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6.3 Annexes to Report

6.3.1 Primary Schools Included in the Survey School

Town

2.

Banja Luka

1.

ZmajJova Jovanović

3.

Sveti Sava

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ivan Goran Kovačić Aleksa Šantić Jovan Cvijić

Borislav Stanković Petar Kočić

Branko Ćopić Sveti Sava

10. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić 11. Sveti Vasilije Ostroški 12. Vuk Karadžić 13. Jovan Dučić

14. Vuk Karadžić

15. Petar Petrović Njegoš School

16. Malta

17. Isak Samokovlija

18. Safvet-Beg Bašagić

19. Džemaludin Čaušević 20. Aleksa Šantić

21. Catholic School Center 22. Osman Nuri Hadžić

23. Primary School of Music and Ballet

Banja Luka Banja Luka Banja Luka Banja Luka Banja Luka Prijedor Prijedor Doboj Doboj

Trebinje Trebinje Bijeljina Bijeljina

Istočno (East) Sarajevo Town

Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo


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School

Town

25. Village school Vrbovac

Odžak

24. Village school Potočani 26. Prekounje

27. Harmani I

28. Primary School Pazar

29. Primary School Centar

30. Primary School Husino

31. Primary School Sveti Franjo 32. Primary School Kreka

33. Primary School Musa Čazim Čatić 34. Primary School Mak Dizdar

35. Primary School Hasan Kikić

36. Primary School Edhem Mulabdić 37. Primary School Vitez

38. Primary School S.S Kranjčević 39. 4thPrimary School

40. Primary School Ilija Jakovljević 41. Primary School Vrapčići

42. 1st Primary School Široki Brijeg

43. 2nd Primary School Široki Brijeg

44. Primary School Ivan Goran Kovačić

Odžak Bihać Bihać Tuzla Tuzla Tuzla Tuzla Tuzla

Zenica Zenica Zenica Zenica Vitez

Mostar Mostar Mostar Mostar

Široki Brijeg Široki Brijeg Livno

45. Primary School Fahrudin Fahro Baščelija Goražde 46. 7thPrimary School

47. 4th Primary School

Brčko Brčko

35


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6.3.2. Secondary schools included in the survey School

1.

General Program High School FilipVišnjić

3.

General Program High School Jovan Dučić

2. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

General Program High School Sveti Sava

General Program High School & Vocational Secondary School Istočna Ilidža

Town

Bijeljina

Prijedor

Trebinje Istočno Sarajevo

General Program High School Jovan Dučić

Doboj

Secondary School of Mechanical Engineering

Prijedor

Secondary School of Electrical Engineering Secondary Medical School

Secondary Technical School Mihajlo Pupin

10. Secondary School ‘Center’

11. Secondary School ‘28 Juni’

12. Secondary School of Electrical Engineering Nikola Tesla

13. Secondary School of Construction and Civil Engineering 14. Secondary Technical School School

15. General Program High School

16. General Program High School Prvagimnazija

17. General Program High School Drugagimnazija

18. General Program High School PrvaBošnjačkagimnazija

19. General Program High School GimnazijafraDominikaMandića 20. General Program High School GimnazijaBihać

21. General Program High School GimnazijaMostar

22. General Program High School GimnazijafraGrgeMartića

Prijedor Doboj

Bijeljina

Trebinje

Istočno Sarajevo Banja Luka Banja Luka Banja Luka Town Livno

Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo

Široki Brijeg Bihać

Mostar Mostar


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School

23. General Program High School JU I.gimnazija

24. General Program High School Ismet Mujezinović Tuzla

25. General Program High School Katoličkiškolski centar SV.Franjo 26. General Program High School Vaso Pelagić 27. Secondary School of Economics

28. Secondary Vocational School Široki Brijeg 29. Secondary Music School

30. Secondary School of Civil Engineering and Geodesy 31. Mixed Secondary School of Catering and Tourism

32. Mixed Secondary School of Wood Processing and Forestry 33. Secondary School of Applied Arts 34. Secondary School of Economics

35. Secondary School of Catering and Tourism

36. Secondary School of Economics and Catering and Tourism 37. Secondary School of Arts Fra Gabrijela Jurkića 38. Secondary School Vitez

39. Mixed Secondary School Enver Pozderović 40. Secondary School of Economics

41. Secondary School of Economics Tuzla 42. Secondary School of Trade Tuzla

43. Secondary School of Catering and Tourism Tuzla 44. Secondary School of Economics 45. Secondary School Pere Zečevića

Town

Zenica Tuzla Tuzla

Brčko Livno

Široki Brijeg Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Bihać

Mostar Mostar Mostar Vitez

Goražde Zenica Tuzla Tuzla Tuzla

Brčko

Odžak

37


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Survey Conducted in Primary Schools Descriptive Statistics Entity Federation of BiH

Number of instances 12

Republika Srpska

30

Total City

Sarajevo

Goražde Zenica Vitez

Bihać

Mostar Livno

Odžak

Široki Brijeg Tuzla

Prijedor

Banja Luka Bijeljina

Istočno Sarajevo Trebinje Doboj Brčko

Total

12 13

61

Percentage (%)13

33

91

Number of instances

16

67

100 Percentage (%)

2 8 2 4 8 2 2 4 9 4

17.6 2.2 8.8 2.2 4.4 8.8 2.2 2.2 4.4 9.9 4.4

12

13.2

2

2.2

4 4 4 4

91

Number of instances - number of respondents who answered the question posed Answer shown in percentages

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

100


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Position Principal

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Number of instances

School pedagogue

Total

45

Percentage %

46

49.5 50.5

91

100

Q 1: In your opinion why do a certain number of children not attend primary school? Parents do not understand the need for their children to be educated Family is in a very bad financial situation

Reasons given (%)

49.5

Child lives far from the school

14.3

Other reasons

Provided as the first answer under “Other reasons” Family problems

Parents do not give much significance to education

22

40.7

Number of instances

5

Percentage (%)

5.6

12

13.2

2

2.2

Multiple factors

1

1.1

Life style - Roma

3

3.3

Poverty

Syllabus is mono-national & parents of children with special need feel shame if their children attend primary school – insufficient inclusion The school has no such problems Children with special needs Cultural differences Child neglect

Uneducated parents Does not know

2

4 1 1 1 1 2

2.2

4.4 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.2

Total number of respondents who opted for other reasons (the first answer)

35

38.5

Total

91

100

Failed to answer

56

61.5


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Provided as the second answer under the option “Other reasons” Parents do not give much significance to education – irresponsible parents

Number of instances

3

Percentage (%)

3.3

Parents take drugs

1

1.1

Children with special needs

1

1.1

Lack of responsibility within the local community Deep-rooted prejudice – refers mostly to girls Roma children begging on the street

Total number of respondents who opted for other reasons (2nd answer) Failed to answer *

Total

2 1 1 9

82 91

2.2 1.1 1.1

9.9

90.3

100

*Did not list any option and also failed to provide an answer under the option “Other reasons” Q 2: Which children are not enrolled in school? (Multiple answers were possible) Reasons given

Children with special needs Roma children

Children from indigent families

Children of uneducated parents

Children from the minorities – other two constituent peoples Other children

Answers given (%)

17.6

63.7 30.8 17.6 2.2

19.8


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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Answers provided under the category “Other children� as the first answer Reasons given

Socially vulnerable

Number of instances

Roma

5

4

Coming from a dysfunctional family

2

Children living far from school

1

Abandoned/left children

1

Rural girls

1

Children with special needs living in a financially difficult situation

1

All of the above

1

Does not know

6

Percentage (%)

5.5 4.4 2.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 6.6

Total number of respondents who opted for other reasons

22

24.2

Total

91

100

Failed to answer

69

75.8

In 63.7% of cases (58 respondents) it was stated that Roma children were not enrolled in primary school, while 28 respondents mentioned that those were children from indigent families. Chart Q3. Are there Roma children enrolled in your school?

Yes No

Most schools that participated in the survey confirmed that Roma children were enrolled in school, which is an extremely good indicator.


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Chart Q4. Are there certain Roma children who should be enrolled in your school, but aren't?

Yes

No

Does not know

Q 5: If the answer is YES, what do you think is the reason for these children not being enrolled in primary school? Reasons given

Percentage (%)

Family in a poor financial situation

Uneducated parents who do not see the purpose of having their child educated

23.1

Child has to work, to earn, and is thus not expected to go to school

13.2

Such children are repelled by those around them

0

Other reason

Answers provided under “Other reason”: Reasons given

Traditional reluctance of population to obligations Fear of not being accepted by the school Street-begging

Lack of child care and lack of parental authority

Total number of respondents who opted for “other”

Failed to answer Total

8.8

4.4

Number of instances

1 1 1 1

4

87

91

Percentage (%)

1.1

1.1 1.1 1.1

4.4

95.6

100


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In 18 schools respondents (principals and pedagogues) believed that there were Roma children who should be schooled in their school but were not enrolled there. Chart Q6. Are there children from the other two constituent peoples, that are not a majority in your Municipality, who are not enrolled in your school?

Yes

No

In addition to the children from the majority people, an extremely high percent of children from the two constituent peoples that did not represent the majority in the surveyed communities were enrolled in schools that participated in the survey. Chart Q.7 Are there some children from the other two constituent peoples who are not enrolled in primary school?

Yes No

Does not know Not specified

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Q 8: If the answer to question No. 7 is YES, why are those children not enrolled in that school? Number of instances

Reasons given

Family in a poor financial situation

Uneducated parents who do not see the purpose of having their child educated

Parents do not want their child to be schooled in a language that they do not consider to be their mother tongue Such children are repelled by those around them Other reason

0

(%)

0

1

1.1

1

1.1

0

0

0

0

Chart Q.9. Does your school have information about children who should be enrolled in primary school but aren't?

Yes No

Does not know

In 11 out of 46 schools that participated in the survey respondents answered that they did have information about the number of children who were not enrolled in primary school.

Chart Q.10. Does your school have a programme developed for reduction in the number of children not enrolled in primary school?

Yes No

Does not know


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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

In 10 out of 11 schools that had information on the number of children not enrolled in school there were programmes developed to reduce the number of children not enrolled in primary school. Q 11: If the answer is YES, please describe your programme to reduce the number of children not enrolled in primary school. No. of Percentage No. of Percentage instances (%) instances (%)

Information from the office of the registrar, the Commissioner for Roma Issues and for the same issues in the Ministry. Cooperation between the school, the family and the centre for social work. Continuous monitoring and the pupil’s attendance at school.

1st answer

2nd answer

1

1.1

0

0

2

2.2

3

3.3

1

1.1

1

1.1

2

2.2

0

0

2

2.2

0

0

Assistance in social care

0

2.2

1

Fundamental right to education – ‘SCN Norway’.

2

0

1

1.1

0

0

Education for social cohesion in BiH on the way to the EU.

2

2.2

0

0

2

2.2

0

0

In cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Culture of RS, the school is implementing a project called “Right to Primary Education for Children Aged between 15 and 18 who did not have the Opportunity to go to School”.

1

1.1

0

0

2

2.2

0

0

73

80.2

85

93.4

Promotion of pupil’s work and results on TV programmes, guest appearances and performances outside school (e.g., a music school).

Organising tutoring classes

Making an adapted syllabus 14

Individualised work with parents by NGOs, school management and the parents’ council.

Various prevention programmes aimed at keeping children in the primary school.

Educating pupils about the importance of education in life.

Not specified Total 14

0

91

0

100.00%

1

1.1

0

0

91

1.1

100.00%

Translator’s note: The abrreviation NPP used in the original document stands for syllabus in the languages of BiH


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Q.12. Who designed this programme? Competent ministry

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Number of instances given

School

Non-governmental organisations

6

Number given (%)

6.6

17

18.7

0

0

4

Other entity

4.4

Schools are the most common designers of the various programmes aimed at reducing the number of pupils who are not enrolled in primary school; this is probably due to the fact that schools are most aware of the problems faced by the families that do not enrol their children in school or withdraw them from school. Chart Q.13. Does the competent ministry assist you in combating this problem?

Yes No

Does not know

If the answer is YES, describe the type of assistance Answers 15 Each year the Ministry of Education collects information from schools on pupils who are not enrolled in school as well as on the reasons for them dropping out and the measures taken by the school. Information about children who drop out of school is forwarded to the Ministry, but there is no feedback. Provide textbooks and school stationary

Free school lunch in cooperation with the local community.

No. of Percentage No. of Percentage instances (%) instances (%) 1st answer

2nd answer

3

3.3

--

--

4

4.4

--

--

4

4.4

--

--

--

--

1

1.1


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No. of Percentage No. of Percentage instances (%) instances (%)

Scholarships

Informing the education inspection about pupils who are not enrolled in school.

1st answer --

--

2nd answer 2

2.2

1

1.1

--

Approving extended work

--

2.2

1

--

1.1

Schools report to the Ministry on those parents who do not send their children to school the Ministry then takes the matter to court – due to negligence.

2

--

1

1.1

--

--

Counselling

3

3.3

--

--

Centres for social work

1

1.1

--

--

Professional pedagogic assistance

We have assistance but we do not have such problems.

Roma Issues Officer is involved in finding the solution. Training and seminars for teachers so they can work with children at risk.

Permanent cooperation and training

There was a case when Roma children aged 10 were enrolled in school and the school received approval from the Ministry to enrol them in the 2nd grade.

We received an adapted syllabus

Does not know/no answer

Not indicated Total

2

2 2

2.1

2.2 2.2

---

--

--

---

1

1.1

--

--

1

1.1

--

--

2

2.2

--

--

3

59

91

3.3

64.8

100.00%

--

87

91

--

97.6

100.00%

A total of 34.1% of respondents mentioned assistance from the respective ministries in combating the issue of school dropout and the non-enrolment of children. This figure covers 16 out of the total number of schools that participated in the survey. Among the listed types of assistance were the provision of textbooks and school stationary and cooperation in the form of an exchange of information with the competent ministries. Only 5.5% of respondents said that there were resources to deal with this problem, while 67% said that such resources did not exist and 27.5% of respondents were either unaware of the existence of such resources or did not want to answer (see Chart Q.14). 15

Answers provided by the respondents listed herein


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Chart Q.14. Are there separate funds earmarked for solving this problem?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 15: What needs to be done in order to reduce the number of children who are not enrolled in primary school? Increase the population’s living standard Primary schooling should be entirely free of charge and include free textbooks Enable the transport for children who live far from the nearest primary school

Number of instances

40

Promote the importance of education Other

Other

1. Schools should improve their educational policy, culture and practice 2. Promote the full capacity of schools and the importance of education for a child’s development 3. Several combined methods

4. Educate parents on the importance of education and upbringing 5. Schools should be promoted through the media as open to all children (music school) 6. Root out prejudice

7. Make permanent residence and employment for Roma possible

8. Put an end to street-begging

9. Give financial and moral support to children’s parents 10. Integrate institutions into the system and encourage joint action Does not know/no answer Not specified Total

38

41.8

44

25

27.5

23

25.3

43

Number of instances

Percentage (%)

1

47.3

Percentage (%)

1.1

1

1.1

6

6.6

2

1

1

2.2

1.1

1.1

2

2.2

1

1.1

1

1

6 68

91

1.1

1.1

6.6 74.7

100


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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 16: What is the percentage of children who should be but are not enrolled in your primary school? Answer given

Less than 10 %

Between 10 and 20 %

Number of instances given 24

Between 21 and 30 % More than 30 %

No available data Other: 1.

We do not have such children because all children are enrolled

(%)

0

26.4 0

0

0

0

0

44

48.4

7

7.7

The most concerning finding is that nearly half of the surveyed schools did not have data on children who should be enrolled in school but were not. Q 17: In your opinion, why do some children dropout of primary school? Because of the family’s difficult financial situation

Number of instances

Because of inadequate education (e.g., a child with special needs enrolled in a school that offers no professional help for this child’s specific problems). Lack of parental support

Parents expect the child to work Child enters a marital or extramarital union Other reasons

1. Children from families with problems – financial situation 2. Children from broken families 3.

Lack of interest in education

5.

No such occurrences/cases in school

4. 6. 7.

Combination of reasons Bad company

Due to poor academic achievement and misconduct

Does not know/no answer Not specified Total

17.6

32

35.2

9

9.9

8

Number of instances

40.7

16 15

Child lives far away from school Other reason

37

Percentage (%)

28 4 5 2 3 3 4 2 8

60

91

16.5

8.8

30.8

Percentage (%)

4.4 5.5 2.2 3.3 3.3 4.4 2.2 8.8

65.9 100


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The difficult financial situation of families and the lack of parental support stand out as the most common causes of dropping out of school. Q 18: Which children are these? Children with special needs

Number of instances

Roma children

1.

Children from broken/dysfunctional families

3.

Roma children (marriage, change of residence)

2. 4. 5. 6. 7.

57.1

34

Children of uneducated parents

Other children

15.4

52

Children from indigent families Other

14

Percentage (%)

37.4

19

Number of instances

Socially vulnerable children

26 6

20.9

Percentage (%)

1 3

All of the above (it is a stereotype that this applies to only Roma children) Rural children - particularly girls Children with special needs whose parents also have special needs Children with asocial behaviour

28.6

1 2 1 2

6.6 1.1 3.3 1.1 2.2 1.1 2.2

Does not know/no answer

11

12.1

Total

91

100

Not specified

64

70.3

Chart Q. 19. Do you keep a record of the number of children who should be enrolled in primary school?

Yes No

Does not know

Staff kept a record of the number of children who should be enrolled in primary school in only 18 of those schools surveyed.


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Q 20: How do you try to “persuade” them to stay in school and continue schooling?

Number of Percentage Number of Percentage instances (%) instances (%)

We hold individual interviews with them

--

39.6

--

--

37

40.7

--

--

13

14.3

0

0

House calls

1

1.1

1

1.1

Assistance in exercising one’s rights

0

0

1

1.1

Other

Other

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Cooperation with the relevant institutions, ministry, centre for social work and the municipal court Educational activities

There are no such children

Workshop aimed at educating parents and pupils

Training teachers to work with children at risk Cooperation with NGOs

Highlighting the obligation under the law and the potential cost

10. Roma children get free textbooks

55

60.4

36

2nd answer --

We offer various types of assistance (financial and professional) when required

1.

1st answer

Number of Percentage Number of Percentage instances (%) instances (%)

0

0

5

5.5

2 2

0 2

0

1 0

1.1 0

3

3.3

2.2

0

0

2.2

0

0

2.2

0

0

0

0

1

1.1

0

0

1

1.1

Does not know/no answer

12

13.2

---

--

Total

91

100

91

11. The Ministry bears the travel costs of pupils who travel distances over 4 kilometres (Prijedor) Not specified

54

59.3

83

91.2 100


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Chart Q. 21. Do you have special programs for prevention of primary school dropouts?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 22: If the answer is YES, please describe the programme

Number of Percentage Number of Percentage instances (%) instances (%)

School-based programme (various activities of the professional services – school pedagogue and social worker)

1st answer 1

1.1

Each staff member to create a positive climate and care for children

1

Involving more pupils in the school’s concert activities (music school)

Training and projects aimed at providing assistance We enable schooling in accordance with an adapted syllabus High-quality cooperation with parents. Self-actualisation and re-socialisation programmes

The school believes that it is the competent ministry in cooperation with NGOs that should deal with this issue

2nd answer 0

0

1.1

0

0

0

0

1

1.1

2

2.2

0

0

1

1.1

2

2.2

2

2.2

0

0

2

2.2

0

0

2

2.2

0

0

Cooperation with Roma parents

2

2.2

0

0

Cooperation with the Roma Issues Officer

0

0

2

Cooperation with NGOs

Does not know/no answer Not specified

Total

0 1

77 91

0

1.1

84.6

100.00%

2

2.2

--

--

82 91

2.2 92.3

100.00%


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Q 23: If the answer is YES, who created the programme? Competent ministry School

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Number of instances given 2

NGOs

Cases given (%)

12

13.2

0

0

2

Other

2.2 2.2

The majority of schools surveyed did not have a programme for the prevention of primary school dropout. Chart Q. 24. Do children from the other two constituent peoples (that are not majorities), drop out of primary school?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 25: If the answer is YES, why? Answer given

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Due to education in a language that is not their mother tongue

No parental support because parents think that children should not be educated in surroundings where their people are a minority

Number of instances

2 2

(%)

2.2 2.2

2

2.2

Parents expect the child to work

2

2.2

Child experiences difficulties and violence in school because of his/her different ethnicity

2

2.2

Child lives far from school

2

2.2


54

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D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

An insignificant number of children (only 2.2%) who were members of the other two constituent peoples (as minorities) dropped out of primary school. Discriminatory elements were given as the reason for their dropping out of school in only one primary school. This pertained to an unpleasant situation involving a child belonging to one of the two constituent peoples that were not the majority in that community. Chart Q.26. Do Roma children drop out of primary school ?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 27: If the answer is YES, why? Answer given

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Due to education in a language that is not their mother tongue No parental support, because parents believe that children do not need to be educated Parents request the child to work Child lives far from school

Child experiences difficulties and violence in school because of his/her different ethnicity Other reasons

1. Girls, because they get married

2. Roma parents’ low awareness of education

Number of instances

18

2

(%)

19.8 2.2

31

34.1

19

20.9

0

0

2

2.2

4

4.4

2

2.2

2

2.2


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q. 28. Do you keep a record of the number of children who should be enrolled in primary school but drop out for certain reasons?

Yes No

Does not know

Chart Q. 29. Do you keep a record of the reasons for which children drop out of primary school?

Yes No

Does not know

55


56

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 30: If the answer is YES, can you list some of the reasons why children dropout of primary school? 1st answer Entering a marital/extramarital union – children from dysfunctional families

Number of instances

Percentage (%)

Valid percentage (%)16

5

5.5

Poverty

5

5.5

22.7

Fear of blood vengeance (2 pupils)

1

1.1

4.5

Poor parent-child relationship

As a result of disciplinary measures

Regardless of the fact that there are no such children in school, the main reasons for children dropping out of school are educational neglect and the family’s difficult financial situation.

Age limit prescribed by the Law on education

Children do not want to go to school because they do not realise the importance of education, while parents are unable to explain the importance of education to them. They have to care for their siblings Does not know/no answer Not specified Total

Entering a marital/extramarital unions – children from dysfunctional families Poverty Lack of parental authority

Parents show no interest in school and thus the child sees no point in it

Frequent change of residence - moving to live abroad They have to work to earn money Total 17

1

1.1 1.1

4.5 4.5

2

2.2

9.1

2

2.2

9.1

1

1.1

4.5

1

1.1

4.5

69

75.8

3

91

2nd answer

Not specified

1

22.7

Number of instances

3.3

13.6

100

100

1

---

Percentage (%)

3 1 2 2 1

81

91

Only the percentage of those respondents who answered the question was taken into account

1.1 3.3 1.1 2.2 2.2 1.1

89

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Survey Conducted in Secondary Schools Descriptive Statistics for Secondary Schools17 ENTITY Federation of BiH

Number of instances

Republika Srpska

28

Total number of respondents CITY

Sarajevo

Number of instances

Livno

2.3 4.6

9

10.3

2

2.3

4

Odžak

Široki Brijeg

4.6

4

Tuzla

Prijedor

4.6

9

10.3

6

6.9

6

Banja Luka Bijeljina

6.9

4

Istočno (east) Sarajevo

4.6

4

Trebinje

4.6

4

Doboj

4.6

4

Brčko

4.6

4

Total number of respondents

17

4.6

4

Mostar

4.6

87 Number of instances

17.2

2.3

2

Bihać

Total number of respondents

Percentage (%)

4

Vitez

School pedagogue

100

2

Zenica

Principal

15

67.8 32.2

87

Goražde

RESPONDENT’S POSITION

59

Percentage (%)

48 39

87

100 Percentage (%)

55.2 44.8 100

Descriptive statistics describes the sample used in the survey, that is, lists the schools and persons who participated in this survey.


58

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Results of the Survey Q 1: Do you keep a record of those children who should be enrolled in secondary school? Yes

Number of instances Percentage %

No

41

47.1

5

5.8

41

Does not know

Total number of respondents

87

47.1

100

Around half of the respondents kept a record of the number of young people who should be enrolled in secondary school. Q 2: Do you keep an updated record of the number of children who are enrolled in secondary school?

Yes

Number of instances

No

Does not know

Total number of respondents

69 16

2

87

Percentage %

79.3

18.4

2.3

100

Q 3: In your opinion, why are a certain number of children not enrolled in secondary school? Child does not want to go to school

Parents believe that their child does not need further education Family is in a very difficult financial situation

Child lives far from school and there is no public transportation Child lives far from school and the parents cannot afford transportation

Child feels no need to continue education after completing primary school

Answers given (%)

25.3 11.5 39.1 10.3

21.8 4.6

Child comes from a dysfunctional family

32.2

Child attended school for a while but then dropped out

49.4

Child engages in delinquent behaviour Other

25.3 11.5


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

59

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Answers provided under “Other” (why some children are not enrolled in secondary school) There are no children who are not enrolled in school

Number of instances

They continue their education abroad

2

Percentage %

2.3

2

School has no such type of data

2.3

1

Does not know

1.1

5

Total number of respondents who answered under the category “Other”

5.7

10

Failed to answer

11.5

77

Total

88.5

87

100

Q 4: Who are the children who are not enrolled in school? (Multiple answers possible) Answers given

(%)

Children with special needs

29.9

Children from minorities

2.3

Roma children

48.3

Children from indigent families

37.9

Children of uneducated parents

23

Children from the two constituent peoples that are not a majority in your municipality/local community

0

Juvenile delinquents

52.9

Other

Answers provided under “Other”

Repeaters

Children without parental care

There are no pupils who are not enrolled in school Does not know

Total number of respondents who answered under the category “Other” Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

13.8

Number of instances

1

1 1

8

11

76

87

Percentage %

1.1

1.1

1.1 9.2

12.6

87.4 100


60

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q5. Does your school have a programme developed to reduce the number of children who are NOT enrolled in secondary school?

Yes No

Does not know

If the answer is YES, please describe the programme addressing the reduction in the number of young people who are not enrolled in secondary school

Programme is based on psychologicalpedagogical professional assistance to children and parents

Programme for children with special needs Answered the question

Failed to answer the question

Total number of respondents

Number of instances

Percentage 18 Valid (%) percentage19 (%)

1

1.1

33.3

2

2.3

66.7

3

84

87

3.4

96.6

100

100

The fact that only one in ten schools had a programme developed to reduce the number of young people who are not enrolled in secondary school raises concern. Percentage-wise, the collected data is insufficient for a meaningful analysis because it speaks of only two schools that are concerned with doing everything possible so that young people will continue their schooling and that are implementing various projects or programmes.

18 19

Percentage pertaining to the overall sample Valid percentage – refers only to the sample of respondents who answered the question


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S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 6: Who designed the programme aimed at reducing the number of young people who are not enrolled in secondary school?

Competent Ministry School

Non-governmental organisation Someone else

Answered the question

Failed to answer the question

Total number of respondents

Valid Number of Percentage % percentage instances (%) 2

2.3

40

0

0

0

3 0 5

82

87

3.4 0

60 0

5.7

100

100

100

94.3

-

Chart Q7. Do you receive any assistance from the competent Ministry in fighting the issue of non-enrollment in secondary schools?

Yes No

Does not know


62

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 7a: If the answer is YES, please list the type of support you receive from the Ministry in dealing with the issue of non-enrolment in secondary school? Type of support – first choice Type of support – first choice Educating primary school seniors

Organising actions by the Ministry of Education (for example: “Let us learn, not run away from knowledge”). Inclusion of children in regular classes

Prescribe two years of compulsory enrolment in secondary school in accordance with the Law on Secondary Education. Action plans

By reinstating children to the schools from which they were expelled the Ministry does not permit dropping out of school. Advisory (consultations)

Answered the question

Failed to answer the question

Total number of respondents Q 7b: Type of support – second choice Type of support – second choice

Programmes to prepare pupils for enrolment in secondary school. Financial support and assistance for equipping schools so as to have the best possible working conditions and to keep pupils enrolled. Answered the question

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Valid Number of Percentage % percentage instances (%) 1

1.1

10

2

2.3

20

1

1.1

10

1

1.1

10

1

1.1

10

2

2.3

20

2

2.3

20

10

77

87

11.5

88.5

100

100

Valid Number of Percentage % percentage instances (%) 1

1.1

33.3

2

2.3

66.7

3

3.4

100

84

87

96.6

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Q 7c: Type of support – third choice Type of support – third choice Monitoring and analysis of data on the number of pupils at the beginning and at the end of year. Answered the question

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Valid Number of Percentage % percentage instances (%) 1

1.1

100

1

1.1

100

86

98.9

87

100

Various types of support aimed at keeping young people enrolled in school were listed. As for educating primary school seniors, this involved vocational guidance for children, namely higher quality guidance when choosing the type of secondary school; such education is organised in cooperation with employment bureau. Chart Q8. Are there separate funds earmarked for dealing with this issue?

Yes No

Chart Q9. Are there Roma children in your municipality who do not enroll in secondary school?

Yes No

Does not know

63


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D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 10: If the answer is YES, why do they not enrol in secondary school? (Multiple answers possible) Reasons given

(%)

They did not graduate from primary school

87.2

Parents do not encourage them to enrol in secondary school and expect them to work

71.8

They lack funds to continue their schooling They enter a marital or extramarital union

There is no possibility for schooling in their mother tongue Other

48.7 10.3 5.1 0

In this case the financial situation also has the greatest impact on the reasons for school dropout because parents encourage/persuade/force their children to work from a very early age. Q 11: What needs to be done in order to reduce the number of children who are not enrolled in secondary school? (Multiple answers possible) Answers given

(%)

Improve the syllabus

14.9

Make secondary education compulsory

56.3

Ensure a better relationship between education and the needs of the labour market Increase the population’s standard of living Open more jobs in local communities

Secondary education should be completely free of charge and include free textbooks Provide affordable and adequate accommodation for children coming from places where there is no secondary school Promote the importance of education Other measures

51.7 37.9 42.5

52.9 35.6 55.2 8


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Which other measures?

There are no such children

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Number of instances

System of cooperation, namely monitoring of the relevant institutions at the municipal level needs to be established

1

Percentage (%)

1.1

Valid percentage (%)

16.7

1

1.1

16.7

Sanction the parents of those children who are not enrolled in school

1

1.1

16.7

Answered the question

3 6

3.3

50

Does not know

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

81 87

6.9

100

93.1 100

Q 12: In your opinion, why do some children dropout of secondary school? (Multiple answers possible) Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Due to inadequate education (e.g., a child with special needs educated in a school with no adequate professional help for that child’s problems) No parental support

Parents expect the child to work

Child loses the willingness and wish to continue education

Lives far from school and there is no public transportation the child can use

Reasons given (%) 34.5 12.6 33.3 2.3 54

6.9

Child comes from a dysfunctional family

51.7

Enters into a marital or extramarital union

25.3

Child is engaged in delinquent behaviour Other reasons

64.4 10.3


66

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Answers provided under “Other reasons� Children with accumulated low grades and absences Children who enrolled in a school they did not want to The material is too demanding

Find it hard to adjust when moving from primary to secondary school No answer

Total number of persons who answered this question Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

1st answer

2 1

--

2nd answer

--

3rd answer

--

---

1

-1

4

--

--

80

86

86

7

87

1

1

87

87

The surveyed principles and pedagogues answered that the most common reasons for dropping out of secondary school were delinquent behaviour, loss of willingness and desire to continue education and dysfunctional families. The difficult financial situation of families, lack of parental support and entering into a marital or extramarital union were reasons frequently provided by the respondents. Juvenile delinquency is increasing and sometimes it seems that society easily gives up on such children and by slowly losing interest in them it consequently dooms them to a life of hardship. The next major category was children that come from dysfunctional families. Q 13: Which children dropout of secondary school? (Multiple answers possible) Answers given

(%)

Children with special needs

10.3

Children from a minority

1.1

Roma children

Children from families in need

Children of uneducated parents Juvenile delinquents

Other categories of children

23

32.2 29.9 69

26.4


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S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Answers provided under “Other categories of children” that dropout of secondary school

Children with low academic achievement and accumulated low grades, who usually enrol in another school.

Number of instances

Percentage (%)

Valid percentage (%)

2

2.3

9.1

Child from a dysfunctional family

5

5.7

22.7

Those that enter into a marital union early

2

2.3

9.1

Ill children

Rarely dropout of school

Children with low aspirations

1 1 1

Does not know

10

Failed to answer this question

65

Answered the question

Total number of respondents

1.1

4.5

1.1

4.5

1.1

4.5

11.5

22

25.3

87

100

45.5 100

74.7

Respondents stated that juvenile delinquents represented the majority amongst young people who dropout of school, while far lower percentages pertained to children from families in social need, children of uneducated parents and children with special needs. Q 14: How do you attempt to “persuade” them to stay in school and continue their education? Reasons given

(%)

We have individual interviews with the child

87.4

We have a developed plan of work for such children

16.1

We have individual interviews with the child’s parents We offer various types of financial and professional assistance when needed Other

81.6 27.6 8


68

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Answers provided under “Other”

To work and study

Number of instances

Does not know

Answered the question

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

1 6 7

80 87

Percentage (%)

1.1 6.9

8

92

Valid percentage (%)

14.3 85.7

100

100

Direct individual interviews with children and their parents was the most common tool used to “persuade” pupils to show more perseverance on the road known as “attending secondary school”. Chart Q15. Do you have any special programmes for prevention of dropping out of secondary school?

Yes No

Does not know

The majority of respondents from secondary schools said that they did not have any special programme designed to keep children in school i.e., keep children from dropping out of secondary school. Q 16: If the answer is YES, who designed the programme?

School

Pedagogue-psychologist

Answered the question

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of instances

5 2 7

80 87

Percentage (%)

5.7 2.3

8

92

100

Valid percentage (%)

71.4 28.6

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Q 17: On what activities are those programmes based?

Counselling Counselling and corrective work done with the home-room teacher, pedagogue, psychologist and a social worker with the pupil and his/her parents.

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Number of instances

Answered the question

Failed to answer this question

2 3

3.4

3.4

5

5.7

5.7

82

Total number of respondents

Valid percentage (%) 2.3 2.3

Percentage (%)

87

94.3 100

Out of the 45 schools that participated in the survey 35 stated that they did not have a programme for the prevention of secondary school dropout. Chart Q18. Are there Roma children enrolled in your school?

Yes No

Does not know

Only 8% of respondents answered that there were young Roma enrolled in their school. Chart Q19. Do they graduate from secondary school?

Yes

Does not know


70

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S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 20: If the answer is NO, why? Reasons given (%)

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Due to education in a language that is not their mother tongue

11.1

Parents are uneducated and therefore believe that the child does not need to be educated either

26.7

Parents expect the child to work

6.7

Lives far from school and there is no public transportation

4.4

Child is exposed to violence in school for being a member of a different ethnic minority

51.7

Other reasons

Answers provided under “Other reasons”

We have had no experience of this

Roma population does not live in the school district

Number of instances

3

20

48.9

Percentage (%)

3.4

Valid percentage (%)

13.6

7

8

31.8

Majority of Roma children do not want to be enrolled in school

1

1.1

4.5

Lack of interest in secondary School Lack of interest

1

4.5

Reasons unknown

3

1.1

2

2.3

Does not know

5

3.4

13.6

5.7

22.7

Answered the question

22

25.3

Total number of respondents

87

100

Failed to answer the question

65

74.7

9.1

100

In more than half of the answers given by the principals and pedagogues in schools not attended by Roma the reason behind a child’s non-attendance was the violence that the child might be exposed to in school.


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q21. Do you keep a record of the number of children who, for some reason, drop out of secondary school?

Yes No

Does not know

The largest number of respondents said that they did keep a record of the number of children dropping out of secondary school. Chart Q22. What is the percentage of children who do not graduate from secondary school because they drop out?

No answer

Less than 10% 10-20%

71


72

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D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Survey Conducted in Employment Bureaus Survey Results

Chart Q. 1. Do you cooperate with primary schools in relation to lectures about vocational guidance?

Yes No

Only a little over half of employment bureaus in BiH cooperate with primary schools on the issue of lectures on vocational guidance. Q 2: If the answer is YES, in what way do you cooperate with primary schools on the issue of lectures on vocational guidance? Answers 21

Once a year we pay a visit to schools to give a presentation and hand out promotional material. Through lectures and discussions with pupils and teachers in senior grades. We send information about the situation in the labour market (skills in demand) to the primary schools in the canton. Using the presentation entitled “What to do after School” By printing publications By participating in the implementation of the GTZ project By making the brochure entitled “My Way to the World of Labour” Total number of respondents who answered this question

Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances 1st answer 2nd answer

Failed to answer this question Total 20

Answers provided by the respondents listed herein

2

13.3

---

---

2

13.3

---

---

2

13.3

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

2

13.3

---

9

60

2

-----

6

15

-----

40

100

1

7.1

1

7.1

12 14

---

14.2

85.7

100.00%


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

73

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

In most cases, employment bureaus cooperate with primary schools on the issue of vocational guidance by visiting schools and holding lectures on the topic, paired with handing out promotional material, and by holding discussions with pupils and teachers as well as by sending information about the situation in the labour market and skills in demand to schools. Q 3: If the answer is NO, why? Primary education is not overly focused on vocational guidance lack of interest amongst parents and pupils

Number of instances

Percentage (%) 3

20

We inform them about the rights of unemployed persons after school

1

6.7

Does not know/no answer

1 1

6.7

6

40

Current practice does not include such a form of cooperation Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

9

Total number of respondents

15

6.7

60

100

Chart Q. 4. Do you cooperate with secondary schools in relation to lectures on vocational guidance?

Yes No

Unlike the cooperation with primary schools, there is much better cooperation between secondary schools and the employment bureaus.


74

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S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 5: In what way do you cooperate with secondary schools in relation to lectures on vocational guidance? Answers 21

Each year we visit all schools (primary and secondary) to give a presentation and hand out promotional material.

Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances 1st answer

2nd answer

2

13.3

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

5

33.3

---

---

1

6.7

1

6.7

We organise psychological testing and counselling.

---

---

2

13.3

Informing them about the continuation of education and how and where to get a job.

1

6.7

---

---

---

---

1

6.7

1

6.7

---

---

1

6.7

3

20

4

26.7

15

100

Through lectures and discussions with pupils and teachers.

Departments of Education implement projects in the form of lectures on skills in demand and present pupils with data on the excessive number of workers in certain vocations as well as on the situation in the labour market.

We stimulate pupils and present the importance of vocational guidance to them using promotional material.

Using the presentation entitled “What to do after School”.

Internal debates entitled “Where to go after Secondary School”. Through the GTZ project

Total number of respondents

12

Total

15

Failed to answer this question

22

Answers quoted

80

100

11

73.3


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

75

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 6: If the answer is NO, why do you not cooperate with secondary schools in relation to lectures on vocational guidance? We inform them about the rights of unemployed persons after school

Number of instances

Lack of interest by parents and pupils

1

Percentage (%)

6.7

1

Current practice does not include such a form of cooperation

6.7

1

Total number of respondents

6.7

3

Failed to answer this question

20

12

Total number of respondents

80

15

100

Chart Q 7. Does your Bureau have updated databases on the number of young people who dropped out of secondary school?

Yes No

Out of the 15 employment bureaus covered by the survey 11 did not have updated databases on the number of young people who dropped out of secondary school. Q 8: If the answer is NO, why does the bureau have not updated data on the number of young people who dropped out of secondary school? Number of Answers 22 Percentage (%) instances Persons who register with us as primary school graduates do not mention having completed any grades of 2 13.3 secondary school. Application is designed in such a way that all persons are registered, while school dropouts are not singled out.

4

26.7

We have data only on those who registered with us

Not in the competence of the employment service

1

Does not know/no answer

3

6.7

1

6.7

20

Total number of respondents

11

73.3

Total number of respondents

15

100

Failed to answer this question

22

Answers provided by the respondents listed herein

4

26.7


76

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 9: If the answer is NO, do you think it would be useful to set up a database with information about pupils who dropped out of secondary school and the reasons behind it? Answers 22

1. Yes

Number of Percentage instances (%) 3

20

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

6. Yes, it is certainly necessary for those young people to be trained for certain types of work.

2

13.3

7. Schools should keep or make such records in cooperation with the competent ministries of education or municipal authorities.

1

6.7

Does not know/no answer

1

6.7

2. Yes through records on persons who want to be enrolled in school but cannot, so that they can be assisted. It would be a multi-layered base: on one hand, pupils who do not want to study but can and, on the other hand, pupils who want to study but lack the conditions to do so. 3. Yes, so that the service could adopt a separate approach to such persons in terms of adjusting education programmes, training programs and skills upgrading programmes.

4. No, it rather falls under the competence of the ministries of education and the pedagogical institutes.

5. Ministries of education would have to have such data and prepare analysis in order to improve the education system, while those analyses could also be used by the employment services when designing education and advanced education.

Total number of respondents

11

73.3

Total number of respondents

15

100

Failed to answer this question

4

26.7

In eight employment bureaus this database was considered to be an extremely useful tool for creating various policies.

23

Answers provided by the respondents listed herein


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

77

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 10. Do you have data on the reasons behind dropping out of secondary school?

Yes No

No answer

Q 11: If the answer is YES, what is the most common reason for dropping out of secondary school? Due to the loss of the right to regular schooling (provided by one respondent). Q 12: If the answer is NO, why do you not have such data?

Clients usually do not provide that information when registering Such data is not required for registration with an employment bureau System in use does not have adequate fields in the application

They do not fall under our basic activity we offer such persons the possibility of re-skilling and professional training as well as the possibility to upgrade their skills through the process of lifelong learning, but within the sphere of informal education. Not in the competence of the employment services

According to the rules on records in the field of employment, that piece of information is not registered. Does not know/no answer

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

2

13.3

1

6.7

2

13.3

1

6.7

3

20

3

20

Total number of respondents who answered this question

13

86.7

Total number of respondents

15

100

Failed to answer this question

2

13.3


78

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 13. Does the Employment Bureau take special care of them (young people who dropped out of school)?

Yes No

Does not know

Taking into account the fact that there is no database that singles out young people who dropped out of school from other unemployed persons, the information that 71.4% of the employment bureaus did not care for this category of young people appears quite logical. Q 14: Why is no care taken of the young people who dropped out of school?

Lack of employees needed to do that type of work.

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

5

33.3

Care is taken of all registered unemployed persons, while their obligation is to actively search for a job and attend the training we organise.

1

6.7

Young people can be listed as a separate target group on the basis of age.

The employment bureau is an institution for job brokerage, not an institution that deals with social problems.

1

6.7

1

6.7

Does not know/no answer

2

13.3

There is no application to register those persons (there is no database singling out young people who dropped out of school from other unemployed persons).

Total number of respondents who answered this question

11

73.3

Total number of respondents

15

100

Failed to answer this question

4

26.7


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

79

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 15: If the answer is YES, how are young people who dropped out of school taken care of ? Number of Percentage instances (%)

They have the possibility to participate in employment subvention programmes.

We consider them to be a less employable category and therefore they enjoy benefits when utilising active employment policy programmes. Training, re-skilling, information and motivation, and active job search. Total number of respondents who answered this question Failed to answer this question

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

3

20

15

100

12

Total number of respondents

80

Chart Q 16. Do you suggest to them (young people who dropped out of school) some forms of additional education?

Yes No

Sixty percent of the surveyed employment bureaus suggested to young people who dropped out of school to take up some form of skills upgrading, while 40% of them did not have such a practice.


80

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 17: If the answer is NO, why not and would you like to be able to offer them some form of skills upgrading?

Due to the shortage in employees, low demand in the labour market and lack of funds. We would certainly like to offer them the chance to upgrade their skills.

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

Education is offered only to those who graduated from secondary school.

1

6.7

Yes, but we do not have data on such persons.

1

6.7

Yes, we would like to offer them some form of skills upgrade. Yes if there is a possibility of financing, because the bureau has no funds for training.

1

6.7

1

6.7

Does not know

1

6.7

Failed to answer this question

9

60

Total number of respondents who answered this question Total number of respondents

6 15

40

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

81

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 18: If the answer is YES, please describe what type of skills upgrade you offer and who organises it? Answers24

Subventions and programmes implemented inside the service (SSNESP)

Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances 1st answer

1st answer 2nd answer 2nd answer

2

13.3

---

---

1

6.7

1

6.7

Right now we are implementing a programme in cooperation with the World Bank in which we co-finance any training that a young person in that category wishes to undergo and that can increase his/her chances in job search.

1

6.7

---

---

IT training, foreign languages and driving test.

1

6.7

---

---

---

---

1

6.7

1

6.7

---

---

Fund for the Education of Unemployed Persons: the bureau has no funds available and does not participate in that.

1

6.7

---

---

We have programmes for re-skilling, skills upgrade and technical training for unemployed persons.

1

6.7

---

---

Total number of respondents who answered this question

9

60

2

13.3

6

40

13

86.7

Through our programmes (e.g., information science).

Re-skilling to productive occupations.

Just like to all other registered unemployed persons.

Failed to answer this question Total 25

Navedeni odgovori ispitanika

15

100

15

100.00%


82

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 19. Do you cooperate with the competent Ministry in relation to this issue?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 20: If the answer is YES, in what way? We accept information about schools that organise skills upgrades At the request of the ministries Does not know

Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

2

13.3

1

6.7

5

33.3

15

100

10

66.7


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

83

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 21: If the answer is NO, do you think that the Ministry should take more care of that category of young people and if so in what way? Answers 26 Yes, by earmarking funds for their skills upgrade

Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances 1st answer

---

---

6.7

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

---

---

1

6.7

1

6.7

2

13.3

2

13.3

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

They need to be trained for a certain occupation by attending courses, training and by upgrading their skills.

1

6.7

---

---

Does not know

Total number of respondents

1

---

---

Failed to answer this question

9

6.7

6

40

12

80

Knowledge needs to be supported as do all types of skills upgrade to those skills in demand, particularly handcrafts. Yes, through cooperation with the employment bureau.

Adoption of the Law on Compulsory Secondary Education is necessary.

Yes, preventive action so that there is no dropping out. Analysis of the reasons behind dropping out should be made.

Yes, through increased cooperation with the employment service and the local community.

Total

1

6.7

1

2nd answer

15

60

100

3

15

20

100

All of the employment bureaus shared the same opinion that the ministries of education need to take more care of those young people who drop-out of school by earmarking funds for their additional education, encouraging additional education for skills in demand as well as by organising courses, training and skills upgrades relevant to other occupations.


84

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 22. Do you keep a record of young Roma who register with the Bureau?

Yes No

Chart Q 23. Do you suggest to them (young Roma) any forms of additional education?

Yes No

Q 24: If the answer is NO, why do you not suggest to young Roma some form of additional education and would you like to be able to offer them some form of additional education?

Lack of staff, funds and poor competition within the labour market. We think that they need additional education and we wish we could offer it.

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

No difference is made between Roma and others additional education is offered to all secondary school graduates (all unemployed young people have the same rights).

3

20

No registered Roma Does not know

2

Total number of respondents

1

13.3

7

46.7

15

100

Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

8

6.7

53.3


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

85

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 25: If the answer is YES, please explain what kind of additional education you offer and who organises it? Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances

Subventions and programmes of the employment service

1st answer

---

---

6.7

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

2

13.3

---

---

---

---

1

6.7

---

---

1

6.7

Project “Action Plan for Roma Inclusion”

1

6.7

---

---

Total number of respondents who answered this question

---

---

8

53.3

2

13.3

15

100

Additional education organised by employers At the moment we are implementing a programme in cooperation with the World Bank that finances any training that a young person wishes to complete that can increase that person’s chances in job search.

IT training, foreign languages and driving tests, organised by the public institution the Employment Service of the Una-Sana Canton, located in Bihać. Re-skilling to productive occupations, organised by the Federal Employment Institute of Sarajevo.

Non-governmental sector is the organiser

2

13.3

1

2nd answer

Does not know

Failed to answer this question Total

7

46.7

13

15

86.7 100


86

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 26. Do you cooperate with the competent Ministry in relation to this issue?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 27: If the answer is YES, in what way? Yes, by financing additional education.

Yes, a memorandum was signed on support for Roma employment (funds have been earmarked for that purpose). As needed, at the request of the ministries.

Yes, preventive action against dropping out of school analysis of reasons for dropping out of school should also be made. Does not know

Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

1

6.7

1 1 1

6.7 6.7 6.7

5

33.3

15

100

10

66.7


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

87

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 28: If the answer is NO, do you think the competent ministry should take more care of that category of young people and if so in what way?

Not especially, we do not single them out as a separate group unless so defined by the subvention.

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

Yes, through cooperation with local communities.

2

13.3

Does not know

2

14.3

Yes, pay special attention during formal education and later through programmes in cooperation with us.

No, because the Roma problem is insignificant this population is hardly present in our area. Yes, the way to do it should be designed in cooperation with the Roma association. Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

1 8

53.3

15

100

7

Total number of respondents

6.7

46.7

Chart Q 29. Do you keep a separate record of the young people who are not members of the major constituent people in your area who dropped out of secondary (or primary) school, who are trying to find a job through you?

Yes No


88

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 30: If the answer is NO, why?

A record is kept according to ethnicity, but not separately for persons who dropped out of secondary school we do not make such categories, because the software does not provide that option.

Minority ethnicities are not so well organised in BrÄ?ko as in other parts of BiH. Young people are all the same, regardless of their ethnicity, we treat all persons as unemployed persons. We do not have information about that population group.

Because of the Law on job brokerage and Article 5 of the Law on Equality of all Peoples. Does not know

Total number of respondents who answered this question Q 31: If the answer is YES, in what way?

Through applications to the employment bureau Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of Percentage instances (%) 7

46.7

2

14.3

4

26.7

---

---

1

6.7

2

14.3

15

100

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1 1

14

15

6.7

6.7

93.3

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

89

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q 32. Do you suggest to them some forms of additional education too?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 33: If the answer is NO, why not and would you like to be in a position to offer them (young people who are not members of the constituent people that is in the majority) some form of additional education and if so what kind?

The same as to the others – according to the programme. Lack of staff and funds for training.

Should the minorities be singled out, we would offer them some form of additional education. Yes, but not on the basis of ethnic background.

Yes, if there are separate funds for additional education. Does not know

Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of Percentage instances (%) 3

20

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

2

13.3

9

60

1

6

15

6.7

40

100


90

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 34: If the answer is YES, explain which type of additional education you offer and who organises it? Number of Percentage instances (%)

Training is available to all persons registered with the employment service. IT training, foreign languages and driving test.

1

6.7

1

6.7

6

40

3

Re-skilling to productive occupations.

Non-governmental sector and the Employment Service of Sarajevo Canton are the organisers.

1

Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

9

Total

15

20

6.7

60

100

Chart Q 35. Do you cooperate with the competent Ministry in relation to this issue?

Yes No

Does not know

Q 36: If the answer is YES, in what way do you cooperate with the Ministry?

The employment bureau answers to the Ministry. All projects, discussions and information are done in cooperation with the Ministry. Does not know

Total number of respondents Failed to answer this question

Total number of respondents

Number of Percentage instances (%) 1

6.7

2

13.3

12

80

3

15

20

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

91

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 37: If the answer is NO, do you think the Ministry should take more care of those young people who are not members of the constituent people that is in the majority and if so in what way? Number of Percentage instances (%)

Yes, within its competence, by financing additional education.

3

Young people should not be separated along ethnic lines. They should all have equal access to education, throughout the entire territory of BiH.

1

6.7

1

6.7

In the same way as the others, determine the reasons behind dropping out of school and act on the issue.

1

6.7

Does not know

Total number of respondents

3

Failed to answer this question

9

20

6

40

Yes, through cooperation with the local community.

Total number of respondents

15

20

60 100

Chart Q 38. Do you have updated databases of persons who dropped out of secondary school according to population categories (returnees, minorities, Roma, women, etc.)?

Yes No

Does not know

Only 26.7% of the employment bureaus surveyed had a database on persons who dropped out of secondary school broken down by certain population categories.


92

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 39: Can you make an estimate as to which population category is the most vulnerable one (with the biggest number of unemployed persons)? State the category. Number of Number of Percentage Percentage instances instances

Demobilised soldiers

1st answer

---

---

13.3

---

---

3

20

2

13.3

Women

2

13.3

---

---

Unskilled workers

3

20

3

20

Young people

1

6.7

---

---

Does not know

4

26.7

---

---

Total number of respondents who answered this question

15

100

5

33.3

Failed to answer this question

---

---

10

66.7

Total

15

100

15

100

Young persons with secondary school education

Persons aged between 35 and 55 with 3 and 4 years of secondary school education

1

6.7

2

2nd answer


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

93

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Survey Conducted in Centres for Social Work Descriptive Statistics City

Sarajevo

Incidence

Zenica

Banja Luka Istočno Sarajevo

Total

1

3.8

3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8

1

Total

Manager

11.5

1

Brčko

Child Protection Officer

3

1

Doboj

Head of the Centre for Partnership

7.7

1

Trebinje

Head of the Section for Child Protection

7.7

1

Bijeljina

Officer

3.8

2

Prijedor

Social Worker dealing with services for children and young people

3.8

2

Tuzla

Treatment Officer working on the execution of pedagogical measures

11.5

1

Odžak

Special Education Teacher - ligophrenologist

15.4

1

Livno

Socio-Pathological Phenomena Officer

15.4

3

Mostar

Psychologist, Pedagogue

4 4

Bihać

Position

Percentage (%)

3.8

26 Incidences

100 Percentage (%)

9

34.6

1

3.8

1

1

3.8

3.8

9

34.6

1

3.8

1 1

1 1

26

3.8 3.8

3.8 3.8

100


94

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Results of the Survey Q 3: In your opinion, why are some children not enrolled in primary school? Reasons behind non-enrolment in school

Parents see no need for their child to be educated

Incidences

Percentage %

9

34.6

3

11.5

Family’s financial situation is very bad

15

They grow up in dysfunctional families

14

Child lives far from school Other

57.7

3

53.8

1. Insufficient engagement in school

1

11.5

2. Parents do not understand the importance of education

3.8

1

3. Factors pertaining to values and culture – Roma population group

3.8

1

3.8

According to the experiences of staff working in the centres for social work the most common reasons for non-enrolment in primary school are the family’s poor financial situation and growing up in a dysfunctional family. Q 4: Who are these children? Children’s profile

Children with special needs

Incidences

Percentage %

7

26.9

16

61.5

Roma children

16

Children of uneducated parents

12

Children from indigent families

Children from a constituent people that is not in the majority in the area

61.5 46.2

---

---

Other category of children

2

7.7

2. Children from dysfunctional families

1

3.8

1. Neglected children

1

3.8

A little over four-fifths of respondents answered that their centre for social work had information on whether there were Roma children in their municipality who were not enrolled in primary school.


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

95

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q5. Do you have information if there are Roma children in your municipality who are not enrolled in primary school?

Yes No

No answer

Q 6: If the answer is YES, what do you think the reason is for those children not being enrolled in primary school? Reasons

Family’s financial situation is bad

Incidences

Uneducated parents who see no purpose in having their child educated

14

Percentage %

16

Child has to work, to earn, and is thus not expected to go to school Such children are repelled by those around them Other reasons

53.8 61.5

12

46.2

---

---

---

---

Chart Q7. According to what you know, are there children in your municipality from the peoples that are not a majority, who are not enrolled in primary school?

Yes No

No answer


96

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 8: If the answer is YES, in your opinion, what is the reason for those children not being enrolled in school? Reasons

Family’s poor financial situation

Incidences

Uneducated parents who see no purpose in having their child educated Parents do not want their child to be educated in a language that is not their mother tongue

8

Percentage %

30.8

7

26.9

3

Such children are repelled by those around them

11.5

---

Other reasons

---

---

---

Q 9: Does your centre for social work have a programme aimed at reducing the number of children who are not enrolled in primary school?

Existing programme YES

Incidences

Programme description

Part-time schooling for children who dropped out of school for various reasons. With the help of donors and in cooperation with primary schools we have a crash programme for mastering school material.

Part-time schooling for children who are too old for fulltime schooling. Counselling sessions to motivate children to continue schooling. Schools do not notify the centre about those children who have already dropped out of school. The centre has an annual programme of part-time schooling for children who dropped out of school.

Textbooks and transportation subventions

The Daily Centre within the centre for social work provides assistance in learning, socialisation and education.

There have been problems with the prevention of delinquent behaviour, the most prominent being nonattendance of classes. Total number of persons who provided answers Not specified Total

11

Percentage %

Incidences

1

42.3

Percentage %

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

5

19.2

1

3.8

1

3.8

10

38.5

26

100

16

57.7


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

97

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Existing programme

NO

Incidences

Programme description

Schooling is not in the centre’s competence

11

Percentage %

Incidences

Only a small number of Roma children are not enrolled in primary school Due to the large scope of activities and small number of staff members

42.3

2

Percentage

7.7

1

3.8

3

11.5

Due to the centre’s difficulties with financing

1

3.8

No adequate programmes are offered by the Ministry

1

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

2

7.7

Not specified

12

14

42.3

Total

26

100

There is no programme, but counselling is done with parents to raise awareness There is no information that there are children who are not enrolled in school in the Municipality (Istočno Sarajevo) Does not know

Total number of persons who provided answers

57.7

Q 10: Who created the programme and what kind of programme is it? Competent Ministry



Project “Fundamental Right to Education”



Donation programme intended for part-time education

Centre for Social Work



Municipality of Livno

Non-governmental organisations



Training entitled “Material and Psycho-Social Help”



Administrative Department of the Municipality of Bijeljina

Other

Incidences

4

1

Percentage

15.4 3.8

11

42.3

1

3.8

1

3.8

3

11.5

1

3.8

1

3.8


98

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 11: In your opinion, what needs to be done to reduce to a minimum the number of children not enrolled in primary school? Answers given

Raise the population’s standard of living to a higher level Primary education should be completely free of charge, including free textbooks. Ensure free transportation for children Promote the importance of education Other

 

Incidences

15

Percentage

17

65.4

12

46.2

12

Educate parents to understand the importance of education Implement programmes with children and young people at an early age

57.7

46.2

1

3.8

1

3.8

12. How do you obtain information that a child is not enrolled in primary school?

Information sent by schools

Indirectly, when working with families with problems Other way

Q 12a: Other way? From reports by parents and the broader community Local community

Incidences

1 1

Percentage

3.8 3.8

It would be much simpler if there were a single database, namely when all institutions working with children in any way were to be linked and when information would circulate amongst them. Setting up such a database would certainly incur a major expense, but the benefit from such a system to the institutions, at all levels, and to the society as a whole would prove far more valuable in the long term.


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

99

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 13: Why do you think some children dropout of primary school?

Due to family’s difficult financial situation

Due to inadequate education (e.g., a child with special needs educated in a school that offers no adequate professional assistance for that child’s problems). Lack of parental support

They grow up in dysfunctional families Parents expect the child to work

Reasons given Incidences Percentage 17

65.4

7

26.9

8

30.8

6

23.1

17

Child lives far from school

Enters a marital or extramarital union Engaged in delinquent behaviour Other

 

4

30.8

14

53.8

1

3.8

1

We do not have such information

Children with special needs

15.4

8

Neglect in terms of education and upbringing

Q 14: Which children are they?

65.4

3.8

Answers given

Incidences

5

Percentage

19.2

Roma children

16

61.5

Children of uneducated parents

11

42.3

Children from indigent families Juvenile delinquents Other

14 10

53.8 38.5



Children with family problems

1

3.8



Parents without parental capacity

1

3.8



Discriminated children

1

3.8


100

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

15. How do you obtain information that a child dropped out of primary school?

Information sent by schools

Indirectly, when working with families with problems Other way

Q 15a: Other way? Ways

From reports by parents and the broader community We do not have such information

A juvenile commits a criminal offence and ends up in court where an interview with him/her reveals that he/she is a school dropout Local community Not specified

Total

Incidences

Percentage

2

7.7

1

3.8

1

3.8

1

21

26

3.8

80.8

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

101

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

16. How do you attempt to "persuade" them to stay in school and continue schooling? We have individual interviews with a child We offer them various types of assistance

Q 16a: What type of assistance do you offer? Types of assistance Financial assistance

Counselling (pedagogue/psychologist)

1st answer I

6

%

23.1

1

%

3.8

15.4

--

--

--

--

--

In the case of Roma children counselling includes parents and children all such children also receive free textbooks and school stationery provided by the municipality.

1

In accordance with the Law Increased supervision

Does not know/no answer

1

Donor involvement

Providing money for transportation of the pupil from place of residence to school

Not specified Total

2

7.7

I

3rd answer

4

Assistance in learning

2

2nd answer

1

---

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

1

3.8

3.8

--

--

--

--

1

3.8

--

--

--

--

8

30.8

--

26

100

5

3.8

19.2

1

--

%

3.8

--

7.7

I

1

3.8

1

3.8

--

--

18

69.2

22

84.6

26

--

100

--

26

--

100


102

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

17. Do you have any special programmes for prevention of primary school drop outs?

Yes No

Does not know / No answer

Q 18: If the answer is YES, what kind of programmes and who designed them? The centre gets actively involved in work with children at risk and their families through financial assistance and or counselling as well as through cooperation with other institutions.

Incidences

Percentage

1

3.8

1

3.8

If the problem is of a financial nature, different types of material assistance are given to a pupil and his/her family.

1

3.8

Programmes that are part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency, created by the expert team for the Protection of Neglected Children, in terms of education and upbringing.

1

3.8

1

3.8

21

80.8

Programmes for the prevention of primary school dropout involve offering professional assistance through adjusted study, inclusion and counselling, for both the child and the family, as well as securing adequate conditions for acceptance of the child in school.

Those programmes not directly focused on the issue of delinquent behaviour, but which contain certain elements. Not specified

Total

26

100


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

103

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 19: If the answer is NO, why are there no such programmes? Incidences

Due to a lack of funds.

Percentage

1

3.8

3

11.5

The centre needs improvements in terms of staff and better working conditions.

2

7.7

Associations and NGOs took over the role: they are implementing programmes, without major results, and the centre plays an important role through its professional help.

2

7.7

1

3.8

9

34.6

26

100

There is no need for the development of such kind of programmes.

1

That should be under the competence of the schools i.e., the Ministry of Education.

They were not made by the competent authorities.

Does not know/no answer Not specified

6

Total

3.8

23.1

20. Do children from the constituent people that is not a majority in your municipality, according to what you know, drop out of primary school?

Yes No

Does not know / No answer


104

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 21: If the answer is YES, why?

Reasons given

Incidences

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Percentage

3

11.5

0

0

1

3.8

Parents expect the child to work

1

3.8

Child is exposed to violence in school because he/she is of different ethnicity

0

0

0

0

Due to education in a language that is not his/her mother tongue

No parental support, because they think they should not be schooled in an environment in which their ethnicity is a minority. Child lives far from school

Other

0

22. According to what you know, do Roma children drop out of primary school?

Yes No

Does not know / No answer

0


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Q 23: If the answer is YES, why?

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Reasons given Incidences Percentage

Due to education in a language that is not his/her mother tongue Parents expect the child to work Child lives far from school



Factors pertaining to values and culture

Underage persons entering into marriage

69.2

19

73.1

15

57.7

1

3.8

7.7

1

Child is exposed to violence in school because he/she is of different ethnicity



18 2

Parents are uneducated and believe that their child does not need to be educated

Other

105

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

1

3.8

3.8

1

3.8

Q 24: In your opinion, why are some children not enrolled in secondary school?

Parents feel no need for their child to be educated

Reasons given Incidences Percentage 9

34.6

3

11.5

6

23.1

Child comes from a dysfunctional family

10

38.5

Engaged in delinquent behaviour

10

38.5

1

3.8

Family is in a very bad financial situation Child lives far from school

Child feels no need to be educated further after the completion of primary school

Other

 

They enrol in school, but dropout after some time Many children fail to enrol in their desired school

21

1

80.8

3.8


106

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 25: To which category do these children belong? Children with special needs

Answers given

Incidences

Percentage

5

19.2

Roma children

14

53.8

Children of uneducated parents

10

38.5

Children from indigent families

19

Children from the two minority constituent peoples

1

Juvenile delinquents

15

Other

0

Q 26: Why do some Roma children not enrol in secondary school?

They have no financial means for schooling

Incidences

57.7

0

Percentage

12

46.2

16

65.1

1

3.8

25

They enter a marital or extramarital union

They have no possibility of schooling in their mother tongue



3.8

Answers given

Parents do not stimulate them to enrol in secondary school, but expect them to work Other

73.1

0

Many Roma children do not graduate from primary school and therefore cannot enrol in secondary school

96.2 0

Q 27: What needs to be done so that the number of children who are not enrolled in secondary school would be minimal? Answers given

Make secondary education compulsory

Raise the population’s living standards to a higher level

Secondary education should be completely free of charge, including free textbooks.

Ensure affordable and adequate accommodation for children from places without a secondary school Promote the importance of education Other 1.

More flexible treatment of pupils by secondary schools

Incidences

Percentage

21

80.8

15

57.7

8

30.8

14

53.8

12

46.2

1

3.8


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

107

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 28: Why do some children dropout of secondary school?

Due to the family’s difficult financial situation

Answers given Incidences Percentage 18

69.2

7

26.9

No parental support

9

34.6

Child looses the desire for education

7

26.9

Because of inadequate education (e.g., a child with special needs is schooled in a school that offers no professional help for that child’s problems). Parents expect the child to work Child lives far from school

Child comes from a dysfunctional family

Child is engaged in delinquent behaviour Enters a marital of extramarital union Other

Behavioural problems – large number of absences

8 5

17 11

30.8 19.2

65.4 42.3

9

34.6

1

3.8


108

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Survey Conducted in Municipal Departments Survey Results Q I: Is there a department in your municipality in charge of education?



All respondents answered affirmatively: 100.0 % YES, there is a department in each municipality in charge of education. The survey was conducted amongst employees working in those departments.

Graph 1: Availability of an updated database on the number of children enrolled in primary education Q. II. Is an updated database of the number of children enrolled in primary education available in your municipality?

Yes No

There was a department in charge of education in each of the municipalities covered by the survey. According to the responses, there was no updated information on the number of children enrolled in primary education in two municipalities (13.3% of the sample) (see Graph 1).


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

109

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 3a: How do you obtain information on the number of children enrolled in primary education? Number of instances*

Method

Schools have to submit their annual work plans Regular exchange of information

8

Percentage

1

Reports concerning enrolment delivered by primary schools

53.4 6.7

2

13.3

1

6.7

The municipal service implements the procedure

1

6.7

Not specified

1

6.7

Information obtained through official channels, directly from the schools or the Ministry of Education. Information submitted by the Office of the Registrar

1

Total

15

*Please note: the number of instances refers to the number of respondents who answered the question.

6.7 100.00%

Chart 2: Cooperation between the municipal departments and the Ministry of Education at the cantonal/entity level Q.4a. Do you cooperate with the Ministry of Education in your canton/entity?

Yes

Not specified

Cooperation with the relevant ministries is necessary for the development of a good quality database and an information network, which will lay the foundation for the development of a database of secondary school pupils and or the number of children who dropout of the education system after primary school as well as primary school dropouts.


110

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

Q 5a: How is this cooperation achieved? Methods Direct cooperation and cooperation through projects

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Number Number of of instances Percentage instances Percentage 1st 2nd Response Response 2

13.3

--

--

Correspondence and e-mail

3

20

1

6.7

Exchange of information - mutual contacts

4

26.7

1

6.7

--

--

1

6.7

1

6.7

--

--

Mostly through the Pedagogic Institute of Sarajevo Canton, with whose staff we schedule the dates for municipal competitions and coordinate the planned activities.

1

6.7

--

--

Joint resolution of certain issues

2

--

13.3

--

--

Total

2

15

13.3

11

Meetings (planning secondary school enrolment)

Considering that primary education comes under the jurisdiction of the local units of self-governance, pursuant to the Law on the Fundamental Principals of Local Selfgovernance in the FBiH, our municipal Service for Social Affairs has good cooperation with the Ministry of Education of the Bosnia-Podrinje Canton in Gora탑de this consists of frequent contact and correspondence with the Ministry.

Cooperation is foreseen under the Law on Primary Education Not specified

--

100.00%

1

15

6.7

73.3

100.00%


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q.6a. Do you develop/receive/already have a database of youth enrolled in secondary schools?

Yes No

Does not know Not specified

Q.7a. Do you follow the statistics to verify whether all children who completed their primary school are enrolled in secondary school?

Yes No

Not specified

111


112

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 7a1: If your response is NO, why do you not follow these statistics? Reasons

Change of place of residence

Number of instances

Secondary education is not compulsory in Republika Srpska

1 1

Because secondary education does not fall within municipal jurisdiction in accordance with the FBiH Law.

Percentage

6.7 6.7

2

13.3

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

It has never been done, thus far.

1

6.7

Not specified

6

40

Secondary schools cooperate with the cantonal ministry, as their founder.

The job specification does not provide for the working post of a statistics officer.

Two schools enrol children from the wider area they do not categorise the information for each municipality. The service covers several fields and this activity is not included in the job description. I do not know

1

Total

15

6.7

100.00%

Q. 8a. If your response is YES, do you have information about the children who are not enrolled in secondary education?

Yes No

Not specified

The fact that such statistics are not maintained is confirmed by the previous responses concerning statistics on primary school graduates, whereby 73.3% of respondents did not respond to this question and 20% gave the firm response that they had no information about those children who are not enrolled in secondary education.


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

113

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 9a: Can you cite any reasons for their non-attendance of secondary school? Reasons Inability to cover the cost

Number of instances

1st Response

Percentage

1

6.7

1

6.7

All children are enrolled in secondary school

1

6.7

Not specified

9

No interest in further education

1

These children are usually Roma children, thus social and cultural reasons apply. I do not know Total

6.7

2

13.3

15

100.00%

60

Q 9b: How do you verify whether all children are enrolled in primary school? Methods

Through cooperation with the Office of the Registrar and the ministries We do not keep track of it Not specified Total

Number of instances

Percentage 1

6.7

13

86.7

1

15

6.7

100.00%

This survey has shown that there is a great need for a single joint database that could be used by all institutions, in line with their respective needs. This is because the institutions that should own such a database and have at their disposal the basic information on school enrolment and leaving either do not have any data in that regard available or the data that they have cannot be used efficiently. Q 4b: Who do you receive information from? a) Schools b) Ministries c) Other


114

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Graph 6: The ways in which information on the enrolment of children in primary education is obtained. We receive information from:

School

Not from schools Ministries

Not from ministries Other

No response regarding this option

There were no responses to question No. 5a: How do you keep track of whether all children who completed their primary education are enrolled in secondary education? This leads to the conclusion that such records are not available in the municipalities (education departments). Q 6b: In your opinion, what are the reasons for their non-enrolment in secondary education? Lack of interest

Financial situation Prejudice

Not specified

Total

No. of instances

1 1

--

13 15

Percentage

6.7 6.7 --

86.7

100.00%

No. of instances

--

1 1

13 15

Percentage

--

6.7

6.7

86.7

100.00%

Q III: Would it be useful to have a database containing information about secondary school leavers and their reasons for leaving? All respondents (15 of them) answered that it would be useful to develop such a single database containing information on secondary school leavers and outlining their reasons for leaving. This further proves that such a database should be developed and be made accessible not only to municipal authorities but also to other institutions working in the field of child and youth care.


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

115

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Q 3a: If your response is YES, in what manner would this database assist you?

For preparation of sample analysis and recommending proper solutions to ensure that children stay enrolled in secondary education

Number of instances

8

Percentages (%)

53.3

Influencing families who do not enrol their children in secondary education

1

6.7

Having such records for future statistical and educational purposes

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

2

13.3

Useful information

1

When undertaking specific measures in the event that the number is high in order to reduce it as much as possible

For the more efficient easier and effective monitoring of the occurrence of this phenomenon and a timely response I do not know/no response Total

15

6.7

100

Chart Q. IV Do you want to develop/own a database of school dropouts in your municipality?

Yes

Does not know / no answer

In almost three-quarters of the municipalities included in the survey the respondents answered that there was a need for a database on school dropout.


116

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Chart Q. V If you would like this database to be developed, do you think that it should be connected into a network with similar databases in other municipalities?

Yes No

Does not know / no answer

In 60% of the social affairs departments the respondents answered that it is necessary to connect such a database, if developed, with the databases in other municipalities. Chart Q. VI Are trainned staff available in your municipality to maintain the database?

Yes No

Does not know / no answer

Chart Q. VII

Do you have the necessary equipment? Yes No

Does not know / no answer


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

Chart Q. VIII

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

117

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

Do you need training on how to develop and maintain a database? Yes No

Does not know / no answer

Q IX: If your response is YES, how many persons should complete this training in your municipality? Two persons

No. of instances

One person

At least ten persons

I do not know/No response Not specified Total

8

Percentage (%)

53.3

1

6.7

1

6.7

1

6.7

4

26.7

15

100

Q X: In addition to staff training, is there anything else that you would need for the development of such a database? The Municipality of Bihać has the infrastructure and resources to develop and maintain the database More money and new working posts Prepared to tackle this issue

Software (computer programmes) Equipment

We will identify the shortcomings during the project and remove them along the way Nothing more

I do not know/no response Total

Number of cases

1

Percentage (%)

6.7

2

13.3

2

13.3

1

6.7

1 1

1 6

15

6.7 6.7

6.7 40

100


118

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN FINDINGS Survey Conducted in Pedagogic Institutes


N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

119


120

N O N - E N R O L M E N T

A N D

S C H O O L

D R O P O U T

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Conclusion

S E C T I O N 6 : C O N C L U S I O N A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

We can draw several main conclusions from this survey and the interviews conducted with the respondents.

PRIMARY SCHOOLS 





 



The biggest problem concerning early school leavers and non-attendance of primary school is the lack of records about those children who are not enrolled in school and school leavers. Some institutions have information about those children who are enrolled in primary school and can obtain records on those children not enrolled in primary school from the relevant institutions by sending them a request. Reasons for non-attendance vary. The respondents agreed that this problem concerns the entire country and that the reasons for dropping out of primary school include poor financial standing, educationally neglected children, Roma children, insufficient awareness about the importance of education, lack of interest amongst parents and children, diminished mental or physical capacities of children, children from minority groups and delinquent behaviour.

Categories of early school leavers and the reasons that led them to leave school were more elaborately described. These categories included Roma children, children with poor academic achievement and children who moved to another town and experienced difficulty in adjusting to their new environment. The reasons for dropping out may also include the family’s social circumstances, lack of interest amongst parents to motivate their children to pursue education, residing far from school and bad academic achievement. There were no programmes that target non-attendance.

The problem of early school leavers is addressed through counselling sessions and presentations given in primary schools, whose purpose is to raise awareness about the importance of education. Programmes for the prevention of non-enrolment usually target Roma children. Cooperation amongst institutions is deemed necessary at all levels.

SECONDARY SCHOOLS  

There are no records on young people not enrolled in secondary education or secondary school leavers. Secondary education is not compulsory and because of this there are no good quality records about this category of youth.

Reasons for non-attendance of secondary education vary. Often they include the family’s poor financial standing, avoiding responsibility and insufficient awareness about the importance of education. Non-attendance of secondary school is usually present amongst young people with problematic behaviour and members of ethnic minorities. Extreme religious beliefs represent another reason for non-attendance of secondary education as such beliefs prevent young people from pursuing secondary education.

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Reasons for non-attendance of secondary school vary and include the financial situation, insufficient care for young persons experiencing difficulty in adjusting to a new environment and the overall situation in society. There were no programmes designed to prevent non-attendance of secondary school. Some institutions implement vocational guidance programmes to prevent dropping out of secondary school and raise awareness amongst young people concerning the importance of education. Cooperation with institutions exists at all levels.

Survey Conducted in the Ministries of Education Primary Schools BANJA LUKA

The Ministry of Education of Republika Srpska encounters similar problems to the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There is the issue of Roma communities whose members do not have a registered permanent or temporary residence, which is why the Ministry does not have accurate information on the non-enrolment of children in school and school dropout. The laws of the country do not apply to their tradition and lifestyle. They keep to their ways and it has become generally accepted for Roma births not to be registered with the registrar’s office, which then prevents the relevant institutions from assisting the Roma minority in keeping records on Roma children and youths. Even though it is the duty of all parents, under the law, to enrol their children in primary school by a set deadline there are documented cases of non-enrolment. Such parents violate the law by not enrolling their children in school and as a consequence they can be prosecuted. School dropout and parents who allow this to happen (or support the idea) also violate the law and the fundamental right and obligation of each child to acquire knowledge and education. The most reliable records on the number of children who should be enrolled in primary school are maintained by the Municipal Department of Social Affairs. This department has the duty to notify the Ministry of Education and Culture by the end of September about any children who do not attend class and the reasons for their non-attendance. The most accurate data on the enrolled of children in school and early school leavers should be available in the schools. The reasons for non-attendance include:

   

irresponsibility of parents; illness;

unknown or individual reasons for leaving school early; majority of those not enrolled are Roma children.


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Reasons for school leaving early include:

         

wilful dropping out;

moving to another location; getting married;

uncared for children; neglected children;

lack of interest in education; dysfunctional family;

difficult financial situation;

child who refuses to go to school;

Roma children constitute the majority of early school leavers.

A prevention programme is in place and it is implemented through various activities. Professional staff hold consultations with parents, send them invitations and warnings; they also hold meetings with those parents who did not enrol their children. Minor offence proceedings are instigated against parents who do not enrol their children in the school or fail to return their child back to school after he or she has left the school. Considering that the reasons for early school leaving are often individual, school authorities work with parents and pupils assisted by professionals, such as school psychologists, and if necessary transfer these pupils to special classes. These commissions may delay a child’s enrolment if they determine that the child is not mature enough to start school or for other similar reasons. Cooperation with the relevant institutions is very successful and all of the institutions are included in the prevention of early school leaving and non-attendance (the centres for social work, the municipalities, mental health centres, the Ministry of Education and others). Cooperation with NGOs is also very successful.

ZENICA  

 

The most common reason for non-attendance of primary school in Zenica-Doboj Canton is the poor financial situation, but the difficult social circumstances within families as the nucleus of society should also not be disregarded.

The majority of children who are not enrolled in school are members of the Roma minority and children from rural areas. The main reasons for their non-enrolment are of a social and financial nature. According to available information, Roma children comprise the majority of children who are not enrolled in primary education. There are cases where children have left school but at a later date have resumed their education. The social sector imposes sanctions against the parents of such children because primary education is compulsory for all children. The institutions in charge of education cooperate with Roma associations to improve the level educational attainment amongst Roma children. In the case of children from economically disadvantaged families assistance is usually rendered through activities undertaken by different humanitarian organisations and the centres for social work.

The Ministry does not keep records of children who are not enrolled in primary

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education or primary school dropouts. The maintaining of such records falls under the jurisdiction of the Office of the Registrar, the schools and similar institutions. It is estimated that the number of children who are not enrolled in primary education in Zenica-Doboj Canton is either insignificant or that no such cases exist.

GORAŽDE

There are a certain number of children who are not enrolled in primary education in the BosniaPodrinje Canton. There are no official records on the reasons for their non-attendance of primary school. According to the respondents, the following reasons might apply:

   

indigence;

   

poverty;

children with special needs; Roma children;

children who reside far from school. The groups at highest risk involve children from dysfunctional families, families with several members, indigent families and Roma families. According to the respondents, there are no documented cases of any Roma children not enrolled in primary education but that this might be the result of poor record keeping and the lack of registering births with the Office of the Registrar. Because of this, there are no special programmes developed to tackle this problem; this is also present in the rest of the country. According to information available to the Ministry of Education of the Bosnia-Podrinje Canton, there are no children who are obliged to attend school that are not doing so. The Ministry implements social policy programmes that target this problem and has made donations to schools in order to enable them to purchase textbooks, notebooks, arrange free transportation for children and similar. The Ministry receives information on the total number of children who are to be enrolled in primary education in the Canton from the municipalities (registrar’s offices) on an annual basis. These offices provide the Ministry with the necessary information, which is then analysed and used to monitor the enrolment process. According to available information, there have been no documented cases of non-enrolment in primary education; however, as one respondent told us, this might be the result of a discrepancy between the actual situation in the field and the data at their disposal. Primary school dropouts are placed in the same category as children who are not enrolled in primary education. The reasons for this include: children with special needs; Roma children;

children who reside far from school. In cases of children from families in need the primary school organised meetings with the parents and does everything within its power to bring such children back to school. Six primary schools in this canton employ three social workers, speech therapists and school pedagogues. Together they work to find solutions to non-enrolment and school dropout.


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TUZLA

The Ministry of Education in Tuzla Canton has no information about any cases of nonenrolment in primary education. The reasons for non-enrolment or non-attendance of primary school, if such cases exist, could be found in the difficult economic situation of families and the major distance to the nearest school, whereby transportation and additional costs would represent a great problem for families with one or both parents unemployed. Some parents have a different view of education and as a result do not enrol their children in school or allow their children to only complete the first four grades of primary school. Such conduct by parents constitutes a minor offence and is dealt with accordingly by the judicial authorities of this canton. The problem of non-attendance by Roma children is particularly emphasised. The action plan adopted by the Government is currently being implemented (education and employment of the Roma population). Implementation of this plan is coordinated by the Roma Issues Officer, who is a Roma himself, and whose duties include the promotion of education amongst the Roma section of the population and encouraging Roma parents to enrol their children in school. The Roma Issues Officer also urges parents to register their children with the registrar’s office so that the Government can obtain accurate information on the number of Roma living in a specific area and thus provide them with various forms of assistance to facilitate their inclusion in education and employment. The Ministry supports projects implemented by the centres for social work to provide assistance to families in need by donating books, textbooks, notebooks and ensuring free transportation for children who reside more than two kilometres from school. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy also participates in these projects. The reasons for dropping out of primary education and non-enrolment in primary schools are almost identical. The usual reasons for dropping out of primary education in upper grades, as our respondent informed us, is marriage, where girls are concerned, and change of residence. The problem of Roma early school leavers is especially pronounced in this canton. The Ministry employs a Roma Issues Officer who works on Roma issues and renders assistance to parents and children to ensure that Roma children continue their education.

MOSTAR

There is no official data available in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton concerning the reasons for non-attendance of primary education by some children. The respondents told us that this problem is not within the Ministry’s jurisdiction and that this information is available at the Department for Social Affairs of the City of Mostar. The main reasons for the non-enrolment of children in primary school, in the respondent’s opinion, are problems within certain families and a lack of parental care. Based on the respondent’s personal experiences, these children come from socially vulnerable and dysfunctional families and Roma communities. Mostar faces the additional problem of children who, because of their parents’ negligence, do not have a birth certificate and cannot be enrolled in school (this problem is especially present in Roma communities). Although the Ministry has no official records on this problem it is a fact that Roma parents either do not enrol their children in school on time, because of their way of life and traditions, or never enrol them in school. Therefore, institutions cannot keep track of births in Roma communities and thus cannot determine when Roma children have reached school age. Prevention programmes are available and the Ministry participates in such projects together with

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the Roma Association. There are a certain number of children from families in need who are not enrolled in school; however, the classification of children not enrolled in primary education is not performed based on their family’s financial standing, which is why there is no official data available for this particular group. The centre for social work provides care to children from families in need, while the Ministry can only support the activities of the Centre for Social Work and its projects. The problem of the other two constituent peoples in this canton has been resolved through the separate implementation of a Croat and Bosniak curriculum, whereby two schools in the same settlement apply two different curricula. Schools and municipalities keep track of non-attendance and have the most reliable data on it, while the Ministry can only support the projects initiated by these institutions. As the Ministry told us, they only have information on the number of enrolled children for the purpose of maintaining their own records. More elaborate records are maintained by the schools and others institutions, depending on the problem. There have been cases of school dropout. The schools maintain records on these children and can provide reliable information about the reasons for their dropping out of school. According to the respondents, the parents are responsible for their children dropping out of school. Roma children are raised to start work at an early age and to respect their traditions, which supersede the Law that prescribes compulsory primary education. Because of their way of life, Roma children either leave school early or are never enrolled.

LIVNO

Livno (Canton 10) had no problems concerning children of primary school age. According to the information obtained from the Ministry of Education, the majority of children are enrolled in primary education. However, there have been individual cases of the non-enrolled of children who, according to the respondents, were members of the Roma minority. The respondents underlined that this phenomenon has not been registered in their canton and that it only appears on rare occasions. They are aware that this problem is present in the rest of the country and that it involves:

   

Roma children;

children whose parents are refugees or displaced persons;

children whose parents have a very low level of educational attainment;

children from families in need. There were no documented cases in Canton 10 of Roma children who had not been enrolled in primary school but should be given their age. Because they have not encountered this problem, they do not have any programmes in place to prevent non-enrolment. When asked whether there are any children in Canton 10 whose families are in need and whether these children attend school we received a very guarded response. We were repeatedly told by the respondents that such cases have not been documented but that they could not guarantee that this represents the real situation. The Centre for Social Welfare in Livno implements programmes targeting such children and provides them with free transportation (if they live far from school) as well as free textbooks. There were no programmes currently being implemented by the Ministry, but cooperation with the Centre for Social Work exists.


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The situation concerning primary school dropout was almost identical. Regulations provide for compulsory primary education and the centres for social work are doing all they possibly can to ensure regular education for children. If a child, for some reason, drops out of primary school the Ministry coordinates with other institutions to return that child back to school.

ODŽAK

According to information obtained from the Ministry in the Posavina Canton, the categories of children who do not attend primary education are as follows:



children with serious developmental disability, who are the majority of non-enrolled children;

children from families in need, which are rare cases. There were no documented cases of Roma children not enrolled in primary education in Posavina Canton, which is why the Ministry does not have a programme to prevent the nonenrolment of children from this category. Children from families in need attend school and when their families encounter financial problems the Ministry cooperates with other institutions to raise money to cover their needs. This assistance is available to such families in the form of social welfare distributed by the municipal authorities and free transportation and textbooks for their children, which helps to reduce the cost of education for these children. There had been no reported cases of non-enrolled children from the other two constituent peoples who are in the minority in this area.



TRAVNIK

According to the Ministry of Education in the Central Bosnia Canton, primary education in the Central Bosnia Canton and the rest of the country is compulsory for all children. Due to the poor economic situation and the bad social climate in the country there are still cases of children that have either not been enrolled or dropped out of school. These are usually Roma children (who are at greatest risk), children from remote rural settlements or children from families in need. This problem is resolved through specific programmes developed to eliminate non-enrolment within Roma communities; however, the bad social climate in the country adversely affects such efforts. Despite this, there are examples of good practice in this canton such as the primary school in Vitez. Some pupils who come from families in need leave school because their parents cannot ensure adequate conditions for their education. The Ministry, the municipal authorities, the schools and society in general are highly aware of these cases and the education system in BiH resolves them successively, which is why it often happens that no adequate solutions are adopted for these children. There are various programmes implemented by different NGOs or supported through donations paid by the state or international organisations; however, the decisive role should be played by the school and the family. Children who are members of minorities in this area do not dropout of school in the place they reside because children’s rights are respected in primary schools in the Central Bosnia Canton and each child is entitled to be taught in his or her mother tongue. According to the respondent, the number of children not enrolled in primary education is not

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large, partially because primary education is compulsory under the law. The Ministry of Education of the Central Bosnia Canton promotes respect for every child’s right to education. The respondents classified the reasons for early school leaving as follows:

    

poor financial standing of the family;

low level of educational attainment of the parents (educational neglect); insufficient care by society;

disturbed system of values (knowledge is not valued);

Roma children. Different activities are undertaken to ensure that children stay within the education system; the most important is to make children see that there is no alternative to knowledge. Many members of the Roma section of the population understand this situation and want to acquire education for their children.

Ĺ IROKI BRIJEG

This Ministry of Education did not have any official data about the reasons behind nonenrolment in primary education, because these kinds of problems do not fall within its jurisdiction. The Ministry employees believed that since primary education is compulsory under the law there could not be non-enrolled children. However, they were also aware that this was not the case in reality. In their opinion, this is a problem within certain families and the result of a lack of parental care. The respondent told us that, based on his personal experience, these children usually come from socially vulnerable categories including dysfunctional families (in terms of the relationships within the family) and Roma families, which is also the case in the rest of the country. This canton has no officially registered Roma families. Official data on children from indigent families was not available because it is impossible to find information in that regard (there are no records on such families), but the schools were aware of these children. If this problem occurs i.e., non-enrolment of children in primary education due to the financial situation in the family, it is dealt with by the centre for social work. The Ministry provides donations for the purchase of textbooks for children in need, free transportation to school and similar. The education of children from the other two constituent peoples who are not in the majority in this area was very well organised; Croat and Bosniak curricula are implemented separately. The number of children who would like to have classes in Bosniak language was very small and thus impossible to organise school for such a small number of pupils. Therefore, the parents consented for their children to attend classes held in Croatian, with the exception of religious instruction. The reasons for non-enrolment and dropping out of primary school in Bosnia and Herzegovina were seen as follows:

  

socially vulnerable families;

dysfunctional families, in all forms; Roma population.


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BIHAĆ

The respondents in the Ministry of Education of the Una-Sana Canton shared a similar opinion to that of their colleagues in the other ministries of education. The main reasons given for the non-enrolment of children in primary education, or more specifically why their parents do not enrol them in primary school, included difficult social circumstances in the family, an inadequate teaching system in school (this relates to children with developmental disabilities or mild mental or physical disability) and also the problem with the Roma section of the population. According to them, Roma pupils and parents are the greatest concern because, despite all efforts, they stick to their beliefs and opinions, which are often in contravention of the law; Roma parents are prone to not enrolling their children in school because they believe that their children have no need for such knowledge. The Ministry, to the greatest possible extent, keeps records on Roma children of primary school age who are not enrolled in primary school, due to the way of life in Roma communities. These records are available on all children of primary school age that reside within the territory of this canton. This Ministry supports and implements programmes aimed at the prevention of this problem through different institutions and NGOs. The reasons behind non-enrolment in primary school are seen as follows:

  

social and economic circumstances in the family;

   

individual reasons within the family;

condition (mental or physical);

Roma children comprise the largest category. Another major problem that the Ministry is trying to resolve is the problem of children from families in need. There are special programmes supported by the Ministry and implemented by other institutions (the centres for social work) that include donations in the form of textbooks, free transportation to school and, where necessary, some other donations in the form of school material. The most important programme is the one implemented by UNICEF, which aims to improve and develop the education system in BiH. The reasons why children dropout of primary education include: family financial problems; family social problems;

Roma children comprise the largest category.

SARAJEVO

The most common reason for non-enrolment in primary education was bad social and financial circumstances in the family. The social circumstances may be connected to the tradition in which the child is brought up, for example, those communities in which it is common for girls not to attend school and a lack of awareness exists amongst parents as to the importance of education, which may result in the non-enrolment of children who have reached school age and are mature enough, both mentally and physically, to begin their education. In this way parents violate the Law on the Compulsory Enrolment of Children in Primary

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Education, which prescribes that either eight or nine years of primary school is compulsory for all children. The problem of Roma children and the traditions with which they grow up is particularly prominent; these children are not brought up to appreciate the importance of education. The reasons for non-enrolment in primary education are as follows:

  

social and financial situation in the family;

  

complex, because they are often individual;

tradition;

Roma minority children comprise the category of most concern. Primary education is compulsory in Sarajevo Canton, as is the case with the rest of the country. Even so, there are still some children who are not enrolled or dropout of primary school. The reasons for dropping out of primary school are somewhat more complex because the dropouts may include children who discontinue their education because of a health condition. The Government invests effort to help these children, in any way possible, to complete their education. There are prevention programmes in place that target this problem (non-enrolment in primary education). These programmes are implemented by the cantonal Ministry of Education, schools, education centres, Caritas, the NGO “Let’s be Friends� and many others. Institutions successfully cooperate in a joint effort to enable all children to acquire education, which is guaranteed to them under the law. Records are kept on children who are not enrolled or do not complete primary education; however, the respondents believed that the situation in the field might be somewhat different to that stated in the records. This is because they cannot obtain accurate information about children from Roma communities who do not attend school as they are not recorded in the register of births. They assume that the number of non-enrolled children and dropouts amounts to approximately 4,000 in Sarajevo Canton. The reasons behind dropping out of primary school are as follows: illness;

Roma section of the population.

Secondary Schools BANJA LUKA

The problem of non-enrolment and dropping out of secondary education is far more complex than non-enrolment and early school leaving in primary schools. More specifically, secondary education is not compulsory in Republika Srpska and no one obliges the youth or their parents to enrol them in secondary school upon completion of primary education. Therefore, the number of young people who are not enrolled or do not attend secondary school is much larger than the number of non-enrolled children in primary school. The reasons for non-attendance or non-enrolment in secondary schools vary and are somewhat different from the reasons for non-attendance and non-enrolment in primary school. The following factors play an important role:


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uncertain financial situation in the family; dysfunctional family;

difficult financial situation;

social circumstances within the family. Roma youth, according to the assessment, is the largest category of youth not enrolled in secondary education, because it is common for them to marry very early and dropout of school. There have also been cases of primary school children getting married and dropping out of school. There are no official records on these phenomena. Some secondary schools gather statistical data and invest effort to create records that include the reasons for leaving school in order to prevent this phenomenon. However, there are still cases of young people leaving school, due to low grades, who never resume their education in spite of the effort invested by the school and their parents to convince them to return to school. Juvenile offenders are often secondary school dropouts. Even though secondary education is not compulsory schools and institutions work on different programmes to keep youths within the education system and to enable them to complete their secondary education, thus increasing their chances for employment and a better living standard. NGOs have organised seminars and training for primary school seniors to help them choose the secondary school that would best suit them, while employment bureaus have organised vocational guidance training which brings into focus scarce occupations in order to improve the employability of secondary school graduates. The Ministry of Education does not develop such programmes, but renders support to all good quality initiatives. Yet convincing pupils to resume their education must be attributed to those dedicated enthusiasts who invest personal effort to get through to pupils and help them to deal with their problems. The Education Strategy for the period 2010-2014 foresees reform of the general programme of secondary schools to increase the general education component and the number of young people enrolled in secondary education, whilst eliminating non-enrolment to the greatest possible extent.

ZENICA

Non-enrolment in secondary education should be approached differently from non-enrolment in primary education because secondary education is not compulsory. The most common reasons for non-enrolment are of a social and financial nature. A nonenrolled youth usually comes from a family with limited beliefs and whose members are insufficiently socialised and whose financial standing is poor. These are groups with reduced productivity, satisfaction and cohesion and of children whose parents are unemployed. The majority of children come from informal social groups and economically disadvantaged groups. The Ministry does not have any data on the number of young people who should be attending secondary school but are non-enrolled for some reason. In order to reduce the number of non-enrolled youths to the minimum, the Ministry has introduced some new vocations into secondary schools to facilitate youth employment after secondary school graduation. These syllabuses, tailored to the new vocations, are intended to increase employability and raise interest in education. The main method employed to oversee the results of these activities is the gathering of statistical data on employment/unemployment. The Ministry cooperates with all interested institutions, including institutions from the private sector involved in the education process, employment bureaus and governmental institutions

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involved in education. Cooperation has yielded positive results because non-attendance of secondary education does not occur on a large scale and generally comes down to few individual cases. When a child drops out of secondary school after several years of education they try through an individual approach to convince that child to return to school by explaining to him/her the advantages of education. Young people who dropout of school usually come from social groups with insufficiently developed cohesion, productivity and satisfaction or families with unemployed parents. The programme introducing new vocations for which there is a demand within the labour market and programmes that facilitate the education of children from economically disadvantaged families are being implemented.

GORAŽDE

The reasons for non-enrolment include the poor financial standing of the family, the inability to finance a child’s continued education and a lack of interest among parents and children for further education. The Ministry of Education has to deal with the additional problem of secondary education not being compulsory, unlike primary education. Accurate data on nonenrolment in secondary education is not available. The respondent was convinced, based on his own personal experience and some records maintained by the Ministry, that 99% of children who complete primary school enrol in secondary school. In an effort to eliminate this phenomenon all institutions cooperate on advising children and young people about the importance of education; employment bureaus, centres for social work and professional staff in secondary and primary schools organise presentations on this subject. Cooperation amongst all institutions is necessary and its aim is to prevent school dropout and to encourage enrolment in secondary education. The institutions most frequently mentioned in this context by the respondents included the employment bureaus, centres for social work, secondary schools and counselling centres for families and children. This cooperation at all levels and in all institutions can yield positive results. The problem of leaving secondary school is very similar to the problem of non-enrolment in secondary school, as far as the category of dropouts is concerned, but it also includes the early signs of delinquent behaviour amongst children and youths, including Roma, who are not enrolled or leave secondary education very early on. The Ministry had records on this category and these records are maintained based on the data provided by secondary schools; however, it did not have any data on what became of these young people. This was partially because they were presumed to be registered with the employment bureaus, which maintain data on and provide care for them. The Ministry does not keep track of whether these young people ever resume their education or find a job. Prevention of non-enrolment in secondary schools upon the successful completion of primary school requires cooperation between families and society.

TUZLA

A certain number of young people are not enrolled in secondary education upon completion of primary education. The reasons for this vary and include poor financial standing, entering into a marriage at an early age (usually girls), insufficient or a lack awareness and willingness to be educated and gain new knowledge that can improve one’s chances of securing a better job, living standard, etc.


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Generally, non-enrolled youths come from socially vulnerable families, Roma families, dysfunctional families and similar. This Ministry does not keep records on non-enrolled youths. The discrepancy in the number of pupils who completed eight grades of primary school and the number of children enrolled in the first year of secondary school (June-September) was insignificant in statistical terms in 2010: not more than 50 pupils. Although the Ministry is not obliged to keep accurate records of non-enrolled children (because secondary education is not compulsory) it does provide support and assistance to those NGOs that have good quality programmes aimed at the prevention of non-enrolment and dropping out of secondary school. However, this is done mainly out of pure enthusiasm on the part of employees who wish to see all children achieve at least secondary school qualifications. In addition to the different NGOs that they cooperate with, they also cooperate with other institutions such as the employment bureaus, municipal councils, chamber of commerce and such like. The reasons for dropping out of secondary school are almost identical to the reasons for nonenrolment. The main problem is once again the financial situation of families, especially those with three or more children; girls that marry early is another serious problem that has to he contended with. In addition to Roma children, there have been cases of children from rural areas who have also lost interest in further education; this occurs either due to the difficulty of commuting and the high cost of transportation or poor academic achievement. The Ministry receives information from schools on dropout rates, but also does its own calculations based on the number of children who started secondary education and those who graduated. The Ministry has come to the conclusion, based on these indicators, that Roma children constitute the majority of dropouts from primary and secondary school. The largest part of the work and responsibility is on the professional staff, because they have to convince these children to continue their education and to make them see how important education is.

MOSTAR

The respondents in almost all ministries noted that the situation in secondary schools is more complex due to the fact that secondary education is not compulsory. Consequently, these problems are not sufficiently monitored. Young people dropout of secondary education because they believe that education is not necessary and usually come from families in which the parents themselves have not acquired secondary education. This is usually the case in Roma families. The biggest problem relates to the legal framework which does not prescribe compulsory secondary education. As a consequence of this the relevant institutions do not keep any records on secondary school dropouts or those who are never enrolled in secondary school. There are individual examples of schools that invest effort to eliminate this problem. They document the reasons for dropping out and cooperate with other institutions to eliminate this problem through projects aimed at teaching the youth about the importance of education.

LIVNO

There are a number of young people who have decided not to continue their education after primary school. The reasons for this vary and are usually individual; nevertheless, they can be grouped into several categories. Usually these are young people who have lost interest in further education and refuse to continue their education because they do not see any relevance to it.

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They are often young people whose families cannot provide them with the basics to continue their education. Parents who disregard their child’s education represent an important factor. Delinquency in the early years is often one of the reasons behind non-enrolment in secondary education. Ethnicity was not mentioned as an important factor in relation to dropping out of school and no such cases had been reported. The reasons are numerous, but there has never been a recorded case of a young person not enrolling in secondary schools because classes were taught in a language other than their mother tongue. According to the respondents, the most common reason for non-enrolment in secondary school is the bad financial situation in the youth’s family. When a young person does not enrol in or leaves secondary school the school contacts the parents and tries to draw their attention to the importance of secondary education through individual sessions. There are programmes in schools but none has fully eliminated this problem. The Ministry of Education is faced with the problem of secondary school dropout. A certain number of young people leave secondary school due to poor academic achievement, lack of parental care, peer pressure and the economic situation within their family. According to a more elaborate categorisation, young people from those families without sufficient parental care represent the majority of dropouts. This coupled with the poor financial standing of the family has become the main reason for dropping out of secondary education. Secondary schools keep records on school dropouts. The schools invest effort on an individual basis to resolve these problems, in cooperation with the Ministry.

ODŽAK

The majority of children are enrolled in secondary education, according to information available from the Ministry. If it happens that a child who completed primary school fails to enrol in secondary school the reasons are usually individual and cannot be categorised. In their opinion, these are usually children with special needs who are simply not able to continue their education. There are frequent cases in the Posavina Canton of young people continuing their secondary education in the neighbouring country of Croatia. The Ministry receives information about these children from the respective schools. Besides schools, the Ministry also cooperates with the centres for social work, the employment bureaus and employer associations when enrolling children who have completed primary education in secondary schools and oversee the enrolment process. In addition to non-enrolment, there have been cases of secondary school dropout. However, these cases are rare and usually involve a change of residence and pupils who have difficulty in mastering the material. It is almost impossible to categorise these young people because they all need to be approached on an individual basis, taking into account the specific reasons that led them to leave school. The Ministry keeps records on the number of secondary school dropouts, yet despite this there are no programmes within this Ministry for the successful elimination of this phenomenon.


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TRAVNIK

There are no accurate records on the number of children not enrolled in secondary school. The main obstacle to the creation of such records is the fact that secondary school is not compulsory under the law. The reasons for non-enrolment in secondary education are as follows:

    

social and financial reasons;

    

problems in the family (insufficient care for the child);

indigence;

divorced parents - marriage crises;

Roma children and cases related to children from other minorities and peoples;

children whose parents are both unemployed. The Ministry of Education cooperates with other relevant institutions and such cooperation with the employment bureaus has proven to be particularly successful. The latter inform children about the scarcity of certain vocations and guide interested pupils to pursue education aimed at such vocations. The Central Bosnia Canton has encountered the problem of secondary schools dropout and the reasons are similar to non-enrolment: poor previous knowledge and demanding material in secondary education; children from families in need and children of divorced parents; children without parents;

children from the Roma community represent the largest category.

Ĺ IROKI BRIJEG

The fact that secondary education is not compulsory under the law is the biggest problem concerning enrolment in secondary schools after completion of primary education, because no one can force young people to enrol if they do not want to. According to their information, non-enrolled youth comes from families with interpersonal relationship difficulties and indigent or dysfunctional families. In their opinion there have been no cases of the non-enrolled of youths in this canton. The reasons for non-enrolment in secondary education vary. In the Ministry of Education they believe that parents and their indifference have a major impact on their children’s further education. Through an adequate approach the family can have a significant influence over the choice of youth’s in regard to their continued education. The Ministry, unfortunately, does not implement any programmes that deal with these issues and does not review the records in order to determine the largest category of non-enrolled youth. The reasons for non-enrolment and dropping out include the following:

    

accumulated low grades; delinquent behaviour; individual reasons;

problems within the family; financial reasons.

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BIHAĆ

Some young people are not enrolled in secondary education due to social and economic reasons. The problem related to the Roma section of the population, whose members traditionally do no enrol in secondary education, especially girls, is also present here. Even though secondary education is not compulsory the Ministry gathers information concerning this category of youth for the purpose of preventing or at least reducing to a minimum the number of young people who do not enrol in secondary schools. The most common reason for non-enrolment in secondary education is the difficult financial situation within the family. Although there were no programmes that targeted non-enrolment at the time, the Ministry was willing to extend support to any good quality programme that might be developed in the future. Motivational programmes implemented thus far have proven very efficient and yielded positive results. The reasons for non-enrolment in secondary school included the following:

 

social and financial reasons within the family;

    

financial situation;

Roma youth. In addition to non-enrolment in secondary education there was also the problem of leaving secondary school. The reasons for this included the financial situation within the family, delinquent behaviour in the early years, loss of interest in education and similar. Roma youths constituted the majority of dropouts. Other dropouts left school because of the difficult financial situation or for purely individual reasons. Records on the number of secondary school dropouts were not kept. The reasons for non-enrolment included the following: delinquent behaviour in the early years; loss of interest in education; individual reasons;

Roma youth represented the largest category.

SARAJEVO

The reasons behind non-enrolment in secondary education are similar to the reasons for nonenrolment or non-attendance during primary education. Non-enrolment in secondary education is also characterised by a complete loss of interest in education or the inability to master the material, due to bad academic achievement in primary school and such like. According to the records in Sarajevo Canton around 7 % of primary school graduates are not enrolled in secondary schools or any other form of further education. In response, Sarajevo Canton has introduced a special programme in secondary schools which foresees that the first two years of secondary school will become compulsory as of the school year 2010-2011 for first and second degree skills. The latter will be viewed as a high school qualification. Cooperation with all institutions exists in terms of the prevention of early leaving school and non-enrolment in secondary education. This is an obligation of the Ministry and one of its priorities. To this end the Ministry cooperates with the centres for social work, pedagogic institutes, employment bureaus, schools and similar interested parties.


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The reasons for non-enrolment in secondary education include the following:

   

loss of interest in education;

  

situation within the family;

problems within the family;

financial problems in the family;

poor academic achievement in primary school. The problem of early school leaving is also present in this canton. There have been cases of children/youths, members of the minority constituent peoples, who have left school early for reasons that had nothing to do with their ethnicity, but rather their upbringing, the financial situation in their family and the environment in which they grew up. Poor academic achievement and delinquent behaviour in school often cause youths to dropout. All institutions within society, including schools and professionals within this field, should work together to prevent this phenomenon from occurring. The reasons for dropping out include the following: poor academic achievement; delinquent behaviour.

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Conclusion

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The right to education is a fundamental human right. This survey conducted, among the employees of schools and education institutions, has revealed the following common reasons for non-attendance or dropping out of primary and secondary school:

    

difficult financial situation within the family; lack of parental support;

bad interpersonal relationships within the family; loss of motivation and interest in education;

delinquent behaviour. The inadequate education of parents, marriage or common-law marriage and parents who expect their children to work were mentioned as reasons for non-attendance and dropping out of school in a number of cases. All of the reasons documented through the survey constitute a serious problem which should be given full attention by schools and other relevant institutions. In order to be able to find solutions to this problem it is necessary to identify those children and youths who fall within this category. This means that there should be a flow of information through an updated database and a network of institutions that deal with education and are able to identify such cases in order to enable the more efficient prevention of non-enrolment and school dropout. This unique database would significantly contribute to the elimination of non-attendance and dropping out of the education system. These activities would gather information that would enable an individual approach to each child who has dropped out of primary school or did not enrol in secondary school and facilitate his or her further education and also enable the resolution of this problem through a joint effort. According to the respondents, the largest group of children not attending primary school are Roma children followed by children from families in need. Where secondary schools were concerned, the largest group of children who did not attend secondary school were juvenile delinquents followed by the children from families in need. The majority of primary school dropouts were usually Roma children or children from families in need. The largest category of secondary school dropouts were juvenile delinquents and youths from families with disturbed interpersonal relationships. The most common method employed to convince pupils not to drop out of school were individual sessions with children and their parents. Different forms of financial and professional assistance were only rendered in cases that required such assistance, yet these cases were rare. The survey has lead to the conclusion that none of the institutions contacted maintain good quality comprehensive records on these phenomena and that communication with those children who either leave or do not attend school exists, but only between schools and the relevant institutions. What is missing is simultaneous communication and cooperation between all institutions. A more efficient resolution to this serious problem is only possible through the development of a single common database and the networking of institutions.


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Partner Marketing Consulting Agency, Banja Luka Partner Marketing Research Team, BiH

Report written by: Partner MCA 2011

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Non-Enrolment and School Dropout in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Anexes)