thought of Lonergan, Doran, and Pope Francis.

Periodicals GREG COMMUNITY

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26

‘ two New Blessed among the Ex-Alumni | M.R. Marcotulli Novarese and Bulešic,

“Gregorianum” - Vol. 94/2013

Periodica de re canonica - Vol. 102/2013

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Christmas Carols: a Tangible Sign of the University Community | P. Xalxo, SJ

A scientific review of Theology and Philosophy with occasional discussions of problems in Church History, Canon Law and Social Sciences. It’s multilingual with contributions in English, French, German, Spanish and Italian. The annual volume of four issues averages 800 pages.

Published quarterly by Professors of Canon Law, Moral Theology and Liturgy, «Periodica» offers research, articles and timely essays on the most recent Church legislation regarding Collegiality, Marriage, Consecrated Life, Secularisation. About 700 pages per year.

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

“Studia Missionalia” - Vol. 62-2013

“Archivum Historiae Pontificiae” Vol. 49/2011

31

INFORMATION ttudia tudia issionalia issionalia

vol. 62 2013

One faith, faith, vvarious a arious ways of communicating comm it. Some signifi significant fic ficant eexamples xamples in the histor historyy of Ch Christianity

&

RESS

Ambrogio Bongiovanni, Trasmettere la fede cristiana nella quotidianità con la parola e la vita: i fedeli laici protagonisti Nataša Govekar, “Io lo vedo crocifisso e lo chiamo Re”. Alcuni aspetti della comunicazione della fede in Gesù Cristo, crocifisso e risorto, attraverso l’arte figurativa James H. Kroeger MM, Mission anchored in Living Faith Ramón Peralta Revv.., Profetica testimonianza della fede in Cristo nel contesto della nuova evangelizzazione: catechesi missionaria – ermeneutica e prospettiva Laurent Basanese SJ, Elie de Nisibe (975-1046): un évêque arabe présente sa foi à un musulman Gerardo Caglioni SX, La priorità dell’annunzio della Parola: il metodo di evangelizzazione di Eusebio Francesco Chini, SJ – l’apostolo dei Pima Piotr Nawrot SVD, Evangelization trough music in the Jesuit Reductions: infusion of the Indian elements into musical practice Leonard Fernando SJ, Expressing Christian Faith in a New Culture: bold Attempts by Roberto de Nobili Zdzisław J. Kijas OFM FM Convv.., The essential elements of the Lord’s Teeaching. The Manual to transmit the Faith in Korea Emilio Grasso Revv..,., La foi vécue et partagée: le cas de Baba Simon, missionnairee aux pieds nus Luka Lusala lu ne Nkuka SJ, ‘Jésus-Christ est Noir’. oir . Dona BBéatrice Kimpa Vita (16841706) et l’accueil du Christ hrist dans ans la particularité de la culture congo congolaise Robert Danieluk SJ, L’’unité de la foi et de la Compagnie de Jésuss danss la diversité diversi des rites: Jean Gagarin SJ et son projet des jésuites du rite oriental Jan Mikrut Revv.,. I santi nti Cirillo e Metodio: odio: il dialogo dialog con le varie cu culture e tradizioni per l’unica fede inn Cristo tra Orientee e Occidente David Pestroiu Revv.,. Living and transmitting Christian faith under an atheistic dictatorship in Romania (1948-1989) Alexander Paul Zatyrka SJ, Transmission of Christian Faith with a Mayan identity. The Bachajon Mission in Chiapas, Mexico (1959-2012) Taadeusz d Wojda ojd SAC, SAC Trasmettere la fede in Cristo salvaguardando i riti e la cultura dei popoli: l’Istruzione di Propaganda Fide ai Vicari Apostolici dell’Asia Orientale ale (1659) misión en favor de los pueblos de Fidel González Fernández MCCJ, Daniel Comboni y la misió África Notas a partir de ddos de sus documentos fundamentales: el Plan para la Regeneración África. de África y el «Postulatum» al Vaticano I 

Published by the Faculty of Missiology of the Pontifical Gregorian University, each volume averages 300/350 pages and contains subjects such as Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Religious Ethnology, Revelation, Worship and Ritual, Prayers, Meditation, Misticism, Morals and Religion, in Christianity and other religions.

GREGORIAN GR REGORIAN & ° BIBLICAL° PRESS

Editor-in-Chief

Year XVIII – n. 45 – Special Issue | www.unigre.it/LaGregoriana

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

Since 1963, the Faculty of Church History has published annually a volume of 750/800 pages. One of the main features is a comprehensive bibliography of 250/300 pages per volume, arranged chronologically and thematically. Subscription price for one year: € 100,00

Michele Simone, SJ

Graphic project and layout Editor Paolo Pegoraro lagregoriana@unigre.it

Editorial staff Maria Rita Marcotulli redazione@unigre.it

by GBPress | Gregorian & Biblical Press (Emiliano De Ascentiis | Lisanti S.r.l.)

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Printed in January 2014 Registration at the Court of Rome n. 134 March 29, 1996


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EDITORIAL

A humble

but determined magis by FRANÇOIS-XAVIER DUMORTIER, SJ Magnificent Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University

ear Friends

D

ear Friends,

Just one year ago nobody would have been able to predict what we were to witness in the course of 2013: the renouncement of Pope Benedict XVI from the Ministry of Bishop of Rome and the election of Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio with the name Francis as the first Latin American Pope, and the first to belong to the Society of Jesus. We still all remember the firm words he used in his first homily which immediately addressed the Mystery of Christ and the Cross in the manner of the Apostle Paul: «When we walk without the Cross, when we build without the Cross, and when we profess Christ without the Cross, we are not disciples of the Lord». These are words that touch the heart of any Jesuit who remembers the opening of the Formula Instituti of the Society of Jesus, «Soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, and to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth». All is by the Grace of God. The love of the Church is not a human feeling which comes and goes according to people or circumstances. It is love

deeply rooted in faith in the Lord himself. We are all aware – professors and students alike – of what is at stake in life and the Church’s mission today. We all yearn for both love and for the Church which leads to Christ, poor and humble, to be loved ever more, as much as we would like to commit ourselves increasingly to serving the Faith and announcing the Word of God. “More and More...” Our Pope knows that the magis profoundly characterizes Ignatian spirituality. The yearning for magis pushes us to discover and open new ways of bringing this fire which Christ has set alight on earth to humanity: the mystery of infinite love. The search for magis has already marked our educational and intellectual history, as regards the in the past and the today. We follow this path with ever more ardent fervour. The evangelical magis leads to a more profound humility and selfless simplicity. Looking up from the bottom opens up new horizons which broaden ceaselessly. The boldness of the future has the face of a humble but determined magis. 

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FOCUS ON

Re-reading Trent and Vatican II by JOHN W. O’MALLEY, SJ Faculty of Theology – Georgetown University, Washington D.C.

s the past began to be studied more critically, its normative values came into question. Thus, as Bernard Lonergan, the distinguished former professor at the Gregoriana, observed many years ago, the classical world view began to crumble. Two features characterWith the help of the historian J.W. O’ Malley, SJ ized that view: first, the universe was stable and, the Gregoriana reflected on second, the achievethe meaning of the Councils ments of the past were the norms against which for the life of the Church. the present was to be judged. Both of these This article is part features came under seof his lecture at the vere challenge. With Dies Academicus 2013 Darwin’s Origin of the Species most thinkers began to accept the idea of the evolution of all species, including the human species, which of course called into question the account of the creation of Adam and Eve in Genesis. By the middle of the twentieth-century, astronomers had discovered that our galaxy was only one of many galaxies and were on the road to discovering than there were millions upon millions of galaxies like our own. Right: And those discoveries led to the further disFr. John W. O’Malley, SJ covery that the universe was expanding at during his lecture. a fast rate. The enthusiastic On the less exalted level of politics and response political theory, the French Revolution had of the audience radically challenged all top-down authority, at the end of the lecture. a first step in the emergence of democracy in Western Europe and elsewhere after the ∫ Photos by Second World War. Political authority now TOBIAS TILTSCHER / rested on the consent of the governed. ModBARBARA ANDOLFI

Two important anniversaries came close to each other: the 50th anniversary of the opening of Vatican II Council (1962-2012) and the 450th anniversary of the close of the Council of Trent (1563-2013).

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ern means of travel and communication had broken down the safety of religious ghettos, and Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and even some others began to mix freely and ask questions about what their relationship was to one another. They began to find common bonds, and became ever more aware of the catastrophe of the Holocaust. The great colonial powers now felt constrained to grant independence to their former colonies, which coincided with violent outburst against Western Cultural imperialism. The world has always been multicultural but now it was self-consciously so, which raised profound questions for a church whose traditions were so obviously Western. These are just a few of the elements in what is called Modernity or even postModernity, with profound implications for a church that on the official level before the

In different ways and in different degrees, Trent and Vatican II were both Councils of reconciliation

council saw these developments so threatening that all it could do was condemn them and hope they would go away. Sometimes wittingly, sometimes unwittingly the council tried to address the problem. On some level most of the bishops had an awareness of the problem and were look-


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ing for solutions. Underlying virtually every crisis in the council was the problem of the “modern world� and how to deal with it. No document of the council can be fully understood without taking this problem into account, nor does any of them deal with it perfectly because the problem is too big, too pervasive, and too complex for a single text, or a single council adequately to deal with. If Trent and Vatican II are similar in that they both addressed severe crises in the church, they were also similar in another way that has generally escaped notice. The single issue that ran through the debates at the council of Trent was the relationship between the episcopacy and the papacy. The final documents of the council give no hint that this was the case. The same is true for Vatican II. The issue surfaced immediately with Sacrosantum. When the draft of that decree allowed that episcopal conferences had authority to make certain determinations regarding the

liturgy, it aroused strong objection that this provision was an attack on the authority of the Holy See. The heated debate on the issue signalled that a sensitive nerve had been touched. It was over episcopal collegiality that the battle broke out in full force and continued to be waged in one form or another even after the doctrine had in principle been approved. As at Trent, a facet of that very issue at Vatican II was the reform of the Roman Curia. Many bishops felt that the Roman congregations treated them like lackeys and did not re-

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FOCUS ON

Council of Trent (1545-1563) Length – 18 years. It is divided into three different periods: 1545-47; 1551-52; 1562-63 Where – Trent, near Protestant Countries and far from Papal immediate supervision Crisis – It was subject to violent internal crisis which led it to the brim of disaster Popes – During the Council five Popes came in succession, none of whom took part in it Bishops – Out a total of about 700 Catholic Bishops in XVI century, only 29 were present at the first session of the Council, 15 at the second, and more than 250 at the third. All of them came from Western Europe; two thirds were Italian, and many were Spanish Theologians – They were often more numerous than the Bishops. They were chosen mainly by Kings and religious orders and they used to pronounce long homilies to the participants Laymen – Kings and rulers exercised strong political pressures through their ambassadors at the Council; there was no immediate effect on the life of ordinary Catholics Ecumenism – The attempt to involve Protestants in the Council was made several times unsuccessfully Program – Limited and specific. Based on facing the Protestant Reform, focusing the Catholic teaching on justification and the Sacraments, reforming the Episcopacy and the Roman Curia and insisting on the fact that Bishops had to reside in their dioceses.

Left: Title page of Notes sur le Concile de Trente by Étienne Rassicod (À Cologne, chez Balthasar d’Egmont libraire, 1706). Source: Pontifical Gregorian University Library, Riserva Collection (Ris. 41 T 48).

Right: First page of L’Osservatore Romano, October 12, 1962.

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spect the authority and autonomy that their episcopal ordination conferred upon them. Moreover, during the first period of the council, the autumn of 1962, bishops began to feel and deeply resent the efforts of the Curia to control the council’s agenda. By the end of that period, reform of the Curia had become a burning issue ay Vatican II. Pope Paul VI diffused the tension when a few months after his election he addressed the Curia and told its members that reform

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was necessary and that he, in cooperation with them, would undertake it. He did make changes in the Curia but certainly not as radical as some members of the council thought were needed. It is interesting but not surprising that in our own day the issue of reform of the Curia is once again very much talked about. In different ways and in different degrees, Trent and Vatican II were both councils of reconciliation. With its decree on ecu-


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Vatican II Council (1962-1965) menism, Unitatis redintegratio, and on nonChristian religions, Nostra aetate, the reconciliatory dynamic of Vatican II is obvious. It is not so obvious for Trent. But we need to recall that the only reason the council met in Trent was the hope that the Lutherans could be persuaded or coerced into coming there and that only in a neutral city like Trent could reconciliation be effected. In fact, during the second period, 1551-1552, several delegations of Lutherans did arrive at the council and were allowed to speak. The result was an absolute stalemate, not so much because of disagreement over this or that specific doctrine, but because Lutheranism had by that time become a system, and it was a system incompatible with the Catholic system. 

Length – 4 years. It took place in four sessions of about 10 weeks each Where – Saint Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican Crisis – There was some internal crisis, but although some of them were serious, they did not put the Council at risk Popes – The Council was summoned by John XXIII and closed by his successor Paul VI; they were both daily adjourned through via closed circuit TV and meetings with the Bishops Bishops – Around 2100-2200 Bishops attended the majority of the work sessions. They came from 116 Countries (Communist Countries were absent); several Bishops were born in the former European Colonies Theologians – All theologians were appointed by the Pope, and were less numerous than the Bishops. They worked in the preparatory commissions, but could intervene only on a Bishop’s request Laymen – Their presence was only symbolic; through the mass media, however, the impact of the Council on million of Catholics was immediate Ecumenism – About one hundred observers, Orthodox Christians and Protestants, took part in the Council Program – Wide agenda, based on the requests of Bishops. In the final 16 documents almost all aspects of the Church are mentioned. It deals with a crisis of the historical conscience which started in the Italian Renaissance.


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The Cry of Peace Testimonies by PAOLO PEGORARO

The Vigil of prayer for peace called by Pope Francis on September 7, 2013 also involved our university community

he Day of prayer and fasting for peace in Syria, the Middle East and the World called for by Pope Francis on 7 September 2013 which culminated in the four-hour Vigil of Prayer will certainly be remembered as one of the most intense moments experienced by the Universal Church in the last few months. Pope Francis extended his poignant appeal to all people of goodwill, inviting them to come together in St. Peter’s Square to pray with him. Numerous members of the Gregorian University community were present and these are a few of their testimonies.

«

The Vigil was divided into different moments: Eucharistic adoration, the recital of the Rosary and the Matins.

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The path of tears and prayer brings about real hope (P. François-Xavier Dumortier, SJ Magnificent Rector)

»

«I was very proud to have been a part of this moment, together with thousands of other men and women of goodwill – Christians and non-Christians – and was struck by the sobriety, the intensity and the fervour. I met various professors, students and friends there and to have shared this prayer and these formidable moments of breath-taking silence with them... was incredibly moving. I was profoundly struck by the Pope’s sermon and the personal words of great impact and wisdom he addressed to us all, deeply rooted in the fundamental issues. I remember that after recalling Cain he went on to say “Yes, you are your brother’s keeper! To be human means to care for one another!” And then “My Christian faith urges me to look to the Cross. How I wish that all men and women of goodwill would look to the Cross if

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only for a moment! There, we can see God’s reply: violence is not answered with violence, death is not answered with the language of death. In the silence of the Cross, the uproar of weapons ceases and the language of reconciliation, forgiveness, dialogue, and peace is spoken”. I had tears in my eyes. I think that the path of tears and prayer may be the true road of hope... of the beginning of a new world!».

«

Like many other Muslims I answered the Pope’s plea (Prof. Adnane Mokrani Faculty of Missiology)

»

On September 7th I was in St. Peter’s Square. Like many other Muslims I answered the Pope’s plea to pray and fast for peace. In different ways prayer and fasting represent the heart of the cult of numerous religions, and in this context I think that above all they represent a return to the true spirit of religion, which is not that of ideology. It was a plea that struck a deep chord


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« in human consciousness and expressed our desire and hunger for peace. I felt completely at one with this spirit of peace in these very difficult times. It was a signal to impress once again that war is not the solution, to break the silence and denounce the indifference of the international community and the world in the face of the Syrian crisis. The time has come for us all to say “No!” to this tragedy and to find a political and above all human solution. The war is a breeding ground for hate and radicalism in an infinite chain of actions and reactions. Pope Francis is following in the footsteps of his namesake and Saint from Assisi, and his openness to dialogue is highly valued by all Muslims operating in this vital field».

St. Peter’s Square was an enormous refuge (P. Roland Meynet, SJ Faculty of Theology)

»

«I lived in Lebanon for fourteen years, of which eleven were in wartime. In the course of those years seven Jesuit brothers – one of every ten – were killed. I was very happy to recite the Rosary with the huge crowd in St. Peter’s Square. At the beginning of June 1982 in Sidon, I was with two co-brothers during intense bombing. We took shelter in a hazardous cellar, when after a long silence, one of my co-brothers said: “What if we recited the Rosary?” I was so frightened that I had already been reciting it on my own for a while. The Rosary is the prayer that comes instinctively in these situations. This was something that I had heard but that day I experienced in first person... On the evening of 7 September 2013, with Pope Francis, St Peter’s Square became an enormous refuge».

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Participants to the day of prayer in Saint Peter’s square. ∫ Photos by ANSA / A. DI MEO, A. CARCONI, G. MONTANI

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It was like going to visit a friend at his house, in simplicity (P. Gerard Whelan, SJ Faculty of Theology)

»

«When the Pope arrived it was like a friend and neighbour thanking us for having accepted an invitation to visit him at his home. What struck me most about the Vigil was its simplicity. Pope Francis made a brief speech which was lovely, but mostly we followed the programme outlined in the booklet of the Vigil: recital of the Rosary, Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and Matins. Everything was very intimate and personal and every now and then I looked around and was struck by how a hundred thousand people could stand in complete silence for so long. In which other part of the world would this have been possible?». 

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Faculty

The Virtuous Circle of Theology Interview with Fr. Dariusz Kowalczyk, SJ new Dean of the Faculty of Theology by PAOLO PEGORARO

The profile of Fr. Kowalczyk allows us to face a number of subjects: theology in relation to natural sciences as well as communications, ecumenical dialogue, pastoral issues and, of course, a number of current topics such as secularization and modern world pluralism.

he Faculty of Theology at the Gregorian University is the largest in the world. Without counting all the affiliated Faculties abroad, its three study courses involve between 1.200 and 1.300 students. In addition to the Baccalaureate, the specialized studies for the Licentiate and Doctorate are pursued in five Departments: Biblical Theology, Fundamental Theology, Patristics and History of Theology Dogmatic Theology, Moral Theology. The University also offers the Freisemester, which is aimed at students who only wish to enrol in the Faculty for a semester or for just one year. This is a challenging task for the new Dean, Fr. Dariusz Kowalczyk. He is a Professor of Dogmatic Theology and likes to combine scientific rigour with details and data regarding experiences of the faith, and theological speculation with the testimonies of mystics.

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∫ Fr. Kowalczyk, your early training was focused on the natural sciences. «Yes, as a young boy I thought about becoming a priest first, and then a scientist. I studied Biology at the University of Warsaw and I wanted to specialize in genetics. It was in that period that I read an article on Teilhard de Chardin, and was surprised to discover he was a Jesuit, a palaeontologist, biologist, philosopher, theologian... he made such an impression on me and stirred up my vocation once again». ∫ In what way can – or must – theological science supplement spiritual life? «Ebeling talks about theology as a critical reflection on preaching. “Preaching” means teaching, worship, prayer and the communal life as well as the institutional life of the Church. I like theology to be a reflection, which starting out from something tangible in an individual and a community who believe, but even upon reaching high levels of abstraction, always returns to the life of the Church to help those who pray and those who preach to do this better».

Fr. Dariusz Kowalczyk, SJ Dean of the Faculty of Theology.

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ACADEMIC LIFE

We Catholics are called upon to nurture our Catholicity so that it is more and more courageous and open

∫ You seem to have expended a lot of energy on popular communication through writing and radio broadcasting. «Yes, here in Rome I have worked with Vatican Radio, and when in Poland with the Catholic Department of the State radio and television channels. I have a passion for this kind of work and have become very aware of when language succeeds in communicating effectively and when it does not. This leads me to consider that the contents of Vatican II have not always been communicated to our communities in all its richness.

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I think that without renouncing the teachings of the Councils in the second millennium, the undivided Church of the first millennium should be reconsidered creatively


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From biology to Trinity F

r. Dariusz Kowalczyk, SJ was born in Minsk Mazowiecki (Poland) on December 16, 1963. After his high school degree, he continued his studies at the Faculty of Biology of Warsaw University but stopped to join the Company of Jesus. After two years’ Novitiate and having studied Philosophy at Krakow, he started his internship at the Polish section of Vatican Radio. He attended the first cycle of theology at the Bobulan Faculty of Theology (Warsaw) and continued his studies at the Gregoriana, where, in 1998, he obtained a Doctorate in Dogmatic Theology with the thesis: La personalità in Dio. Dal metodo trascendentale di Karl Rahner verso un orientamento dialogico in Heinrich Ott. He was ordained priest on June 29, 1994. From 1998 to 2003 he taught at the Pontifical Faculty of Theology at Warsaw, where, in 2002-2003, was also Rector of the Jesuit College. From 2003 to 2009 was the Provincial of the Polish Province Wielkopolsko-Mazowiecka. After a first experience from 1995 to 1998, in 2010 Fr. Kowalckzyk came back to teach at the Faculty of Theology of the Pontifical Gregorian University. Since April 2013, he is its new Dean.

millennium should be reconsidered creatively. I am convinced that in this way – regarding many theological, pastoral, institutional and ecumenical problems – we can find a new perspective which is broader and more auspicious and which is able to embrace both approaches».

I think that what is really needed today is to popularize the contents, so that they reach people through preaching and pastoral work in the mass media... ». ∫ Regarding theological reflection, you try to take the Catholic as well as the Orthodox perspective into account... «I think that without renouncing the teachings of the Councils in the second millennium, the undivided Church of the first

∫ What are the greatest challenges you face? «Firstly the so-called “secularized world”. This is seen as both a challenge and a threat, but it is above all a question which shows the need for a testimony of spirituality which is authentically lived and interiorised. Another challenge is “virtual pluralism”. The societies in which we live are increasingly mixed, but our own identity is never really respected when multiculturalism is ideological and imposed from a secularist perspective. Therefore we Catholics are called upon to nurture our Catholicity so that it is more and more courageous and open. Only people who are sure of themselves can truly talk openly without losing their identity. 

Illustration by SILVIO BOSELLI

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ACADEMIC LIFE

The Necessary Dialogue Between Charism and Legislator Interview with Fr. Yuji Sugawara, SJ new Dean of the Faculty of Canon Law by PAOLO PEGORARO

Fr. Sugawara is the first Japanese Dean of the Gregoriana. He tells us the challenges the Canon Law Faculty has to face, and how to find new juridical forms to protect the new gifts from Grace the Church receives to address the needs of current times.

ince 1 September 2013, Fr. Yuji Sugawara is the new Dean of the Faculty of Canon Law. He is also the first Japanese Dean in the history of the Gregorian University, where numerous missionaries bound for the East studied.

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∫ Father Sugawara, what is the situation of the Society of Jesus in Japan? «There are about 250 Jesuits of whom half are missionaries like Fr. Pittau or Fr. Nicolás, while the rest are Japanese who converted or are second generation Catholics. I am the only Japanese Jesuit to come from five generations of Christianity. Nonetheless, there is one vocation for the priesthood or consecrated life for every 70 faithful».

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“lifeConsecrated is always an answer to the needs of time

What does poverty mean? If my poverty does not enrich others then is worthless and not evangelical

Fr. Yuji Sugawara, SJ Dean of the Faculty of Canon Law. ∫

Illustration by SILVIO BOSELLI

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ACADEMIC LIFE

From Tokyo to Rome F

r. Yuji Sugawara was born in Kesennuma (Miyagi, Japan) on April 25, 1957. He joined the Company of Jesus on March 26, 1980, and he was ordained priest on July 31, 1991. In 1980, after having completed his studies at the Ofunato High School, he obtained a degree in Civil Law at the Sophia University (Tokyo) and, in 1985, a Philosophy Master. In 1987 he enrolled at the Faculty of Canon Law of the Pontifical Gregorian University where he obtained a Bachelor’s Degree, a Licentiate and finally, in 1996, a Doctorate with the thesis: Religious poverty: from Vatican Council II to the 1994 Synod of bishops. He started his teaching activity in 1996 at the Sophia University and, from 1998, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he taught at the Institute of Religious Sciences, the Faculty of History and Cultural Heritage of the Church and the Faculty of Canon Law. From 2000 he is a member of the Library Council, from 2011 is a consulter of the Periodica de re canonica magazine, and from November 2011 is a member of the Scientific Committee of the Library.

∫ In your studies you have focused especially on consecrated life. What are your impressions of religious life today? «Consecrated life is always an answer to the needs of the times. To feel “with” and “for” the Church means going to where the Church is in need. Where is the frontier? The hierarchy points something out and Church men and women go there, or they indicate the problem themselves: “Bishops, there is a weakness here... a problem there... we are needed out there... send us!” This reciprocity means not turning in on oneself, but participating and engaging oneself with the Church in this movement. What are the “critical” topics in consecrated life today? Maybe it is the time to leave certain domains, to reconsider our collaboration with laity regarding the administration of institutions, schools, hospitals etc. The important thing is to answer and be responsive when the Church calls us towards the frontier, so that the charism survives»

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∫ How do we bring about dialogue between charism and ecclesial legislation? «We must remember that initially neither St. Francis of Assisi nor St. Ignatius of Loyola were understood. Today there are numerous worldwide ecclesiastical movements: it is necessary to recognize the authenticity of a charism, the real novelty in following Jesus, in the spiritual life and the way in which we tangibly respond to the needs of the times. Is there a structured perception of the dialogue with the ecclesiastical authorities? Do they show flexibility towards the needs of the Church according to the countries and the passing of the years?»

It is necessary to recognize the authenticity of a Charism, the real novelty of following Jesus, spiritual life and the way in which we tangibly respond to the needs of the times

∫ Another subject you have covered in books and articles is evangelical poverty, which is a topic that is very dear to Pope Francis. How has the conception of this changed since the Council? «During Vatican II it was never questioned whether churchmen lived a simple and sober life, but nonetheless the question was asked whether this was reported in a clear manner. Pope Francis insists on this point. To be poor and have as few things as possible is not something simply for the sake of it. On the contrary, it is in following Jesus to enrich others that we become the poor. It is not sufficient to exonerate the law asking the superior to authorize any expenditure. If my poverty does not enrich others then it is worthless and not evangelical, but is just “being destitute”, whereas the young are attracted by the community that endures poverty. What does poverty mean? It means community of spiritual and material goods, and means being a visible sign of the spirit with which we live poverty, following the example of St. Francis and St. Benedict». 


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Faculty

Facing the Challenges of a Changing World Interview with Fr. Lloyd Baugh, SJ new Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences by PAOLO PEGORARO

he Faculty of Social Sciences at the Gregorian University was established in 1951, and offers a programme of scientific education in the light of the Social Doctrine of the Church. There is now a change,

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in the form of focus on the world of communications. Under the supervision of the new Dean, Fr. Lloyd Baugh, the programme of Studies in Social Communication has undergone some supplemental changes.

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ACADEMIC LIFE

In the Faculty of Social Sciences there is an ongoing process of renewal, involving the updating of the Social Communication course. Fr. Lloyd Baugh, the new Dean, tells us some of the new challenges his Faculty is going to face.

∫ Fr. Baugh, would you like to introduce the Faculty of Social Sciences? «There are ideally two macro-areas. The first includes three classical fields in the study of Social Sciences: Social Doctrine of the Church, Sociology and the most recent specialization – thanks to Professor Rocco D’Ambrosio’s project – which is Public Ethics, while the other area is Social Communication». ∫ The Social Communication course sees some didactic innovations... «This year the Licentiate courses will include four subjects (e-learning, aesthetics and languages in video, the press and the web) which are divided into two sets of courses: the first part is more theoretical and lasts for a semester, and is followed by a practical one (workshop) in the next semester».

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∫ What is the reason for this propensity for theoretical learning? «Because it is the foundation on which the practical part must be built, but at the same time the theory cannot really be completely understood until it is applied. In the field of communication theory and practice generate a virtuous circle. We want the courses to be aimed as much as possible towards creating factual projects. Practice stimulates theoretical learning, and theory gives efficacy to their implementation».


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the tragedy of the refugees come to mind. What does the Social Doctrine of the Church mean for Congo, for Syria and for North Korea today? We must have the capacity to see tomorrow from a truly worldwide viewpoint, and accordingly we must develop models that are not only European». ∫ So do we need more focus on Sociology...? «It seems to me that we cannot talk about the Social Doctrine of the Church without a basis of sociology, just as we cannot tackle public ethics without knowledge of the moral principles put forward by the Social Doctrine of the Church and without taking into consideration the way the mass media handle and build up issues we must respond to everyday. This is the reason why these fields of study – Social Doctrine of the Church, Sociology, Public Ethics and Social Communication – are grouped under the single “umbrella” of the Faculty of Social Sciences. This also facilitates an interdisciplinary approach, which as our Rector often remarks, is a key element for our teaching». 

Reading the man... on film! F

∫ What are the challenges facing today the study of the Social Doctrine of the Church, regarding the other specializations of the Faculty? «A classical specialization like the Social Doctrine of the Church requires a historical, theoretical and philosophical part in order to understand how it has developed, while at the same time not being seen as a “closed legacy”. It is in continuous development, as has been shown by the last Pontiffs’ declarations and here Benedict XVI’s Caritas in veritate and Pope Francis’ remarks regarding

r. Lloyd Baugh was born at Québec (Canada) on April 5, 1946. He joined the Society of Jesus in 1976, after having obtained a Master of Arts in English and American Literature at the Southern Illinois University. On June 2, 1984, he was ordained priest. He continued his philosophical and theological formation at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a Diploma in Social Communications, a Licentiate and a Doctorate in Fundamental Theology (1993) with the thesis: L’antropologia di Ermanno Olmi: Uno studio fondamentale-teologico del concetto dell’uomo e dell’esistenza umana implicito nei film di Olmi dal 1959 al 1978. From 1991 he taught in various faculties and institutes of the Gregoriana, and he became a full professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences in 2002. In January 2013 he was nominated Pro-Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences; for three years, starting from September 1, 2013 he was nominated Dean of the same Faculty.

Left: Fr. Lloyd Baugh, SJ the new Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences ∫

Illustration by SILVIO BOSELLI

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ACADEMIC LIFE

Year of Faith A Formative Occasion by SANDRO BARLONE, SJ Director of the “Alberto Hurtado” Centre for Faith and Culture

he Year of Faith announced by Benedict XVI has given the Church the opportunity to face the “door of the Christian life” once again. The experience of modern man compels thought to follow new paths and to tackle numerous challenges, beginning with those brought about by the culturally widespread definition of faith itself. Lectures given at the “Alberto Hurtado Centre for Faith and Culture” aim to tackle these challenges, noting how often our culture offers unhelpful preconceived ideas on this question. By contrast, our Centre seeks to understand more deeply the rich set of meanings of which the Christian tradition is a bearer and the relevance of such meanings for today’s culture. The title given to this cycle of 14 public conferences – The challenges to faith, the challenges of faith – thus seems wholly justified. But what are the actual challenges this faith, which is a complex and multifaceted event, is called upon to undertake? First of all that of pluralism, where the theory of “all points of view have equal value” is favoured, rejecting outlooks that are considered too absolute or uniform. Another is indifference, this is more widespread than atheism itself, although, in truth, it often shares a central core with it. Further challenges are brought about by misconceived images of God, which serve perverse ver-

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Restoration of Christ’s statue at Havana before the arrival of the Holy Father. ∫

Photo by ANSA / HECTOR PLANES Below: Faith as sailing: Annus Fidei Logo

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sions of religion. While such images may be present as archetypes in everyone, they still arouse paralysing fears and block any growth. Another challenge to faith is that of human suffering—a complex and scandalous problem which faith must constantly face. And finally there are the developments in biological sciences – the cult of the healthy, strong and beautiful body, the �myth of health� and the mentality of efficiency, success and independence – which exert strong pressure towards a mentality of euthanasia which, in truth, represents a culture of death. If these are some of the challenges that the faith undergoes, then does the faith, in the sense of a word that saves, questions, undertakes and heals, still manage to provoke? For example, indifference is not the


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final word, as with it comes an irrepressible need for God, waiting to be awakened and becoming an explicit question regarding Him. If fear is the ominous outcome that produces tumorous versions of religion, the remedy which the spiritual tradition makes use of consists in giving space to this “fear of God”, which is a specific sentiment brought about by respect for Him. The true meeting with the Lord is never characterized by fear, but by the reassuring invitation that we are already called to live right now in the liturgical and communal dimension as well. Human suffering may be the accusation that modern man hurls at God, but it is also the position that unsettles his false convictions and makes him broaden his

own horizon of meaning, provoking him into overcoming idolatry, and finally, it confronts him with God’s love which, through the Cross of Jesus, never leaves man, not even there where he, in despair, believes that God has deserted him. Faith and justice cannot be considered as two separate entities. It is mostly a matter of challenge to the faith, but also of challenge of the faith. The passion for justice keeps the dialectic tension high and radically calls the quality of faith into question. So evangelically, there is not service of faith without promotion of justice, just as there cannot be furtherance of justice without conveyance of faith. But not faith in an abstract truth (even if this was justice), but in the Truth that saves. 

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ACADEMIC LIFE

The Role of the Word in the Easter Vigil by JEAN-PIERRE SONNET, SJ Department of Biblical Theology

To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Vatican II Council, the Department of Biblical Theology organized on March 21, 2013 its first Day of Study on the theme: The Bible opens up to Easter. The lectionary of the Easter Vigil in Vatican II Council biblical, patristic and liturgical renovations

he first Day of Study organized by the Department of Biblical Theology was held on 21 March 2013 under the heading The Bible opens up to Easter. The Lectionary of the Easter Vigil in the biblical, patristic and liturgical renovation of Vatican Council II. We wanted to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council, and to show our commitment to the inheritance of Dei Verbum. When Pope Benedict XVI took leave from his clergy last February 14th, he gave a long unscripted talk about his experience regarding the Council. He remarked that, as a document, the constitution Dei Verbum was «a document that is one of the most beautiful and also innovative of the whole Council», adding: «There is still much to be done to arrive at a reading of Scripture that is really in the spirit of the Council. Here the application of the Council is not yet complete, it has yet to be done». Our Day of Study was an answer to Pope Ratzinger’s appeal – we know that he will be the last Pontiff to have been a direct witness of the Council. However, the focus on the Easter Vigil drew us closer to Dei

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Verbum at the heart of the Council: the reintroduction of the Easter Vigil by Pius XII in 1951 was the first effect of the liturgical and biblical reform which resulted in the changes of the Second Vatican Council. Nonetheless, the Easter “pilgrimage” of the Word, from the Creation to the Resurrection of Christ, has become the symbol of the acknowledgment of the Council and of the shift towards a more biblical faith.

The focal point of the day was the reading of the Vigil lectionary, with its nine Readings and eight Psalms. Eight professors from our


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Department took part in this exercise, which was a collective listening to the Word. If our hermeneutics is biblical, its Sitz im Leben was that of the Lectionary and Easter liturgy. In other words, it is a question of relating the narrative, poetic, rhetoric and theological brilliance of the texts, with their relevance in the context of the Vigil, and particularly the sequence of the biblical readings. For example, what resonance does the first divine word in Genesis 1,3 «Let there be light!» give rise to in the gathering

that has just witnessed the liturgy of fire under the stars, that has hailed “Lumen Christi!” three times following the paschal candle in the nave shrouded in obscurity, and has just sung the Exultet: «This is the night... of which it is written: The night shall be as bright as day; dazzling is the night for me, and full of gladness»? (Psalm 139). The theme of light is repeated in successive readings as in Psalm 103 where «God is wrapped in light, as if with a garment» and in the reading of Baruch where he becomes «He who sends forth the light, and it goes» (Ba 3,33). Thus starting from the first words, an arc is created. At the other extremity of the sequence an event of dazzling light awaits the gathering: «An Angel of the Lord [...] and his appearance was like lightning», says Matthew (Mt 28,3); «two men [...] in clothes that gleamed like lightning», said Luke (Lk 24,4), and «now upon the first day of the week». The packed hall and the students’ reaction have convinced us once again that it is the attention towards the oneness of Scripture, between the Old and the New Testament, that characterizes the specific project of our Department, in the Faculty of Theology. 

Marc Chagall, The Passage of the Red Sea (1955, Centre Georges Pompidou – Paris) Left: Fr. Jean-Pierre Sonnet and Prof. Bruna Costacurta, Director of the Department of Biblical Theology. ∫

Photo by ALFREDO CACCIANI

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FROM PAST TO FUTURE

Studying at the Roman College in the Past by MIGUEL COLL, SJ Faculty of History and Cultural Heritage of the Church

n the first years of the Society of Jesus the Roman College was its central location for training young Jesuits. However, when the Society began to expand rapidly this required the establishment of other centres of studies. Using the practices of the Roman College as a point of reference, the Jesuits began to recognize an urgent need for a more rational and efficient organization of its plan of studies, one that could be replicated in many location. During these years, St. Ignatius of Loyola was writing the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and in Chapter XIII he states: «Regarding the length, the method and the order of the lessons, and the compositions to be corrected by the teachers, the debates in all the faculties and the public recital of poems and speeches, these will all be covered in a separate treatise approved by the General» [455]. This “treatise” would be known as the Ratio studiorum, the pedagogical code of the Society of Jesus. It was Fr. P. Girolamo Nadal who wrote up the De studiis Societatis Iesu regulation in 1548, and which he later went on to refine and perfect when he was Superintendent of the Roman College in 1564. Numerous other modifications were made, until the Ratio atque Institutio Studiorum Societatis Iesu was printed in Naples on 8 July 1599, and it remained in effect without undergoing further changes until the suppression of the Society in 1773. Nothing was overlooked by this meticulous pedagogical code supplemented with 30 series of regulations for a total of 466. The Ratio contains - under the form of regulations – the rules for the Provincial, those for the Rector and the Prefect of Studies, for the Professors of the main faculties; the rules for the students in the Society, the day students and those of the academies etc. It also establishes everything from the length of the courses and the timetables, the most suitable textbooks, the authors that should be read, which Greek and Latin classics should be annotated or translated, the apposite exercises for the students to practice their Latin and Greek – in both prose and verse – to the written and oral exams, promotion to the academic-ranks, awards, the length of the holidays etc.

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This teaching code was followed until modern times. From 1814 onwards – once the Society had been restored – it was deemed necessary to update the Ratio with regards to studies in philosophy and theology (1832), while secondary education followed the rules in force in the various states. The Pedagogy of the Ratio Studiorum The pedagogy of the Ratio is based on five points which give the structure both support and style. These are the following: a) The pre-reading was an introduction given by the teacher so that the students would be able to understand and interpret an author. This was followed by the reading where the professor would read the text slowly, drawing attention to certain expressions and emphasizing the key points. He would then summarize the topic, underline the main points and outline the fundamental themes. b) Repetition. The teacher would stay on for a quarter of an hour after class, answering the student’s queries and testing them on previous lessons. At the end of the school year, one month was given to general repetition. c) Public discussion was a form of revision which can be traced back to medieval universities. The Ratio sets out that before beginning the dispute, the defender should present his thesis with formal elegance. On Saturdays a private debate was held and once a month another session was held with professors from other faculties or even externs. Declamation was included in the practice to be carried out in public. The young Jesuits also trained for preaching during the lunch-break in the refectory, in order to learn how to regulate their voices, elocution and gestural expressiveness. This declamation was carried out in its entirety, and with variations, in the course of theatrical performances. d) Composition was an exercise in writing a report on a specific topic, in a thoughtful manner, while taking care to use varied and elegant language relating


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Roman College. Part - 2

with the positive leanings established in the Scripture following St. Ignatius’s counsel in the rule of «thinking with the Church» [Spiritual Exercises, no. 363].

to the subject and its harmonious arrangement. The stylistic model to be imitated was that of Cicero. e) The Academy was celebrated weekly in every faculty. This was a meeting of outstanding students who trained in oratory under the guidance of a professor, enhancing both their own individual work and their personal initiative. It seems that the academy flourished in the Roman College, as a concrete application of St. Ignatius’s pedagogical principles of nurturing the most advanced students. The Contents The character and the spirit which shaped the teaching in the Roman College had their roots in Humanism, Aristotelianism and Thomism. As in the other Colleges of the Society, this was clearly Graeco-Latin Humanism imbued with a Roman Catholic spirit. The Society’s Constitutions set out that «Aristotle’s doctrine must be followed in logic, in natural, moral and metaphysical philosophy» (IV, 470). In Rome the Jesuit professor’s form of Aristotelism was broad enough to adopt and assimilate the new discoveries in astronomy and modern physics. Advanced studies had a solid Thomist character. In theology, besides studying the Old and the New Testament, the doctrine of St. Thomas was explained and taught [Const. IV, 464]. This was a form of open Thomism, close to that professed by Francisco de Vitoria and Melchior Cano, although it admitted to following other authors who had covered the purely philosophical matters more thoroughly, as well as those concerning the Scripture and canons. Late-medieval theology had been in decline due to an excess of dialectics and the Jesuits’ challenge was to revive it by merging the dogma that could be traced back to the sources

A Concise and Harmonious Method At the Roman College theology was shaped by the various currents flowing in from Paris, Salamanca, Alcalà and Louvain through Fr. Olave, Ledesma, Toledo, Bellarmino, Suarez etc. They were careful not to overemphasize scholasticism, putting the starting point of Scripture (Hebrew and Greek text), of the Fathers, of the Councils, of Pontifical documents and ecclesiastical history before dialectical quibbles. Anything was used that was deemed necessary in the defense of the Catholic faith against the audacity of the “innovators”. Not surprisingly, St Ignatius wanted there to be a Chair in the College that was extremely positive and Apologetical – De controversiis – and which Olave started for the German and English students. Roberto Bellarmino (1542-1621) and Gianbattista Tolomei (1655-1726) were its most important exponents. Gregory XIII and subsequent Popes took note of the professors at the Roman College’s great competence and scientific knowledge and for this reason they were called upon to take part and collaborate in the great critical work and erudition which was required at the Council of Trent. The Jesuits attempted to harmonize their positive orientation with a radical scholastic formation or training and the most fervent following of St. Thomas. Many European universities (Louvain, the Sorbonne etc) continued to use Pietro Lombardo’s Sententiae as a text book. Others such as Alcalà and Salamanca taught Scotus and the Nominalists together with the Doctrine of Aquinas. Faced with erudite and scholarly men like Erasmus of Rotterdam – who proposed a theology that was merely biblical and positive, and which extolled the Holy Fathers and disliked the scholastic doctors – the spiritual sons of St. Ignatius preferred a concise and harmonious method which brought together the great systems of the medieval speculation with patristics and the direct sources of Revelation (the Scriptures). And finally, when faced with decadent scholasticism the Jesuits were able to master the conquests of Humanism and give a modern and worthy imprint to the problems of theology, philosophy and law.

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FROM PAST TO FUTURE

St. Aloysius Gonzaga’s Rooms ancestral properties. But at the age of nine Aloysius had already made his choice inasmuch as he took a vow of chastity in the church of the Most Holy Annunciation in Florence. His spiritual life was enriched by his first confession and subsequently with his First Communion, which he received at the age of twelve from the Archbishop of Milan, St. Carlo Borromeo, who was struck by the young boy’s devotion. He then considered the idea of becoming a priest and joining the Society of Jesus. There followed a period very fraught with tension when his father, who was opposed to his decision, tried to dissuade him with all sorts of excuses and threats, even enlisting the help of the uncle Cardinal Scipione Gonzaga. Aloysius eventually managed to be received by the Father General Claudio Acquaviva and was destined to the noviciate of Sant’Andrea in Rome and then to the Roman College.

he so-called Retreat is situated on the top floor of the Roman College, next to the Church of St. Ignatius. These are the rooms in which students who came from the novitiate of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale lived, and are usually known as the Cappellette di San Luigi. Among the numerous figures who lived in these rooms over the course of two centuries, those who stand out are St. Aloysius Gonzaga, St. John Berchmans, Blessed Antonio Baldinucci, Venerable Abramo Giorgi, as well as several English martyrs and other Jesuits who were martyred in Brazil, India and Japan. These rooms have always been a popular sight to visit and a place of devotion for both Italians and foreigners of all ages and social classes, religious or secular, all eager to comprehend the foundations of Ignatian spirituality and the founder of the Society of Jesus and his followers’ apostolic message. Initially these rooms were very basic, but over the passing of time they were embellished and restored. A short staircase leads to the recreation room which is situated above the theology lecture halls. In the 18th and 19th centuries it was painted, the door which leads into St Aloysius’s room was opened and the walls were decorated with paintings depicting the saint’s life which reproduce his human and spiritual experiences.

The rooms of the scholasticate The statue placed in the room symbolically sums up the matter: Aloysius tramples on the crown of the Marquisate and gazes at the Crucifix. It was in the adjacent chapel, known as chapel “of vows”, that he made his first profession on 25 November 1587. As the plaque above the entrance door to the chapel explains, the location has not kept its original aspect due to a fire in April 1849, started by the French troops who took over the premises during the period of the Roman Republic. The original frescoes were substituted with mediocre paintings by Filippo Baldi in the course of the second half of the nineteenth-century.

The Downtrodden Crown He was born in 1568 in Castiglione delle Stiviere from a cadet branch of the noble Gonzaga family from Mantua. From a very early age Aloysius was educated by his father Don Ferrante and trained for a career in the army and court–life, since as the firstborn he was to inherit the title of Marquis and the

Sense of community, study and help for the excluded There are various testimonies regarding the period the Saint spent at the College. His days were always filled with hard work and characterized by profound charity: loyal to St. Ignatius in his Constitutions, he would help out with domestic chores; he

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Near the Church of St. Ignatius in Rome one can visit the rooms which St. Aloysius Gonzaga would retreat to and which housed him and other Blessed who studied at the Roman College.

Photo by PAOLO PEGORARO

by MARIA ANTONIETTA CROCE


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Photo by PAOLO PEGORARO

Voices and places

also taught catechism classes to young boys and accompanied the Fathers on visits to prisons and hospitals. He studied with the utmost diligence eliciting the admiration of his teachers and classmates for his humility and piety and he was respected and loved especially by his spiritual director, St. Roberto Bellarmino, who collected some wonderful documents regarding Aloysius’s interior and exterior formation. He combined his excellent intellectual qualities with a great aptitude for diplomacy. This was clearly illustrated when, at his family’s request, he was sent to Mantua to settle a dispute between his brother Rodolfo – who had taken over the Marquisate – and the Duke of Mantua. The matter was successfully resolved with absolute discretion. Before returning to Rome he studied for a few months in Brera, Milan, where he met Virginio Cepari who was his first biographer. It was in the Lombard city that he experienced a vision in which he learnt he would die a year later, and decided to serve the Lord with perfection and detachment from the world. In March 1591, while with fervent compassion he was assisting people suffering from plague and typhoid in the streets of Rome, he became infected. Just before his death he wrote a letter to his mother, praising love and God’s mercy, in which he exhorted his mother not to cry for him as he felt it was a privilege to meet the Lord so young. After having received the Viaticum and assisted by the Fathers and Co-brothers of the College, murmuring laetantes imus, he died on 21 June 1591 on the Octave of the feast of Corpus Christi at the age of just 23, as prophesied in his vision. Patron of youth and students In 1605 Aloysius was beatified in the Church of Santi Nazario e Celso in Castiglione delle Stiviere in the presence of his mother. In 1726, after very long proceedings and numerous testimonies, Pope Benedict XIII canonised him in the course of a solemn ceremony in St. Peter’s, along with the young Stanislao Kostka, and proclaimed him patron saint of youth and students; in more recent times he has also been

venerated as patron of AIDS sufferers. The miracles attributed to his intercession continued to multiply from very early on, as the cult of this young man who was now in heavenly glory, as Santa Maria Maddalena de’ Pazzi saw him, continued to spread across the whole of Italy, and especially Rome. So starting from the early 1800’s, the room where the Saint had lived was transformed into a chapel and decorated with the help of donations from the devout. A portrait of the young man, which was judged to be very life-like by his contemporaries, was placed at the altar, and paintings that St. Robert had commissioned for the room in the infirmary where Aloysius died were hung on the walls. These were brought here after the demolition of that part of the College to allow for the construction of the Church of St. Ignatius. The emphasis on this image reconnects Ignatian spirituality with the influence of the devotio moderna which we can find traces of in the Spiritual Exercises as well with the compositio loci: it is necessary to engage the believer with great affectivity, aimed at [Spiritual Exercises, no. 2] «feeling and enjoying things internally», at creating a meeting place based on true theology of vision which makes it clear that the divine is not in an abstract place, but is to be found in the hic et nunc of our existence. In a glass display case in the room used as the sacristy, are signed letters to his relatives and the Crucifix which he brought with him upon joining the Society, and which serve to bring us closer to this young man. This very Crucifix is a fundamental element of the Saint’s iconography, to which he addresses an intimate discourse [54] «as one friend talks to another», with loving humility in compliance with the Spiritual Exercises: [53] «Imagining Christ our Lord before me on the cross, to have a colloquy […] and in the same way look to myself: what have I done for Christ, what am I doing for Christ, what should I do for Christ». The commotion and consolation which ensue from these rooms find no better commentary than in St. Ignatius’ pronouncement: [23] «Man is born to praise, revere and serve God, Our Lord».

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GREG COMMUNITY

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Novarese and Bulešic two New Blessed among the Ex-Alumni by MARIA RITA MARCOTULLI

From its foundation to the present day many ex-alumni of the Gregorian University have been an example and inspiration in their service of God. Our community celebrates the recent Beatification of Luigi Novarese and Miroslav Bulešic, who both lived in the 20th century \

e know that there are many men and women of God among the ex-alumni of the Gregorian University. Most of them spend their lives diligently working away in silence, but when one of them is officially honoured by the Church our community cannot but rejoice. These are not episodes from a remote past but testimonies of a vital reality that flourished recently.

W

Luigi Novarese (1914-1984), the Apostle of the Sick in the Secretariat of State On 11 May 2013 the Mass for the Beatification of the Venerable Luigi Novarese was held in the Papal Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls. At the age of nine he was diagnosed with a serious form of bone tuberculosis which was considered incurable. He was treated for years in various hospitals without his conditions showing any sign of improvement. He recovered completely in 1931 after relying on the prayers of the then Rector Major of the Salesians and the boys from the Oratory. Having experienced serious illness himself, Luigi Novarese dedicated his life to alleviate the suffering of the sick. He began his studies in the seminary of Casale Monferrato and

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then went on to continue them in the Faculties of Theology and Canon Law of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. Pope John Paul II called him the apostle of the sick because forasmuch as he was working at the Secretariat of State (until 1970) and at the Italian Episcopal Conference (from 1970


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Alumni

until 1977), Luigi Novarese devoted himself unconditionally to the fight against the isolation of the disabled. In 1950 he founded the Pious Union of the Silent Workers of the Cross, an association of men and women, priests and laymen all committed to «illuminate the sick on the Christian meaning of suffering». Miroslav Bulešić (1920-1947), the objectivity of a life for the Faith On Saturday 28 September 2013 the ceremony for the Beatification of the Servant of God Miroslav Bulešić took place in the Pula Arena. He was of Istrian origin and grew up in a religious family before entering the seminary at the age of ten. After finishing secondary school in 1939, he was sent by the Bishop of Poreč and Pula, to study Philosophy and Theology at the Gregorian University. Bulešić attended our University from the autumn of 1939 until the spring of 1943, staying first at the French Seminary and then at the Seminario Lombardo. Upon re-

turning to his diocese, he was ordained as a priest on 11 April 1943 and became parish priest of Mompaderno, where he was known and loved by everyone as Father “Milo”. He actively took part in looking after those most seriously affected by the conflict which was underway in the area between Germans, communists and partisans, and in turn received threats from every faction. Due to the war, it had been impossible to administer Confirmation in many local parishes. Despite the explicit prohibition on the part of the communist regime, Father Miroslav accompanied the delegate of the Holy See, Monsignor Jacob Ukmar to 24 different churches. On 24 August 1947 the communists raided the rectory and cut Father Miroslav’s throat. Witnesses declared that before dying Father Miroslav is supposed to have said: «Forgive them for they know not what they are doing». 

The Blessed Luigi Novarese with a group of suffering priests. Right: Father “Milo” Bulešic, a martyr at the age of 27. \

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GREG COMMUNITY

Christmas Carols: a Tangible Sign of the University Community The singing of Christmas carols in the atrium of the Gregoriana is a tradition which involves the entire university community every year: groups of students, professors and staff all take part in livening up the build-up to Christmas

By PREM XALXO, SJ University Chaplain

he tradition of singing Christmas carols in the atrium of the Greg in the breaks between lessons goes back to the Fifties. At that time, the professors and the Rector would gather round the Christmas tree during the fourth hour of lessons on the last day before the holidays, and sing and exchange Christmas greetings. From 1956 onwards the tradition of singing Christmas carols underwent a change, seeing the presence of the students as well. Today we see the entire university community – students, staff, the professoriate and the academic authorities – working together for the organisation of the event. This is explained very frankly by the student David

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Rider (U.S.A.): «It is a period of anticipation. All the students look forward to this happy and auspicious moment of the academic year so they can share the joy of Christmas through songs in their own languages».

All the students look forward to sharing the joy of Christmas through songs in their own languages

During every break the quadriporticus rings out with the sound of a multitude of languages, and this spirit pervades every university activity. Furthermore, this tradition has become a moment and opportunity in which we can share the beauty of the different languages and cultures which make up our university community with the


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Students

wearing and use of traditional costumes and instruments in an open invitation to sing and dance! Our student Deema Fayad (Syria), who is part of the group of volunteers who organise the event, says «So much diversity merging in harmony and showing, besides fun, the profound spiritual sense of the catholicity of the Church and of the unity of the faith we share. This year the hall was aglow with Christmas trees, lights and a very special crib. There was singing and God was praised for having become flesh for us and our Salvation».

«Songs – explains Huguette Kazeneza (Burundi) – remind us of the happy moment we were about to celebrate. I felt great joy inside at the invitation to rejoice for the gift that is the Son of God born among us, an invitation to be more brotherly. While we took part in rehearsals we all sang together and got to know each other... we all mixed and new friendships were born. Coming together brings joy to others and oneself». 

Students from all over the world sing Christmas carols, using traditional musical instruments. Also the Professors sang Christmas carols.

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INFORMATION

“ALBERTO HURTADO” CENTRE FOR FAITH AND CULTURE The Synderesis Cenacle for Public Ethics

Mons. Samuele Sangalli during one meeting of the synderesis cenacle.

Under the guidance of Monsignor Samuele Sangalli, forty young students under the age of 35 with different cultural backgrounds began along a path which led to the publishing of reflections on the theme of public ethics. Non-conventional techniques were employed in this programme and there were no face-to-face lessons. Rather, the young “protagonists” work with an accompanying academic. They are asked to come up with ten distinctive paths to be pursued and reflected upon, in

IGNATIAN SPIRITUALITY CENTRE An Assessment of the First Year of Activity Right: The partecipants at the synderesis cenacle are young women and men under the age of 35. ∫ Photo by BARBARA ANDOLFI

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The Centre’s first year of activity brought about numerous projects. These were started off by four cycles of public conferences. The first one, on the Suppression (1773) and Restoration (1814) of the Society of Jesus, was met with so much interest that the speakers were asked to hold a conference on the same topic for other Jesuits in Rome (Curia

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the general areas of public ethics. They then proceed to a stage of collective study and research, followed by moment where they enter into plenary debate on each theme. At the end of this process they draw up a final report (in both Italian and English) under the supervision of professors with expertise in the specific field. This “School of Democracy” involves eleven meetings, each one lasting for 3 hours – which resulted in the production of the volume: Sinderesi. Fondamenti di etica pubblica (GBPress, Rome 2013).

Generale, Collegio San Roberto Bellarmino, Collegio Internazionale del Gesù). A second cycle, which was organized in collaboration with the Faculty of History and Cultural Heritage of the Church, was on the subject of The Missions of the Society of Jesus. The third cycle of conferences was dedicated to Spirituality for Dialogue and Reconciliation, expanding on certain aspects of St. Ignatius’ life and works, and then moving onto current topics: the programme of the Jesuit Service for Refugees, the programme for peace in Colombia, and the Reconciliation process in Northern Ireland. The conferences of the Spirituality and Art cycle covered, among other topics, the pedagogy of images, and music in the Reducciones from Paraguay. Another round table was held, on 3 May 2013, this time on the subject of Ignatian Spirituality and the Transcendental Method by Joseph Maréchal, SJ A Formation Course for Spiritual Guides has also been organized in collaboration with the Italian Ignatian Spirituality Centre. MARK ROTSAERT, SJ Director of the Ignatian Spirituality Centre


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THE “CENTRE FOR CHILD PROTECTION” Two years after its foundation

Pope Francis gave his encouragement to the program in a meeting with Fr. Zollner and Fr. Zak. ∫

The Centre for Child Protection was founded in cooperation of the Institute of Psychology at the Pontificial Gregorian University, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy of University Clinic of Ulm and the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in January 2012. Its main goals consist in the development of an elearning program for pastoral professions regarding prevention of child sexual abuse and appropriate intervention in those cases and in the service to various local Churches and church institutions that can make use of the training modules. The Centre for Child Protection, after the three-year pilot phase (January 2012 – December 2014), will offer its e-learning-Program to an even wider range of dioceses and Religious Orders and Congregations so that pastoral workers (for example, priests, parish assistants, educators, catechists and volunteers) grow in awareness of the issue at stake and in their capacity to react according to the needs of the person as well as to the Church norms and civil legislation in the respective country. To this aim about 30 learning units are being developed, e.g. on how to detect possible abuse, what then to do, or what the canonical norms say regarding abuse of minors. The program will be evaluated at the end of the pilot phase, taking into account the feedback from the 11 international project partners from dioceses in Italy, Germany, Kenya, Ghana, Ecuador, Argentina and Chile as well as from the Jesuit Provinces in Poland, India, and Indonesia. The CCP attracted much international attention and received many requests for ongoing formation sessions for formators of Sem-

Photo by L’Osservatore Romano

inaries and Congregations in various countries and continents. Pope Francis expressed his support for the prevention work of the CCP. In a meeting with Father Zollner, Father Zak and Katharina Fuchs on June 4, 2013, the Pope encouraged them to keep going with the program (“Coraggio! Dobbiamo andare avanti!”). The CCP will move to Rome and from the beginning of 2015 will be fully integrated in the Institute of Psychology of the Gregorian. To date the CCP has organized three international conferences: the first in October 2012 on “Communication and Empowerment: Victims of Child Sexual Abuse”; the second in February 2013 at the Gregorian to present the work of the CCP as well as the Proceedings of the 2012 Gregorian Symposium on sexual abuse of minors (published in twelve languages); the third – jointly organized the German Bishops’ Conference – in November 2013 in Munich with a pre-conference together with the project-partners and the Scientific Board and with a day of talks by Mons. Rossetti on “Learning from the past: Implications for the future”. KATHARINA A. FUCHS - HANS ZOLLNER, SJ

The Centre for Child Protection has organized three international meetings. ì

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INFORMATION

FACULTY OF MISSIOLOGY Bells of Europe, a new Easter for the Old Continent?

A few screenshots of Bells of Europe at the Pontifical Bell Foundry Marinelli. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, in the papal apartments, during his unreleased interview.

The docu-film Bells of Europe – Campane d’Europa – A Journey through Faith in Europe, is a film produced by the Vatican Television Centre in collaboration with RAI Cinema, with the support of the Fondazione La Gregoriana and Intesa San Paolo. The film was the brainchild of Fr. Germano Marani, SJ (Pontifical Gregorian University) and was directed by Carlos M. Casas, while the soundtrack includes music by the composer Arvo Pärt, who is a consulter of the Pontifical Council for Culture. What really makes this film unique is an exceptional series of interviews and testimonies on the relationship between Christianity and Europe. Many eminent personalities accepted to give exclusive interviews. The interviews which were prepared and conducted by Fr. Marani, feature the most important Christian religious authorities in Europe: His Holiness Benedict XVI, Pope Emeritus of the Catholic Church; His Holiness Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Costantinople; His Holiness the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, Kyrill I; the former Archbishop of Canterbury and Anglican Primate, Rowan

Williams; the Lutheran Bishop and former President of the Council of Lutheran Churches in Germany, Wolfgang Huber. These were complemented with interviews conducted with various political personalities such as the Italian President Giorgio Napolitano, the former President of the European Parliament Hans-Gert Pöttering, and the former Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation Alexander Adveev, who is now the Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the Holy See. The film also includes an interview with Father François-Xavier Dumortier, SJ, Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University, one of the main Catholic cultural institutions in the world. The interviews were conducted in different languages and therefore there are two versions of this film: subtitled in Italian and English. GERMANO MARANI, SJ Faculty of Missiology

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CoverENG_DEF45_copia_Layout 1 28/01/14 11:34 Pagina 2

Books

1

EDITORIAL | F.-X. Dumortier, SJ

2

2 6

“Gregoriana” 4

Gregoriana

FOCUS ON

O’Malley John

4

Re-reading Trent and Vatican II | J.W. O’Malley, SJ The Cry of Peace. Testimonies | P. Pegoraro

The Council of Trent. Myths, Misunderstandings and Unintended Consequences

R.P. John O’MALLEY S.I., Georgetown University

The Council of Trent. Myths, Misunderstandings, and Unintended Consequences Il Concilio di Trento. Miti, incomprensioni e conseguenze involontarie

At the Pontifical Gregorian University, various events are held, throughout the academic year, mainly of a scholarly nature, but also of notable religious, social or cultural relevance. In cooperation with the journal Gregorianum, this series publishes the texts of the papers given during the most significant of these events, thus making them available to all.

pp. 42 • € 7 GBPress 2013

12 marzo 2013

ACADEMIC LIFE

10

9

The Virtuous Circle of Theology | Interview with Fr. Dariusz Kowalczyk, SJ

12

The Necessary Dialogue Between Charism and Legislator | Interview with Fr. Yuji Sugawara, SJ Facing the Challenges of a Changing World | Interview with Fr. Lloyd Baugh, SJ Year of Faith. A Formative Occasion | S. Barlone, SJ The Role of the Word in the Easter Vigil | J.-P. Sonnet, SJ

15 18 20

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“Analecta Gregoriana” 322

G E R A R D

W H E L A N,

S. J.

REDEEMING HISTORY Social Concern in Bernard Lonergan and Robert Doran

Whelan Gerard Redeeming History. Social Concern in Bernard Lonergan and Robert Doran pp. 254 • € 27 GBPress 2013

FROM PAST TO FUTURE 22

Studying at the Roman College in the Past | M. Coll, SJ

24

St. Aloysius Gonzaga’s Rooms | M.A. Croce

”Bernard Lonergan’s social concern took root in 1930 and remained a key factor guiding his intellectual career until he died in 1984”. Succeeding chapters offer a biographical overview of Lonergan’s intellectual development and his interest in articulating how we are called to collaborate with God’s plan to redeem history. The author also suggests that there are two reasons why many students of Lonergan’s thought are not aware of this social concern. First, early in his career Lonergan made a strategic decision to address foundational questions in philosophy and theological method that constituted what he understood to be a “withdrawal from practicality for the sake of practicality”. Second, by the end of Lonergan’s life his exploration of foundational reflection and to make explicit how it should be applied to issues of social concern. The book concludes with comments on convergences between the thought of Lonergan, Doran, and Pope Francis.

Periodicals GREG COMMUNITY

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26

‘ two New Blessed among the Ex-Alumni | M.R. Marcotulli Novarese and Bulešic,

“Gregorianum” - Vol. 94/2013

Periodica de re canonica - Vol. 102/2013

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Christmas Carols: a Tangible Sign of the University Community | P. Xalxo, SJ

A scientific review of Theology and Philosophy with occasional discussions of problems in Church History, Canon Law and Social Sciences. It’s multilingual with contributions in English, French, German, Spanish and Italian. The annual volume of four issues averages 800 pages.

Published quarterly by Professors of Canon Law, Moral Theology and Liturgy, «Periodica» offers research, articles and timely essays on the most recent Church legislation regarding Collegiality, Marriage, Consecrated Life, Secularisation. About 700 pages per year.

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

“Studia Missionalia” - Vol. 62-2013

“Archivum Historiae Pontificiae” Vol. 49/2011

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INFORMATION ttudia tudia issionalia issionalia

vol. 62 2013

One faith, faith, vvarious a arious ways of communicating comm it. Some signifi significant fic ficant eexamples xamples in the histor historyy of Ch Christianity

&

RESS

Ambrogio Bongiovanni, Trasmettere la fede cristiana nella quotidianità con la parola e la vita: i fedeli laici protagonisti Nataša Govekar, “Io lo vedo crocifisso e lo chiamo Re”. Alcuni aspetti della comunicazione della fede in Gesù Cristo, crocifisso e risorto, attraverso l’arte figurativa James H. Kroeger MM, Mission anchored in Living Faith Ramón Peralta Revv.., Profetica testimonianza della fede in Cristo nel contesto della nuova evangelizzazione: catechesi missionaria – ermeneutica e prospettiva Laurent Basanese SJ, Elie de Nisibe (975-1046): un évêque arabe présente sa foi à un musulman Gerardo Caglioni SX, La priorità dell’annunzio della Parola: il metodo di evangelizzazione di Eusebio Francesco Chini, SJ – l’apostolo dei Pima Piotr Nawrot SVD, Evangelization trough music in the Jesuit Reductions: infusion of the Indian elements into musical practice Leonard Fernando SJ, Expressing Christian Faith in a New Culture: bold Attempts by Roberto de Nobili Zdzisław J. Kijas OFM FM Convv.., The essential elements of the Lord’s Teeaching. The Manual to transmit the Faith in Korea Emilio Grasso Revv..,., La foi vécue et partagée: le cas de Baba Simon, missionnairee aux pieds nus Luka Lusala lu ne Nkuka SJ, ‘Jésus-Christ est Noir’. oir . Dona BBéatrice Kimpa Vita (16841706) et l’accueil du Christ hrist dans ans la particularité de la culture congo congolaise Robert Danieluk SJ, L’’unité de la foi et de la Compagnie de Jésuss danss la diversité diversi des rites: Jean Gagarin SJ et son projet des jésuites du rite oriental Jan Mikrut Revv.,. I santi nti Cirillo e Metodio: odio: il dialogo dialog con le varie cu culture e tradizioni per l’unica fede inn Cristo tra Orientee e Occidente David Pestroiu Revv.,. Living and transmitting Christian faith under an atheistic dictatorship in Romania (1948-1989) Alexander Paul Zatyrka SJ, Transmission of Christian Faith with a Mayan identity. The Bachajon Mission in Chiapas, Mexico (1959-2012) Taadeusz d Wojda ojd SAC, SAC Trasmettere la fede in Cristo salvaguardando i riti e la cultura dei popoli: l’Istruzione di Propaganda Fide ai Vicari Apostolici dell’Asia Orientale ale (1659) misión en favor de los pueblos de Fidel González Fernández MCCJ, Daniel Comboni y la misió África Notas a partir de ddos de sus documentos fundamentales: el Plan para la Regeneración África. de África y el «Postulatum» al Vaticano I 

Published by the Faculty of Missiology of the Pontifical Gregorian University, each volume averages 300/350 pages and contains subjects such as Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Religious Ethnology, Revelation, Worship and Ritual, Prayers, Meditation, Misticism, Morals and Religion, in Christianity and other religions.

GREGORIAN GR REGORIAN & ° BIBLICAL° PRESS

Editor-in-Chief

Year XVIII – n. 45 – Special Issue | www.unigre.it/LaGregoriana

Subscription price for one year: € 80,00

Since 1963, the Faculty of Church History has published annually a volume of 750/800 pages. One of the main features is a comprehensive bibliography of 250/300 pages per volume, arranged chronologically and thematically. Subscription price for one year: € 100,00

Michele Simone, SJ

Graphic project and layout Editor Paolo Pegoraro lagregoriana@unigre.it

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Year XVIII – n. 45 / Special Issue

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Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana 1551 - 2014

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WALKING

WITH THE CHURCH

Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam

Re-reading

TRENT AND VATICAN II

THE CRY OF PEACE The virtuous circle

OF THEOLOGY

La Gregoriana - Year XVIII - n.45 - Special Issue - English edition  
La Gregoriana - Year XVIII - n.45 - Special Issue - English edition  

Information Journal of the Pontifical Gregorian University (Rome, Italy)

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