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Report on Regular Resources 2012 RESULTS FOR CHILDREN

unite for children


Cover: A child has her arm measured to track growth at the Kono government hospital in Koidu, Sierra Leone.


FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 HOW UNICEF SPENDS ITS REGULAR RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Programme assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RR planning levels and UNICEF fundraising targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Strategic and innovative activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Emergency Programme Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

RESULTS FOR CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reasons to invest in UNICEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Focus Area 1: Young child survival and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Case study 1: Benin “Equity champions” provide health care to the most vulnerable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Case study 2: Myanmar Implementing infant and young child feeding: A Five-Year Plan of Action . . . . 24 Focus Area 2: Basic education and gender equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Case study 3: Burundi Promoting basic education AND gender equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Case study 4: Maldives Providing all children with inclusive and quality education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Focus Area 3: HIV/AIDS and children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Case study 5: Chad Improving HIV/AIDS services for children and their mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Case study 6: Jamaica Confronting HIV and the needs of vulnerable adolescents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Focus Area 4: Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Case study 7: Costa Rica Ensuring social services for migrant families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Case study 8: Tajikistan Making Dushanbe City safer and friendlier for children and women . . . . . . . . 33 Focus Area 5: Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Case study 9: Armenia Introducing integrated social services reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Case study 10: Cambodia Improving national budgets to enhance equity for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Humanitarian action and post-crisis recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Case study 11: Jordan Providing emergency support for Syrian refugees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Case study 12: Madagascar Ensuring education and basic social services in emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . 39

ABOUT OUR DONORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 REGULAR RESOURCES PARTNERS AND DONORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Report on Regular Resources 2012

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UNICEF


foreword

In 2012, as the scale of humanitarian emergencies and development challenges grew, and as demands on UNICEF to respond to them increased, Regular Resources were critical in enabling us to reach the most disadvantaged children. Why? Because Regular Resources are unrestricted and flexible. They help us respond where the needs are greatest – quickly and effectively. In the aftermath of natural disaster. In filling key unfunded gaps in our health, nutrition, education and protection programmes. In supporting innovation. Regular Resources are also central to our commitment to equity: to advancing the rights of the most vulnerable populations – however difficult the task, however remote the location. As country programmes supported by UNICEF reach these children – in rural villages or urban slums; in nomadic communities or conflict zones – Regular Resources help us go where we are most needed and – studies show – where we have the greatest, most cost-effective impact. Last year in Benin, for example, Regular Resources boosted our efforts to reduce child mortality and improve child health and nutrition. With our partners, we expanded immunization programmes throughout the country and over 1,000 Community Health Workers delivered health services to families living in remote and disadvantaged communities. Or the Maldives. Despite achieving universal primary education, many children with disabilities and special needs there still do not have access to education, particularly in the rural islands. With our partners, we used Regular Resources to strengthen Special Needs Education, specifically, teacher training and studies to assess the effectiveness of education reforms. Innovations are crucial. They enable us to reach those most in need faster and more efficiently. Regular Resources continue to support innovation labs which bring together partners to find cost-effective and scalable solutions to some of the biggest challenges affecting children. For example, last year in Nigeria, SMS technology was used to collect data for over seven million births, giving these children official, legal status. We are grateful to all our donors: governments, civil society, private citizens and private sector partners all over the world. Your support enables us to help children in desperate need survive and thrive and dream of a future. In this environment of continued fiscal austerity and shrinking budgets, your donations are more critical than ever. We also know that you need our commitment to be as efficient, as effective and as innovative as we can with the funds that you have entrusted to us. You have that commitment. We know that with every saving, we can buy life-saving vaccines, vital micronutrients or bed-nets. We know that even a small saving can add up to big changes in the life of a child. This report shows how Regular Resources made a difference in the lives of children facing the greatest challenges. It is our hope that in the years ahead we can continue to rely on Regular Resources and expand UNICEF’s reach to millions more disadvantaged children around the world. As we work towards that grand goal, your continued trust and support could not be more important.

Anthony Lake Executive Director UNICEF

Report on Regular Resources 2012

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UNICEF


acronyms

CEE/CIS

Central/Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

EMOPS

Office of Emergency Programmes

eMTCT

Elimination of mother-to-child transmission (of HIV)

EPF

Emergency Programme Fund

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

IOM

International Organization for Migration

IPSAS

International Public Sector Accounting Standards

LDC

Least developed country

MDG(s)

Millennium Development Goal(s)

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

MoRES

Monitoring Results for Equity Systems

MTSP

Medium-term Strategic Plan

NGO

Non-governmental organization

OR

Other Resources (restricted)

OVC

Orphans and vulnerable children

PAHO

Pan American Health Organization

PMTCT

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (of HIV)

RR

Regular Resources (unrestricted)

SMS

Short message service

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

UNDG

United Nations Development Group

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNDPKO

United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

UNFPA

United Nations Population Fund

UN-HABITAT

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

UNMAS

United Nations Mine Action Service

UNOCHA

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

UNOPS

United Nations Office for Project Services

UNSAS

United Nations System Accounting Standards

USD

United States dollars

WASH

Water, sanitation, and hygiene

WFP

World Food Programme

WHO

World Health Organization

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the value of regular resources Regular Resources (RR) – that is, funds contributed without any restrictions on their use – are critical to UNICEF’s extensive operations worldwide. They are the core resources that enable the organization to promote the fulfilment of the rights of all children in all situations. They enable UNICEF to provide assistance in all phases of the development cycle and humanitarian assistance, including emergencies, post-conflict settings, and recovery environments. Only through Regular Resources can UNICEF be assured of steady and predictable funding, which in turn allows the organization to undertake its work with a measure of certainty and continuity. In 2012, 60 per cent of Regular Resources were spent in least developed countries, where nearly half the population is under 18 years. These are the countries that face the greatest challenges to child survival and development, with the highest rates of child mortality and the poorest access to such basic social services as education, health care, child protection, safe drinking water, and sanitation and hygiene. Regular Resources are equally critical in helping UNICEF and its partners to develop and strengthen laws, systems, services, policies, and standards that promote and protect the rights of children. UNICEF has a long-term global presence that reaches even to the most remote areas of the world. Many of the more than 150 countries and territories in which it works, however, are out of the public spotlight, and consequently do not attract much-needed donor attention. Given this situation, Regular Resources are essential in enabling the organization to provide stability and continuity for all its country programmes of cooperation, helping to maintain its specialized expertise and allowing it to use this in-country presence to promote robust local and global partnerships, as well as to support one of the largest supply networks in the world. All these components form the building blocks of better results for children. Regular Resources play a pivotal role in enabling UNICEF to respond quickly to changing circumstances and emerging challenges. As un-earmarked funds, they provide the flexibility that has proven critical in supporting UNICEF’s equity agenda, which puts special focus on the needs and rights of the world’s most marginalized children. In this way, UNICEF is directly addressing the root causes of the many inequalities that persist despite impressive gains in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Regular Resources enable UNICEF to respond quickly to emergencies, particularly in countries facing conflict or natural disasters. At a time when UNICEF is called upon to respond to an increasing number of humanitarian crises throughout the world, it is these unrestricted resources that ensure the organization’s quick response and rapid implementation of programmes. UNICEF’s Emergency Programme Fund (EPF), for instance, is a $75 million RR revolving fund that is available to country offices in the days and even hours immediately following the onset of a crisis. Angola, the Central African Republic, Peru, the Philippines, and the Syrian Arab Republic were among the many countries that benefitted from the EPF in 2012. Regular Resources also help UNICEF to simultaneously support the delivery of services to the most vulnerable groups and to work at all levels of government to inform and shape policies that address the specific needs of children and women. UNICEF’s work with partners in local communities informs and enhances its engagement at the government and senior decision-making level.

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UNICEF


Importantly, Regular Resources also help to ensure UNICEF’s independence, neutrality, and role as a trusted partner to all parties, including national governments and non-state actors. RR funds are not driven by any individual donor priorities or agendas, enabling the organization to focus on implementing programmes and delivering the best quality services for children, often in challenging environments. In a world where comprehensive and up-to-date data is essential to success, UNICEF is the unrivalled source of information on the global situation of children, combining local understanding with global knowledge to provide innovative and timely solutions. With more than 65 years of experience, the organization has an excellent level of technical expertise, backed by a network of highly skilled field staff in public health, disease prevention, logistics, nutrition, water and sanitation, child protection, human rights, education, gender, and emergency response. UNICEF is able to undertake these activities at both the global and country level, utilizing information gathered through tried and tested data collection and survey methodologies as well as monitoring and reporting tools. The organization’s ability to undertake this important work, however, is largely dependent on Regular Resources, which allow for consistent and world-class technical expertise, operational support, monitoring and evaluation, data collection, and reporting. Simply put, the value of RR funding cannot be overstated. It increases programmatic and cost efficiencies, which are critical in an era of tighter fiscal budgets. It lessens the administrative burden on the organization, host countries, implementing partners, and donors alike. It ensures a global and adequate country response. It secures a platform for country-driven programme activities and allows UNICEF to invest in innovative programmes that can later be scaled-up. In sum, Regular Resources are UNICEF’s most effective funding tool as it seeks to reach children around the globe – fairly and equitably – with services that enable them to grow, develop, and thrive.

Regular Resources allow UNICEF to work for all children – everywhere, all the time – especially those hardest to reach. They help UNICEF: • To be agile, predictable, and needs-based in our goal to protect the rights of vulnerable children and communities and to reach the most in need. • To maintain a universal presence with engagement at the global, regional, and country level. • To engage in both development and humanitarian contexts with independence and impartiality, with the flexibility to address core priorities, even when the funds have yet to arrive. • To respond rapidly to emergencies with lifesaving assistance. • To provide data and evidence that is critical to support advocacy and programme effectiveness.

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HOW UNICEF SPENDS ITS REGULAR RESOURCES


A child smiles in her classroom in the village of Bladier, located in the district of Ouellesebougou, Mali.


UNICEF is guided by the fundamental principle that all children have equal rights. Regular Resources ensure that UNICEF can help countries address the basic needs of children – especially the most vulnerable – even in the most remote corners of the globe.

Programme assistance

The largest share of Regular Resources contributes to Programme Assistance, which is spent by country and regional offices in cooperation with governments and other partners (e.g., local and international NGOs). A portion of these funds also supports the global work of the organization, enabling UNICEF to deliver more programmes in more countries than any other organization working for children.

1. Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation: These funds are allocated to UNICEF country programmes of cooperation based on three key indicators affecting children: under-five mortality rate, gross national income per capita, and child population at the country level.

The balance of RR funds sustains UNICEF’s Institutional Budget, which includes costs associated with implementing country programmes of cooperation; regional programme management, support, and advocacy; and supporting the core structure and mission of the organization. The Institutional Budget is funded by both Regular Resources and Other Resources, and is approved by the UNICEF Executive Board, which ensures that the percentage of resources allocated to these support functions remains a modest proportion of RR expenses.7 Effective 1 January 2012, UNICEF has adopted the International Public Sector Financial Reporting Standards (IPSAS) to replace the United Nations Systems Accounting Standards (UNSAS). As a result, all expenses reported are presented on a full accrual basis, unless otherwise noted.

Regular Resources for Programme Assistance at the country and regional level are distributed among the following six categories.

2. Strategic and innovative activities: At the discretion of the Executive Director, 7 per cent of RR Programme Assistance supports strategic and innovative programmes. 3. Emergency Programme Fund: In addition to the availability of Regular Resources allocated through the above mechanisms to support humanitarian programmes, country offices also call upon the Emergency Programme Fund, a $75 million revolving fund that can be accessed to finance immediate emergency needs. 4. Advocacy and programme development: These are allocations to support global advocacy, programme development, and the roll-out of UNICEF strategies. 5. Net revenue on product sales: These are allocations of Regular Resources to country offices that generate additional RR through the sale of cards and products. 6. Revenue adjustments: These are refunds and adjustments to revenue recognized in previous years.

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The Institutional Budget is comprised of four cost classification categories:

Development effectiveness: These are activities and associated costs that contribute to the effective delivery of development results. Normally, these are of a policy-advisory, technical, and implementation nature that are needed to achieve the objectives of UNICEF-assisted programmes in each of the organization’s five Focus Areas. They are not included in specific programme components in country, regional, or global programme documents. United Nations development coordination: These comprise activities and associated costs that support coordination of development activities within the United Nations system. Management: These comprise recurring and non-recurring activities and associated costs, the primary function of which is to promote the identity, direction, and well-being of the organization. These include executive direction, representation, external relations and partnerships, corporate communications, legal affairs, oversight, audit, corporate evaluation, information technology, finance, administration, security, and human resources. Special purpose: These cover activities and associated costs of a cross-cutting nature that (i) involve material capital investments or (ii) do not represent a cost related to the management activities of the organization.

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UNICEF


RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENSES (2012) The following chart shows RR expenses across the above-mentioned six categories.8

Total: $663 million

$604 million

Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation, 91%

$24 million

Strategic and innovative activities, 4%

$18 million

Emergency Programme Fund, 3%

$14 million

Advocacy and programme development, 2%

$2 million

Product sales (net revenue), <1%

$1 million

Adjustments, <1%

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENSES BY REGION (2012) The following chart shows the regional distribution of RR Programme Assistance expenses in 2012.9

Total: $663 million

$401 million

Sub-Saharan Africa, 61%

$28 million

Middle East and North Africa, 4%

$15 million

Inter-regional, 2%

$21 million CEE/CIS, 3%

$175 million Asia, 26%

$23 million

Latin America and the Caribbean, 3%

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The use of Regular Resources for humanitarian programmes includes RR spent in countries that are allocated such resources through the Boardapproved formula, as well as countries that benefit from loans through the biennial Emergency Programme Fund (EPF). EPF loans are treated as â&#x20AC;&#x153;estimated expensesâ&#x20AC;? of Regular Resources until they are repaid. Loans that are not repaid are converted to non-reimbursable loans and treated as RR expenses. Further, decisions on whether or not to waive reimbursement can be made until the end of the second year of the biennium. Because most EPF loans are repaid, the RR expense figure presented in the above chart is less than the $75 million in available EPF funds. The $18 million in EPF expense includes adjustments made in 2012 for EPF loans issued in prior years.

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The distribution of these funds was based on the Executive Board-approved criteria: 61 per cent was distributed to sub-Saharan Africa and 26 per cent to Asia, while between 3 and 4 per cent was distributed to each of the remaining three regions: the Middle East and North Africa, Central/ Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS), and Latin America and the Caribbean.

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RR PLANNING LEVELS AND UNICEF FUNDRAISING TARGETS The UNICEF Executive Board established the current system for determining country programme planning levels for Regular Resources in 1997. For more than 15 years this system has provided consistency and predictability in funding that has helped country offices plan their programmes, while ensuring that the organization’s planning processes are robust and thoughtfully considered. A number of principles guide the allocation of Regular Resources: • RR planning levels are established based on the organization’s Medium-term Strategic Plan, which consist of planned financial income and expenditure estimates approved by the Executive Board. • Allocations are needs-based and determined by applying the three core criteria: under-five mortality rate, gross national income per capita, and child population at the country level. • Abrupt changes in country allocations are to be avoided.

• RR is to be made available to offices to support sudden, increased funding needs. • In allocating RR, UNICEF gives highest priority to the needs of children in low-income countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) should receive at least 60 per cent of Regular Resources and countries in sub-Saharan Africa should receive at least 50 per cent.10 • All countries are guaranteed a minimum allocation of $750,000 until such time as they achieve ‘high income’ status based on World Bank country classification, and maintain such status for two consecutive years.11

PREDICTABILITY OF PLANNING LEVELS Planning levels fluctuate very little from year to year. An analysis of RR allocation targets from 2009 to 2012 shows that RR allocations among regions remained stable throughout this period, fluctuating less than 1 per cent in all cases. The one notable area of redistribution of RR revenue (within regions) was from low income countries to middle income countries. In 2009 low income countries received 79 per cent of RR and middle income countries received 21 per cent, and in 2012 these ratios were 63 per cent and 37 per cent, respectively. However, these changes do not reflect a significant redistribution of Regular Resources among countries, but rather they reflect the relative increases in the standard of living of some low income countries that have recently joined the ranks of middle income countries. Nonetheless, large disparities persist in many of these new middle income countries, which continue to benefit from RR. Planning levels are based on the needs of children and the need to consistently achieve better results for children. All country offices use these planning levels to help guide them in formulating their programmes and budgets. For example, the Bangladesh Country Programme Plan for 2012–2016 includes a Regular Resources budget of $112 million over this five-year period, which was based on the Executive Board-approved RR planning level of $22 million for 2012.

PREDICTABILITY OF RR ALLOCATION ENSURES HIGH EXPENDITURE RATES Because the predictability of future RR funds enables country offices to effectively plan and implement programmes during each calendar year, there is a strong correlation between RR planning levels and high expenditure rates from year to year. The following table shows the 2012 share of RR allocation and expenditure for Programme Assistance based on the Executive Board-approved formula.12

$692 million

RR Programme Assistance allocation

$663 million

RR Programme Assistance expenditure

96% expenditure

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In 2012, 57 per cent of all UNICEF resources, including Regular Resources and Other Resources, was spent in LDCs and 60 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa, which includes Djibouti and Sudan.

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The current $750,000 minimum allocation figure was approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in 2008.

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The presentation of expenditures versus allocations is shown on a modified cash basis and reflects cash disbursements and commitments outstanding at the end of the year.

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UNICEF


COUNTRIES WITH UNICEF PROGRAMMES OF COOPERATION In 2012, $604 million (91 per cent) of RR Programme Assistance was designated for countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation that were selected based on the Executive Board-approved needs-based criteria. EXPENSES BY TOP 50 COUNTRIES RECEIVING FUNDS FOR UNICEF PROGRAMMES OF COOPERATION (2012)

The highest RR expenses were in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and India.

Countries and territories Nigeria Democratic Republic of the Congo India Afghanistan Ethiopia Uganda Niger Pakistan Myanmar United Republic of Tanzania Republic of Mozambique Bangladesh Burkina Faso Mali Kenya Madagascar China Burundi Chad Sierra Leone Zambia Malawi Rwanda Sudan Guinea Côte d'Ivoire Somalia Angola Cambodia Nepal Cameroon Ghana Yemen Pacific Island Countries13 Indonesia Zimbabwe South Sudan Benin Liberia Togo Senegal Philippines Central African Republic Uzbekistan Egypt Viet Nam Caribbean Regional14 Haiti Iraq Guinea-Bissau

U5MR (/1,000 live births) 143 170 63 149 106 99 143 87 40 76 135 48 176 178 85 62 18 142 173 174 111 92 91 103 130 123 180 161 51 50 136 74 77 20 35 80 125 115 103 103 75 29 159 52 22 23 17 165 39 150

GNI/CAPITA (USD) 1,180 180 1,340 330 380 490 360 1,050 1,005 530 440 640 550 600 780 440 4,260 160 600 340 1,070 330 540 1,270 380 1,070 140 3,960 760 490 1,160 1,240 1,060 12,276 2,580 460 964 750 190 440 1,050 2,050 460 1,280 2,340 1,100 3,610 650 2,320 540

CHILD POPULATION (‘000) 77,907 35,056 447,309 16,781 40,380 18,471 8,611 73,227 14,937 22,964 11,849 55,938 8,576 8,266 19,817 10,331 322,163 3,761 5,846 2,902 6,937 7,863 5,172 20,281 4,940 9,407 4,772 10,167 5,560 12,876 9,261 90,977 12,401 60 77,787 5,866 4,306 4,453 1,989 2,796 6,282 38,970 2,069 9,940 30,264 25,981 299 4,260 15,732 726

Total RR EXPENDITURE (USD million) 52.7 50.5 38.9 33.3 29.6 24.4 16.6 16.4 16.3 14.5 14.4 14.1 13.6 10.6 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.2 8.7 8.6 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.4 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.9

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Countries in the Pacific Islands include the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

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The Caribbean Region includes Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

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Strategic and innovative activities

EXPENSES OF STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS BY REGION (2012)

Total: $24.1 million

$6.5 million

Upon the recommendation of UNICEF’s Allocation Advisory Committee, each year a portion of total Regular Resources is allocated at the discretion of the Executive Director to support government and civil society partnerships in strategic and innovative activities that help achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Seven per cent of Regular Resources are set aside for country programmes to respond to evolving needs, to encourage innovation, and to promote UNICEF’s equity agenda (7 per cent set aside).

Sub-Saharan Africa, 27%

$5.1 million Asia, 21%

$3.8 million

Middle East and North Africa, 16%

$3.6 million CEE/CIS, 15%

$2.6 million

Inter-regional, 11%

$2.5 million

Latin America and the Caribbean, 10%

Regular Resources in support of strategic and innovative activities enable UNICEF to respond to emerging opportunities that can provide more and better services to the most deprived children and their families, and to minimize wide fluctuations in funding to programmes approved by the UNICEF Executive Board. Country programmes also receive such funding to more closely monitor the removal of barriers and bottlenecks to the achievement of results for the most disadvantaged; and to fund emerging and critical opportunities in countries that are the furthest from achieving the objectives of the Millennium Declaration, the Millennium Development Goals, and UNICEF’s Medium-term Strategic Plan. Priority is given to high-burden countries and those with high inequalities that seldom receive other resources. EXPENSES OF STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS BY TOP 20 COUNTRIES (2012)

In 2012, $24 million was spent among 118 countries on strategic and innovative activities. Of the top 20 countries, nine were in sub-Saharan Africa, five in Asia, four in the Middle East and North Africa region, and two in CEE/CIS. COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES

EXPENSES OF STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS (USD million)

Afghanistan

0.6

Benin

0.7

Central African Republic

0.9

Chad

0.6

Democratic Republic of the Congo

1.2

Ghana

1.5

Iraq

0.6

Middle East and North Africa Regional

0.6

Kosovo 15

1.3

Lao People's Democratic Republic

0.6

Moldova

0.5

Nepal

0.6

Nigeria

0.9

Philippines

0.6

Somalia

0.5

South Sudan

1.1

Sri Lanka

0.5

Sudan

1.8

Togo

0.5

Yemen

1.0

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UNICEF activities in Kosovo under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999).

UNICEF


STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTED BY RR In 2012, Regular Resources were used to leverage funding and partnerships through various global and regional initiatives, including efforts to motivate UNICEF partners to eliminate preventable child deaths; to eradicate polio; and to improve the lives of adolescents by better understanding the issues that affect them. Other initiatives supported by RR are designed to better understand disparities among children, young people, and their families through household surveys and situation analyses; and to strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of programmes with a specific focus on equity.

A PROMISE RENEWED

ADOLESCENT EMPOWERMENT

RR funds have helped to support A Promise Renewed, an effort to mobilize the world and its political leadership to achieve an ambitious yet achievable goal – to end preventable child death. By September 2012 more than 110 governments had signed a pledge vowing to redouble efforts to accelerate declines in child mortality by taking action on maternal, newborn, and child survival. Moreover, 174 civil society organizations, 91 faith-based organizations, and 290 faith leaders from 52 countries have signed their own pledges of support.

Regular Resources made possible the publication of an important data-driven report, Progress for Children: A Report Card on Adolescents, which provides quantitative evidence and in-depth analysis on issues affecting adolescents. Using the momentum created by this international report, several UNICEF offices conducted adolescent baseline studies and surveys, notably in the areas of ‘life experiences’ and violence. Regular Resources supported the implementation of innovative information, communication, and technology solutions that have helped to strengthen accountability mechanisms. For example, the uReport in Uganda uses free SMS to poll young people on their perspectives regarding access and quality of community services and youth issues. In return, these young people receive the results of the polling as well as useful facts for action. The uReport has provided a valuable entry-point for youth to engage in decision-making processes.

A Promise Renewed provides technical assistance to countries as they develop plans to fund and implement programmes in support of child survival. Countries as diverse as Burundi, Ecuador, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, and Sudan have applied RR funds to enhance access to preventive and primary health care, including early diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, strengthening access to lifesaving commodities, identifying and analysing health system bottlenecks, and implementing appropriate actions in the areas of nutrition, HIV, and health, water, and sanitation.

GLOBAL POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE Unrestricted funds were allocated to cover shortfalls in polio vaccines, social mobilization, operational costs, and technical assistance to eradicate polio. For example, RR funds supported Afghanistan and Nigeria to assess barriers to polio eradication efforts, and to apply creative approaches to accessing hard to reach populations. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative aims at preventing infection by immunizing every child until transmission stops and the world is polio-free. The year 2012 had the fewest children in the fewest places affected by polio in recorded history. With just over 200 cases reported worldwide, this was a reduction of more than 60 per cent from the previous year.

MONITORING RESULTS FOR EQUITY SYSTEMS Thanks to RR funding, UNICEF successfully implemented a further roll-out of the Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES). This approach takes the organization’s equity focus to a practical level by providing tools and approaches that help identify the most disadvantaged children and systematically address their needs. The approach recognizes that there are critical conditions that either constrain or enable the achievement of results for particular groups of children. MoRES promotes regular monitoring of programme responses to check if these are achieving results. This strong focus on improving the lives of those children who have been left behind – where a bulk of the “unfinished work” lies – will help accelerate progress towards the MDGs.

MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY RR funds supported national governments and their statistical organizations to monitor the situation of children and women through household surveys. The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which was conducted in 50 countries, was completed during 2012. These surveys provided key evidence and knowledge for monitoring the MDGs and for informing policy formulation. With the data and evidence generated, countries can identify their most vulnerable populations by producing information on wealth distribution, urban-rural residence, sex, age, and ethnicity, among other key factors.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

15


HUMANITARIAN CRISES SUPPORTED BY THE EPF A wide variety of humanitarian responses was supported through the Emergency Programme Fund (EPF) in 2012. These included large-scale natural disasters in Angola, Comoros, Pakistan, Peru, and the Philippines, as well as conflicts and complex emergencies in Africa and the Middle East. Perhaps no other humanitarian crisis dominated 2012 more than the Syria crisis, which affected nearly 4 million people – almost half of them children – in the Syrian Arab Republic, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, and Iraq. Funding to support the humanitarian response in the region was inadequate to meet the sharply increasing needs. Nearly $27 million in EPF loans was provided to enable UNICEF and its partners to minimize the impact of the crisis on Syrian children. The EPF also helped bolster operations in the Sahel with an initial injection of $5 million to support early procurement of nutritional supplies to reach hundreds of thousands of children in the area. In South Sudan an EPF loan of $3.4 million allowed UNICEF to address the needs of displaced Southern Sudanese in Jonglei State as well as in other areas facing high levels of crisis. Following the fighting in North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which resulted in hundreds of thousands of displaced people, $4.3 million in EPF funds supported a rapid response to the affected population’s most urgent needs. In addition, EPF funds were used to kick-start responses to the drought in Angola and to sustain underfunded crisis responses in the Central African Republic, Madagascar, and Myanmar. In all these cases, it was clearly demonstrated that Regular Resources through the EPF provide UNICEF with an indispensable tool to respond rapidly and flexibly to the needs of children in a wide range of emergencies.

16

UNICEF

Emergency Programme Fund Timely and flexible funding is essential to UNICEF’s ability to respond rapidly and effectively to emerging humanitarian crises. This is especially important in an emergency, when the needs of children and women are most critical. Regular Resources enable the organization to invest these crucial funds in the days and even hours following the onset of an emergency, and thus avoid having to wait for the release of formal appeals or the receipt of donor funds. UNICEF responded to 286 humanitarian situations in 79 countries in 2012, including escalating conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, the severe food insecurity and nutrition crisis in the Sahel, a complex emergency in Mali, and cholera outbreaks in West and Central Africa. These responses covered crises of different nature and scales, including rapid onset emergencies, largescale natural disasters, new and protracted conflicts, and chronic, underfunded ‘silent’ emergencies. For many of these countries RR was allocated through the Executive Board-approved formula to support their ongoing humanitarian programmes. Another source of RR is provided through the Emergency Programme Fund (EPF), a $75 million revolving fund that country offices can call upon when they need to respond quickly to humanitarian crises. EPF funds are allocated over a two-year period, with 2012 being the first year of the 2012–2013 biennium. Funds are typically disbursed to country offices within 12–24 hours following a request to the Office of Emergency Programmes, and they are subsequently reimbursed as resources are mobilized. In cases where UNICEF offices are unable to raise adequate funding to reimburse their EPF grants, a decision whether or not to waive reimbursement can be made on a case-by-case basis after a careful analysis of the actual situation. The Emergency Programme Fund has consistently proven to be an effective method for providing funds to UNICEF offices in a timely manner and allowing the organization to initiate its response to crises before donor funds become available. Today, the EPF remains the quickest, most reliable, and most adaptable source of emergency funding. It is, therefore, an integral component of UNICEF’s response capacity.


The EPF is available to all UNICEF offices to support one or more of the following: • To provide urgent lifesaving assistance when fundraising is still ongoing; • Emergency needs when no inter-agency appeal has been launched;

Thirty-three EPF loans were granted in 2012, for a total of $54.63 million. Of this amount, $23.76 million has been reimbursed to date and $1.17 million converted into non-reimbursable loans. Since 2012 is the first year of the current biennium and the EPF is a revolving fund, reimbursement figures will change in 2013.

• UNICEF participation in inter-agency assessment missions; • Emergency staff and administration; and • Preparedness to promote rapid response to deliver on UNICEF’s Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action.

Emergency Programme Fund (2012)16 Country

2012 allocation (USD million)

Reimbursement to Date (USD million)

Converted to non-Reimbursable Loans (USD million)

Jordan

9.39

6.79

-

Syria

9.30

0.06

-

West and Central Africa Regional

5.00

4.93

-

Lebanon

4.61

0.47

-

Democratic Republic of the Congo

4.30

-

-

South Sudan

3.44

1.03

-

Pakistan

2.83

1.18

Angola

2.30

2.30

-

Turkey

2.21

0.57

-

Mali

2.10

2.02

-

Liberia

1.50

-

-

Middle East and North Africa Regional

1.04

0.47

-

Comoros

1.00

0.50

-

Philippines

1.00

0.45

-

Central African Republic

0.85

-

0.85

Myanmar

0.80

0.80

-

Yemen

0.80

0.80

-

Congo

0.69

0.69

Madagascar

0.50

0.50

-

EMOPS Headquarters

0.32

-

0.32

Mauritania

0.30

0.05

-

Peru

0.20

0.14

-

Swaziland

0.15

-

-

54.63

23.76

1.17

16

The current EPF budget is for the 2012–2013 biennium. This table includes reimbursements made to this revolving fund through 19 April 2013.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

17


RESULTS FOR CHILDREN


A boy and other mourners attend a funeral for a relative killed in the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic.


UNICEF’s work is guided by the Medium-term Strategic Plan (MTSP) for 2006–2013, which sets out the organization’s priorities: providing children with the best possible start in life; helping to meet their basic needs; enabling access to quality basic education; protecting children from violence, exploitation, and abuse; providing ample opportunity for children and adolescents to reach their full potential; and advocating for the promotion and protection of children’s rights. These core principles are incorporated into five programmatic Focus Areas, which reflect UNICEF’s primary contributions to the international development and humanitarian agenda. Each Focus Area describes results to be achieved in UNICEF’s regular development programming and in the organization’s humanitarian action and response. UNICEF takes a holistic approach to the well-being of children, realizing that progress in any one area can lead to progress in other areas.

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENSES BY FOCUS AREA (2012) 17

Total: $663 million

$297 million

Young child survival and development, 45%

$125 million

Basic education and gender equality, 19%

$34 million

HIV/AIDS and children, 5%

$93 million

Child protection, 14%

$111 million

Policy advocacy and partnerships, 17%

$2 million Other, <1%

Summary of Case Studies The case studies highlight some of the key results achieved in twelve countries with the support of Regular Resources – an illustration of UNICEF’s work worldwide. Of the programmes profiled, several are among the highest recipients of RR, eight are in lowincome countries, and four are in upper-middle income countries. Further, two benefitted from grants from the Emergency Programme Fund.

The case studies were selected based on several criteria, including high RR reliance, which is the share of total programme costs funded by Regular Resources; regional diversity; and the size of the country programmes. In all cases, results for children were achieved in 2012 as a direct consequence of unrestricted RR funding.

Programme Area

Case Study

Country

Programme Description

Young child survival and development

1

Benin

“Equity champions” provide health care to the most vulnerable

51%

2

Myanmar

Implementing infant and young child feeding: A Five-Year Plan of Action

55%

Basic education and gender equality

3

Burundi

Promoting basic education and gender equality

64%

4

Maldives

Providing all children with inclusive and quality education

51%

HIV/AIDS and children

5

Chad

Improving HIV/AIDS services for children and their mothers

68%

6

Jamaica

Confronting HIV and the needs of vulnerable adolescents

60%

Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse

7

Costa Rica

Ensuring social services for migrant families

56%

8

Tajikistan

Making Dushanbe City safer and friendlier for children and women

45%

Policy advocacy and partnerships for children's rights

9

Armenia

Introducing integrated social services reform

75%

10

Cambodia

Improving national budgets to enhance equity for children

45%

Humanitarian action

11

Jordan

Providing emergency support for Syrian refugees

EPF

12

Madagascar

Ensuring education and basic social services in emergencies

EPF

17

20

RR Reliance

The ‘Other’ category includes interventions that country and regional offices implement in line with national priorities that may not fall under the MTSP framework or any of the five Focus Areas.

UNICEF


Reasons to invest in UNICEF UNICEF has a universal mandate to promote the rights of children everywhere – especially those hardest to reach. Our biggest assets remain our extensive global presence and significant reach, including in complex and challenging situations. • With offices in some 150 countries and territories, UNICEF has access to the highest levels of government and at the same time maintains strong grassroots relationships at the community level. This unique combination of what we call the ‘upstream’ and ‘downstream’ of development work allows UNICEF to maximize the impact of linking policies and programmes that deliver benefits in the lives of millions of children and their families. • It also allows UNICEF to be there before, during, and after crises – responding quickly with lifesaving assistance. And for all its work, the flexibility of Regular Resources makes the organization more responsive and effective than it could be otherwise – and thus more successful in delivering on its promise to serve all children equitably. Each of the following profiled countries and programmes demonstrates UNICEF’s capacity to change the lives of children, and they show in a clear and profound way the role that RR is playing in achieving these successes. Further, each of the 12 case studies illustrates one or more of the four characteristics that, taken together, underpin all of UNICEF’s efforts.

Scope

Knowledge leadership

The totality of UNICEF’s programmes is far greater than the sum of its parts. A child who is hungry is more likely to suffer disease; a child in poor health is less likely to go to school; and a child out of school is at higher risk of exploitative labour, early marriage, and poverty. Similarly, UNICEF’s solutions are multifaceted, tackling many interrelated issues simultaneously and comprehensively. The case studies illustrate the breadth, depth, and interconnectedness of the organization’s work in each country.

UNICEF is the leading source of information on the global situation of children; and the organization’s research, analysis, and publications provide crucial data and evidence on the needs of children in a country context. Further, UNICEF uses this knowledge to inform governments where the needs of children are not being met, and to support them in addressing these shortcomings. The case studies presented here illustrate how UNICEF combines local understanding with global knowledge to innovate new scalable solutions.

REACH AND Scale

Partnerships

UNICEF not only delivers more programmes in more countries than any other organization working on behalf of children but – through its vast network of partners – it has the capacity and scale to reach vulnerable children, including in remote areas. The following case studies demonstrate UNICEF’s unique reach – working with decision makers as well as with local communities to pilot projects, scale-up successes, and achieve sustainable results for children in need.

Partnerships are at the heart of UNICEF’s work to achieve the greatest possible impact for children. The organization leverages resources through national governments; brings partners to the table to scale-up initiatives beyond the capacity of any single organization; extends its reach by working with local groups; harnesses the power of the corporate sector; and engages individuals in achieving change for children. The following case studies underscore the essential contribution that these partnerships make to UNICEF’s success.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

21


Focus Area 1

Young child survival and development “Regular Resources have enabled us to consolidate the important gains made in the country’s Health Extension Programme, whereby more than 30,000 community-level health workers are addressing all the major remaining childhood killers, including severe acute malnutrition, diarrhoea, malaria, and pneumonia.” —Peter Salama, UNICEF Representative, Ethiopia

The need In 2012, UNICEF continued to contribute to the global decline in child mortality rates with such essential health interventions as routine immunization, malaria prevention, polio eradication, vitamin A supplementation, salt iodization, and improved water, hygiene, and sanitation. Nonetheless, significant challenges remain in the effort to achieve all the goals associated with young child survival and development. Worldwide, 101 million children under five remain underweight; one quarter of all children under five (an estimated 165 million) are stunted due to chronic undernutrition; some 2.5 billion people do not have access to improved sanitation; and over 22 million children remain unvaccinated with basic vaccines. In addition, access to early childhood care and development services remains low in many developing countries; and the poorest children, children with disabilities, and those from minority or indigenous groups often lag furthest behind.

UNICEF’s response Every child has the right to survive and thrive, and for UNICEF this means working with governments, civil society, and development partners to support lifesaving actions at every phase of a child’s life. The organization provides financial and technical assistance in the areas of basic health and nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and early childhood development. This package of services is designed to accelerate the reduction of preventable deaths through high-impact, low-cost interventions, including vaccines, antibiotics, insecticidetreated bed nets, improved breastfeeding, and safe hygiene practices. Through these efforts, countless children are protected from such crippling and deadly diseases as measles, polio, diphtheria, and tuberculosis. Still, disparities continue to grow between rich and poor, urban and rural. Through its participation in several global initiatives, UNICEF is helping to reduce the under-five mortality rate by increasing the availability of essential commodities for children and women’s health and by scaling-up nutritional support for millions of undernourished people worldwide.

18

22

EXPENSES BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: YOUNG CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT (2012) 18

Total: $1,566 million

$297 million Regular Resources, 19%

$720 million

Other Resources Regular, 46%

$549 million

Other Resources Emergency, 35%

Key Results IN 2012 • UNICEF supplied over 500 million vitamin A capsules, reaching some 75 per cent of all children aged 6–59 months in developing countries with two doses of this essential supplement. • UNICEF support helped an estimated 10.6 million people gain access to improved sanitation, due to the rapid expansion of Community Approaches to Total Sanitation programmes in 54 countries. • In emergency situations, UNICEF helped 17.1 million people maintain or gain access to improved drinking water across 72 countries. • India, which only a few years ago had more polio cases than any other country in the world, has now experienced two years with no wild polio virus transmission whatsoever. • UNICEF supported the training of an additional 12,600 community health workers in Africa, bringing the total to more than 60,000. • The organization supports the community-based management of acute malnutrition in over 65 countries, reaching 2.6 million children aged 6–59 months with critical treatment in 2012. • UNICEF and its partners supported immunization programmes in over 100 countries, and contributed to reaching more than 80 per cent of all children worldwide with lifesaving vaccines. As the world’s largest purchaser of vaccines, UNICEF procured almost 1.9 billion doses of vaccine and over 500 million syringes.

In the charts that follow, Other Resources Regular refer to OR funds allocated towards regular development programmes and Other Resources Emergency refer to OR funds allocated towards humanitarian programmes.

UNICEF


CASE STUDY 1:

benin

“EQUITY CHAMPIONS” PROVIDE HEALTH CARE TO THE MOST VULNERABLE

“As a paediatrician, I see first-hand how UNICEF focuses on child health while giving priority to equity. The organization plays a pivotal role in promoting well-being nationwide, while bringing added value to interventions at the community level.” —Dr. Dina Gbénou, WHO Benin

The need Despite great government efforts, the situation of children in Benin remains alarming, with some 36,000 children dying each year before the age of five. Malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea are among the main causes of death, but malnutrition is an underlying cause of mortality in more than half of all such cases. Notably, two thirds of under-five deaths occur within the community – most often at home – due to the lack of local health centres, demonstrating the urgent need to address the inequality in access to health care for children.

BENIN CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $4.3 million

$2.2 million

Regular Resources, 52%

$1.9 million

Other Resources Regular, 43%

$0.2 million

Other Resources Emergency, 5%

UNICEF’s response In March 2011, UNICEF and partners introduced a “performance-based financing approach” to reduce the country’s high under-five mortality rate by providing small financial incentives to motivate community health workers (CHWs) to respond quickly and effectively to the needs of the local populations. Focusing on four health districts, this financing model has provided more than 886,000 inhabitants – including 160,000 children – with access to a full package of interventions and services. UNICEF identified and trained 1,087 CHWs (41 per cent women) to carry out early diagnosis, provide treatment of primary childhood diseases, and ensure the timely referral of emergency cases. Going forward, UNICEF will reach even more vulnerable children by training an additional 1,000 CHWs in other high-priority health districts.

The value of Regular Resources In 2012, RR proved to be of particular importance to Benin in the effort to reduce child mortality and improve child health and nutrition. Specifically, these funds have been critical in strengthening such national programmes as the Expanded Programme on Immunization. In addition, they have enabled more than 1,000 CHWs to deliver health services and promote essential health practices to families living in remote and disadvantaged communities. RR has also strengthened upstream and downstream monitoring systems, allowing UNICEF to assess and quantify progress more accurately.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

Voices from the field As Marie, a housewife from the southern village of Ikpinlè, asserts: “The CHWs are really helpful, and they play an important part in our life. Ernestine is in charge of my neighbourhood. She has been visiting us since my four-year-old grandson was born, and I really appreciate her dedication. Now, I do not have to run to the hospital each time the boy is not feeling well. She knows what to do. In addition, she gives me good advice on the cleanliness of my household, how to cook healthy food, and how to use insecticide-treated bed nets to protect against malaria.”

23


CASE STUDY 2:

MYANMAR

IMPLEMENTING INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING: A FIVE-YEAR PLAN OF ACTION

“Save the Children is helping to provide infant feeding in emergency-affected areas of Myanmar, and thanks to our partnership with UNICEF, we have been able to implement a programme that has protected the lives of many vulnerable children.” —Anais Waroquier, Emergency Nutrition Advisor, Save the Children Myanmar

The need Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is fundamental to the normal growth and full development of a child. But in Myanmar malnutrition is thought to be responsible, directly or indirectly, for the death of up to 31,000 under-five children each year. In 2009–2010 the proportion of infants under six months who were exclusively breastfed was just 24 per cent, and only 69 per cent of children aged six to eight months were receiving complementary food. Mortality is higher among malnourished children, and those who survive are more frequently sick and suffer life-long impairment of their intellectual performance, work capacity, reproductive outcome, and overall health.

MYANMAR CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $15.02 million

$8.26 million Regular Resources, 55%

$5.28 million

Other Resources Regular, 35%

$1.48 million

Other Resources Emergency, 10%

UNICEF’s response As the country’s lead partner in the nutrition sector, UNICEF works nationwide to provide micronutrient supplementation and to prevent and treat acute and chronic malnutrition. Following the destruction caused by Cyclone Nargis in 2008, UNICEF was instrumental in the development of a National Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding and a Five-Year Plan of Action. Through its convening power and position of influence, key interventions are now being implemented, such as an exclusive breastfeeding communication initiative, revitalization of a baby-friendly hospital initiative, regulation of the marketing of breast milk substitutes, extension of maternity leave for working women, and the provision of infant feeding in emergencies. In the near future, UNICEF and its partners will begin to generate evidence to demonstrate the impact of food fortification – especially on young children, adolescents, and women.

The value of Regular Resources With the investment of Regular Resources, UNICEF is able to leverage significant Other Resources to improve the nutritional status of children and women in Myanmar. These unrestricted funds also support the creation of national policies, service delivery, emergency preparation and response, and the initiation of new interventions, such as food fortification – thus reducing existing inequities.

24

UNICEF

Voices from the field Eight-month-old Wut Hmone Phuu is already a celebrity in Bant Bwe Kone village, where she is known for being exclusively breastfed by her mother, Nwat Nwat Win. In Myanmar, this is nothing short of a revolutionary practice. Says the proud mother: “I breastfed for the entire first six months of my baby’s life and have no regrets. My little girl has not been sick since she was born. She has had no diarrhoea and no flu. My neighbours said my child would die of not drinking water. But I held on. Nowadays, my daughter is a living example that UNICEF was right, and I show her to other women to convince them.”


Focus Area 2

Basic education and gender equality “Regular Resources have enabled us to meet the needs of the most disadvantaged groups with equity – a key element of UNICEF’s work in Pakistan – as well as to support field visits, training activities, and highly innovative pilot projects.” —Dan Rohrmann, UNICEF Representative, Pakistan

The need Currently, at least 61 million primary school-aged children (53 per cent girls) are out of school worldwide, as are a further 71 million adolescents of lower secondary-school age. Despite major efforts by governments and their partners, progress towards universal primary education is stalling in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with the number of out-of-school children recently on the increase. Worldwide, only half of all children have access to early learning opportunities, and such opportunities remain particularly elusive for children in the poorest countries. Among the severely marginalized groups are orphans; children with disabilities and special needs; children from nomadic and pastoral communities; children of ethnic and/or linguistic minority groups; and those from poor households in remote rural areas and urban slums.

UNICEF’s response Recognizing that education is a fundamental human right and that equitable access by all children to a quality education is an essential condition for social inclusion and sustainable development, UNICEF helps governments, civil society partners, communities, and parents to develop the capacities and skills necessary to fulfil their duties to provide all children with an education of the highest possible quality. On the ground, UNICEF provides early learning opportunities, builds child-centred classrooms, provides safe water and sanitation facilities, improves teaching and learning processes, and supplies textbooks and other necessary teaching and learning materials. At the policy table, UNICEF supports more equitable planning and budgeting to deliver results for the most marginalized children, such as its support for the global Out-of-School Children Initiative and the Simulation for Equity in Education Model. Underlying all that UNICEF does in the education sector is its child-friendly approach, which promotes a safer, happier, and healthier environment in which to learn.

EXPENSES BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: BASIC EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUALITY (2012)

Total: $604 million

$125 million

Regular Resources, 20.7%

$390 million

Other Resources Regular, 64.6%

$89 million

Other Resources Emergency, 14.7%

Key Results in 2012 • With UNICEF support, 73 countries have put in place national policies on universal school readiness and 63 countries have developed standards for early learning and development. UNICEF supports early learning through schoolbased pre-schools, home/community-based centres, peer-to-peer support, and mobile Early Childhood Development centres. • UNICEF’s leadership of the Out-of-School Children’s Initiative has enabled over 20 countries to identify which children are out of school and why. This is providing previously unavailable and detailed data that is essential to the development of equity focused policies and programmes. • Over 120 countries reported that they have developed or are developing quality standards based on UNICEF’s Child-friendly Schools initiative or similar approaches. • UNICEF continued its work in 49 countries to enable 3.6 million children, including adolescents, to access formal and non-formal basic education in humanitarian, recovery, and fragile situations. • As a key member of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), UNICEF has supported 36 countries to develop and implement their education sector plans and to obtain critical allocations of GPE funds. • UNICEF has been co-leading the ‘post-2015’ discussion for education, in which it emphasizes the importance of putting equity and learning outcomes high on the political agenda.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

25


CASE STUDY 3:

BURUNDI

PROMOTING BASIC EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUALITY

“UNICEF support enables the Ministry of Education to implement major interventions that significantly improve the quality of teaching and the retention of children in school. UNICEF also provides expertise and capacity development to strengthen our database and education statistics system.” —Barbatus Harushingongo, Gener al Director of Administr ation, Ministry of Education, Vocational Tr aining, and Liter acy

The need With the abolition of school fees in 2005, school enrolment in Burundi catapulted from 60 per cent in 2004 to 96 per cent in the 2010–2011 school year. At the same time, the country realized equal access for girls and boys alike. However, the primary repetition rate remains high, at 34 per cent, and the completion rate stands at only 68 per cent. Further, the lack of qualified teachers and learning materials, inadequate school infrastructure, overcrowded classrooms, and reduced learning hours to accommodate a double-shift system have all affected the quality of education. It is estimated that an additional 289 schools are needed to fully implement basic education by 2015.

BURUNDI EDUCATION PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $5.2 million

$3.3 million

Regular Resources, 64%

$1.9 million

Other Resources Regular, 36%

UNICEF’s response UNICEF continues to provide technical and financial support to improve enrolment and retention rates as well as the quality of learning – reaching some 520,000 through its “Back to School” campaign. Further, in 2012 nearly 4,000 teachers were trained on the child-friendly schools module; more than 1,000 schools received student and teacher kits; and eight new schools were built and fully equipped. Since the 2005 repatriation movement of former Burundian refugees from the United Republic of Tanzania, UNICEF has also been supporting interventions for returnee pre-school and school children.

The value of Regular Resources The added value of Regular Resources in a context such as Burundi is that they are timely, predictable, and unconditional. The right to education of hundreds of thousands of children has been fulfilled because UNICEF was able to deliver its equity-based education strategy, focusing on the most hard-to-reach children. These unrestricted resources have also helped UNICEF to reach out to children in the most deprived communities, and to purchase emergency supplies aimed at facilitating the return to school of thousands of children when other emergency funds were not available.

26

UNICEF

Voices from the field Pendo Adolphe, 19, was born in a camp in the United Republic of Tanzania and had never been in his own country before 2008. “When my family and I arrived in Burundi, I was very happy,” he recalls. But Pendo was confronted with an education system very different from what he had known before. “At first I did not understand anything because I did not know the local language. Also, the other students laughed at me because my parents could not afford to buy me a uniform.” To assist in the integration of returnee children, UNICEF provides school kits and teacher training in child-friendly techniques, and finances its partners to provide language classes. “Our teachers are very careful with children like me,” says Pendo. “And I am so happy to be in this nice new school.”


CASE STUDY 4:

MALDIVES

PROVIDING ALL CHILDREN WITH INCLUSIVE AND QUALITY EDUCATION

“Having worked with UNICEF Maldives for over 10 years, I know that it is helping to shape our national education system, and it has helped me to develop a rights-based perspective towards the education of our children.” —Fathmath Azza, Ministry of Education

The need Although education is free and compulsory in the Maldives, access to quality education for all remains a challenge. With only 11 special-needs schools in the country, children with special needs do not have adequate access to education, particularly in the rural islands. In general, most schools have a number of constraints, including a lack of physical space, equipment, and trained teachers. While the Maldives has achieved almost universal access to primary education, and with gender parity, the same cannot be said for secondary education. Further, an estimated 6.6 per cent of five-year-olds are not attending either pre-primary or primary school, and national assessments indicate low achievement at all levels.

MALDIVES EDUCATION PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $0.29 million

$0.15 million Regular Resources, 51%

$0.14 million

Other Resources Regular, 49%

UNICEF’s response UNICEF supports the government in the progressive and equitable realization of the right of all Maldivian children to a quality education; the development of strategic partnerships; and the monitoring of results. Having achieved the Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education, with UNICEF support, the Maldives now needs to accelerate efforts towards inclusive quality education at all levels. Today, a major focus is on the capacity development of state and civil society partners; and the UNICEF country programme seeks convergence across a broad spectrum of issues, including child health, education, and protection, as well as sustainable environmental practices, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS prevention.

The value of Regular Resources In 2012, Regular Resources were utilized to strengthen special needs education through the evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher training and to establish baseline data for a study on the impact of piloted curriculum reforms. Both studies provided crucial evidence to improve the quality of education. RR was also used to support schools in monitoring the implementation of child-friendly school standards, and these funds contributed to the achievement of an inclusive and child-friendly learning environment.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

Voices from the field “If I didn’t go to school, my life would be very lonely,” says Mohammad, who studies at Jamaaluddin School in Male’, and who is the only deaf-mute member of a large, boisterous family. “At home, my brothers used to get annoyed with me when I was younger, but now I play football with them. My elder sister loves me and talks to me the most, but my mother can’t really understand my language,” he says with a smile. While he is fortunate to have a happy home life, it is at school that Mohammad feels “completely at ease” – as a top student, as a member of the deaf community, and, most importantly, as just another teenager hanging out with his friends.

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Focus Area 3

HIV/AIDS and children “Because external funding for HIV/AIDS programmes has declined as a result of India’s move to middle income country status, Regular Resources have become critical to UNICEF India – accounting for 83 per cent of its HIV programme in 2012.” —Louis-Georges Arsenault, UNICEF Representative, India

The need Today, HIV/AIDS is the world’s fifth leading diseaserelated cause of death and the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age (15–49), as well as a contributor to under-five mortality. The most HIV-affected region in the world is sub-Saharan Africa, which highlights the need both for accelerated efforts to scale-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) and for palliative, psychosocial, and economic services to protect and support affected households and those who require long-term care. Substantial gaps persist in access to key services. Further, punitive laws, stigma and discrimination, gender inequality, violence against women, and other human rights violations continue to undermine national responses. Sustained political will and financial resources are needed to tackle the challenges that continue to undermine progress against the virus, including protecting the rights of – and providing services for – disadvantaged, stigmatized, and excluded communities.

UNICEF’s response UNICEF has focused its support in the areas of HIV prevention and treatment; care and protection of vulnerable children; and adolescent risk prevention. By providing advocacy, leadership, and technical and financial support for an equity-based HIV response, UNICEF has worked with global partners to ensure that all pregnant women living with HIV are on lifelong ART, to reduce paediatric HIV infections, to increase HIV/AIDS treatment for children, and to increase national capacities to support orphans and vulnerable children (OVC).

EXPENSES BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: HIV/AIDS AND CHILDREN (2012)

Total: $103 million

$34 million

Regular Resources, 32.8%

$64 million

Other Resources Regular, 62.5%

$5 million

Other Resources Emergency, 4.6%

Key Results IN 2012 • UNICEF financed and provided intensified support to 11 countries in Africa to conduct decentralized bottleneck analyses and to develop and implement subnational operational plans to eliminate new HIV infections in children by 2015 and keep their mothers alive. • 950 practitioners from 63 countries were trained on the implementation of new HIV clinical protocols and community engagement methodologies for the prevention of motherto-child transmission of HIV through a new interactive website launched by UNICEF. • UNICEF provided technical support to build child protection and social protection systems for children affected by AIDS in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe; to support resilient families; and to reduce abuse, neglect, and impoverishment of children affected by AIDS. • UNICEF supported government-led partnerships in six African countries to plan and implement the SHUGA Radio initiative, which combines information dissemination with youth outreach using mobile phones and the Internet linked to community-based HIV counselling and testing. • UNICEF supported the first Regional Meeting of Young People Living with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean, with young participants from nearly all countries of Latin America, including representatives of the Latin community in the US, who contributed to the development of global and regional guidelines on caring for young people living with HIV.

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CASE STUDY 5:

CHAD

IMPROVING HIV/AIDS SERVICES FOR CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS

“What is really unique about UNICEF is the organization’s presence at the decentralized level, which provides an opportunity to support community-based interventions and to allow prompt responses when children and mothers are in need.” —Dr. Abbas Moustapha, Head, Health Sector, National Executive Secretariat of the National Council for AIDS Response

The need According to national authorities, Chad’s HIV prevalence rate is estimated at 3.3 per cent, with more than 206,000 infected individuals and an average of 18,000 new infections annually. Since 2008, HIV/AIDS has been responsible for 3 per cent of infant deaths and 17 per cent of maternal deaths, as well as for some 161,000 orphans. Adding to the burden, only 12 per cent of HIV-positive women have access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. Overall, the epidemic is evolving with noticeable disparities between women (4 per cent) and men (2.6 per cent), and between rural (2.3 per cent) and urban (7 per cent) populations. There are also regional disparities, with N’Djamena and Logone Oriental having the highest rates, at 8.3 and 9.8 per cent, respectively.

CHAD HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $1.84 million

$1.25 million

Regular Resources, 67.9%

$0.43 million

Other Resources Regular, 23.6%

$0.16 million

Other Resources Emergency, 8.5%

UNICEF’s response In 2012 two key strategic documents were produced and validated: the National Strategic Plan for HIV & AIDS and the National Plan for the Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission 2012–2015. In addition, the National Council for AIDS Response and the Ministry of Health – in partnership with key stakeholders and with UNICEF technical and financial support – launched an eMTCT micro-planning process. Through this initiative, 195 partners acquired the capacity to identify bottlenecks in delivering essential PMTCT services, and to plan for the delivery of such services at the district level. As a result, 36 districts in 10 priority regions representing 73 per cent of the country’s unmet PMTCT needs are currently implementing eMTCT micro-plans.

The value of Regular Resources Regular Resources, which represented 53 per cent of UNICEF’s global 2012 HIV programme budget, were essential to providing international technical assistance in developing national capacities to plan, implement, and monitor programmes to eliminate new HIV infections among children by 2015. UNICEF also invested Regular Resources to develop a strong partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, resulting in a Fund grant to UNICEF Chad of more than $9 million to support PMTCT and OVC interventions in 2013 and 2014.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

Voices from the field After Merci lost her husband and daughter to AIDS and it was discovered that she and her son were also HIV-positive, she was referred to the UNICEF-supported Djenandoum Naasson Centre. Says Merci: “The centre changed my life. It offered me and my eldest son the treatment we needed, including free antiretroviral therapy, medical and nutritional care, and psychosocial support.” As a result of her care, Merci was able to return to university, where she studied rural development, and she took the initiative to found CAPI (Centre d’appui aux personnes infectées) – a support centre for people living with HIV.

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CASE STUDY 6:

JAMAICA

CONFRONTING HIV AND THE NEEDS OF VULNERABLE ADOLESCENTS

“UNICEF’s position as advocate for the rights and protection of adolescents and young people has helped to keep child rights on the agenda, especially with regard to the HIV response in Jamaica. The organization has been focused not just on health but on the greater well-being of children and adolescents in our country.” —Sannia Sutherland, Director of HIV Prevention, Ministry of Health

The need Approximately 1.8 per cent of Jamaica’s 2.7 million people are living with HIV, and UNAIDS estimates that up to half of the 30,000 infected Jamaicans are not aware of their HIV-positive status. Homophobia has led to stigma, discrimination, and in some cases violence towards men who have sex with men, while other social practices – such as multiple partners, relationships between older men and younger women, and early sexual debut – continue to put women and girls at risk. Consequently, the HIV epidemic is increasingly being forced underground, which has resulted in decreased access to information and services for some of the most affected populations, including adolescents. Further, adolescent girls aged 10–19 are almost three-times more likely to become infected with HIV than boys of the same age.

JAMAICA HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $0.23 million

$0.14 million Regular Resources, 60%

$0.09 million

Other Resources Regular, 40%

UNICEF’s response UNICEF Jamaica has been a consistent partner in the country’s HIV response. The organization supports efforts to strengthen national systems and human resources that improve service delivery for HIV-positive pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants, and that prevent primary and secondary HIV-infections among adolescents and the most vulnerable. UNICEF also supports the development of policies to ensure that the rights of marginalized and vulnerable young people are recognized and protected. In addition, national guidance, standards, and protocols for health service delivery among adolescents and young people are now under review in line with a UNICEFsupported national strategic plan on adolescent health.

The value of Regular Resources Regular Resources have been used to support partners in areas that have been slow to attract donors – notably, research and policy development. Through these funds, UNICEF has also been able to cover the costs of those staff members who provide HIV-related technical assistance and who implement programmes.

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Voices from the field Tanya, 17, is the mother of a one-year-old son, the consequence of rape. Two months after her ordeal she learned that she was pregnant and HIV-positive. While attending her local antenatal clinic Tanya was referred to a UNICEFsupported NGO programme for adolescent mothers, which helped her to adhere to her medication throughout her pregnancy. As a result, Tanya’s son was born HIV-negative. Tanya has also benefited from life-skills training, which includes secondary prevention education, treatment literacy, and parenting education. Joy Crawford, director of the programme, says her work with girls like Tanya has been a personal source of motivation. “They are living testimonies,” Joy notes. “We see them become better mothers, move into jobs, and improve their relationships with their families and their quality of life.”


Focus Area 4

CHILD PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, AND ABUSE “The 2012 ‘Justice for Children’ strategic framework is ensuring that all children in South Sudan have access to justice, but this was only possible with the crucial investment of UNICEF’s Regular Resources.” —Yasmin Haque, UNICEF Representative, South Sudan

The need Each day millions of children worldwide – from all socio-economic backgrounds, and across all religions and cultures – experience various forms of violence, exploitation, and abuse. They are often the most excluded members of society: children with disabilities, poor girls forced into domestic labour or trafficking, children recruited into armed groups, and girls subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting and other harmful practices. There are numerous factors directly and indirectly affecting these children and their parents: climate change, migration, urbanization, fuel and financial crises, demographic shifts within and across countries and regions, and the changing nature of warfare and violence.

UNICEF’s response Keenly aware of the lifelong impact that the lack of protection can have on a child, UNICEF focuses its child protection efforts on four key areas: strengthening systems to better protect all children from violence, exploitation, and abuse; promoting the social conventions, norms, and values that keep children from harm; protecting children from the immediate and long-term impact of armed conflict and humanitarian crises; and improving country-level monitoring, research, evaluation, and use of child protection data. UNICEF is the sole UN agency with the full breadth of child protection within its mandate, and this is the organization’s comparative advantage as it plays convening and advocacy roles, bringing technical expertise and applying research and innovative approaches to deliver results for children worldwide. Working with many partners, UNICEF focuses on strengthening systems and promoting sociocultural beliefs and practices that protect children in all contexts, and on replicating “what works” through robust evidence.

EXPENSES BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: CHILD PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, AND ABUSE (2012)

Total: $331 million

$93 million

Regular Resources, 28%

$168 million

Other Resources Regular, 51%

$70 million

Other Resources Emergency, 21%

Key Results IN 2012 • The capacity of UNICEF partners to address issues of child protection was greatly strengthened in over 98 countries, including the provision of social welfare services, alternative care, and psychosocial support. • With UNICEF support, over 29.5 million births were registered in 82 countries, thus helping to ensure the social and legal rights of these newborns. • An additional 1,775 communities declared their abandonment of female genital mutilation and cutting, bringing the number of communities that have abandoned the practice to approximately 10,000 since the start of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme. • A total of 87 programme countries (up from 78 in 2011) now have legal or policy frameworks in place for preventing and responding to sexual violence in line with international norms and standards. • More than 1.4 million children in emergencies in 42 countries had access to protective community spaces, learning spaces, and psychosocial support services. • Over 5,300 children associated with armed forces or groups in nine countries were released and reintegrated into their families and communities. • Eleven additional countries ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography, and seven ratified the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

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CASE STUDY 7:

COSTA RICA

ENSURING SOCIAL SERVICES FOR MIGRANT FAMILIES

“Through advocacy, training, and the sensitization of public officials, UNICEF helps to strengthen the manner in which institutions play a key role in guaranteeing and protecting the rights of children and adolescents.” —Kathya Rodríguez, Director, National Bureau of Migr ation and Foreign Affairs

The need In recent years the flow of regular and irregular immigrants into Costa Rica has increased, such that today there are an estimated 386,000 immigrants in the country, including some 62,000 minors – the majority of whom have come from neighbouring countries in search of economic opportunity. Children of irregular migrants – that is, people who lack legal status either because they have entered the country illegally or because their visas have expired – are particularly vulnerable, as they are kept hidden from view, which can put them at greater risk of sexual exploitation and trafficking. Furthermore, the families of irregular migrants have only the most minimal access to basic social services and to the opportunities that would allow them to improve their situation.

COSTA RICA CHILD PROTECTION PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $0.74 million

$0.41 million Regular Resources, 56%

$0.33 million

Other Resources Regular, 44%

UNICEF’s response UNICEF has supported the creation of a Committee for Child Migrants to harmonize national procedures and coordination among key government institutions in order to strengthen the identification and care of migrant children. The committee monitors the impact of a 2010 immigration law and works to standardize information on the situation of migrant children. Based on new data, a policy was specifically designed for migrant children and adolescents, which includes an intensive training programme for all immigration officials as well as a national public-awareness campaign aimed at decreasing discrimination against non-Costa Rican children. These efforts laid the foundations for an exceptional 2012 government initiative to offer all migrants the opportunity to regularize their status, benefitting some 12,000 young girls and boys as well as adolescents who had been residing illegally in Costa Rica. In addition, some 2,000 children received their own national identity cards.

The value of Regular Resources This programme would not have been possible without the support of Regular Resources, which were specifically used to support the policy design and training of officials. RR funding was also used to research good practices and compile lessons learned that supported the advocacy campaign.

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UNICEF

Voices from the field Migrants are confronted with multiple obstacles to integration in host countries, including the lack of identity documents. Children of migrants are dependent on the decisions of their parents, which can be influenced by a range of factors: migrants may fear expulsion, sanction, or discrimination if they attempt to regularize their status, or they may be insufficiently informed or lack the resources to fulfill the legal and administrative requirements demanded by the host country. Carmen and Alexander are the Nicaraguan parents of five children, all of whom were born in Costa Rica. As Carmen explains, “It is very important for us to have an official identity document, as it allows our children to have greater access to educational opportunities and social services. And because I can now leave the children in day care, both Alexander and I can work and we can give our children a better life.”


CASE STUDY 8:

TAJIKISTAN

MAKING DUSHANBE CITY SAFER AND FRIENDLIER FOR CHILDREN AND WOMEN

“UNICEF has been a pioneer in effectively advocating for the best interests of children, and has provided great help to us in terms of expertise, knowledge, and ideas for building the capacity of the police force to work with children in a child-friendly way and to protect them from all forms of ill treatment.” —Zebonisso Kholdorbekova, Deputy Head of Service, Delinquency Prevention Among Youth and Children, Ministry of Interior

The need With more than half of the world’s population residing in cities, many urban dwellers lack access to safe housing, reliable services, secure tenure, and other basic rights – and Dushanbe City, Tajikistan, is no exception. Women and children – especially girls – face particular risks in this context. Concerted efforts by government, local authorities, civil society, and international organizations are needed to pilot, assess, and scale-up innovative, child-friendly, and gender-sensitive approaches to prevent and reduce urban violence.

TAJIKISTAN CHILD PROTECTION PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $1 million

$0.45 million Regular Resources, 45%

$0.55 million

Other Resources Regular, 55%

UNICEF’s response Responding to the emerging challenges to city dwellers, in 2011 UNICEF, UN-HABITAT, and UN Women launched the “Safe and Friendly Cities for All” programme – supporting partnerships between local authorities and women’s, youth, and children’s groups in eight pilot cities worldwide. In Tajikistan, the programme is led by UNICEF, and the organization has been supporting local authorities to challenge the widespread acceptance of violence towards children and women, as well as to establish and strengthen social services for victims and those at risk. Initiatives introduced in 2012 included strengthening services for vulnerable girls; a new shelter for women victims of violence and their young children; development of a toll-free child helpline; and the training and mobilization of police, social workers, and religious leaders.

The value of Regular Resources Regular Resources allowed UNICEF Tajikistan to initiate an innovative project that resulted in creating and strengthening partnerships and in leveraging UNICEF interventions to prevent violence in an urban setting. The project built on the existing child protection programme and expanded it to cover new areas not previously addressed, but that are crucial for reducing inequalities. As a result of advocacy efforts under the Safe and Friendly Dushanbe Project, UNICEF has engaged with the U.S. Embassy to improve service delivery at the government-run Girls Support Services, which is the only organization in Tajikistan supporting girls who are victims or at risk of sexual abuse and trafficking.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

Voices from the field “I was really happy that Ms. Sanobar Rakhimova, Deputy Mayor of Dushanbe, listened to me attentively and replied to my concerns,” said Khusravi, a beneficiary of a project to aid street children. “I really believe such people can make a difference for the children in Dushanbe, and I hope there will be more opportunities like this.” Indeed, Khusravi’s dream will be coming true: Ms. Rakhimova says she found the consultations with children so useful that there will be similar events in the future on a regular basis.

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Focus Area 5

POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS “Thanks to Regular Resources, UNICEF Indonesia has been able to generate up-to-date evidence on the disparities and inequities facing the most vulnerable children, and to strengthen its technical assistance to the government in making the country’s cities more child-friendly based on a set of informed regulations, policies, and programmes.” —Angela Kearney, UNICEF Representative, Indonesia

The need Recent decades have brought unprecedented gains for the world’s children, but aggregated trends mask the situation of children who have been left behind. Amid the advances in child survival and development, inequalities have often widened, and the benefits of rapid economic growth have not been equally shared. As always, children living in fragile and conflict-affected contexts are the most underserved and are at greatest risk. As many countries continue to grapple with heightened vulnerabilities related to commodity prices, climate change, and growing economic and social inequalities, a renewed vision is needed to promote human development and equity for all citizens, especially children. It is clear that economic growth alone is not sufficient to ensure human development or the achievement of rights. A better understanding of poverty and progress can bring greater clarity to the underlying causes and nature of these more intractable problems and, in doing so, help identify comprehensive solutions.

UNICEF’s response Policy advocacy and partnerships underpin all of UNICEF’s activities and are an essential aspect of our work with governments, lawmakers, the media, civil society, and international organizations. UNICEF works to strengthen the capacities of its partners – to collect and analyse data, to design and implement policies and legislation, and to budget adequately and equitably – so that they can meet their obligations to children. Advocating for children and helping communities to have a voice in the development process are critical catalysts for achieving equitable results for children. Because UNICEF’s own resources represent a minimal share of the total resources needed to address the rights and needs of children, increasingly its strength is in leveraging resources, rather than in providing direct services. Overall, in 2012 UNICEF increased its efforts to eliminate child poverty by reducing disparities, promoting social protection, and making an even stronger case to increase investments in children.

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EXPENSES BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS (2012)

Total: $264 million

$111 million

Regular Resources, 42%

$121 million

Other Resources Regular, 46%

$32 million

Other Resources Emergency, 12%

Key Results in 2012 • UNICEF supported child poverty and disparities analyses in 81 countries, was engaged in social budgeting in 64 countries, was involved in social protection in 104 countries, and provided technical advice on migration issues in 35 countries. • More than 100 UNICEF country offices produced major thematic studies or analyses, of which some 70 explicitly used a human rights framework and 55 applied a gender analysis framework. • At the regional level, UNICEF played a crucial role in fostering knowledge exchange among countries and in facilitating dialogue and cooperation on issues related to children. • At the global level, UNICEF continued to strengthen its monitoring of child outcomes by completing the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, which was conducted in 50 countries, providing key evidence and knowledge for MDG monitoring and policy-making. • To provide guidance to stakeholders, UNICEF developed a global strategy framework on social protection, drawing from extensive country-level experience.


CASE STUDY 9:

ARMENIA

INTRODUCING INTEGRATED SOCIAL SERVICES REFORM

“In Armenia, UNICEF has been instrumental in preparing a cadre of professionals in the social protection services by equipping them with an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals of effective service delivery and highlighting the importance of cooperation among the various agencies.” —Artem Asatryan, Minister of Labour and Social Issues

The need Unquestionably, the single greatest challenge to human development is poverty, which negatively affects every aspect of an individual’s life. Poor children are at greater risk of malnourishment, and consequently more likely not to develop their full physical and intellectual potential; have limited or no access to health and education services; and are more vulnerable to various forms of violence and abuse. Some 41 per cent of Armenian children are classified as poor, yet the country’s social service system has been unable to detect and respond to the specific protection needs of the population, particularly to those of children.

ARMENIA POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $0.56 million

$0.42 million Regular Resources, 75%

$0.14 million

Other Resources Regular, 25%

UNICEF’s response The deteriorating situation of poor Armenian families has generated concern over the effectiveness of social protection interventions. UNICEF’s assumption is that the development of a proper social protection system would have a positive effect on vulnerable families, preventing family separation, the institutionalization of children, and various forms of violence and abuse. On a positive note, progress has been made in integrated social services reform, as promoted by UNICEF and the World Bank and approved by a 2012 government decree. These reforms are expanding the provision of social services (health, education, protection, and care) through outreach and professional support to families; by strengthening cooperation among all social service providers; and by focusing greater attention on issues of inequity.

The value of Regular Resources Regular Resources were highly instrumental in facilitating UNICEF’s engagement in the social services reform process, providing in-house technical capacity as well as quality international and local expertise, where required. In addition, RR funding has been used to develop almost all the tools that guide case management and social planning, and to provide technical support to national and subnational counterparts.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

Voices from the field In 2012 a UNICEF-trained social worker, Armen Avetyan, saved a mother and her two children from destitution. The father of this young family was killed in a car accident; and because of business debts his family was forced to sell all their property and exhaust their savings. They then moved into an abandoned house in a forest, offered to them by a distant relative, where they lived on mushrooms and berries and where the children eventually dropped out of school. When the school notified the social worker of the children’s absence, he quickly convened a meeting with representatives of the school administration, an employment service, the municipality, and local NGOs. As a result, the widow was retrained and found full-time employment, the municipality provided living space, the NGOs provided food and clothing, and the children resumed their studies.

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CASE STUDY 10:

CAMBODIA

IMPROVING NATIONAL BUDGETS TO ENHANCE EQUITY FOR CHILDREN

“I am passionate about development work, and in the wake of the food–fuel–finance crises, I came to form a close association with UNICEF, which was very active in providing us with a constant stream of analysis and best practices. The relationship has been truly strategic, with a focus on enhancing national ownership.” —Dr. Sann Vathana, Deputy Secretary Gener al, Council for Agricultur al and Rur al Development

The need Though poverty in Cambodia has declined significantly in recent years – currently standing at 19.8 per cent – an estimated 40 per cent of the population live just above the poverty line, susceptible to external shocks that include natural disasters, food price fluctuations, and fiscal crises. Highly dependent on foreign aid, only about 25 per cent of the social sector budget comes from government investment. Thus, the sustainability of basic social services for the most disadvantaged is extremely fragile, while more than half of all Cambodian children continue to live in the poorest third of households. Four out of 10 children under five are stunted, 55 per cent have anaemia, and only 42 per cent complete lower-secondary education.

CAMBODIA POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAMME (2012)

Total: $4.84 million

$2.16 million Regular Resources, 45%

$2.68 million

Other Resources Regular, 55%

UNICEF’s response Having concluded that budgetary efficiency and allocation is a key determinant for the deprivation of children and women, UNICEF moved to the centre of this national effort in 2012 by joining the Technical Working Group of the ongoing Public Financial Management Reforms, and by adopting social budgeting advocacy as a priority within its Country Management Plan. In this way, UNICEF aims to partner with economic and finance ministries and agencies to apply a systematic approach to address budgetary inefficiencies, and thereby help social line ministries access more government funding. Today, UNICEF is entering into a more comprehensive partnership with the Supreme National Economic Council (SNEC), the main government advisory body, and with the Ministry of Economics and Finance (MEF). At the same time, it is working to ensure that disadvantaged children can actually access basic social services.

The value of Regular Resources Regular Resources give UNICEF Cambodia the technical capacity and the programmatic flexibility to build and reshape the country office as needed. For example, with unrestricted resources the office has entered into two strategic partnership agreements with the SNEC and the MEF – focusing on social protection and education research, and on developing results-based budgeting capacity within the social sector line ministries.

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Voices from the field The Cambodia Child Tracker Bulletin – the first-ever produced by a government agency in Cambodia – aims at bridging gaps between the policy and practice of child rights, at highlighting the challenges of delivering services, and at focusing attention on the need for increased investment. It was through this system that a survey team identified 12-year-old Keatha, whose father had died and whose bed-ridden mother was unable to care and provide for him and his five siblings. This bright boy would have dropped out of school had he and his siblings not been categorized as orphans and vulnerable children, and thus become entitled to government assistance.


humanitarian action and post-crisis recovery “Thanks to the flexibility of Regular Resources, UNICEF was able to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies in Yemen, Sudan, and the State of Palestine – ensuring that children continued their schooling and benefitted from nutrition and clean water. Regular Resources were also instrumental in jump-starting our humanitarian assistance to displaced children and women within and outside the Syrian Arab Republic.” — Maria Calivis, UNICEF Regional Director, Middle East and North Africa

The need Across the globe, millions of children and women continued to feel the brunt of complex emergencies, natural disasters, and chronic humanitarian crises. Among these is the ongoing armed conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, which has affected nearly 4 million people, almost half of them children, and which has regional implications due to the increasing refugee caseload. The nutrition and food crisis in the Sahel belt of West Africa affected some 1.1 million children under five years who suffered from severe acute malnutrition. And the conflict in Mali displaced families internally and prompted a refugee emergency in surrounding vulnerable countries. In this extremely challenging environment, UNICEF and its partners have continued to operate despite issues of access, staff security, and reduced financial resources.

UNICEF’s response In 2012, UNICEF and its partners responded to 286 humanitarian situations of varying degrees in 79 countries, providing support in the areas of health and nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene; child protection; education; and HIV/AIDS – as well as to inter-agency and national coordination structures. In addition, working with its partners UNICEF has continued to address and strengthen emergency preparedness in the organization’s country offices, and has increasingly integrated peacebuilding into its country programmes. Learning from emergencies such as those in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa, UNICEF has also strengthened its internal and inter-agency systems and its collaboration with more than 1,200 partners in the field.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2012)

Total: $55 million

$31 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 57%

$24 million

Reimbursed (OR), 43%

Key Results IN 2012 • In its response to the Sahel crisis, UNICEF supported the Ministries of Health and NGO partners to establish nutrition services in 4,838 health facilities for more than 920,000 children under five suffering from severe acute malnutrition; provided 7.3 million families with insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria; and vaccinated 1.9 million children against measles. • In the Syrian Arab Republic, more than 1.4 million children were vaccinated against measles; 263,000 people received winter supplies, including medicines and non-food items; 79,000 school-aged children were provided access to an uninterrupted education; and 47,000 children obtained psychosocial support. • In Yemen, UNICEF assisted in the community and facility-level screening, management, and treatment of some 100,000 children under five with severe acute malnutrition, and provided micronutrient supplements to nearly 3.5 million children. • Globally, therapeutic feeding programmes treated 2.11 million severely malnourished children, including those in the Sahel, and 43.8 million children were reached with disease prevention interventions. • Access to safe water for drinking, cooking, and bathing was provided to some 18.8 million people. • Through UNICEF support, 65.4 million children aged 6–59 months received vitamin A supplements worldwide.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

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CASE STUDY 11:

JORDAN

PROVIDING EMERGENCY SUPPORT FOR SYRIAN REFUGEES

“In partnership with UNICEF, Save the Children International has established 14 child-friendly spaces and three youth-friendly spaces in the Za’atari refugee camp, and these have had a huge positive impact on the lives of the children.” —Dima Hunaiti, Child Protection Coordinator, Save the Children International

The need When the Government of Jordan established a refugee camp in Za’atari to accommodate the rising number of Syrians fleeing into the country in 2012, it turned to UNICEF to take the lead in the areas of education, child potection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene. In five short months, the Za’atari camp was transformed from an empty patch of desert to a camp hosting 55,000 refugees, including an estimated 30,000 children. Interventions to protect children are crucial during an emergency, when families are forced to abandon their homes, communities, and livelihoods, and when children may become separated. An estimated one third of all children in Za’atari have lost at least one family member in the conflict.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2012)

Total: $9.4 million

$2.6 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 28%

$6.8 million Reimbursed (OR), 72%

UNICEF’s response UNICEF very quickly established domestic and drinking water points, washing/bathing areas, toilets, handwashing facilities, solid waste management, and hygiene promotion activities. In addition, the organization created “child-friendly spaces” where children could play safely and where UNICEF partners could identify and assist families in need of psychosocial support. In order to reach children most at risk, UNICEF and its partners established community-based protection committees, and deployed social workers for detection of cases of violence and abuse. In coordination with other UN agencies, the organization also identified and registered children who were separated or unaccompanied, and provided interim care for those who could not be reunited with their families.

The value of Regular Resources While the international community witnessed the escalating crisis with alarm, donor resources took weeks to arrive. Regular Resources ensured that UNICEF was immediately able to mobilize its capacities and ensure that it was at the forefront of this major relief operation. As a result, children’s needs were quickly addressed at the onset of the crisis and have remained at the core of the overall response effort.

38

UNICEF

Voices from the field “My name is Dina. I’m 11 and I have been living in the Za’atari camp for six months. I’m here with my parents, my two brothers and two sisters, my grandmother, and my uncles and cousins. I’m the youngest in the family! Life in the camp is fine, though I hope to go back home. What I like is that I feel safe and that I’m together with my family. I am in the fifth grade. When I am not in school, I often go to a playground that was built by UNICEF and Save the Children. I have met many new girls there, and we talk about where we are from, what colour or what kind of food we like….”


CASE STUDY 12:

MADAGASCAR

ENSURING EDUCATION AND BASIC SOCIAL SERVICES IN EMERGENCIES

“Cyclone Giovanna altered the lives of tens of thousands of people who were already poor and vulnerable. But thanks to UNICEF’s quick response, we were able to provide the affected populations with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in the immediate aftermath of the disaster.” —R amihaja Vonintosa Marie Pierrette, Regional Director, Ministry of Water, Antsinanana Region

The need

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2012) 19

Total: $0.5 million

Second only to Comoros, Madagascar is the African country most exposed to climatic shocks, and is regularly affected by cyclones, floods, and drought. Further, an estimated one quarter of the population – some 5 million people – live in areas of risk. In the first quarter of 2012, Madagascar was hit by Cyclone Giovanna, a category 4 cyclone, which killed 35 people, injured 284, destroyed more than 44,000 homes, and displaced approximately 34,000 people. In total, nearly a quarter of a million residents were affected. Notably, Giovanna’s fury severely damaged health centres, essential medicines, education materials, and school infrastructure, affecting more than 77,000 school children.

$0.5 million Reimbursed (OR), 100%

UNICEF’s response Thanks to Regular Resources and pre-positioned supplies, UNICEF was able to respond immediately to the crisis. The initial emergency response provided 7,400 households with WASH kits; nearly 133,000 people received information about good hygiene practices as well as water treatment products for the home; 70 temporary latrines were set up at relocation sites; 400 tents were erected at 372 affected schools, enabling 20,000 children to restart their education; and nearly 1,200 children under five received free treatment for diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and other influenza-like illnesses.

The value of Regular Resources Madagascar’s ongoing political crisis has resulted in the suspension of most external assistance to the country, and has reduced the capacity of Malagasy authorities to effectively respond to emergencies. In this context, unrestricted Regular Resources proved critical in supporting UNICEF’s rapid response to the emergency. Now, as Madagascar finds itself again in the middle of cyclone season, UNICEF is appealing to donors in order to prepare its humanitarian response in this hazard-prone country.

19

Voices from the field Marie Helene and her classmates could have easily lost a full year of school, had it not been for the immediate response by UNICEF and its partners. Together, they helped construct temporary classroom tents – called tarpatents – which allow children to continue their primary education while solid school structures are being rebuilt. Kamisy Leonard, chief of the local school authority, noted that 80 per cent of the classrooms in the district were destroyed. “The cyclone didn’t find much resistance because the school buildings had been constructed from very light materials, such as wood and reeds,” he explained. “Without UNICEF’s support, we would never have finished the school year!”

The entire $500,000 EPF loan of Regular Resources was repaid with subsequent earmarked donations.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

39


ABOUT OUR DONORS


A girl stands in a field where she works, in the village of Djorbana, Zanzan Region, Côte d’Ivoire. She does not attend school.


UNICEF derives its revenue entirely from the voluntary contributions of governments and private donors. These consist of unrestricted Regular Resources (RR), the organization’s preferred type of revenue, and restricted Other Resources (OR), which donors can direct to specific programmes according to their interests or priorities. Such unrestricted and restricted resources complement one another, and it is the balance between these two funding modalities that allows UNICEF to drive its agenda for children and to commit to predictable results. Specifically, Regular Resources enable the organization to invest in new programming, upon which many of its earmarked programmes are subsequently built. Further, the larger the share of Regular Resources, the lower are UNICEF’s transaction costs and the greater are the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in reaching the most vulnerable.

government donors, foundations, non-governmental organizations, global funds, multi-donor trust funds, and private-public partnerships. Many donors are also directing their funding to specific programmes in line with their own priorities. UNICEF therefore has an even greater need to secure and leverage additional unrestricted Regular Resources, as well as high-grade earmarked Other Resources – global and local – from a broader funding base. REVENUE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES (2012) Regular Resources accounted for 32 per cent of total revenue in 2012. In the face of continuing funding challenges, UNICEF’s leadership role in child-related priorities in the years to come will continue to depend on securing a strong and reliable core revenue base.

Total: $3,958 million

A diversified donor base helps to reduce dependency on a limited number of funding sources and protects the sustainability of UNICEF’s global mission. Such diversity is especially important because the aid environment has become increasingly complex, with both new donors and new funding modalities. These include new

$1,260 million Regular Resources, 32%

$2,698 million Other Resources, 68%

REVENUE TRENDS BY TYPE OF RESOURCES (2003–2012)1 UNICEF’s revenue has more than doubled over the past decade, thanks largely to increases in Other Resources. It is important to see an increase in Regular Resources or high-quality Other Resources if UNICEF is to promote and protect the rights of all children efficiently and effectively. 3,000

USD million

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

2003

2004

Other Resources

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Regular Resources

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

2003

2004

Other Resources

1

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Regular Resources

Limits on comparability: A meaningful analysis of trends in revenue from one period to the next requires comparable data. The change in accounting standards in 2012 from the United Nations System Accounting Standards (UNSAS) to the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) may not allow meaningful comparisons between 2012 figures and prior years as historical trend data could not be restated.

All amounts in this report are in US dollars. Further, all dollar values and percentages have been rounded.

42

UNICEF


In 2012, UNICEF donors contributed $3,958 million, an 8 per cent increase over 2011.2 In all, 92 governments contributed $2,621 million (66 per cent of total revenue) directly to UNICEF or through inter-governmental organizations, such as the European Commission, and inter-organizational arrangements, which are government contributions to UNICEF through other UN agencies.3 Revenue from private sources and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) was $1,261 million (32 per cent of total revenue).4 This latter figure includes $941 million (24 per cent of total revenue) from

36 National Committees – UNICEF’s network of national NGOs – which mobilize resources through fundraising appeals and ongoing relationships with individuals, civil society groups, companies, and foundations, as well as through the organization’s cards and products operations; $99 million (2.5 per cent) through UNICEF country offices and private sector revenue provided directly to UNICEF Headquarters; and $220 million (5.6 per cent) through Global Programme Partnerships and NGOs other than the National Committees.

TOTAL REVENUE BY SOURCE (2012)

TOTAL RR REVENUE BY SOURCE (2012) In 2012 governments provided 48 per cent of UNICEF’s Regular Resources, and private sector sources and NGOs contributed 46 per cent.5

Total: $3,958 million

$2,271 million

Governments and intergovernmental organizations, 57%

Total: $1,260 million

$350 million

$601 million

Inter-organizational arrangements, 9%

$1,261 million

Governments, 48%

$76 million

Private sector and NGOs, 46%

$583 million

Private sector and NGOs, 32% Other, 2%

$76 million Other, 6%

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR REVENUE TRENDS (2003–2012) 6 2,000

USD million

1,800 1,600 1,400

Asian Tsunami

1,200

Haiti Earthquake

1,000 800 600 400 200 0

2003 Public Sector OR Public Sector RR

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Private Sector OR Private Sector RR

2

UNICEF receives contributions from public and private sector donors, including contributions made in cash and made in kind. The 8 per cent increase over 2011 refers to contributions made in cash and received by UNICEF in 2012.

3

Contributions from inter-organizational arrangements have come through the following sources: FAO, IOM, PAHO, UNAIDS, UNDG, UNDP, UNDPKO, UNDSS, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UN Human Security Trust Fund, UNMAS, UN Office Geneva, UNOCHA, UNOPS, UN Secretariat, UN Women, WFP, WHO, World Bank (including the Global Partnership for Education), as well as UN Joint Programmes where UNICEF is the Administrative Agent.

4

The remaining 2 per cent includes revenue from interest and miscellaneous revenue, such as small donations and gains/losses on foreign exchange transactions.

5

National Committees contributed $563 million (44.7 per cent) in Regular Resources; other private sources (including revenue from individuals, corporations, and foundations provided directly to UNICEF) and NGOs contributed $20 million (1.6 per cent). ‘Other’ includes interest revenue, foreign exchange gains and losses, and other revenue.

6

Limits on comparability: A meaningful analysis of trends in revenue from one period to the next requires comparable data. The change in accounting standards in 2012 from the United Nations System Accounting Standards (UNSAS) to the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) may not allow meaningful comparisons between 2012 figures and prior years as historical trend data could not be restated.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

43


TOP 20 GOVERNMENT, INTER-GOVERNMENTAL, AND NATIONAL COMMITTEE DONORS (2012) Among the top 20 donors to UNICEF in 2012, ten were governments and nine were National Committees. The ratio of RR to OR revenue varies considerably among these donors, with eight providing more than 50 per cent of their funding as RR. The three largest RR donors as a percentage of total contributions were the National Committees of Japan, France, and the Netherlands. DONOR 1 United Kingdom

Donor Type

RR (USD million)

RR (%)

OR (USD million)

OR (%)

Total (USD million)

Government

63

19%

271

81%

335

2 United States of America Government

132

39%

202

61%

334

81

34%

154

66%

234 228

3 Norway

Government

4 European Commission

Inter-governmental

-â&#x20AC;&#x2019;

-

228

100%

5 Japan

Government

17

9%

180

91%

197

6 Canada

Government

18

10%

162

90%

180

7 Sweden

Government

70

43%

91

57%

161

8 Japan

National Committee

130

86%

21

14%

151

9 Netherlands

Government

42

34%

82

66%

124

National Committee

69

73%

26

27%

95

10 France 11 Germany

National Committee

47

53%

41

47%

89

12 Australia

Government

36

40%

52

60%

88

13 United States of America National Committee

20

25%

60

75%

80

14 Netherlands

National Committee

53

70%

23

30%

77

15 Sweden

National Committee

35

54%

30

46%

65

16 Republic of Korea

National Committee

43

67%

21

33%

64

17 Germany

Government

18 United Kingdom

National Committee

8

13%

53

87%

61

18

31%

40

69%

58

19 Denmark

Government

29

54%

25

46%

54

20 Italy

National Committee

27

54%

24

46%

51

TOP 20 DONOR COUNTRIES (2012) The following list shows the top 20 donor countries, aggregating public and private sector contributions. COUNTRY

1 United States 2 United Kingdom

Public Sector

Private Sector OR (USD million)

Total (USD million)

RR (USD million)

OR (USD million)

RR (USD million)

132

202

20

60

414

63

271

18

40

392 348

3 Japan

17

180

130

21

4 Norway

81

154

6

4

244

5 Sweden

70

91

35

30

226

6 Netherlands

42

82

53

23

201

7 Canada

18

162

7

5

192

8 Germany

8

53

47

41

149

9 France

1

18

69

26

115

10 Australia

36

52

7

9

104

11 Denmark

29

25

9

8

71

12 Republic of Korea

3

3

43

21

71

13 Italy

â&#x20AC;&#x2019;-

12

27

24

63

14 Spain

4

8

31

18

60

21

20

13

5

60

16 Belgium

25

14

8

7

54

17 Switzerland

22

11

6

13

51

18 Ireland

11

15

2

3

31

19 Argentina

<1

-

7

12

18

20 Thailand

<1

-

3

11

14

15 Finland

44

UNICEF


TOP 20 GOVERNMENT RR DONORS (2012) Among the top 20 government RR donors, the United States provided $132 million, followed by Norway with $81 million and Sweden with $70 million. Countries 1

United States

2

Norway

3 4

TOP 20 NATIONAL COMMITTEE RR DONORS (2012) Among the top 20 National Committee RR donors, Japan provided $130 million, followed by France with $69 million and the Netherlands with $53 million.

RR (USD million)

Countries and territories

RR (USD million)

132

1

Japan

130

81

2

France

69

Sweden

70

3

Netherlands

53

United Kingdom

63

4

Germany

47

5

Netherlands

42

5

Republic of Korea

43

6

Australia

36

6

Sweden

35

7

Denmark

29

7

Spain

31

8

Belgium

25

8

Italy

27

9

Switzerland

22

9

United States

20

10

Finland

21

10

United Kingdom

18

11

Canada

18

11

Finland

13

12

Japan

17

12

Denmark

9

13

Ireland

11

13

Belgium

8

14

Germany

8

14

Canada

7

15

New Zealand

5

15

Hong Kong, China

7

16

Spain

4

16

Australia

7

17

Luxembourg

4

17

Norway

6

18

Republic of Korea

3

18

Switzerland

6

19

Austria

1

19

Austria

5

20

France

1

20

Greece

4

Report on Regular Resources 2012

45


Regular Resources partners and donors 20 (in US dollars) REGULAR RESOURCES Donor

Afghanistan Andorra Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Ecuador Estonia Finland France Germany Gibraltar Greece Guyana Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan Kuwait Lithuania Liechtenstein Luxembourg Malaysia Mexico Monaco Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway

Public Sector Government 1,000 98,685 25,000 6,000 35,594,944 1,460,822 34,500 4,000 24,747,565 10,000 40,400 18,000,000 77,000 1,300,000 11,426 10,000 29,054,750 5,000 61,392 21,144,260 1,328,020 8,076,870 10,098 29,998 16,503 112,043 487,492 772,540 210,000 10,991,936 110,000 17,300,374 100,000 200,000 55,127 3,519,253 284,000 214,000 10,502 11,000 76,205 2,000 1,841 42,288,520 4,535,160 1,000 127,000 80,545,500

Private Sector 21 National Committees

285,122 6,835,048 4,691,475 8,018,537 7,166,999 2,237,352 9,268,513 90,200 13,291,035 69,393,474 47,422,248 3,776,468 7,114,188 59,706 2,170,690 1,970,008 29,480 27,452,050 129,923,654 38,756 1,396,155 53,481,916 2,823,029 6,007,319

Other Contributions

6,562,308 51,710 19,526 73,632 11,068 45,172 527,791 812,700 39,601 1,034 526,823 321,411 4,096,284 30,086 -

20

Provisional unaudited figures.

21

Includes revenue from sales of cards and other UNICEF products and from private sector fundraising.

46

UNICEF

Total

1,000 383,807 6,587,308 6,000 42,429,992 6,152,297 34,500 4,000 32,766,102 51,710 29,526 40,400 25,166,999 150,632 1,311,068 45,172 11,426 527,791 10,000 812,700 2,237,352 38,323,263 44,601 151,592 34,435,295 70,721,494 55,499,118 1,034 3,776,468 10,098 29,998 7,130,691 171,749 2,658,182 1,299,363 531,411 12,961,944 139,480 27,452,050 147,224,028 100,000 200,000 38,756 55,127 4,915,408 4,380,284 244,086 10,502 11,000 76,205 2,000 1,841 95,770,436 7,358,189 1,000 127,000 86,552,819


REGULAR RESOURCES Donor

Pakistan Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Serbia Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Thailand Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Miscellaneous Revenue adjustments to prior years Subtotal Non-governmental organizations Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, Japan Miscellaneous Subtotal Other revenue 22 TOTAL REVENUE

22

Public Sector Government 65,066 62,603 105,452 200,000 100,000 3,200,000 2,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 50,000 12,497 30,144 3,808,218 15,500 69,974,400 21,598,200 247,172 28,572 150,000 3,000 100,000 63,492,400 131,755,000 21,400 -

Private Sector National Committees

Other Contributions

Total

67,354 3,204,129 43,066,582 1,297,763 30,601,465 34,805,625 5,831,830 803,799 17,829,794 19,899,939 -

38,421 414,615 256,367 5,592 2,847,230 12,156 3,911 201,080 2,300,434

65,066 38,421 477,218 172,806 3,404,129 100,000 46,266,582 2,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 256,367 50,000 12,497 1,297,763 35,736 34,409,683 15,500 104,780,025 27,430,030 3,094,402 40,728 953,799 3,000 103,911 81,322,194 151,654,939 222,480 2,300,434

13,700 105,280 557,650

300,134

363,056 -

13,700 468,336 857,784

600,801,980

562,651,835

19,562,009

1,183,015,824

600,801,980

562,651,835

381,128 6,394 505,994 20,068,004

381,128 6,394 505,994 76,365,999 1,259,887,817

Includes interest revenue, foreign exchange gains and losses, and other revenue.

Report on Regular Resources 2012

47


Photo credits

Acknowledgments

cover

This document was prepared by UNICEF’s Private Fundraising and Partnerships (PFP) Division in collaboration with the Public Sector Alliances and Resource Mobilization Office (PARMO).

© UNICEF/SRLA2010-0087/Asselin

page 3

© UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0697/Markisz

page 8

© UNICEF/MLIA2012-00788/Bindra

page 18

© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0206/Romenzi

page 21 © UNICEF/MLWB2011-00336/Noorani © UNICEF/NYHQ2005-1020/ © UNICEF/INDA2012-00613/Singh © UNICEF/CBDA2008-00021/Noorani page 23

© UNICEF/Leonie Marinovich/2009

page 24

© UNICEF/Myanmar/2012

page 26

©U  NICEF/Burundi/2012

page 27

©U  NICEF/Maldives/2012

page 29

©U  NICEF/Chad/2012

page 30

©U  NICEF/Jamaica/2012

page 32

©U  NICEF/Costa Rica/2012

page 33

©U  NICEF/Tajikistan/2012

page 35

©U  NICEF/Armenia/2012

page 36

© UNICEF/Cambodia/2012

page 38

© UNICEF/Jordan/2012

page 39

© UNICEF/Madagascar/2012

page 40

© UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2471/Asselin

The authors of this report would like to thank the many people from the country and regional offices who provided advice and contributions throughout the production process. We would also like to acknowledge the following UNICEF Divisions for their review and comments on the various chapters: Division of Communication, Division of Financial and Administrative Management, Division of Policy and Strategy, Office of Emergency Programmes, Programme Division, and the Office of the Executive Director.

Resources

credits

A video on Regular Resources can be found online at: www.tinyurl.com/regularresources

Editor: John Tessitore

An electronic version of this report can be found online at: For UNICEF staff: www.intranet.unicef.org/geneva/fundraising.nsf/pageid/fund09a

Production: Strijbos Graphic Group BV, Netherlands. FSC-STD-40-004 (V2-0) FSC Standard for Chain of Custody Certification. Certified since June 2009. SGS Ref # NL09/81819611

For National Committees: www4.intranet.unicef.org/geneva/fundraising.nsf/pageid/fund09a For public access: Scan this QR code or visit www.unicef.org/publications FSC is an independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests. ISBN 978-92-806-4699-3 © United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), June 2013 48

UNICEF


UNICEF Palais des Nations 1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland UNICEF House 3 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 U.S.A. www.unicef.org rrreport@unicef.org


Report on Regular Resources 2012