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RESULTS FOR CHILDREN


Cover: A young Ivorian refugee suffering from

FOREWORD

malaria sits on a bed at the UNICEF-supported Martha Tubman Hospital in the town of Janzon in Grand Gedeh County, Liberia.

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ABOUT OUR DONORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HOW UNICEF SPENDS ITS REGULAR RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Programme assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strategic and innovative activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocation of Regular Resources in support of the equity agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Programme Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 14 16 17 18

RESULTS FOR CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Focus Area 1: Young child survival and development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Case study 1: Afghanistan Reducing neonatal, infant, and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Case study 2: Democratic Republic of the Congo Promoting integrated child survival approaches at the community level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Case study 3: Iran Integrating nutrition into routine health programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Focus Area 2: Basic education and gender equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Case study 4: Ethiopia Tackling disparities in education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Case study 5: Lebanon Ensuring quality primary education for all Palestinian children . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Case study 6: United Republic of Tanzania Providing education to marginalized children . . . . . . . . . 30 Focus Area 3: HIV/AIDS and children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Case study 7: Belize Reducing the socio-economic vulnerability of adolescent girls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Case study 8: Mozambique Reaching those most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Case study 9: Nigeria Addressing the challenge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Focus Area 4: Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Case study 10: Cameroon Changing the child protection environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Case study 11: Pakistan Building a child protection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Case study 12: Uzbekistan Working to keep families united . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Focus Area 5: Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Case study 13: Burkina Faso Developing a national social protection policy for children . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Case study 14: India Delivering basic services through community empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Case study 15: Uganda Reaching marginalized children through effective policy-making . . . . . . . . . . 42

UNICEF’s ability to reach the children, families, and communities in greatest need depends on the generosity and commitment of donors: governments, civil society, private citizens, and private sector partners all over the world. As this report shows, these partnerships and the unrestricted Regular Resources they supply enable us to provide millions of children with lifesaving vaccines, bed nets, and micronutrients; safe drinking water and basic sanitation; education; and protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. These core resources also strengthen our response in emergencies, enabling us to act quickly and effectively when crises strike. In some of the most difficult operating environments, Regular Resources are usually the very first funding that our country offices can use in the hours and days immediately following the onset of a crisis. And Regular Resources are essential to our commitment to equity, aimed at giving all children, wherever and whoever they may be, the opportunity to survive and thrive. Because these funds are unrestricted, they can be shifted as required to cover funding gaps, support vital services, or address specific challenges. They enable our country offices to invest in and scale-up innovative programmes, products, processes, and partnerships – all of which can help accelerate our progress to access the hardest to reach. This is critically important as we support the efforts of governments to achieve the Millennium Development Goals – and as we work with all our partners to define and advance the post-2015 agenda. This report details UNICEF’s 2011 Regular Resources income and expenditure trends, and includes 18 case studies that illustrate our work across our five Focus Areas and humanitarian action. We are enormously grateful that donor support to UNICEF has more than doubled over the past decade, enabling us to reach millions more children than ever before. But the ratio of these core resources to overall income continues to decline – a troubling trend. In an environment of continued fiscal austerity and shrinking budgets, we need the support of our donors more than ever. At the same time, we understand that we must become ever more efficient, effective, and innovative in all our work, making the best possible use of the funds entrusted to us… knowing that every dollar saved can help buy a vaccine, or a bed net, or a school book. The support of our donors has never been more important. We thank you for recognizing the critical importance of unrestricted resources – and more, for your continued commitment to our shared goal: achieving results in the lives of the world’s most vulnerable children. Together, we are helping to fulfil their rights to survive, thrive, and make the most of their potential.

Humanitarian action and post-crisis recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Case study 16: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Combatting malnutrition in under-five children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Anthony Lake Executive Director, UNICEF

Case study 17: Liberia Ensuring education in emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Case study 18: Philippines Bolstering disaster preparedness and response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

REGULAR RESOURCES PARTNERS AND DONORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside back cover

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

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ACRONYMS

CEE/CIS . . . . . . . . Central/Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States DPRK . . . . . . . . . . Democratic People’s Republic of Korea DRC . . . . . . . . . . . . Democratic Republic of the Congo EMOPS . . . . . . . . . Office of Emergency Programmes EPF . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Programme Fund FAO . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Agriculture Organization LDC . . . . . . . . . . . . Least developed country MDG(s) . . . . . . . . . Millennium Development Goal(s) MENA . . . . . . . . . . Middle East and North Africa MTSP . . . . . . . . . . Medium-term Strategic Plan NGO . . . . . . . . . . . Non-governmental organization OR . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Resources (restricted) OVC . . . . . . . . . . . Orphans and vulnerable children PAHO . . . . . . . . . . Pan American Health Organization RR . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regular Resources (unrestricted) UNAIDS . . . . . . . . Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDG . . . . . . . . . . United Nations Development Group UNDP . . . . . . . . . . United Nations Development Programme UNEP . . . . . . . . . . United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO . . . . . . . United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNFPA . . . . . . . . . United Nations Population Fund UN-HABITAT . . . . United Nations Human Settlements Programme UNHCR . . . . . . . . . United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF . . . . . . . . . United Nations Children’s Fund UNMAS . . . . . . . . United Nations Mine Action Service UNOCHA . . . . . . . United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UNODC . . . . . . . . . United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNOPS . . . . . . . . . United Nations Office for Project Services UNRWA . . . . . . . . UN Relief and Works Agency USD . . . . . . . . . . . United States dollars WASH . . . . . . . . . . Water, sanitation, and hygiene WFP . . . . . . . . . . . World Food Programme

Regular Resources (RR) – that is, funds contributed with­out any restrictions on their use – are critical to UNICEF’s extensive operations worldwide. They are the core resources that enable the organization to promote the fulfilment of the rights of all children in all situations. They enable UNICEF to participate in all phases of the development cycle and humanitarian assistance, including emergencies, post-conflict settings, and recovery environments. Only through Regular Resources can UNICEF be assured of steady and predictable funding, which in turn allows the organization to undertake its work with a measure of certainty and continuity. In 2011, 60 per cent of Regular Resources were spent in least developed countries, where nearly half the population is under 18 years of age and the needs of the disadvantaged are greatest. And while these nations are the “richest” in terms of their numbers of children, they are the most challenged in terms of child survival and development – home to the highest rates of child mortality and the poorest access to such basic social services as education; health care; safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene; and child protection. Regular Resources are equally critical in helping UNICEF and its partners to develop and strengthen laws, systems, services, policies, and standards that promote and protect the rights of children. UNICEF has a long-term and highly-developed global presence that reaches even to the most remote areas of the world. Many of the more than 150 countries and territories in which it works, however, are out of the public spotlight, and consequently do not attract muchneeded donor attention. Given this situation, Regular Resources are essential in enabling the organization to provide stability and continuity for all its country programmes of cooperation – maintaining offices

and the specialized expertise to support programmes for children, and using this in-country presence to promote robust local and international partnerships, as well as to support one of the largest supply networks in the world. All these components form the building blocks of better results for children. Regular Resources play a pivotal role in enabling UNICEF to quickly respond to changing circumstances or emerging challenges. Because these funds are unearmarked, they can be easily moved from programme to programme, or within programmes, covering essential supplies, services, and technical expertise that may not be addressed by restricted donations. This has been the case with UNICEF’s equity agenda, whereby tens of millions of dollars have been redirected to focus on the needs and rights of the most marginalized children. Regular Resources, for instance, have funded the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and other essential tools that have facilitated the monitoring of results for equity, which are central to the success of this agenda. Regular Resources enable UNICEF to respond quickly to emergencies, particularly in fragile states that face new security risks or natural disasters. At a time when UNICEF is called upon to respond to an increasing number of humanitarian crises throughout the world, it is these unrestricted resources that ensure the organization’s quick response and rapid implementation. UNICEF’s Emergency Programme Fund (EPF), for instance, is a $75 million RR revolving fund that is available to country offices in the days and even hours immediately following the onset of a crisis. Countries such as Liberia, Pakistan, and Somalia were among those that benefitted from the EPF in 2011.

WHO . . . . . . . . . . . World Health Organization

UNICEF

2

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

3


UNICEF is also uniquely placed – because of Regular Resources – to simultaneously support the delivery of services to the most vulnerable groups and to work at all levels of government to inform and shape policies that address the specific needs of children and women. UNICEF’s presence at the grassroots level, working with partners in local communities, informs and enhances its engagement at the government and senior decision-making level. Importantly, Regular Resources also help to ensure UNICEF’s independence, neutrality, and role as a trusted partner to all parties, including national governments and non-state actors. RR funds are not driven by any individual donor priorities or agendas, enabling the organization to focus on implementing programmes and delivering the best quality services for children, often in challenging environments. In a world where comprehensive and up-to-date data is essential to success, UNICEF is the unrivalled source of information on the global situation of children, combining local understanding with global knowledge to provide innovative and timely solutions. With more than 65 years of experience, the organization has an extraordinary level of technical expertise that is backed by a

network of highly skilled field staff in public health, disease prevention, logistics, nutrition, water and sanitation, child protection, human rights, education, gender, and emergency response. UNICEF offices are able to undertake these activities utilizing information gathered through tried and tested data collection and survey methodologies as well as monitoring and reporting tools. The organization’s ability to undertake this important work, however, is largely dependent on Regular Resources, which allow for consistent and world-class technical expertise, operational support, monitoring and evaluation, data collection, and reporting. Simply put, the value of RR funding cannot be overstated. It increases programmatic and cost efficiencies, which are critical in an era of tighter fiscal budgets. It lessens the administrative burden on the organization, host countries, implementing partners, and donors alike. It ensures a global and adequate country presence. It secures a platform for countrydriven programme activities and allows UNICEF to invest in innovative programmes that can later be scaled-up. And it is UNICEF’s most effective funding tool as it seeks to reach children around the globe, fairly and equitably, with services that enable them to grow, develop, and thrive.

REGULAR RESOURCES ALLOW UNICEF TO WORK FOR ALL CHILDREN – EVERYWHERE, ALL THE TIME, AND WITH EQUITY – BY: • maintaining a global presence • reaching those most in need • responding rapidly to emergencies • implementing programmes with predictability and continuity • protecting the rights of the most vulnerable children • influencing the development of national laws and policies in favour of children • disseminating cutting-edge knowledge on the global situation of children • innovating and advancing solutions on behalf of children • investing in new projects that can be brought to scale to reach more children • addressing children’s immediate needs and those of future generations

• engaging in all phases of the development cycle • allocating funds to priority programmes based on a proven allocation formula • implementing programmes independently, flexibly, and impartially • increasing overall efficiency by lessening the administrative burden on UNICEF and its partners • reducing transaction costs associated with managing donor relations • partnering with governments, development agencies, civil society, the corporate sector, and local communities

A boy holds a new backpack during a ceremony launching the 2011–2012 school year at the UNICEF-assisted Tabarre School in Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti.

UNICEF

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REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

5


UNICEF derives its income entirely from the voluntary contributions of governments and private donors. These consist of unrestricted Regular Resources (RR), the organization’s preferred type of income, and restricted Other Resources (OR), which donors can direct to specific programmes according to their interests or priorities. Such unrestricted and restricted resources are complementary to one another, and it is the balance between these two funding modalities that allows UNICEF to drive its agenda for children and to commit to predictable results. Regular Resources enable the organization to invest in new programming from which many of its earmarked programmes are subsequently built. Further, the higher the share of Regular Resources, the lower are UNICEF’s transaction costs and the greater the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in reaching those who are most vulnerable.

such as the European Commission and inter-organizational arrangements, which are government contributions to UNICEF through other UN agencies.2 Income from private sources and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) was $1,089 million (29 per cent of total contributions).3 This latter figure includes $813 million (22 per cent of total contributions) from 36 National Committees – UNICEF’s network of national NGOs – which mobilize resources through fundraising appeals and ongoing relationships with individuals, civil society

groups, companies, and foundations, as well as through the organization’s cards and gifts operations. A further $276 million (7 per cent of total contributions) was raised through UNICEF country offices, private sector income provided directly to UNICEF Headquarters, and donations from other NGOs. There were significant variances in the type of income received in 2011 as compared to the previous year primarily due to the impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods. Specifically, these two humanitarian crises led to a marked shift in Regular Resources to Other Resources in 2010, with RR declining $101

INCOME BY TYPE OF RESOURCES (2011) Total income remained relatively stable between 2010 and 2011, with Regular Resources as a share of total resources increasing from 26 per cent to 29 per cent. This was an encouraging trend, as donors acknowledged that UNICEF’s global presence and its capacity to provide leadership on child-related priorities largely depend on a strong and reliable core income base.

In 2011 governments, including such inter-governmental organizations as the European Commission, accounted for 61 per cent of UNICEF’s total resources. Another 8 per cent was received through inter-organizational arrangements. Private sector resources, including income from National Committees and NGOs, and funds raised through UNICEF country offices accounted for 29 per cent of the organization’s income.

$1,078 million

In 2011, UNICEF donors contributed $3,711 million, an increase of $29 million (1 per cent) over 2010.1 In all, 92 governments contributed $2,567 million (69 per cent of total contributions) in public sector income directly to UNICEF or through inter-governmental organizations

Regular Resources, 29%

In 2011 governments and inter-governmental organizations provided 60 per cent of UNICEF’s Regular Resources, and private sector sources and NGOs contributed 35 per cent.

Total: $1,078 million

$646 million

Governments and inter-governmental organizations, 60%

Total: $3,711 million

$2,260 million

$2,633 million

$377 million

Governments and intergovernmental organizations, 61%

Other Resources, 71%

Private sector and NGOs, 9 35%

$307 million

$55 million

Inter-organizational arrangements, 8%

INCOME TRENDS BY TYPE OF RESOURCES (2002–2011)

Other,10 5%

$1,089 million

Although income has more than doubled over the past decade, there has been a widening gap between restricted funds (OR) and unrestricted funds (RR). Despite a slight narrowing of this variance in 2011, there remains a disproportionately high level of Other Resources to Regular Resources. The gap between OR and RR must continue to narrow, and RR income must eventually even surpass OR income, if UNICEF is to promote and protect the rights of children effectively. 3,000

TOTAL RR INCOME BY SOURCE (2011) 8

TOTAL INCOME BY SOURCE (2011) 5

Total: $3,711 million

million (9 per cent) and OR increasing $527 million (24 per cent) over 2009.4 These figures underscore the ability of UNICEF’s donors to respond at scale to major emergencies. Income for 2011, however, witnessed a rebalancing of the RR and OR figures, with RR income increasing $113 million (12 per cent) over 2010 – including $71 million (12 per cent) from the public sector and $42 million (13 per cent) from the private sector. In the same year, OR contributions decreased $84 million (3 per cent), resulting from a $57 million (3 per cent) increase in public sector funding and a $141 million (17 per cent) reduction in private sector income.

Private sector and NGOs, 6 29%

$55 million

Million (USD)

Other,7 1%

2,500

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR INCOME TRENDS (2002–2011)11

2,000

Over the past decade annual public and private sector contributions to UNICEF have risen 181 per cent and 126 per cent, respectively. This commitment to increasing income to the organization is reflected in the results that UNICEF has achieved across the globe. There remains a concern, however, that Other Resources continue to rise at a significantly higher pace than unrestricted Regular Resources, especially given the international community’s commitment to the Paris Declaration to increase aid effectiveness by untying aid. As UNICEF continues to face the ongoing global economic crisis, it is critical that Regular Resources assume an increasingly higher share of total income.

1,500

Million (USD)

2,000 1,000

1,800 1,600

500

1,400 0

2002 Regular Resources Other Resources

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

ASIAN TSUNAMI

HAITI EARTHQUAKE

1,200 1,000 800 600

100%

400

80%

200

60%

0

40%

2002 Public Sector OR Public Sector RR

20% 0%

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Private Sector OR Private Sector RR

4

In 2010, private sector OR income increased 60 per cent and National Committee OR donations increased 76 per cent.

Regular Resources

5

Because of rounding, in some charts dollar values may not add up to their true total value; in other cases, the percentages may not add up to 100 per cent.

Other Resources

6

National Committees contributed $ 813 million (75 per cent); other private sources (including income from individuals, corporations, and foundations provided directly to UNICEF) and NGOs contributed $276 million (25 per cent).

7

Other income includes contributions from interest and miscellaneous sources, such as small donations and gains/losses on foreign exchange transactions.

8

RR figures include refunds and adjustments to income recognized in previous years.

9

National Committees contributed $ 365 million (97 per cent) in Regular Resources; other private sources (including income from individuals, corporations, and foundations provided directly to UNICEF) and NGOs contributed $11 million (3 per cent). The data in this chart includes all income after the cost of goods delivered and other operating expenses incurred by UNICEF’s Private Fundraising and Partnerships Division have been deducted.

1

Total public sector income in 2011 increased $128 million (5 per cent) and private sector income decreased $ 99 million (8 per cent).

2

Contributions from inter-organizational arrangements have come through the following sources: FAO, PAHO, UNAIDS, UNDG, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UN-HABITAT, UNHCR, UN Human Security Trust Fund, UNMAS, UNOCHA, UNODC, UNOPS, UNRWA, UN Secretariat, UN Women, WHO, World Bank, as well as UN Joint Programmes where UNICEF is the Administrative Agent.

3

The remaining 1.5 per cent includes contributions from interest and miscellaneous income, such as small donations and gains/losses on foreign exchange transactions.

UNICEF

6

2003

10

Other income includes contributions from interest and miscellaneous sources, such as small donations and gains/losses on foreign exchange transactions.

11

This chart includes income after the cost of goods delivered has been deducted. The 2006–2011 figures include income adjustments to prior years for public and private sector contributions.

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

7


TOP 20 GOVERNMENT, INTER-GOVERNMENTAL, AND NATIONAL COMMITTEE DONORS (2011)

TOP 20 GOVERNMENT RR DONORS (2011)

TOP 20 NATIONAL COMMITTEE RR DONORS (2011)

Among the top 20 donors to UNICEF in 2011, 13 were governments and seven were National Committees. The ratio of RR to OR income varies considerably among these donors, with the largest RR ratios belonging to the National Committees of Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Netherlands, and to the Government of Switzerland.

Among the top 20 government RR donors, the United States provided $132 million, followed by Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom with between $68 million and $76 million each.

Among the top 20 National Committee RR donors, Japan provided $104 million, followed by Germany, the Netherlands, the Republic of Korea, and France with between $41 million and $48 million each.

DONOR TYPE

RR (USD million)

RR (%)

United States

Government

132

United Kingdom

Government

68

Norway

Government Inter-Governmental

COUNTRY

European Commission

OR (USD million)

OR (%)

TOTAL (USD million)

38%

213

62%

345

United States

23%

223

77%

291

Norway

76

33%

150

67%

226

217

100%

RR (2010) (USD million)

RR (2011) (USD million)

148

104

50

48

RR (2010) (USD million)

RR (2011) (USD million)

132

132

70

76

Germany

Sweden

61

75

Netherlands

42

47

217

United Kingdom

33

68

Republic of Korea

25

42

COUNTRIES

COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES Japan

Japan

Government

18

9%

175

91%

193

Netherlands

43

48

France

38

41

Sweden

Government

75

43%

101

57%

176

Australia

25

35

Sweden

20

34

Netherlands

Government

48

34%

95

66%

143

Spain

29

29

Spain

25

29

Australia

Government

35

25%

103

75%

138

Denmark

28

29

United States

13

25

Canada

Government

19

14%

114

86%

132

Belgium

25

27

Italy

22

23

Japan

National Committee

104

81%

24

19%

128

Finland

22

23

Finland

12

13

Germany

National Committee

48

47%

54

53%

101

Switzerland

21

21

United Kingdom

3

11

United States

National Committee

25

29%

62

71%

87

Canada

17

19

Belgium

7

10

France

National Committee

41

50%

41

50%

82

Japan

15

18

Norway

6

7

Netherlands

National Committee

47

65%

25

35%

72

Ireland

10

12

Canada

1

6

Sweden

National Committee

34

48%

37

52%

71

Germany

8

6

Denmark

10

6

Republic of Korea

National Committee

42

68%

20

32%

62

New Zealand

4

5

Australia

4

6

Government

29

50%

28

50%

57

Luxembourg

4

4

Switzerland

12

6

National Committee

23

46%

27

54%

51

Italy

4

4

Hong Kong, China

10

5

Spain

Government

29

58%

21

42%

50

Republic of Korea

3

3

Austria

3

4

Belgium

Government

27

56%

21

44%

48

France

9

2

Greece

4

3

Denmark Italy

TOP 20 DONOR COUNTRIES (2011) The following list shows the top 20 donor countries, aggregating public and private sector contributions.

PUBLIC SECTOR DONOR United States United Kingdom

PRIVATE SECTOR

RR (USD million)

OR (USD million)

RR (USD million)

OR (USD million)

GRAND TOTAL

132

213

25

62

432

68

223

11

30

332

Japan

18

175

104

24

321

Sweden

75

101

34

37

248

Norway

76

150

7

9

241

Netherlands

48

95

47

25

215

Australia

35

103

6

8

151

Canada

19

114

6

9

148

Germany

7

21

48

54

129

France

2

18

41

41

102

Spain

29

21

30

18

98

Belgium

27

21

10

21

79

Republic of Korea

3

11

42

20

77

29

28

6

10

73

4

11

23

27

66

Finland

23

18

13

7

61

Switzerland

21

8

6

16

50

Ireland

Denmark Italy

12

11

1

8

32

Argentina

1

13

15

Haiti

14

14

UNICEF

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REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

9


UNICEF is guided by the fundamental principle that all children have equal rights. However, not all developing countries and communities receive adequate international financial and technical assistance to address the needs of their children and young populations. In some cases, countries are out of the public eye; in others, they do not meet the financing requirements of bilateral donors. Whatever the reason, Regular Resources ensure that UNICEF can address the basic needs of children, especially the most vulnerable, in the most remote corners of the globe. The largest share of Regular Resources contributes to Programme Assistance, which is spent by country and regional offices in cooperation with governments and other partners (e.g., local and international NGOs) to promote and realize the rights of children. These funds enable UNICEF to deliver more programmes in more countries than any other organization working for children. The balance of RR funds sustains UNICEF’s Support Budget, which includes costs associated

with implementing country programmes of cooperation and with regional programme management, support, and advocacy.12 It also includes costs of supporting the core structure and mission of the organization.13 The Support Budget is approved by the UNICEF Executive Board, which ensures that the percentage of resources allocated to these support functions remains a modest proportion of RR expenditure. TOTAL RR EXPENDITURE (2011)14 In 2011, $789 million (71 per cent) of Regular Resources was spent on Programme Assistance. The remaining $322 million (29 per cent) was spent on the organization’s Support Budget, including $107 million (10 per cent) on Management and Administration and $215 million (19 per cent) on Programme Support, the latter directly related to supporting country and regional offices to implement programmes in the field.

Total: $1,111 million

$789 million

Programme Assistance, 71%

$215 million

Programme Support, 19%

$107 million

Management and Administration, 10%

RR EXPENDITURE TRENDS (2002–2011) Between 2002 and 2011 the share of RR Programme Assistance directly reaching children more than doubled, while the share of the Support Budget dropped from 39 per cent to 29 per cent as a proportion of total RR expenditure. Between 2010 and 2011, Programme Assistance dropped $7 million (1 per cent), whereas the Support Budget increased $46 million (17 per cent). The Support Budget change includes an increase of $5 million (5 per cent) in Management and Administration as well as an increase of $41 million (24 per cent) in Programme Support. The latter figure represents significant RR investments in initiatives designed to create an ever-more efficient organizational structure. These include the development and global roll-out of VISION, an enterprise resource management system, which is an integrated platform for planning, monitoring, and reporting on resource use. It also includes investments around the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), whereby UNICEF now joins other parts of the United Nations system in complying with these principles of greater accountability and oversight. Further, RR was used to cover mandatory security costs in several field offices. The following expenditure trends highlight UNICEF’s commitment to maintaining effective and efficient operations and to continually improving its business practices in line with UN reform efforts. In many countries, for instance, UNICEF offices have now moved into shared premises or set up joint service agreements with other United Nations agencies. Among the 50 UNICEF offices with these arrangements, administrative expenses have dropped by about one third.

900

Million (USD)

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

A young girl writes on her chalkboard at a pre-school in

2002 2003 Programme Assistance Programme Support Management and Administration

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Bangladesh. UNICEF promotes children’s development within

12

This component of the Support Budget is Programme Support, which covers the activities of UNICEF organizational units whose primary functions are the development, formulation, delivery, and evaluation of the organization’s programmes. This will typically include units that provide backstopping of programmes, either on a technical, thematic, geographic, logistical, or administrative basis.

13

This component of the Support Budget is Management and Administration, which includes all costs that are not directly attributable to a particular programme, but are necessary to support the organization’s executive direction, oversight, communications, fundraising, financial, and human resources functions. They include corporate leadership and oversight, the safeguarding of financial resources entrusted to UNICEF, and the transparent utilization of such resources. They also ensure services to the more than 9,000 staff members implementing programmes in over 150 countries and territories.

14

RR expenditure figures include write-offs ($2 million) and Support Budget transfers that represent income taxes paid by UNICEF on behalf of citizens of governments that contribute to UNICEF’s Regular Resources ($19 million).

a joyful, safe, and child-friendly learning environment. UNICEF

10

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

11


PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE Funds for Programme Assistance at the country and regional level are distributed among the following six categories.

The following chart shows RR expenditure across the above-mentioned six categories.

$68 million

The UNICEF Executive Board established the current system for determining country programme planning levels for Regular Resources in 1997. For the past 15 years it has provided a measure of consistency and predictability in funding that has helped country offices plan their programmes, while concurrently demonstrating to the donor community that the organization’s planning processes are robust and thoughtfully considered.

$14 million

A number of principles guide the allocation of Regular Resources:

Total: $789 million

$689 million

1. Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation: These funds are allocated to UNICEF country programmes of cooperation based on three key indicators affecting children: gross national income per capita, under-five mortality rate, and child population.

Countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation, 87%

2. Strategic and innovative activities: At the discretion of the Executive Director, 7 per cent of RR Programme Assistance supports strategic and innovative programmes, including advancing the equity agenda in countries and regions.

Advocacy and programme development, 2%

3. Emergency Programme Fund: In addition to the availability of Regular Resources allocated through the above mechanisms to support humanitarian programmes, many country offices also rely upon the Emergency Programme Fund, a $75 million revolving fund that can be accessed to finance immediate emergency needs. 4. Advocacy and programme development: These are allocations to support global advocacy, development, and the roll-out of UNICEF strategies and programmes. 5. Net income on product sales: These are allocations of Regular Resources to country offices that generate additional RR through the sales of cards and gifts. 6. Income adjustments: These are refunds and adjustments to income recognized in previous years.

RR PLANNING LEVELS AND UNICEF FUNDRAISING TARGETS

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF ALLOCATION (2011)

Strategic and innovative activities, 9% Emergency Programme Fund,15 2%

$16 million

$0.09 million Adjustments, <1%

$2 million

Product sales (net income), <1%

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENDITURE BY REGION (2011) The following chart shows the regional distribution of RR Programme Assistance expenditure in 2011. The allocation of these funds was based on the Boardapproved criteria: 60 per cent was distributed to sub-Saharan Africa and 25 per cent to Asia, while between 3 and 4 per cent was distributed to each of the remaining three regions: the Middle East and North Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS), and Latin America and the Caribbean.

• RR planning levels are established based on the organization’s Medium-term Strategic Plan: Planned financial income and expenditure estimates, which is approved by the Executive Board.

• In allocating RR, UNICEF gives highest priority to the needs of children in low income countries, particularly least developed countries (LDCs) and those in sub-Saharan Africa, ensuring that LDCs receive at least 60 per cent of Regular Resources and countries in sub-Saharan Africa receive at least 50 per cent.16

• Allocations are determined by applying three core criteria: gross national income per capita, under-five mortality rate, and child population.

• All countries are guaranteed a minimum allocation of $750,000 until such time as they achieve ‘high income’ status based on World Bank country classification, and maintain such status for two consecutive years.17

• Abrupt changes in country allocations are to be avoided.

PREDICTABILITY OF PLANNING LEVELS

Total: $789 million

Planning levels fluctuate very little from year to year. An analysis of RR allocation targets from 2009 to 2012 shows that RR allocations at the regional level remained stable throughout this period, fluctuating less than 1 per cent in all cases. The one significant change in allocations was a redistribution of approximately $115 million in RR income from low income countries to low-middle income and upper-middle income countries. In 2009, low income countries received 80 per cent of RR and low-middle income countries received 18 per cent. In 2012, the ratios were 62 per cent and 32 per cent, respectively. Further, during this period, the share of RR allocations to upper-middle income countries rose from 3 per cent to 6 per cent. These changes reflect relative increases in the standard of living in a number of countries.

$476 million

Sub-Saharan Africa, 60%

$29 million

Middle East and North Africa, 4%

$26 million

Inter-regional, 3%

$201 million

Planning levels are based on the needs of children and the requirements of UNICEF programmes to consistently achieve better results for children. All country offices use these planning levels to help guide them in formulating their programmes and budgets. To take an example, the Mozambique Country Programme Plan for 2012–2015 includes a Regular Resources budget of $64 million for this four-year period. This figure was based on the Executive Board-approved RR planning levels set for 2012, which was $16 million for Mozambique.

$29 million

PREDICTABILITY OF RR ALLOCATIONS ENSURES HIGH EXPENDITURE RATES

$27 million CEE/CIS, 3% Asia, 25%

Latin America and the Caribbean, 4%

There is a strong correlation between RR planning levels and high expenditure rates from year to year. This is because the predictability of future RR funds enables country offices to effectively plan and spend as much RR as possible during each calendar year. The following table shows the alignment of allocations and expenditures for RR Programme Assistance for the 2009 to 2011 period.

RR Programme Assistance allocation

RR Programme Assistance expenditure

Expenditure as % of allocation

2009

$688 million

$678 million

99%

2010

$690 million

$691 million

100%

2011

$690 million

$689 million

100%

RR INCOME FULLY SPENT YEAR-ON-YEAR RR income is fully spent year-on-year, reinforcing the argument that the core of UNICEF’s business is dependent on Regular Resources, including RR Programme Assistance and the Support Budget. The following table, which shows total RR income and expenditure levels for the 2009–2011 period, underscores the organization’s need to raise additional RR funding. Expenditure data typically includes carry-over funds from earlier years as well as some RR taken from reserves.

15

The expenditure of Regular Resources on humanitarian programmes includes RR spent in countries that are allocated such resources through the Board-approved formula, as well as countries that benefit from loans through the biennial Emergency Programme Fund (EPF). EPF loans are treated as “estimated expenditure” of Regular Resources until they are repaid. Loans that are not repaid are converted to non-reimbursable loans and treated as RR expenditure. Further, decisions on whether or not to waive reimbursement can be made until the end of the second year of the biennium. Because most EPF loans are repaid, the RR expenditure figure presented in the above chart is less than the $75 million in available EPF funds. The $14 million in EPF expenditure includes adjustments made in 2011 for EPF loans issued in prior years.

UNICEF

12

RR income

RR expenditure

Expenditure as % of income

RR income shortfall

2009

$1,066 million

$1,090 million

102%

$ 24 million

2010

$ 965 million

$1,072 million

111%

$107 million

2011

$1,078 million

$1,093 million

101%

$ 15 million

16

In 2011, 56.6 per cent of all UNICEF resources, including Regular Resources and Other Resources, were spent in least developed countries and 56.8 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa, which includes Djibouti and Sudan.

17

The current $750,000 minimum allocation figure was approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in 2008.

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

13


COUNTRIES WITH UNICEF PROGRAMMES OF COOPERATION In 2011, $689 million (87 per cent) of RR Programme Assistance was designated for countries with UNICEF programmes of cooperation that were selected based

on the Executive Board-approved criteria of gross national income per capita, under-five mortality rate, and child population.

EQUITY-FOCUSED PROGRAMMES SUPPORTED BY REGULAR RESOURCES

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENDITURE: TOP 50 COUNTRIES (2011)18 Among the top 50 countries that received RR Programme Assistance funds in 2011, the highest RR expenditures were in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, and India, and the lowest in the Philippines, Haiti, and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES Democratic Republic of the Congo Nigeria India Ethiopia Afghanistan Uganda Pakistan Bangladesh Niger United Republic of Tanzania Burkina Faso Mozambique Myanmar Mali Chad Côte d'Ivoire Kenya Madagascar Somalia Malawi Liberia Ghana China Burundi Rwanda Sierra Leone Guinea Zambia Nepal Angola Yemen Benin Senegal Cameroon Cambodia Zimbabwe Indonesia Pacific Island Countries19 South Sudan 20 Togo Viet Nam Central African Republic Uzbekistan Sudan20 Caribbean Regional21 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Egypt Philippines Haiti Lao People’s Democratic Republic

U5MR (/1,000 live births) 170 143 63 106 149 99 87 48 143 76 176 135 66 178 173 123 85 62 180 92 103 74 18 142 91 174 130 111 50 161 77 115 75 136 51 80 35 –  – 103 23 159 52 –  – 33 22 29 165 54

GNI/CAPITA (USD) 180 1,180 1,340 380 330 490 1,050 640 360 530 550 440  – 600 600 1,070 780 440  – 330 190 1,240 4,260 160 540 340 380 1,070 490 3,960 1,060 750 1,050 1,160 760 460 2,580 – – 440 1,100 460 1,280 – – – 2,340 2,050 650 1,010

CHILD POPULATION (‘000) 35,056 77,907 447,309 40,380 16,781 18,471 73,227 55,938 8,611 22,964 8,576 11,849 14,937 8,266 5,846 9,407 19,817 10,331 4,772 7,863 1,989 10,977 322,163 3,761 5,170 2,902 4,940 6,937 12,874 10,167 12,401 4,453 6,282 9,261 5,560 5,866 77,787 – – 2,796 25,981 2,069 9,940 – – 6,839 30,264 38,970 4,260 2,605

TOTAL RR EXPENDITURE (USD million) 59.4 52.1 43.0 40.0 38.5 22.9 22.2 21.4 20.4 20.1 16.6 16.5 15.4 15.3 13.7 13.5 11.9 11.8 11.2 10.6 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.0 9.7 9.2 8.9 8.5 8.0 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.1 5.6 5.6 5.4 4.6 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 2.6

18

Excludes any RR expenditure for Strategic and Innovative Activities and RR expenditure through the Emergency Programme Fund.

19

Countries in the Pacific Islands include the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

20

Following the secession of the Republic of South Sudan from the Republic of the Sudan in July 2011, and its subsequent admission to the United Nations, disaggregated data for these separate States is not yet available.

21

The Caribbean Region includes Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

UNICEF

14

MONITORING OF RESULTS FOR EQUITY

WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE

$3.1 million was allocated to provide support to 22 country offices, plus the East Caribbean Multi-Country Programme and the Gulf Area Office, to undertake Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which are central to the success of UNICEF’s equity agenda. These surveys provide an important source of data for monitoring the situation of children and women, which in turn helps to assess progress in achieving the MDGs with equity. Specifically, they identify the most vulnerable population groups by generating information on wealth distribution, urban-rural residence, sex, age, and ethnicity, among other factors.

$1.9 million was allocated to seven priority countries to narrow gaps, strengthen monitoring, and improve access to water, sanitation, and hygiene services in vulnerable and underserved regions, including poor urban settlements.

SAFE AND FRIENDLY CITIES FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN (URBAN SLUMS) PROGRAMME $1.6 million was allocated to eight countries to combat and raise awareness about urban violence. Funds were used to conduct baseline surveys about the incidence of such violence, coordinate activities in consultation with communities, and establish work plans with municipal partners.

CHILDREN IN ARMED CONFLICT $7.8 million was allocated to support programmes for children in armed conflict and to put in place monitoring and reporting mechanisms that address six grave violations against children in such situations.

CHILD PROTECTION $5 million was allocated to 33 priority countries to increase birth registration and address violence and harmful practices against children. Funds were focused on the most disadvantaged and marginalized girls and boys, including those without parental care who are placed in largescale residential institutions, children with disabilities, children exposed to violence in schools, and children at risk of maltreatment in the justice system.

ERADICATING GUINEA WORM DISEASE IN GHANA $4.7 million was allocated to breaking the transmission of guinea worm and reducing the vulnerability of rural communities in the endemic Northern Region of Ghana.

GLOBAL POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE $15 million covered shortfalls in polio vaccines, helping to stop the widespread transmission of the disease in marginalized populations.

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

15


STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

ALLOCATION OF REGULAR RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF THE EQUITY AGENDA

Each year a portion of total Regular Resources is allocated at the discretion of the Executive Director, upon the recommendation of UNICEF’s Allocation Advisory Committee, to support government and civil society partnerships in strategic and innovative activities that help achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Two funding windows are available: 7 per cent of Regular Resources that are set aside to respond to evolving needs, to encourage innovation, and to promote UNICEF’s equity agenda (7 per cent set aside); and Regular Resources that support programmes that have remained unfunded for more than one year (RR for OR ). Regular Resources in support of strategic and innovative activities enable country programmes to minimize wide fluctuations in funding and to allocate sufficient

In 2011, UNICEF allocated $46 million in Regular Resources, out of the total $68 million for strategic and innovative activities, to fund equity programmes and strategies in 92 countries. This included $41 million in 7 per cent set aside and $5 million in RR for OR. These country offices used the funds to sharpen their analyses of development challenges; to better understand disparities among children, young people, and their families through household surveys and situation analyses; to identify the priority constraints impeding access and utilization of basic services by disadvantaged children and communities, as well as to implement programmes to remove these constraints; and to strengthen monitoring and evaluation.

funds to programmes approved by the UNICEF Executive Board. Maintaining a degree of funding stability strengthens results-based planning and the effective implementation of programmes. Further, the use of Regular Resources to offset unfunded programmes provides critical support to countries that are the furthest from achieving the objectives of the Millennium Declaration, the MDGs, and UNICEF’s Medium-term Strategic Plan. In 2011, $68 million of Regular Resources was spent on strategic and innovative activities, representing 9 per cent of total RR Programme Assistance. Of this, $45 million was funded from 7 per cent set aside and $23 million from RR for OR. Of the 20 top recipients, 16 were in sub-Saharan Africa, 2 in the CEE/CIS region, and 2 in Asia.

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE ALLOCATION: TOP 20 COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES RECEIVING DISCRETIONARY FUNDS IN SUPPORT OF THE EQUITY AGENDA (2011)

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENDITURE: TOP 20 RECIPIENT COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES OF STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS (2011) EXPENDITURE OF STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS (USD million)

TOTAL RR EXPENDITURE (USD million)

Democratic Republic of the Congo

4.4

59.4

7%

Côte d'Ivoire

3.5

13.5

26%

Chad

2.3

13.7

16%

Benin

2.2

7.3

30%

Mali

2.0

15.3

13%

Niger

1.7

20.4

9%

Burkina Faso

1.7

16.6

11%

Ghana

1.5

10.3

15%

Kosovo 22

1.5

1.8

86%

South Sudan

1.4

5.4

25%

Nepal

1.3

8.0

16%

Togo

1.1

4.6

25%

Nigeria

1.0

52.1

2%

Kenya

0.9

11.9

8%

Sudan

0.9

4.0

24%

Somalia

0.9

11.2

8%

Senegal

0.9

7.0

13%

Mauritania

0.7

2.5

29%

Uzbekistan

0.6

4.0

16%

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

0.6

2.6

23%

COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES

22

UNICEF activities in Kosovo under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999).

UNICEF

16

STRATEGIC AND INNOVATIVE FUNDS AS % OF TOTAL RR

COUNTRY

22

ALLOCATION OF EQUITY FUNDS (USD million)

Ghana

5.1

Democratic Republic of the Congo

4.4

Chad

2.6

Sudan

1.9

Côte d'Ivoire

1.6

Congo

1.6

Kosovo 22

1.5

Central African Republic

1.4

Kenya

1.3

Somalia

1.3

Yemen

1.3

Nepal

1.2

Philippines

1.2

South Sudan

1.0

Madagascar

0.6

Occupied Palestinian Territory

0.5

Caribbean Regional

0.5

Tajikistan

0.5

Guinea

0.4

Republic of Moldova

0.4

Regular Resources that promote the equity agenda allow UNICEF to support countries in eliminating the high levels of disparities that so disproportionately affect excluded and marginalized children and their families. They are allocated to least developed countries as well as to middle income countries in order to enable the organization to strategically address serious disparities in both contexts. The availability of these discretionary RR funds in 2011 enabled UNICEF to achieve several strategic programming shifts and to engage in interventions that have the greatest potential for leveraging additional funds and for scaling-up results for the most disadvantaged children. RR allocations supported global coordination for monitoring equity-focused results ($3.1 million); combatting and raising awareness about urban violence ($1.6 million); monitoring and reporting on children affected by armed conflict ($7.8 million); narrowing gaps related to access to water, sanitation, and hygiene services ($1.9 million); increasing birth registration and addressing violence and harmful practices against children through prevention and response ($5 million); eradicating guinea worm disease in Ghana ($4.7 million); and covering shortfalls in polio vaccines among marginalized populations ($15 million). REGIONAL ALLOCATION OF DISCRETIONARY FUNDS IN SUPPORT OF THE EQUITY AGENDA (2011)

Total: $46 million

$30 million

Sub-Saharan Africa, 64%

$3 million

Middle East and North Africa, 7%

$4 million CEE/CIS, 9%

$5 million Asia, 11%

$2 million

Latin America and the Caribbean, 4%

$2 million

Inter-regional, 4%

UNICEF activities in Kosovo under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999).

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

17


HUMANITARIAN CRISES SUPPORTED BY THE EPF The number and type of crises funded through the Emergency Programme Fund in 2010 and 2011 show the wide range of critical life-saving operations supported by Regular Resources. These included large-scale natural disasters in Haiti, the Horn of Africa, and Pakistan as well as smaller natural disasters in such countries as the Philippines and Turkey. They also included UNICEF’s response to conflicts and complex emergencies in the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Kyrgyzstan, and Liberia. Perhaps no other humanitarian crisis dominated 2011 as the drought and severe nutritional crisis in the Horn of Africa, which affected over 13 million people. Amid armed conflict, this emergency escalated into famine in parts of Somalia and precipitated a mass refugee crisis. The EPF helped bolster operations with an initial injection of $13.5 million to reach hundreds of thousands of children in south-central Somalia through traditional and innovative nutrition programmes, including blanket supplementary feeding and cash transfers. In Sudan and South Sudan, an EPF loan of $11.15 million helped to alleviate the needs of displaced Southern Sudanese returning home, and it supported UNICEF and its partners in providing a comprehensive package of interventions to newly displaced populations. In the Middle East and North Africa, $6.8 million in EPF funds helped mobilize a response to the Libya crisis and the consequent displacements in surrounding countries. EPF funds were also used to kick-start responses to health crises in Central Asia and to sustain underfunded emergency nutrition programmes in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In all these cases, the Emergency Programme Fund demonstrated that Regular Resources provide UNICEF with an indispensable tool to respond rapidly and flexibly to the needs of children in the widest range of emergencies.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND UNICEF requires timely and flexible funding in order to respond rapidly and effectively to emerging humanitarian crises. This is especially critical given the needs of children and women in the immediate aftermath of an emergency. Regular Resources enable the organization to invest critical funds in the hours and days following the onset of an emergency, without having to wait for the release of formal appeals or the receipt of donor funds. In 2011, UNICEF responded to 292 humanitarian situations in 80 countries and territories, covering crises of all scales, including rapid onset emergencies, largescale natural disasters, new and protracted conflicts, and chronic, underfunded ‘silent’ emergencies. Many of these countries relied on Regular Resources allocated through the Executive Board-approved formula to support their ongoing humanitarian programmes. Others relied on RR provided through the Emergency Programme Fund (EPF), which is a $75 million revolving fund that country offices can access to respond to humanitarian crises. EPF funds are allocated over a two-year period, with 2011 the second year of the 2010–2011 biennium. They are typically disbursed to country offices within 12–24 hours of submission to the Office of Emergency Programmes (EMOPS). Funds are reimbursed with donor income as and when they are mobilized. When UNICEF offices are unable to raise adequate funding to reimburse their EPF grants, a decision to waive reimbursement is made on a case-by-case basis, subject to an analysis of funding levels and humanitarian needs. The Emergency Programme Fund has consistently proven to be an effective method for providing loans to UNICEF offices, allowing the organization to initiate its response to crises before even the most fast-acting donors can respond. The EPF remains the quickest, most reliable, and most adaptable source of emergency funds, and is, therefore, an integral component of UNICEF’s response capacity. The EPF is available to all UNICEF offices to support one or more of the following: • Cash and supply requirements to kick-start response actions in the first few days immediately following the onset of emergencies; • Emergency needs when no inter-agency appeal has been launched; • UNICEF participation in inter-agency assessment missions;

For the 2010–2011 biennium, the EPF continued to be an extremely critical tool for UNICEF, as it allowed the organization to promote fast, flexible, and strategic support to country offices most in need. Fifty-five EPF loans were granted during the biennium, including

$43.16 million to 15 countries in 2011. Of the $123.43 million disbursed in 2010 and 2011, $80.59 million was reimbursed and a further $42.85 million was converted into non-reimbursable loans.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND ALLOCATIONS (2010–2011 BIENNIUM) ORIGINAL ALLOCATION COUNTRY

2010 2011 TOTAL (USD million) (USD million) (USD million)

REIMBURSEMENT TO DATE (USD million)

CONVERTED TO NON-REIMBURSABLE LOANS (USD million)

0.02

0.16 0.05

Algeria

0.18

0.18

Belize

0.20

0.20

0.15

Benin

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.37

0.37

0.22

0.15

Caribbean Regional

0.30

0.30

0.30

Chad

6.48

6.48

3.79

2.68

Chile

0.20

0.20

0.20

China

2.00

2.00

2.00

Congo

3.72

3.72

3.13

0.59

Côte d’Ivoire

3.63

3.63

1.77

1.86

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

2.00

2.00

2.00

Democratic Republic of the Congo

5.00

1.00

6.00

6.00

1.00

1.00

0.55

0.45

EMOPS

0.40

0.40

0.40

Eritrea

0.08

0.08

0.08

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

4.00

4.00

4.00

Haiti

2.00

2.00

2.00

Bhutan

Egypt

Kenya

1.00

1.00

1.00

Kyrgyzstan

3.15

3.15

1.15

2.01

Liberia

1.50

4.57

6.07

0.51

5.56

6.76

6.76

5.34

1.42 0.23

MENA Regional Mongolia

1.10

1.10

0.87

Myanmar

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.25

0.25

0.24

0.01

8.00

8.00

5.81

2.19

Namibia Niger Nigeria

1.10

1.10

1.10

Pakistan

17.15

5.00

22.15

10.90

11.24 0.98

Philippines

1.78

1.78

0.80

Republic of Moldova

0.30

0.30

0.30

Somalia

5.50

13.50

19.00

16.13

2.87

South Sudan

6.95

6.95

3.01

3.94

Sudan

4.20

4.20

0.94

3.26

Tajikistan

0.38

0.38

0.25

0.12

1.00

1.00

0.62

0.38

Tunisia Turkey

0.90

0.90

0.90

1.69

1.69

1.39

0.30

Yemen

1.00

1.00

1.00

Zimbabwe

2.50

2.50

2.50

80.28

43.16

123.43

80.59

42.85

Uzbekistan

TOTAL

• Emergency staff and administration; and

UNICEF

18

• Preparedness to strengthen rapid response capacity to deliver on UNICEF’s Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action.

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

19


UNICEF’s work is governed by the Medium-term Strategic Plan for 2006–2013 (MTSP), which guides the organization’s priorities: providing children with the best possible start in life; helping to meet their basic needs; enabling access to quality basic education; protecting children from violence, exploitation, and abuse; providing ample opportunity for children and adolescents to reach their full potential; and advocating for the promotion and protection of children’s rights. These core principles are incorporated into five programmatic Focus Areas, which reflect UNICEF’s primary contributions to the international development and humanitarian agenda. Each Focus Area describes results to be achieved in UNICEF’s regular development programming and in the organization’s humanitarian action and response. Because UNICEF takes a holistic approach to the well-being of children, progress in any one area leads to progress in all areas.

RR PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE EXPENDITURE BY FOCUS AREA (2011)

Total: $789 million

$328 million

Young child survival and development, 42%

$125 million

Basic education and gender equality, 16%

$45 million

HIV/AIDS and children, 6%

$89 million

Child protection, 11%

$165 million

Policy advocacy and partnerships, 21%

$37 million Other, 23 5%

SUMMARY OF CASE STUDIES The following pages highlight a selection of key results achieved with Regular Resources in 2011 in 18 countries – a modest sample of UNICEF’s work worldwide. Of the programmes profiled, 15 were among the top 50 countries that spent Regular Resources on Programme Assistance and three benefitted from Emergency Programme Funds. The case studies were selected based on a number of criteria, including high RR dollar values; high RR reliance; regional diversity; and the size of the country programmes. PROGRAMME AREA

family are among many Syrian refugees in the country. Her father has secured temporary employment as a cook, but his income is insufficient to sustain the family. 23

UNICEF

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PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION

RR RELIANCE

 OUNG CHILD Y SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT

1

Afghanistan

Reducing neonatal, infant, and child mortality

30%

2

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Promoting integrated child survival approaches at the community level

30%

3

Iran

Integrating nutrition into routine health programmes

89%

 ASIC EDUCATION B AND GENDER EQUALITY

4

Ethiopia

Tackling disparities in education

30%

5

Lebanon

Ensuring quality primary education for all Palestinian children

55%

6

United Republic of Tanzania

Providing education to marginalized children

65%

HIV/AIDS AND CHILDREN

7

Belize

Reducing the socio-economic vulnerability of adolescent girls

8

Mozambique

Reaching those most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS

30%

9

88%

Now living in Jordan, this young girl and her

CASE STUDY NUMBER COUNTRY

Countries receiving the largest share of Regular Resources tend to be among UNICEF’s bigger programmes, and those that have a higher reliance on RR are typically smaller countries that are unable to mobilize sufficient donor resources on their own. The one exception in the following list is Nigeria, which has a high population and a high RR reliance. In all cases, enormous gains for children were achieved in 2011 as a direct result of unrestricted RR funding.

100%

Nigeria

Addressing the challenge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

CHILD PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, AND ABUSE

10

Cameroon

Changing the child protection environment

86%

11

Pakistan

Building a child protection system

22%

12

Uzbekistan

Working to keep families united

87%

POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

13

Burkina Faso

Developing a national social protection policy for children

96%

14

India

Delivering basic services through community empowerment

57%

15

Uganda

Reaching marginalized children through effective policy-making

63%

HUMANITARIAN ACTION

16

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

Combatting malnutrition in under-five children

EPF

17

Liberia

Ensuring education in emergencies

EPF

18

Philippines

Bolstering disaster preparedness and response

EPF

These are interventions that country and regional offices implement in line with national priorities that may not fall under the MTSP framework or any of the five Focus Areas.

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FOCUS AREA 1

REASONS TO INVEST IN UNICEF UNICEF is uniquely positioned to achieve results for children on a global scale. The organization’s work ensures that children not only survive but that they thrive to become productive adults who can contribute to their families, their communities, and their nations. Regular Resources make these achievements possible.

YOUNG CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT

Each of the following profiled countries and programmes demonstrates UNICEF’s capacity to change the lives of children, and they show in a clear and profound way the role that RR has played in achieving these successes. Further, each case study illustrates one or more of the four characteristics that, taken together, underpin all of UNICEF’s efforts. These are:

RR funds have been essential for the UNICEF China office to take the ‘Ying Yang Bao’ vitamin and mineral complementary food supplementation model to 45,000 children in remote communities, decreasing anaemia prevalence by almost half among children under two. — G I L L I A N M E L L S O P, U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

THE NEED

SCOPE

KNOWLEDGE LEADERSHIP

The totality of UNICEF’s programmes is much greater than the sum of its parts. A child who is hungry is more likely to suffer disease; a child in poor health is less likely to go to school; and a child out of school is more likely to need protection from exploitation. Similarly, UNICEF’s solutions are multifaceted, tackling many interrelated issues at once. The case studies illustrate the breadth, depth, and interconnectedness of the organization’s work in each country.

UNICEF is one of the world’s primary sources of information on the global situation of children. The organization researches, analyses, and publishes crucial evidence on the various needs of children and builds local knowledge from its direct experience on the ground. Further, it uses this knowledge to inform governments where children’s needs are not being met, and to persuade and support them in addressing these shortcomings. The case studies illustrate how UNICEF combines local understanding with global knowledge to innovate new scalable solutions.

SCALE

PARTNERSHIPS

UNICEF not only delivers more programmes in more countries than any other organization working on behalf of children but – through its vast network of partners – it has the capacity and scale to reach even the most vulnerable children in the most remote areas of a country. The following case studies demonstrate UNICEF’s unique reach – working with decision makers as well as with local communities to pilot projects, scale-up successes, and achieve sustainable results that better the lives of all children in need.

UNICEF relies on partnerships to achieve the greatest possible impact for children. It leverages resources through national governments; brings partners to the table to scale-up initiatives beyond the capacity of any single organization; extends its reach by working with local groups; harnesses the power of the corporate sector; and engages individuals in achieving change for children. The case studies underscore the essential contribution that these partnerships make to UNICEF’s success.

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Early childhood survival and development is at the very heart of the Millennium Development Goals, and it is this period of life that lays the foundation for the individual’s physical, social, emotional, and intellectual wellbeing. Yet every year nearly 7.6 million children die before their fifth birthday. In 2010 alone, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria accounted for about one third of those deaths. Children who survive beyond their fifth birthday still face enormous health risks: 780 million people worldwide have no access to an improved drinking water source, 2.5 billion people have no access to improved sanitation facilities, and over 180 million children suffer from stunting, an indicator of poor malnutrition.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Every child has the right to survive and thrive. For UNICEF, this means working with governments, civil society, and development organizations to support life-saving actions at every phase of a child’s life. The organization provides financial and technical assistance in the areas of basic health; nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and early childhood development. This package of services is designed to end preventable deaths through high-impact, low-cost interventions, including vaccines, antibiotics, insecticide-treated bed nets, improved breastfeeding, and safe hygiene practices. Through these efforts, countless children are protected from such crippling and deadly diseases as measles, polio, diphtheria, and tuberculosis. UNICEF also supports local programmes that improve access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, which are in turn vital for health, childhood development, and education initiatives. Still, disparities continue to grow between rich and poor, urban and rural.

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EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: YOUNG CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT (2011) 24

Total: $1,822 million

$328 million Regular Resources , 18%

$805 million

Other Resources Regular, 44%

$689 million

Other Resources Emergency, 38%

KEY RESULTS • UNICEF led the global movement to prevent stunting in millions of young children as a result of poor nutrition over long periods of time. • Ten million children were vaccinated in measles campaigns in 2011. Globally, there has been a 74 per cent reduction in the disease since 2000. • In Africa, some 39 million children were vaccinated against meningitis. • 14.5 million households were given insecticidetreated nets, and 11.5 million rapid diagnostic tests were distributed in over 30 countries to prevent malaria. • UNICEF’s direct support helped nearly 22 million people gain access to improved drinking water, continuing progress beyond the MDG target that was met in 2010, and 14 million people gained access to basic sanitation facilities. • The deployment of Early Childhood Development emergency kits quadrupled between 2009 and 2011, jumping from approximately 5,000 to almost 20,000 kits distributed in more than 50 countries.

In the charts that follow, Other Resources Regular refer to OR funds allocated towards regular development programmes and Other Resources Emergency refer to OR funds allocated towards humanitarian programmes.

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CASE STUDY 1:

CASE STUDY 2:

AFGHANISTAN

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Reducing neonatal, infant, and child mortality

Promoting integrated child survival approaches at the community level

I have many memorable experiences working in the development sector, but one that gives me particular satisfaction is the maternal newborn care project. Frankly, I never expected such an enormous change, with 96 per cent of all pregnant women delivering in a health facility! — K H A K S A R YO U S U F I , U N I C E F C H I L D S U R V I VA L O F F I C E R

AFGHANISTAN CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $57 million

$17 million

Regular Resources, 30%

$35 million

Other Resources Regular, 62%

$5 million THE NEED

Other Resources Emergency, 8%

There is an urgent need to improve newborn care in Afghanistan, where the percentage of women delivering in a hospital or other health facility is as low as 2 per cent in certain areas, and where resultant infant and maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high. While consistent improvements have been achieved in antenatal care and skilled birth attendance coverage across the country, many areas still require further improvement at both the policy and programme implementation level.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF and Save the Children have developed an innovative pilot project to document critical newborn care interventions within the context of Afghanistan’s existing Basic Package of Health Services. Public health guidelines recommend that newborns and mothers receive four postnatal examinations, but in practice it is extremely difficult to implement and monitor these guidelines. Thus, UNICEF conducted Afghanistan’s first newborn care project at the community level by training community health workers, including through the distribution of visual aids designed to compensate for low literacy rates, and by establishing family health action groups to carry out the four postnatal check-ups. Notably, UNICEF is uniquely placed to implement this project as it is the only organization able to work at the national and regional level to facilitate necessary policy change and to forge strategic partnerships.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES The availability of unrestricted Regular Resources was essential for the launching of the maternal and neonatal care pilot project in Afghanistan – the very first of its kind – and was directly responsible for the project’s success. It is no small matter to point out that these funds allowed UNICEF to focus on implementation of the project on an equity basis, and as a result the maternal mortality rate in the two pilot districts has plummeted to zero since project implementation, and the skilled birth attendant rate has dramatically increased from a mere 2 per cent to 96 per cent.

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Haseena comes from Istalif – one of the villages selected as part of UNICEF’s pilot project on maternal and newborn care. As Haseena explains: “Before this project, I didn’t know about the benefits of delivery at the health facility, and I didn’t know how a pregnant woman should prepare during pregnancy. When the community health worker taught me about the importance of health care before and after delivery, I decided to deliver at the health facility. If I knew then what I know now, I would not have delivered my other children at home.”

As a result of Healthy Villages people proudly show how, with a little support, they are able to have a clean village with much less illness. And as a result of therapeutic feeding, a four-month old girl who was once near death is now gleamingly healthy in the arms of her smiling mother. — B A R B A R A B E N T E I N , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

THE NEED Among the primary causes of child mortality in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are malaria, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhoea. Only 45 per cent of the population has access to improved drinking water, and only 24 per cent to adequate sanitation facilities – exposing millions of children to the risks of water-borne diseases. Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a risk of mortality nine-times higher than those who are not malnourished; and those who survive SAM often suffer from brain damage and physical impairment. Among the 14 million DRC children under five years, nearly 1 million suffer from SAM, and chronic malnutrition affects more than 5 million children overall.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE To help reduce child morbidity and mortality, UNICEF is implementing a water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programme known as Healthy Villages, Healthy Schools. The population is fully connected to the process, gaining access to safe drinking water, building their own latrines, and implementing key hygiene practices. The programme was designed with a view to being an entry point for the integration of nutrition messages, especially on optimal feeding practices for infants and young children (notably, breastfeeding and complementary feeding), the prevention of malaria, and the treatment of diarrhoea. As a result of UNICEF advocacy, severe acute malnutrition is now being treated in health facilities in the same manner as cases of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea. Since 2008, severely malnourished children have been treated via a community-based approach whereby parents are given a week’s worth of therapeutic food to be taken home and fed to the child – a process that has increased the coverage of severely malnourished children from about 4 per cent in 2007 (46,000 children) to about 16 per cent in 2011 (157,000 children).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $94 million

$28 million

Regular Resources, 30%

$42 million

Other Resources Regular, 44%

$24 million Other Resources Emergency, 26%

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Albertine Ostshewo was one of the first mothers whose child was enrolled in UNICEF’s nutrition programme. As she explains: “I had already lost two children to malnutrition and I thought my daughter would also die. The project saved her life, and it has also taught me how to take good care of my children.” Following advice from the local treatment centre, Albertine started a kitchen garden, began to breed chickens, and learned how to cook healthful foods at very low cost.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES The DRC was the largest recipient of RR in 2011, with $59.4 million. These funds were crucial in enabling the Child Survival Programme to purchase such essential supplies as ready-to-use therapeutic food and other life-saving interventions, and they provided the office with the means to respond to health and nutrition emergencies.

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REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

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FOCUS AREA 2

CASE STUDY 3:

IRAN

BASIC EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUALITY

Integrating nutrition into routine health programmes

Seeing first-hand how the nutritional status of malnourished children could improve so dramatically and quickly in response to proper care has been one of the great motivating factors of my work with UNICEF. — A M I R H O S S E I N YA R PA R VA R , N AT I O N A L P R O G R A M M E O F F I C E R

IRAN CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $0.62 million

$0.55 million Regular Resources, 89%

$0.07 million

Other Resources Regular, 11%

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources are of particular importance for Iran, where they have been used to benefit programmes related to nutrition, immunization, and the promotion of breastfeeding, among others. In 2011 the country office also utilized Regular Resources to boost progress in establishing national policies and for building institutional capacity to address child development and survival issues.

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THE NEED

EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: BASIC EDUCATION AND GENDER EQUALITY (2011)

$125 million

The rate of underweight children in Iran experienced a 50 per cent reduction between 1991 and 2007, yet the prevalence of wasting (acute malnutrition) increased by 30 per cent from 1998 to 2007. Further, the levels of stunting run as high as 20 per cent in some provinces; and almost 20 per cent of children under five and pregnant women suffer from iron deficiency anaemia. Also of concern, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life has declined from 50 per cent in 2005 to 23 per cent in 2010 – a trend that can seriously threaten the nutritional status of children from infancy.

Over the last several years UNICEF supported the piloting of a communitybased model for the management of malnutrition through nutritional counselling centres and affiliated health posts in three provinces. This pilot model has been subsequently adapted by the Ministry of Health and expanded to 140 locations countrywide. In addition, UNICEF continues to support the government to integrate malnutrition prevention and rehabilitation services into existing national health services. In 2011, for example, UNICEF helped to develop two standardized national guidelines on nutritional care and rehabilitation.

— E G I D I O C R O T T I , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

Currently, at least 67 million primary school-aged Total: $708 million children remain out of school, 53 per cent of whom are girls. A further 73 million children of lower secondRegular Resources , 18% ary school age are also out of school. Among the most marginalized groups are orphans and other vulnerable Other Resources Regular, 63% children – especially those affected by HIV/AIDS, armed conflicts, and natural disasters; children with disabilities and special needs; children from nomadic and pastoralOther Resources Emergency, 20% ist communities; children of linguistic minority groups; and children from poor households in remote rural areas KEY RESULTS and urban slums. • Some 5.5 million children benefited from

THE NEED

UNICEF’S RESPONSE

Regular Resources have been a key element in providing support to UNICEF Uruguay’s participation in the national discussion on secondary education. Currently, our office is providing technical assistance to the Parliament and to the Ministry of Education to develop a National Plan of Education, focusing on equity, quality, and participation.

$444 million

$139 million

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

To emphasize the importance of vitamins and minerals, a nutrition counsellor demonstrates fresh vegetables to a group of Balouch women at a UNICEF-supported nutrition centre in the city of Chabahar – located in the province with the highest rate of child malnutrition in Iran. In addition to providing nutritious food for young children, the centre provides nutrition, health, and hygiene counselling to mothers. “When I came to this health centre to have my son vaccinated, they told me I could go to nutrition classes on Mondays and Wednesdays,” explains one of the women. “I find the classes very useful. We also have practical sessions in which we learn how to cook nutritious food for our children.”

improved physical and learning environments School attendance and completion remain a challenge and processes. for millions of children who live in communities where there is a lack of classrooms, learning materials, trained • An estimated 8.7 million children affected by teachers, and quality standards. In addition, these emergencies were provided access to formal and children must cope with such daily hardships as poverty non-formal basic education. and the need to work. Even children who do attend • UNICEF continued to promote quality basic school often leave without acquiring the basic knowleducation through the child-friendly schools edge, competencies, and skills to lead safe, healthy, approach, which has now been adopted in the and productive lives. national policies of 88 countries – a two-fold

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF recognizes that education is a fundamental human right and that equitable access by all children to quality education is an essential condition for social inclusion and sustainable development. To that end, the organization helps governments, civil society partners, communities, and parents to develop the capacities and skills necessary to fulfil their duties to provide all children with an education of the highest possible quality. UNICEF helps schools to become more child-friendly by providing early learning opportunities, building childcentred classrooms, providing safe water and sanitation facilities, improving teaching and learning processes, and supplying textbooks and other necessary materials. UNICEF also actively promotes sport for development as a means of stimulating the physical, mental, psychological, and social development of children and teens.

increase in six years. • Since 2005, the Schools for Africa initiative – in partnership with the Nelson Mandela Foundation and the Peter Krämer Stiftung Foundation – has supported improved education for over 5 million children across 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Building on this success, Schools for Asia is now being established in 11 additional countries. • As a member of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), UNICEF has supported countries such as Afghanistan, Guinea, and Madagascar to develop and implement their education sector plans and to obtain critical allocations of GPE funds.

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CASE STUDY 4:

CASE STUDY 5:

ETHIOPIA

LEBANON

Tackling disparities in education

School grants are an example of an initiative that connects practical on-the-ground experience with policy dialogue to improve the quality of education at all levels. This is part of UNICEF’s equity agenda and of its goal to ensure that all children are reached as we head towards 2015 and beyond. —T E D C H A I B A N , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

THE NEED Access to free primary education continues to improve, but not at the pace required to meet MDG 2 (universal primary education). The 2010–2011 net enrolment rate stood at 85 per cent, up from 77 per cent in 2004–2005, but large disparities remain across the country. While the proportion of girls has improved at all levels of schooling, there remains a gender gap in rural areas. Furthermore, completion rates are very low. An estimated 20 per cent of first graders either do not complete their first year or do not continue onto grade two. It is critical to provide children with access to quality basic education and to keep them in school long enough to ensure that they acquire sufficient literacy, numeracy, and life skills to survive and thrive.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Support to education in 2011 focused on the inequities hampering children’s access to and completion of the primary school cycle, and on advocating for early childhood care and education, primary school access, and school retention for marginalized and vulnerable children. The aim is to show that despite progress in net enrolment rates and the gender parity index, significant imbalances remain in access to school and completion of quality education. UNICEF’s role has been to bring these issues to the fore in policy discussions with government and development partners, to leverage for increasingly equity-based service provision and resource allocation, and to demonstrate strategies to address these inequalities in a cost-effective way.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES In 2011, Regular Resources were used to support the introduction of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) centres in hard to reach, pastoralist communities; and they supported the Ministry of Education to develop guidelines for ABE standards and monitoring, which are now used by all regions. Further, UNICEF’s child-friendly schools principles have been incorporated into Ethiopia’s School Improvement Programme. RR funds also supported the printing of the School Improvement Programme guidelines for distribution to every school in the country and the implementation of a high-level gender mainstreaming capacity development workshop.

UNICEF

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Ensuring quality primary education for all Palestinian children

Other Resources Regular, 52%

UNICEF-supported youth projects have proved extremely useful in informing Palestinian adolescents of the educational and social conditions of their community, and they have transformed these adolescents into active community members who are involved in the day-to-day life of their camps.

$4 million

— Z A H R A A L - WA K K A L , C O O R D I N AT O R , G E N E R A L U N I O N O F PA L E S T I N I A N W O M E N

ETHIOPIA EDUCATION PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $23 million

$7 million

Regular Resources, 30%

$12 million Other Resources Emergency, 18%

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Nine-year-old Medina lives with her parents and siblings in Gemeto Udo, a pastoralist community in Ethiopia. Even though it lies close to the thriving town of Hawassa, the village still lacks many basic services, such as a primary school. Fortunately, an Alternative Basic Education centre was built there a few years ago. “Before, I stayed at home and helped in the house,” says Medina. “Now, I can go to school here. If it had not been for the ABE centre, I would have had to wait until I was at least ten to start first grade.”

LEBANON EDUCATION PROGRAMME FOR PALESTINIAN REFUGEES (2011)

Total: $0.9 million

$0.5 million

Regular Resources, 55%

$0.4 million

Other Resources Regular, 45%

THE NEED Lebanon currently hosts some 420,000 Palestinian refugees, 53 per cent of whom live in 12 official camps under the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) mandate. Roughly half the population are children below the age of 18, and about two thirds of all Palestinian refugees in Lebanon live in poverty. They are also severely restricted in terms of their ability to work and to move freely, and they do not enjoy access to government services. While a large percentage of young children are enrolled in primary school, by age 16 almost half have dropped out. And as a recent UNICEF survey discovered, nearly 50 per cent of all drop-outs were primarily motivated by the need to augment family income.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE In 2004, UNICEF began its remedial education programme by initiating 15 classes for Palestinian children in nine UNRWA camps, and today the project continues to improve the quality of learning for all students in grades three and four. These interventions have contributed to a remarkable improvement in scholastic achievement, as well as an increase in net elementary enrolment. Indeed, in 2011 more than 92 per cent of students enrolled in the remedial programme improved their total score by the end of the scholastic year. Specifically, the programme focuses on developing special math, Arabic, and English support materials for students at risk of failing; promoting girls’ education; and partnering with civil society.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES In 2011, Regular Resources supported the remedial education programme by recruiting 227 teachers to work with students at risk of failing grades three and four, complemented by 30 teachers and 8 supervisors provided by NGOs who taught students in grades one, two, and five. In all, learning materials were developed and distributed to 3,400 students. UNICEF also supported the New Entrants Gap Camp for UNRWA schools in Lebanon, which benefited some 2,000 incoming first-grade students with their transition to a school environment.

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

“My name is Samya and I go to the Falouja UNRWA School in southern Lebanon. I was doing poorly in school and was thinking of dropping out. Then I heard about the camp’s remedial education programme. I asked my parents if I could go, and they said it was OK. The teacher was nice. We focused on the main subjects, but we also talked about child rights and the importance of education. As the other girls in my class were at the same level as me, I found it very easy to make friends and I did very well in class.”

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FOCUS AREA 3

CASE STUDY 6:

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

HIV/AIDS AND CHILDREN

Providing education to marginalized children

We appreciate all that UNICEF has done and is continuing to do on behalf of children in Tanzania. UNICEF gives a voice to the voiceless and advocates on their behalf. — N E E M A K I T U N D U, N AT I O N A L C O O R D I N AT O R , F O R U M O F A F R I C A N W O M E N E D U C AT I O N A L I S T S

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA EDUCATION PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $6.92 million

$4.47 million Regular Resources, 65%

$2.45 million

Other Resources Regular, 35%

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF works closely with UNESCO on teacher education and the development of alternative learning opportunities for those who have missed out on formal education, and with both UNESCO and the World Food Programme on building local capacities for better education planning and management. To improve teaching skills, UNICEF supports the government in developing a cost-effective and quality in-service teacher training system for both the pre-primary and primary school level, thereby reaching approximately 140,000 children. Currently, the government has committed its own limited resources to a national scale-up of this programme.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES The flexibility of Regular Resources has enabled UNICEF to reach out to underserved and older children who have missed out on their formal education, and as a result in 2011 more than 2,500 out-of-school girls and boys were able to continue learning beyond their primary education. These funds were also vital in helping UNICEF to support the government in developing a cost-effective, quality system for training pre-primary and primary school teachers.

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— I YA B O D E O L U S A N M I , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

THE NEED The AIDS pandemic has massive global implications for health and economic advancement. An estimated 34.2 million people were living with HIV in 2011, including 3.4 million under the age of 15 – more than 90 per cent of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. The region accounts for 69 per cent of all people living with the virus and 72 per cent of new infections, despite being home to only 12 per cent of the world’s population.

THE NEED While the United Republic of Tanzania is on track to achieve the MDG of equal primary school enrolment for girls and boys, the education system struggles to deliver quality education. Only half of all students who took the Primary School Leaving Examination in 2010 passed. Failure in school examinations can be traced to the interaction of three key factors: the quality of the teaching and learning environment, a child’s readiness to learn, and parental poverty. Learning is undermined when a shortage of textbooks (often just one textbook for every five students) is combined with poor teaching skills and under-staffing, particularly in rural areas. Access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation in schools also remains a challenge.

Thanks largely to the flexibility of Regular Resources, Ghanian school children are developing essential life skills not only for HIV prevention but in many other areas of their lives as well. The consistency and reliability of RR has also made it possible for UNICEF to support implementation of the national HIV/AIDS strategy.

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

The UNICEF-supported Tuseme programme is designed to empower young people to address the key issues that are affecting them. As Rahim, age 14, explains: “I was interested in joining the Tuseme club because I liked the way children used theatre to learn and express themselves. We perform plays on various child rights issues, such as HIV prevention and teenage pregnancy. And we script all the plays ourselves.” Faiba, age 12, adds: “Before we end our meetings we make sure we all understand each other and we all agree to change our behaviours. I’m happy that we have a teacher we can talk to openly about our problems. It’s a huge relief, because she listens, she understands, and she helps.”

EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: HIV/AIDS AND CHILDREN (2011)

Total: $151.4 million

$44.6 million Regular Resources , 29%

$99.9 million

Other Resources Regular, 66%

$6.9 million

Other Resources Emergency, 5%

Such inequities are rooted in age, geography, socioKEY RESULTS economic status, and gender. Despite the fact that women have more opportunities than men to be tested, • UNICEF distributed $145 million in HIV commodities to 54 countries – a 45 per cent increase over only 35 per cent of pregnant women in low and middle 2010. These included antiretroviral drugs, test kits income countries are tested for HIV. Further, in 2011 and diagnostics, and basic medical equipment, only 28 per cent of children born to HIV-positive mothers among other supplies. received an HIV test within the first two months of life.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE

• UNICEF and WHO are coordinating a 29-member partnership that is supporting the implementation of the “Global Plan to eliminate new HIV infections in children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive” in 22 priority countries.

To help combat this global epidemic, UNICEF focuses its support on four areas: prevention, care, treatment, and protection. UNICEF’s work includes developing national capacities and providing technical assistance • Working with partners to capitalize on cell-phone to plan, implement, and monitor programmes to elimitechnology and other innovative communication nate new HIV infections among children by 2015. It also efforts, UNICEF is helping mothers and their includes preventing mother-to-child transmission, providinfants to secure access to ongoing treatment, ing paedi­atric treatment, and increasing the number of care, and support. children and women with access to antiretroviral drugs. UNICEF also works closely with governments, NGOs, youth groups, and religious organizations to help adolescents protect themselves against the virus through training and peer support. Crucially, the organization engages with communities, families, and civil society to protect and support children affected by the virus, including orphans and HIV-positive children.

• UNICEF spearheaded efforts in several countries to undertake equity-based bottleneck analyses to identify gaps, disparities, and inequities in access to and utilization of HIV/AIDS services. • The Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS campaign continues to influence global, national, and local discourse to prevent children from “falling through the cracks” in the HIV response.

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CASE STUDY 7:

CASE STUDY 8:

BELIZE

MOZAMBIQUE

Reducing the socio-economic vulnerability of adolescent girls

One of the great things about UNICEF is that it is willing to work on the ground with grassroots organizations such as ours, where people come together to address and find solutions to their unique problems. I have found that UNICEF is willing to meet us wherever we are in the community.

Reaching those most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS

BELIZE HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $0.1 million

$0.1 million

Regular Resources, 100%

UNICEF’s staff in Mozambique have shown great dedication and attention to all aspects of our HIV work, and they have always been available and interested in listening to, discussing, and supporting new ideas and approaches. — D R . M A R I A L AU R A M A S T R O G I A C O M O, P R O J E C T C H I E F, DOCTORS WITH AFRICA

— M I C H E L L E I R V I N G , E X E C U T I V E D I R E C T O R , P R O D U C T I V E O R G A N I Z AT I O N F O R W O M E N I N AC T I O N

THE NEED

THE NEED

Belize has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in Central America, estimated at 2.3 per cent in 2009, with young people aged 15 to 24 particularly affected. Further, a 2009 estimate puts the prevalence rate of females in this age group at more than twice that of males of the same age. Early sexual activity/child bearing, high levels of unemployment, and lack of access to services are just a few of the issues that continue to place girls and young women at a disadvantage. Collectively, these conditions work to deprive girls and young women of the opportunity to develop adequate employment skills, while increasing their level of insecurity, their dependency on males, and their exposure to violence.

It is estimated that 1.4 million Mozambicans were living with HIV in 2009, and that of these nearly 55 per cent (760,000) were women, 9 per cent (130,000) children under the age of 15, and 5 per cent (70,000) children under the age of five. In addition, survey data show an HIV prevalence of 11.5 per cent among people aged 15 to 49. In 2010 alone it is estimated that 15,000 children under 15 years died from AIDS. According to the 2009 National Child Mortality Study, AIDS was among the top four conditions contributing to the mortality of children under five in Mozambique, accounting for almost 10 per cent of all deaths.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF Belize has been working to reverse these trends and to make the rights of adolescent girls more visible. In 2011, the organization initiated a partnership with the Population Council, other UN agencies, and a number of national and local counterparts to implement a Joint UN Programme on Adolescent Girls designed to provide them with the information, skills, programmes, and support services necessary to improve their socio-economic situation, and thus reduce their vulnerability to HIV.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES UNICEF has invested its Regular Resources primarily in upstream work – an area where donor funds are least available. This has allowed the organization to take the lead in advocating for and then initiating the Joint UN Programme on Adolescent Girls, including in remote communities. Regular Resources were utilized to collect the data necessary to identify the most vulnerable populations and thus ensure that the programmes and services that were subsequently developed would serve those who are most in need. They have also allowed UNICEF to mobilize communities and decision makers to secure their input and build national ownership.

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VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Esther is a 14-year-old Mayan girl who lives in Toledo. She is among those adolescents most at risk of HIV infection. A year ago she dropped out of school after only two years of secondary education, as her parents could no longer afford to pay for her education. Esther now stays home in her village, assisting her family with daily chores. Nonetheless, as she tells a visitor, “All I want to do is go back to school!” The Joint UN Programme on Adolescent Girls, which includes HIV prevention and life-skills programmes, is designed to reach vulnerable girls such as Esther, empowering them with the opportunity for a healthy and fulfilling life.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF’s work in responding to the epidemic extends from high government offices to small remote villages, and focuses on four key areas: prevention, care, treatment, and protection. These efforts cover the entire timespan from pregnancy through infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and include mothers as well as children. UNICEF Mozambique has supported the government in shaping various HIV policies and plans, and is working to ensure that the needs of the poorest, including children and women in particular, are considered in all national poverty and development plans and programmes.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Unquestionably, the unrestricted nature of Regular Resources is crucial to UNICEF’s work in Mozambique. The earmarking of funds by donors not only restricts the use of those funds but it increases transaction costs and the reporting burden for the country office. Given the flexibility of RR funding, UNICEF Mozambique has been able to target these vital resources to underfunded areas, ensuring that all elements of the HIV/AIDS programme can be implemented to achieve maximum results.

MOZAMBIQUE HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $6 million

$2 million

Regular Resources, 30%

$4 million

Other Resources Regular, 70%

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

It is another busy day at the Munhava Health Care Centre, located in a crowded neighbourhood in Beira – Mozambique’s second-largest city. Women sit attentively on long stone benches as Isabelle Domingo, a 28-year-old mother of three, addresses them on early testing for HIV/AIDS. “When I tested positive, my husband blamed me for bringing the disease into the family. He refused to get tested, and after a while we separated,” Isabella tells the women. It was at that time that Isabella and a few other HIV-positive women decided that they would all help one another, and with the backing of UNICEF they formed the support group Kupulumussana (“We Will Save Each Other”).

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FOCUS AREA 4

CASE STUDY 9:

NIGERIA

CHILD PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, AND ABUSE

Addressing the challenge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

As the coordinating body of the HIV/AIDS response in Kaduna State, we have found it imperative to work with UNICEF in order to achieve the universal goal of zero new HIV infections and zero AIDS related deaths. — H O N . PAT R I C K K AT U K A , E X E C U T I V E S E C R E TA R Y, K A N D U N A S TAT E A I D S C O N T R O L AG E N C Y

NIGERIA HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $4.32 million

$3.78 million Regular Resources, 88%

$0.05 million Other Resources Emergency, 1%

Nigeria is estimated to have the second largest incidence of HIV worldwide, with an HIV prevalence of 3.6 per cent among the general population as well as among those aged 15 to 49. Women comprise about 52 per cent of the estimated 3.3 million HIV-positive Nigerians. For every infected male aged 20 to 24, there are 2.4 infected females of the same age. Further, Nigeria’s 36 states have a wide range of infection rates, from 1.0 to 12.7 per cent, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the epidemic across various geopolitical zones, states, localities, and population groups.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Working with a range of partners, UNICEF’s strategy in the area of HIV/AIDS prioritizes advocating for policies and actions to reach the most vulnerable children and women; strengthening the government’s capacity to respond to the epidemic; understanding the scope of the problem through rigorous data analysis; and changing social behaviours. In 2011, UNICEF supported a number of initiatives, including compiling the annual Universal Access Report, a critical data analysis of the HIV/AIDS situation in Nigeria produced with WHO and UNAIDS; finalizing a national plan to eliminate mother-tochild transmission; and supporting oversight, monitoring, and tracking of efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in nine states.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources support the salaries of all nine UNICEF staff members working on HIV and AIDS issues in Nigeria. These funds perfectly complement HIV funding from the US Government, The Global Fund, and the World Bank, and also complement smaller pots of funding from restricted Other Resources by enabling systemic ‘wrap-around’ support for discrete activities.

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— M A R K H E R E WA R D, U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

$0.49 million

Other Resources Regular, 11%

THE NEED

Regular Resources make all the difference in Azerbaijan. Because of their flexibility, when an opportunity suddenly presents itself, we can kick-start the reform process and the government will then go on to assume the costs.

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) Randagi is located about 250 kilometres from the state capital of Kaduna, and is the only PHC serving a community of over 20,000 people. It is also one of 54 sites benefiting from an innovative government-supported Midwifery Service Scheme, which deploys midwives to rural PHCs. Until recently, PHC Randagi provided no HIV/AIDS services. In response, UNICEF partnered with the State Ministry of Health to train four midwives in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. “I have always wanted to know if I am infected with HIV or not so that I can be sure that my baby will not be born with the virus,” said 22-yearold Ladi, who attended counselling at PHC Randagi, “but I could not afford to travel to the city to be tested. Now I know my HIV status, and I am empowered to take the right steps.” During 2011, UNICEF supported the training of more than 250 midwives at over 60 PHCs in seven states.

THE NEED Each day millions of children worldwide – from all socioeconomic backgrounds, and across all ages, religions, and cultures – experience violence, exploitation, and abuse. These children are typically the most excluded members of society. They might face the isolation of a disabled child, the exploitation of a poor girl in domestic labour, or the recruitment of a child into an armed group. Although exact figures are unknown, the growing base of evidence reveals that poverty, urbanization, and climate change continue to affect essential protective networks for children, including the family unit.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE The Millennium Declaration acknowledges that without addressing protection issues the MDGs cannot be achieved. All children have the right to be protected from violence, exploitation, and abuse. UNICEF takes a holistic approach to protecting children, with a particular focus on responding to violence and on prevention – including strengthening national systems and community networks and supporting changes in harmful practices. With partners, UNICEF is prioritizing birth registration; preventing institutionalization of children through improved access to services and direct support to families at risk; and preventing child violence and exploitation from occurring in the first place. This involves not only advocating for legislation, policies, services, resources, and capacities to improve the protective environment but also ensuring that communities are actively engaged in changing discriminatory and harmful social norms and practices.

EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: CHILD PROTECTION FROM VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, AND ABUSE (2011)

Total: $340 million

$89 million

Regular Resources , 26%

$168 million

Other Resources Regular, 50%

$83 million

Other Resources Emergency, 24%

KEY RESULTS • UNICEF supported an estimated 126 countries to address a variety of child protection issues through systems strengthening and social change, including birth registration, violence in homes and schools, trafficking and migration, and justice for children. • At least 30 governments were assisted in creating effective frameworks and laws for alternative care, removing children from institutions and integrating them into homes and communities. • UNICEF continued to actively support the release and reintegration of children associated with armed forces or armed groups. • Working with legislators and policy makers, UNICEF helped to improve legal and policy frameworks around child protection in 83 countries.

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CASE STUDY 10:

CASE STUDY 11:

CAMEROON

PAKISTAN

Changing the child protection environment

Child protection in Cameroon is a programme on the move. We certainly need more and more effort and resources, but step by step we are building a strong and protective environment for children. — A N T O I N E T T E E K A M A B O G O, U N I C E F C H I L D P R O T E C T I O N O F F I C E R

Building a child protection system

CAMEROON CHILD PROTECTION PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $0.8 million

$0.7 million

Regular Resources, 86%

$0.1 million

I can never forget the hope in the eyes of one of the children studying in a UNICEF-sponsored education centre. And today that project is being run by the government. — S H AG U F TA B H AT T I , U N I C E F N AT I O N A L O F F I C E R

THE NEED

THE NEED

Cameroon’s child protection environment is complex, with reports of violence against children and women, of exploitation, and of child trafficking increasing every year. Early marriage also remains a concern, with 36 per cent of women aged 20–24 married prior to turning 18, and 12 per cent of girls under 15 already married. Other statistics are equally alarming: there are 1.2 million orphans and vulnerable children in the country, some 300,000 of whom have been directly affected by HIV/AIDS; the child labour rate is more than 30 per cent; and some 800 children are being held in detention.

Pakistan is home to over 70 million children, up to 11 million of whom are believed to be engaged in child labour, and between 1.5 and 2.5 million of whom are thought to be living on the streets. Multiple socio-economic factors push these children and their families into a chronic cycle of poverty; and recurrent natural disasters, such as the historic floods of 2010, and persistent insecurity, especially in the country’s north-west areas, further stretch the coping mechanisms of these families. One survival strategy for large families living in poverty or made vulnerable by humanitarian crises is to require their children to leave school to work.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES In 2011, UNICEF’s child protection priorities would not have been realized without RR funding, with 87 per cent of programme funds coming from these unrestricted resources. The major portion of the funds covered an evaluation of UNICEF’s training support for justice sector actors; of the national birth registration system; and of alternative measures to child detention. RR funding has been and will continue to be a critical lifeline for the child protection reform initiative in Cameroon, and in 2012 it will have a major impact on the planning and monitoring of future child protection interventions.

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VOICES FROM THE FIELD

At age 15, Zakiatou dropped out of school to help support her family. Her first job was as a housekeeper, for a monthly salary of $20. The owner’s son regularly sexually abused her, and when she became pregnant her employer told her to terminate the pregnancy and subsequently fired her. As Zakiatou recalls, “My family and I were distraught because we had no resources to support this pregnancy and we were under threat from the owner’s family. However, UNICEF’s awareness campaign on sexual exploitation pushed my father to seek help from the police and a social service organization.” Today, Zakiatou, mother of a 14-month-old girl, is smiling again. “I am aware that there are many girls like me who need help. It motivates me to give them advice and to help them avoid the risk of sexual violence.”

$3 million

Regular Resources, 22%

$4 million

$8 million

Other Resources Emergency, <1%

UNICEF is working with the government to identify capacity gaps and bottlenecks in national protection strategies and systems – cooperation that has extended to officials at the regional and district level. With coordinated and comprehensive data at a premium, UNICEF has focused on supporting crucial evaluations and studies, which are in turn leading to changes in the child protection environment. For example, UNICEF’s evaluation of birth registration was linked to national civil status reform, including extending the free birth registration period and establishing a National Civil Status Office.

Total: $15 million

Other Resources Regular, 23%

Other Resources Regular, 14%

UNICEF’S RESPONSE

PAKISTAN CHILD PROTECTION PROGRAMME (2011)

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Following the devolution of the social sector’s ministerial functions to the provincial governments in 2011, UNICEF has been partnering with provincial departments of social welfare to build a protective environment for all children. The organization is also working with national and provincial disaster management authorities and other partners to ensure that child protection is well integrated in emergency preparedness and response plans. Further, through partnerships with Pakistan’s national social protection programmes, UNICEF is reaching the most vulnerable children at the grassroots level and providing them with access to education through conditional cash transfers. Among the many accomplishments of 2011 was Pakistan’s ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Through UNICEF-supported programmes, more than 1 million children accessed a broad range of social services in 2011, including special protection for child victims of trafficking; legal and psychological counselling; sexual abuse units in hospitals; help lines; child-friendly desks in police stations; second-chance education programmes; and non-formal education for children in bonded labour. Without access to flexible, unrestricted funding many of these programmes would not have been possible. Going forward, UNICEF Pakistan will continue to rely on Regular Resources for such vital support.

Other Resources Emergency, 55%

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Fifteen-year-old Nazdana and her friends used to be afraid to play outdoors, where they found themselves subjected to the harassment of young men. UNICEF helped to establish three child protection centres in Quetta (the capital of Balochistan province) to provide children like Nazdana with a protective environment in which to learn life skills and to express themselves freely and safely, thus building self-confidence. To date, nearly 3,000 children – girls and boys alike – have benefited from these centres. “I have learned how to cut, sew, and make decoration pieces,” said Nazdana. “And I have become interested in education and have received help to enrol in a regular school.”

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FOCUS AREA 5

CASE STUDY 12:

UZBEKISTAN

POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

Working to keep families united

Although there are many obstacles to overcome in ensuring a strong protective environment for children, I am overwhelmed by the perseverance of those who work tirelessly in the community – often with little support – to fight for the rights of children. — CHRISSIE GALE, UNICEF CHILD PROTECTION SPECIALIST

UZBEKISTAN CHILD PROTECTION PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $0.33 million

$0.29 million Regular Resources, 87%

$0.04 million

Other Resources Regular, 12% Other Resources Emergency, <1%

THE NEED In Uzbekistan, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are traditionally placed in institutional care – a catch-all solution to the national OVC problem. At any given time, over 46,000 children may be living in institutions across the country, the vast majority of whom are children with disabilities. Other causes of institutionalization include poverty, ill-treatment, parental abandonment, and parental migration for work. The institutionalization of children is so socially entrenched in Uzbekistan that many parents and professionals think children are better off living in such institutions.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF is committed to preventing the separation of children from their families wherever and whenever possible, and to supporting the government in providing assistance to children who are at risk of all forms of abuse and neglect. UNICEF partners with the Republican Centre for the Social Adaptation of Children, a national NGO, to pilot the work of family and child support services (FCSS). This work helps identify children at risk, thereby preventing further harm and institutionalization, and helps return children from institutions to family care. Indeed, the success of the programme has prompted the government to invite the FCSS teams to contribute to a working group on legislative reform to address the needs of children at risk and their families.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Securing resources to invest in the development of protection legislation, policy, and practice is challenging in Uzbekistan, as tangible results for children are difficult to demonstrate in the short term. Fortunately, Regular Resources allow for continued and steady investment in developing expertise in these areas, and for establishing a comprehensive national child protection system. They also permit UNICEF to position resources where funding is scarce but crucial to achieving results for children.

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VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Mr. Rakhimov’s family was ripped apart when he separated from his former wife and local authorities placed their children in a nearby orphanage. After setting up a home with his new wife, Mr. Rakhimov requested the assistance of the UNICEF-supported FCSS team in Samarkand to help him get his two sons returned to him, and the team successfully worked with the family and local authorities to reunite the father and sons. “Obviously, I’m very happy the boys have been returned to me,” says Mr. Rakhimov. “I’m doing everything I can for them,” he declares, with obvious devotion. “This is their home and I don’t want them to be raised anywhere else.”

Because of Regular Resources, UNICEF has been able to support the youth of Madagascar in becoming agents of positive social change, allowing them to confidently deliberate on the challenges they face and to identify strategies to more effectively pursue their own goals and dreams. — S T E V E N L AU W E R I E R , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

THE NEED The world continues to be confronted with global crises, broad inequalities, and the complex challenges of urbanization and climate change. Children, the most vulnerable members of society, are the most severely affected by all these factors – representing more than half the people trapped in poverty globally. As governments and development agencies throughout the world work to recover from the financial crisis, the food price crisis, and the fuel price crisis, budgets are being squeezed, potentially threatening social spending. An estimated 91 countries are planning such cuts in the coming year, and nearly one quarter of developing countries are cutting these expenditures below pre-crises levels.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Policy advocacy and partnerships underpin all of UNICEF’s activities and are an essential aspect of UNICEF’s work with governments, lawmakers, the media, civil society, and international organizations. UNICEF works to strengthen the capacities of its partners – to collect data, to design and implement policies and legislation, and to budget adequately – so that they can meet their obligations to children. Advocating for children and helping communities to have a voice in the development process are a critical catalyst for achieving equitable results for children. Because UNICEF’s own resources represent a minimal share of the total resources needed to address the rights and needs of children, increasingly its strength is in leveraging resources, rather than in providing direct services.

EXPENDITURE BY TYPE OF RESOURCES: POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHILDREN’S RIGHTS (2011)

Total: $359 million

$165 million

Regular Resources , 46%

$146 million

Other Resources Regular, 41%

$48 million

Other Resources Emergency, 13%

KEY RESULTS • UNICEF was a key partner in reporting on progress towards the health-related MDGs and monitoring key development indicators, including under-five mortality rates, nutrition levels, immunization rates, key maternal health statistics, and access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, among others. • The organization continued to be a lead actor in promoting child-sensitive social protection through its engagement with 93 governments and its production of the first Social Protection Strategic Framework, in consultation with partners. • In order to address child poverty and disparities, UNICEF advised 117 governments on regulatory, legal, institutional, and financing reform, and assisted a further 52 countries to conduct or substantially update their situation analysis of children’s and women’s rights. • UNICEF supported the rights of migrant children through its 2011 chairmanship of the Global Migration Group and its engagement with 63 governments on migrant-related issues.

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CASE STUDY 13:

CASE STUDY 14:

BURKINA FASO

INDIA

Developing a national social protection policy for children

We know that our work needs continuity and cannot yield results in just one or two years, and we greatly appreciate the fact that UNICEF provides support for our interventions on a long-term basis. — O U S M A N E S AWA D O G O, C OA L I T I O N S U P P O R T I N G C H I L D R E N A N D YO U N G P E O P L E O N T H E S T R E E T

Delivering basic services through community empowerment

BURKINA FASO POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $2.81 million

$2.71 million Regular Resources, 96%

$0.07 million

Other Resources Regular, 3%

UNICEF has continually supported the State Planning Commission in many of its endeavours. Notably, the organization supports the state at critical times, and its partnership is always stable, cooperative, and need based. — M A N G E S H T YAG I , A DV I S O R , S TAT E P L A N N I N G C O M M I S S I O N , M A D H YA P R A D E S H

$0.03 million THE NEED

Other Resources Emergency, 1%

The global economic downturn of the past few years reversed hard-earned gains in Burkina Faso. Although the gross domestic product increased in 2011, there was no significant impact in terms of poverty reduction. UNICEF estimates that slightly more than half of all children in Burkina Faso are poor, compared to 42 per cent of adults. Rural areas are home to 90 per cent of poor children, which have a 50 per cent higher child mortality rate than urban areas.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources represented 96 per cent of UNICEF’s 2011 Policy Advocacy and Partnerships budget in Burkina Faso. These funds were vital in supporting the organization’s engagement with the government and other partners to improve national coordination of social protection issues, to facilitate genuine national debate, and to develop a social protection policy. UNICEF actions in 2011 included conducting a joint review with the World Bank of all existing safety nets in Burkina Faso and establishing a joint partner group on social protection.

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Total: $25.9 million

$14.7 million Regular Resources, 57%

$10.9 million

Other Resources Regular, 42%

$0.3 million Other Resources Emergency, 1%

In 1993, India made significant amendments to its Constitution to decentralize governance, especially in the delivery of basic services and livelihoods. Bringing decision-making closer to the people and increasing allocations to the social sector were expected to result in improved service delivery and outcomes. Yet, today 42 per cent of India’s population still lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 per day – a situation partly due to a lack of government capacity at the national and local level, especially in the country’s poorer states.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE In 2011, UNICEF contributed evidence, data, and policy analysis to Burkina Faso’s new National Social Protection Policy to ensure that the policy is child and women-focused and that national social protection systems to address child vulnerabilities are strengthened. UNICEF also helped to secure several crucial changes in government policy, including: (i) a commitment to develop a plan of action for implementing the social protection policy; (ii) an agreement to provide cash transfers to alleviate chronic poverty, including enabling the poorest populations to cover education fees and health services; and (iii) expanding access to health services through subsidies and gratuities in favour of children under five and pregnant women.

THE NEED

INDIA POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAMME (2011)

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Baba was living on the streets of Ouagadougou when he took ill, but with help from friends he made his way to the Renaissance Centre – a sanctuary for streetchildren managed by UNICEF partner Samusocial, one of the NGOs in the country’s Children and Young People on the Street coalition. When Baba arrived, it was discovered he needed emergency surgery, and thanks to Samusocial he received the care that he required. Today, Baba teaches first aid to street children and is helping to raise awareness of their conditions. Says Baba: “Thanks to UNICEF and Samusocial, I am not only alive today but I can help children who are in need.”

UNICEF’S RESPONSE As part of the government’s effort to strengthen the decentralization of social services, UNICEF has supported a participatory approach that promotes community empowerment, behaviour change, and improved service delivery. UNICEF encourages state governments and their institutions to make meaningful contributions to the change process by factoring community needs, priorities, and preferences into their planning and implementation processes. The organization also provides technical advice to 35 priority districts across seven states with the most compromised human development indicators.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES UNICEF has invested Regular Resources in several innovative pilot projects in India. And because these funds are fully flexible, they allow for activities that would generally not be funded, including capacity building, influencing the development of government policy, and strengthening social protection systems. Such unrestricted resources have also enabled UNICEF to complement the government’s allocation of resources to districts with technical expertise in decentralized planning, budgeting, and monitoring. Notably, as capacities are strengthened, state and national governments absorb these tasks into their own structures.

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Mr. Hindusingh Pawar is the elected head of the village governance structure in the Rajgarh district of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Recently he described to a group of external evaluators the process by which villagers express their preferences for basic services and projects to the village governing board. “Last year,” Mr. Pawar explained, “villagers requested access to safe drinking water, integrated child development services, and pavements.” The pavements have now been completed, and Mr. Pawar pointed to several houses constructed for the poorer members of a village who were selected by voters from the village itself.

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HUMANITARIAN ACTION AND POST-CRISIS RECOVERY

CASE STUDY 15:

UGANDA

Reaching marginalized children through effective policy-making

It is the predictability and the flexibility of our response at all times that makes us the most informed and the most trusted organization anywhere and everywhere. And it is Regular Resources that gives us the opportunity to be so and that are the key to our success. — S H A R A D S A P R A , U N I C E F R E P R E S E N TAT I V E

UGANDA POLICY ADVOCACY AND PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAMME (2011)

Total: $8.3 million

$5.2 million

Regular Resources, 63%

Despite significant progress in recent years, the children of Uganda continue to experience widespread deprivation. Malnutrition rates remain extremely high; immunization rates are among the lowest in the region; primary school completion is little over 50 per cent and pre-primary under 10 per cent; and children continue to face threats to their safety, including many forms of violence and a poor juvenile justice system. Many of the bottlenecks that prevent these children from being reached exist at the policy level, yet the lack of comprehensive, coordinated data across ministries is hindering decision makers in effectively guiding and overseeing programmes.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE The foundation of UNICEF’s policy work is its strong relationship with government ministries, and one of its primary roles is to provide technical support to the development of key policies and plans. In 2011, UNICEF Uganda supported: (i) the finalization of a National Nutrition Plan; (ii) a 10-year expanded programme of immunization; (iii) the drafting of an updated national Children’s Act; and (iv) completion of early learning development standards and an inclusive education policy. Great strides were also made in developing a social protection programme and policy, and work has begun on drafting child-friendly budget guidelines with the Ministry of Finance.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources are essential for the simple reason that other donor resources tend to be tied heavily to implementing tangible, field-based programmes. Flexibility is especially vital, as the policy environment in Uganda can move very quickly. These resources offer the organization the opportunity to seize opportunities as they arise, which is at the heart of effective policy advocacy. Without such resources, UNICEF would miss the potential to influence wide-ranging policy innovations that can dramatically improve the lives of children and women today and in future generations.

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— L O U I S - G E O R G E S A R S E N AU LT, D I R E C T O R O F E M E R G E N C Y P R O G R A M M E S , U N I C E F

$2.8 million

Other Resources Regular, 33%

$0.3 million THE NEED

Regular Resources allow us to be present in countries before, during, and after emergencies, and are usually the very first funding that our country offices use to respond to the critical needs of children in emergencies.

Other Resources Emergency, 4%

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

The U-Report is a free short messaging service (SMS, or text message) designed to give young Ugandans the ability to collectively voice their opinions on issues of concern to them. Each week an SMS question is sent to 115,000 “U-reporters” to seek their views on development issues affecting children and youth. The answers are then analysed quantitatively and qualitatively, and the compiled responses and opinions are subsequently presented to government representatives. Esther Kalougho, from the Kasese district, finds that the U-Report enables her to share her views with people of a similar age all across Uganda, and says that “without the U-Report my views would never be heard.”

THE NEED Emergencies – natural and human-caused – continue to affect the lives of millions of people all over the world. Children in fragile and conflict-affected states are twice as likely to die before the age of five as those living elsewhere. In 2011 natural disasters had an impact on some 206 million people, while complex emergencies again showed that the most vulnerable are disproportionately affected. In this context, children are especially vulnerable to disease, malnutrition, and violence. The drought and severe nutritional crisis in the Horn of Africa affected more than 13 million people amid armed conflict; and record floods devastated parts of Pakistan, disrupting the lives of some 5 million rural Pakistanis. Floods also had a deadly impact in Brazil and Thailand. A tropical storm killed many in the Philippines, and a destructive earthquake struck Turkey. Elsewhere, conflict and civil unrest continued to take a heavy toll on children and women.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2011)

Total: $123.4 million

$42.8 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 35%

$80.6 million Reimbursed (OR), 65%

KEY RESULTS • Approximately 1.8 million severely malnourished children were helped through therapeutic feeding programmes, 86.8 million received vitamin A supplements, and 52.3 million were vaccinated against measles. • Over 10.2 million children gained access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in their learning environment. • Some 8.8 million school-aged children, including adolescents, received formal and non-formal basic education.

• More than 11,600 children associated with armed In 2011, UNICEF responded to 292 humanitarian situforces or groups were reintegrated into their famiations in 80 countries and territories. Often the first lies and communities, and over 18,300 separated on the ground in emergencies, UNICEF is unique in its children were reunited with family members. capacity to deliver life-saving interventions in a timely and effective way. Guided by a set of principles known • UNICEF deployed 618 emergency personnel, as the Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian including 135 standby partners from other organiAction, these commitments are more than a mission zations, to respond to humanitarian needs. statement – they are a humanitarian imperative. They are a framework for providing timely and effective collective humanitarian action based on global norms and standards in key programme sectors, as well as outlining UNICEF’s operational response. In addition, UNICEF’s action in emergencies is defined by the “cluster approach” – that is, working with other agencies to improve the predictability and quality of humanitarian response in non-refugee settings. UNICEF leads the global clusters for nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and education (co-lead with Save the Children), while continuing to play a critical role in the health cluster. REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

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CASE STUDY 16:

CASE STUDY 17:

DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA

LIBERIA

Ensuring education in emergencies

Combatting malnutrition in under-five children

Partnering with UNICEF has greatly improved our efforts and resources in terms of saving and improving the lives of children and mothers. — P A K T O N G C H O L , U N I C E F F O C A L P O I N T, M I N I S T R Y O F P U B L I C H E A LT H

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2011)

Total: $2 million

$2 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 100%

Save the Children and UNICEF have an extremely strong partnership, and it is a tribute to the UN agency that it has such generous support. — D R . C H E S T E R S H A B A , E D U C AT I O N M A N AG E R , S AV E T H E C H I L D R E N L I B E R I A

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2011)

Total: $4.6 million

$4.1 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 89%

$0.5 million Reimbursed (OR), 11%

THE NEED

THE NEED

Food insecurity has long been and continues to be a major concern in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and for many years now the country has been dependent on international food aid. Malnutrition – especially among children under five – is a particularly serious concern. A 2009 survey revealed that 32 per cent of children under five suffer from stunting, 19 per cent are underweight, and 5 per cent suffer from acute malnutrition (wasting), with clear geographical disparities. Malnutrition is aggravated by food insecurity, the low quality of water, poor sanitation and hygiene, and limited access to essential medicines and care services.

Liberia’s 14-year civil conflict (1989–2003) had a crippling effect on its education system, where over 80 per cent of schools were either damaged or destroyed. Forty-eight per cent of the population has never attended school, inequity prevails in both quality and access to education, and rural children in particular have only limited access to secondary schools. While Liberia was still struggling to rebuild its education system, in late 2010 and early 2011 an influx of over 180,000 refugees fleeing violence in Côte d’Ivoire poured into the country’s four impoverished eastern counties, further worsening the situation.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Working with the World Food Programme, in 2011 UNICEF expanded its programme of Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) to the 25 counties with the highest food insecurity out of the 114 counties targeted for food distribution – the first time CMAM was implemented in the DPRK on such a large scale. In addition, UNICEF supported the Ministry of Public Health in training over 1,000 household doctors for the rapid screening and treatment of severe acute malnutrition. As a result, more than 181,000 children were screened for malnutrition and some 36,000 were targeted for emergency feeding. UNICEF also has a significant water, sanitation, and hygiene programme that addresses many of the underlying causes of malnutrition in the DPRK.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources have been essential to the work of UNICEF in the DPRK, allowing the organization to push forward its critical CMAM programme and thus ensure the provision of high-quality technical expertise in nutrition. Not only did UNICEF succeed in developing an ambitious programme at a rapid pace, together with the government, but this expertise has raised the profile of nutrition at all levels in the country. It has also attracted greater interest from development partners, thus paving the way for a more sustained approach towards nutrition and, in turn, making an enormous difference for children in the country.

UNICEF

44

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

In September 2011, UNICEF supported a train-the-trainers programme, whereby some 1,000 household doctors learned how to screen and treat children for severe acute malnutrition. Dr. Ri Kum Hui, Director of the Paediatric Hospital in South Hamgyong, was one of the participants. As he noted: “I learned a lot from the experience. It was not only classroom work but also on-the-job training for the screening process. I have never been involved in such a participatory exercise. We got the chance to share our thoughts, ideas, and knowledge on acute malnutrition.”

UNICEF’S RESPONSE Today, the education curriculum for Ivorian refugee students is in line with the standards in Côte d’Ivoire, thus helping to make a smoother transition once the refugees return home. UNICEF Liberia collaborated with the Ivorian Education Ministry and UNICEF Côte d’Ivoire in producing 315,000 primary textbooks in French as well as an Ivorian curriculum and teacher guides. UNICEF and its partners ensured that the curriculum and textbooks reached students shortly following the refugee influx, thereby allowing the children to begin the school year at the same time as they would at home. Early childhood development programmes and primary education in the context of this emergency served both native and refugee children in roughly equal numbers; and they provided adolescent girls and boys with access to vocational training programmes as well.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES

VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Eric, age 11, came to Liberia with his family to escape the violence in Côte d’Ivoire. “My three sisters cried all the way and we had to cross the river, but finally we made it safely,” he explains. Eric, who wants to be a teacher, now attends school in Liberia and says he does not want to go back home – at least for now. “I want to stay here because it is safe and I can go to school and learn. I got a new bag and books from UNICEF and I don’t want to miss my classes!”

In 2011, Regular Resources enabled UNICEF Liberia to respond quickly and effectively to the education needs of both large numbers of refugee children and the children of their host communities. These unrestricted funds ensured continued learning for over 10,000 Ivorian and Liberian children in early childhood development facilities, 20,000 Ivorian primary school children, and an additional 18,000 Liberian children within schools hosting refugees. Simply put, these resources met a crucial funding gap at a time when other emergency funding was unavailable.

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

45


REGULAR RESOURCES PARTNERS AND DONORS

CASE STUDY 18:

PHILIPPINES

Bolstering disaster preparedness and response

(in US dollars) REGULAR RESOURCES DONOR

Being exposed to various UNICEF projects and networking with other UNICEF partners, I realize now more than ever that children have the power to change the world for the better. — J A N I C E I A N M A N L U TAC , P R O J E C T M A N AG E R , OX FA M P H I L I P P I N E S

EMERGENCY PROGRAMME FUND (2011)

Total: $1.8 million

$1.0 million

Non-reimbursed (RR), 56%

$0.8 million Reimbursed (OR), 44%

THE NEED The Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, experiencing frequent typhoons, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The most destructive storm to hit the Philippines in 2011 was Tropical Storm Washi, which devastated two cities in northern Mindanao, leaving nearly 1,300 dead, almost a half-million persons displaced, and several schools heavily damaged or destroyed. In this particular emergency, some 43,000 children were affected by the floods, with 14,000 finding their way to evacuation centres. In addition to such natural disasters, several areas suffer from ethnic tension and armed conflict, particularly in Mindanao.

UNICEF’S RESPONSE UNICEF has assisted the Philippines in mitigating the effects of humanitarian crises by adopting comprehensive disaster risk reduction and preparedness plans. Even before Tropical Storm Washi, the organization supported nutritional assessments in Central Mindanao. More than 89,000 children under five were screened for acute malnutrition by the Department of Health, community-based volunteers, and UNICEF-funded partners such as Save the Children. UNICEF also provided ready-to-use therapeutic food and micronutrient powders, and infant and young child feeding counselling for pregnant and lactating women. UNICEF’s response in the area of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) included providing latrines and hand-washing facilities to 23 schools, and constructing wells and supplying hygiene and water kits to 10 villages. In addition, the organization helped thousands more schoolchildren in conflict and flood-affected areas by providing temporary learning spaces for nearly 1,300 children, school packs for 11,400 children, and book sets for 49 flood-damaged schools.

THE VALUE OF REGULAR RESOURCES Regular Resources enable the UNICEF country office to support emergency programmes that are either unfunded or have difficulty garnering adequate donor support. For example, during the emergency operations for Tropical Storm Washi, all of the funds that came from donors were committed to WASH – with no support for nutrition, education, or child protection. It was only through access to unrestricted Regular Resources that the country office was able to initiate critical interventions in these areas during the important first phase of response.

UNICEF

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VOICES FROM THE FIELD

Lina Duave is mother to sixmonth-old Alexis. On December 16, 2011, raging floodwaters completely destroyed their home. As soon as the family was relocated to the evacuation centre, one of Lina’s first decisions was to continue exclusively breastfeeding Alexis, despite having access to powdered milk substitutes that had been provided by well-meaning donors. As Lina explained: “I remember that during my prenatal check-ups I was told that breast milk is the best food for my baby. It has the complete nutrients that my baby needs.”

Afghanistan Andorra Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Guyana Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Ireland Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Kuwait Lesotho Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malaysia Mexico Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Myanmar Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Pakistan

PUBLIC SECTOR

GOVERNMENT 1,000 28,128 25,000 6,000 35,046,275 1,991,764 34,500 4,000 26,556,259 15,435 6,240 808 18,848,160 91,000 1,316,457

INTERORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

PRIVATE SECTOR NATIONAL COMMITTEES 25

TOTAL

OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS 26

284,895 1,184,349 6,139,034 3,533,243 10,281,499

6,453,795 8,907

16,425 550,190 10,000 24,624 63,397 28,577,350 4,000

204,796 2,213,577 6,271,281 1,866

48,821 23,239,425 1,994,350 3,500 6,480,044

34,614 13,001,468 40,547,451 47,537,597 3,312,588

22,526 30,006 132,843 688,249 841,320 56,617 11,549,290 100,000 3,708,801 18,288,364 20,000

4,942,986 8,864 1,470,462 11,012 1,187,932 23,303,053 104,250,926 22,976

200,000 2,000 54,230 3,732,393 284,000 214,000 10,685 11,403 5,000 84,309 393 48,433,000 4,580,160 2,000 75,555,000 35,700

8,379 924,503 5,954,338 8,935

47,249,800 1,704,545 7,170,449

1,000 313,023 1,209,349 6,000 41,185,309 5,525,007 34,500 4,000 36,837,758 15,435 6,240 808 25,301,955 91,000 1,316,457 8,907 16,425 550,190 10,000 229,420 2,276,974 34,848,631 4,000 1,866 83,435 36,240,893 42,541,801 3,500 54,017,640 3,312,588 22,526 30,006 4,942,986 141,707 2,158,711 841,320 67,629 12,737,222 100,000 27,011,854 122,539,290 20,000 22,976 200,000 2,000 54,230 8,379 4,656,895 6,238,338 214,000 19,620 11,403 5,000 84,309 393 95,682,800 6,284,705 2,000 82,725,449 35,700

REPORT ON REGUL AR RESOURCES 2011

47


REGULAR RESOURCES DONOR

Panama Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation San Marino Saudi Arabia Serbia Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Zambia Miscellaneous27 Income adjustments to prior years28 Cost of goods delivered and other expenses29 Subtotal Inter-governmental organizations Income adjustments to prior years28 Subtotal Inter-organizational arrangements Income adjustments to prior years28 Subtotal Non-governmental organizations Tetsuko Kuroyanaqi, Japan Miscellaneous 30 Income adjustments to prior years28 Subtotal Other income 31 TOTAL INCOME

25

PUBLIC SECTOR

GOVERNMENT 26,750 52,058

PRIVATE SECTOR

INTERORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

NATIONAL COMMITTEES 25

TOTAL

OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS 26 19,179 199,303

117,365 1,560,128

45,929 251,361 198,493 2,741,975 100,000 45,394,785 2,000 14,759 1,000,000 8,362 1,000,000 207,546 50,000 76,902 1,236,460 58,800,999 15,500 109,339,798 27,246,783 1,154,996 2,000 15,000 26,316 900,795 100,000 79,427,317 157,029,497 117,365 1,560,128

597,165 (854,904)

41,109 103,667 597,165 1,385,367

198,493 2,441,975

300,000 100,000 3,000,000 2,000 14,759 1,000,000

42,394,785

8,362 1,000,000 207,546 50,000 16,000 63,972 29,333,260 15,500 75,024,000 21,231,400 247,928 2,000 15,000 26,316 150,000 100,000 68,038,164 132,250,000

60,902 1,172,488 29,467,739 34,315,798 6,015,383 907,068

750,795 11,389,153 24,779,497

41,109 103,667 897,279

1,342,992

(120,799,860) 646,176,409

0

486,171,303

10,700,218

1,022,248,070 213,509

213,509 213,509

0

0

0

213,509 716

716 0

716

0

0

716

381,128 254,243 4,447

381,128 254,243 4,447 639,818 54,833,934 1,077,936,047

0

0

0

639,818

646,389,918

716

486,171,303

11,340,036

PHOTO CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

cover © UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1795/Giacomo Pirozzi page 1 © UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0697/Markisz page 5 © UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1577/Marco Dormino page 10 © UNICEF/BANA2012-00987/Afshan Khan page 20 © UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0205/Giacomo Pirozzi page 22 © UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1782/Giacomo Pirozzi © UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0465/Mia Brandt © UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1495/Giovanni Diffidenti © UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2648/Roger LeMoyne page 24 © UNICEF/Afghanistan/2010 page 25 © UNICEF/Democratic Republic of the Congo/ 2010/Jill Connelly page 26 © UNICEF/Iran/2011/Shehzad Noorani page 28 © UNICEF/Ethiopia/2011/Liv-Heidi Pederson page 29 © UNICEF/Lebanon/2010/ Adda Lombardi page 30 © UNICEF/United Republic of Tanzania/ 2008/Giacomo Pirozzi page 32 © UNICEF/Belize/2010/Sherlene Tablada page 33 © UNICEF/Mozambique/2008/Graeme Williams page 34 © UNICEF/Nigeria/2011 page 36 © UNICEF/Cameroon/2012/Kate Learmonth page 37 © UNICEF/Pakistan/2012/Sam Phelps page 38 © UNICEF/Uzbekistan/2011 page 40 © UNICEF/Burkina Faso/2009/Claude Tarpilga page 41 © UNICEF/India/2011/Pandit page 42 © UNICEF/Uganda/2011/Remie Nakintu page 44 © UNICEF/Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/2012/Rim Hui Yong page 45 © UNICEF/Liberia/2011/Giacomo Pirozzi page 46 © UNICEF Philippines/2011/Maitem

This document was prepared by UNICEF’s

RESOURCES

CREDITS

An electronic version of this report can be found online at the following addresses:

Design services: Douglas Tait, TaitDesign® www.taitdesign.com

For UNICEF staff: www.intranet.unicef.org/geneva/fundraising.nsf/ pageid/fund09a For National Committees: www4.intranet.unicef.org/geneva/fundraising.nsf/ pageid/fund09a For public access: Scan this QR code or visit www.unicef.org/publications

Private Fundraising and Partnerships (PFP) Division in collaboration with the Public Sector Alliances and Resource Mobilization Office (PARMO). The authors of this report would like to thank the many people from the country and regional offices who provided advice and contributions throughout the production process. We would also like to thank the following UNICEF Divisions for their review and comments on the various chapters: Division of Communication, Division of Financial and Administrative Management, Division of Policy and Strategy, Office of Emergency Programmes, Programme Division, and the Office of the Executive Director.

Editor: John Tessitore

Production by Phoenix Design Aid A/S, Denmark. ISO 14001/ISO 9000 certified and approved CO2 neutral company. This publication is printed on official environmentally approved FSC paper using vegetable-based inks. The printed matter is biodegradable and recyclable. .

Income from UNICEF’s Private Fundraising and Partnerships Division (PFP).

26

Income from country office private sector fundraising and NGOs.

27

Miscellaneous income primarily consists of private sector income for which the source is not individually identified.

28

Includes refunds and adjustments to income recognized in previous years.

29

Cost of goods delivered and other operating expenses incurred by PFP, excluding commission retained by sales partners and sales expenditure by country offices.

30

Miscellaneous income primarily consists of income from NGOs.

31

Other income includes contributions from interest and miscellaneous income, such as small contributions and gains/losses on foreign exchange transactions.

UNICEF

48

© United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), August 2012

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UNICEF: Report on Regular Resources 2011