__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

WASH in Schools in Angola

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola


Cover Pictures: © UNICEF/ANGA2015-0164/Célia Gonçalves © UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1245/Pirozzi © UNICEF/ANGA2014-0401/Bruno Caratão © UNICEF/ANGA2014-0276/Bruno Caratão

UNICEF Angola March 2016 (First edition in Portuguese published in April 2015) WASH Section and Education Section Rua Major Kanhangulo 197 Luanda | Angola Tel: +244 222 331 181 | +244 222 335 609 Email: luanda@unicef.org facebook.com/UnicefAngola | www.unicef.org © United Nations Children’s Fund, 2016


Table of Contents

List of abbreviations

ii

List of figures

ii

List of charts

iii

Executive Summary

1

1. Introduction

3

1.1. Brief summary of the education sector national context

3

1.2. Child Friendly Concept as a diagnosis basis

4

2. Applying an obstacles analysis to water, sanitation and hygiene in Angolan schools 2.1. Objective of the diagnosis 3. Methodology

7 7 9

4. Analysis of results

11

4.1. General data by province

11

4.2. Type of construction

14

4.2.1. Roof at school

14

4.3. Water supply

15

4.4. Environmental sanitation

23

4.5. Hygiene practices

25

4.6. Budget

28

4.7. School´s commitment

28

5. Discussion of results

31

5.1. Analysis of bottleneck areas

33

5.2. Enabling environment

34

5.3. Demand

35

5.4. Quality

36

6. Conclusion

39

7. Recommendations

41

References

42

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |I


List of abbreviations

DNEG

Direção Nacional do Ensino Geral – National Directorate of General Education

EAC

Escolas Amigas da Criança – Child Friendly Schools

EMIS

Education Management Information System

GEPE

Gabinete de Estudo, Planeamento e Estatística – Planning, Studies and Statistics Office

INE

Instituto Nacional de Estatística – National Statistics Institute

LBSE

Lei de Bases do Sistema de Ensino – Basic Laws of Education System

MED

Ministério da Educação – Ministry of Education

NGO

Non-governmental Organisation

PAN / EPT

Plano de Acção Nacional de Educação Para Todos - National Action Plan of Education for All

PEE

Projecto de Educação Escolar – School Education Project

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Education Fund

WHO

World Health Organisation

List of figures

Figure 1. Kilamba kiaxi School, Luanda

7

Figure 2. Outdoor classrooms, Bié

13

Figure 3. Classrooms in a school, Namibe

13

Figure 4. Water system with electro pump, Namibe

19

Figure 5. Water system with hand pump, Huíla

19

Figure 6. Source of drinking water, Namibe

22

Figure 7. Water fountain for the school and the community, Cunene

22

Figure 8. Clean toilets, Huambo

25

Figure 9. Closed toilets, Quilamba Kiaxi, Luanda

25

II| WASH in Schools - Angola


List of charts

Chart 1. Number of children covered by provinces

11

Chart 2. Number of teachers covered by provinces

11

Chart 3. Number of classrooms covered

12

Chart 4. Number of students per classroom

12

Chart 5. Existence of parents committees and hygiene clubs in schools

13

Chart 6. Does the school have a roof?

14

Chart 7. Type of construction

14

Chart 8. Does the school have water?

15

Chart 9. Is the school connected to the water supply network?

16

Chart 10. Does the connection to the grid actually work?

17

Chart 11. Does the school have a borehole with a hand pump?

17

Chart 12. Does the hand pump work?

18

Chart 13. Is the school water supplied by an open well?

18

Chart 14. Is the school water supplied by a tanker truck?

19

Chart 15. Is the school water collected from a protected well?

20

Chart 16. Is the school water collected from a fountain?

20

Chart 17. Does the school have drinking water?

21

Chart 18. Is the drinking water treated?

21

Chart 19. How is the water treated?

22

Chart 20. Does the school have toilets?

23

Chart 21. Do the toilets work?

23

Chart 22. Does the school have toilets for disabled people?

24

Chart 23. Are there urinals in the toilets?

24

Chart 24. What kind of toilet facilities does the school have?

25

Chart 25. Are there defecation sites in the school?

26

Chart 26. Number of students and average access to WC

26

Chart 27. Number of teachers and average access to WC

27

Chart 28. Hygiene in schools

27

Chart 29. Enabling environment

34

Chart 30. Supply

34

Chart 31. Demand

35

Chart 32. Quality

36

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |III


© UNICEF/ANGA2015-0164/Célia Gonçalves


Executive Summary

Water, sanitation and hygiene are essential for the health, development and well-being of every school age child. Due to the need to be aware of the reality that affects thousands of schoolchildren, the National Directorate of General Education, with the support of the Provincial Education Directorates of Cunene, Huíla, Bié, Luanda, Namibe, Huambo, and UNICEF have carried out a brief survey of six hundred (600) schools in order to assess their sanitary conditions. This review aims to pave the way for a debate on access to water, sanitation and hygiene, as well as promote proper planning and budgeting for primary schools. The idea of access to water, sanitation and hygiene, adequate planning and budget is multidimensional, inclusive and not limited to the construction of facilities. Each programme component that requires a Child Friendly School should include the promotion of education on health and hygiene, operation and maintenance of health facilities, supported by a regional and national advocacy system. This case study seeks to analyse possible obstacles or bottlenecks to the water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in schools in Angola through the implementation of the Tanahashi comprehensive Model (1978), and by taking into account the following priority areas: Enabling Environment, Supply, Demand and Quality. The Tanahashi Model allows the analysis of these four key areas in order to enable the development of a strategy to address and reduce barriers identified in the Angolan framework. Diarrhoeal diseases account for 18% of the deaths of children under five, and they are very common in school-age children (Ministry of Health 2010). The poor hygiene practices and the low percentage of hand washing, as well as the consumption of contaminated water are the main causes of infant deaths, faecal and oral diseases, malnutrition and inadequate growth in Angola (Ministry of Health, 2010). The diagnosis shows that all the schools visited in the municipalities of each province somehow lacked a hygienic and sanitary environment that was conducive to carrying out their duties. The average class size is 68.3%. These figures clearly underscore the government’s efforts to try to build more classrooms, but they do not invalidate the need to start building first in the places most in need through more refined planning and financing. The average WC access by students is 58%, the use of latrines is 28.52%, and the practice of open defecation is 44.70% (43.90% close to school and 45.49% in the bush). On average, about 310 students share a cubicle, which becomes an inhibiting factor for access to the toilet or latrine. About 70% of schools are not connected to the network and those that are connected are not supplied for about 78% of the time. The supply through tankers is the third most used source and the most expensive; about 20% of schools make use of this alternative source which creates huge imbalances in school budgets. Primary schools that do not get direct allocation of funds will be unable to afford running expenses that are approximately Akz 40,000 (400 USD) per month, depending on the distance involved. Only 35% of schools have drinking water available and 62% have no source at all allocated to them. As far as the treatment of the water is concerned, only 24% of schools said that they treated their drinking water; 76% did not treat the water at all and faced huge health problems with students according to the directors. Different studies carried out by the WHO / UNICEF found that water and sanitation facilities in schools have a powerful impact on reducing the above listed factors and they also help to increase school enrolment for girls and support both retention and completion rates. In addition, interventions in water and sanitation reinforce community ownership and participation in school management (WHO, UNICEF 2009).

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |1


Š UNICEF/ANGA2015-0062/Vinicius Carvalho


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE EDUCATION SECTOR NATIONAL CONTEXT The education sector in Angola has been deeply affected by the Civil War which has seen the destruction of school infrastructures and the loss of financial and human resources. The way to achieve a universal, quality primary education system is still a long journey because of the challenge of increasing the number of children enrolled in primary school from 3,851,622 in 2008 (Net enrolment ratio – NER – of 66%) to 5,022,144 by 2015 (100% NER) (Ministry of Education, 2012). This remarkable improvement in the number of enrolled students is mainly due to significant government investment in school infrastructure and the recruitment and deployment of teachers. For example, in 2012, the government built over 27,437 classrooms for primary education, compared to only 25,436 classrooms in 2003. The government recruited more 55,000 primary school teachers during 2002-2012, a significant improvement compared to the teacher recruitment level in 2002, which amounted to only 83,601 (ME, 2012). Similarly, the government has made substantial investments in teacher training in order to ensure that newly hired teachers offer quality teaching. Despite this commendable progress at primary education level, it is necessary to make more efforts at secondary education level, as Angola still has a small proportion of children in secondary education. According to data from the Ministry of Education, between 2001 and 2012 the total number of students has risen by 241% in primary education (1st to 6th grade), 524% in the 1st cycle of secondary education (7th to 9th) and 262% in the 2nd cycle of secondary education (from 10th to 12th grade, or in some cases from 10th to 13th). This increase has improved the net attendance rates (NAR) of both primary and secondary education level, as shown by the survey data1. According to surveys from IBEP (2008/09) and QUIBB (2011), the primary school NAR (defined as the proportion of children aged 6 to 11 years old who attend from 1st to 6th grade) had risen to 76.3% in 2008/09, and to 79.0% in 2011. In this most recent period 2008/09, the secondary school NAR rose sharply from 18.9% (for children aged 12 to 17 years) to 28.0% (for children aged 12 to 18) in 2011. In Angola the reasons why children do not enrol and remain in school are multidimensional, but are mainly based on the lack of adequate school infrastructures and the quality of education that is affected because there are teachers who are not properly trained and the teaching materials used are not appropriate. These factors coupled with long distances to schools result in overcrowded classrooms, inadequate access to clean water and sanitation, as well as the lack of capacity for effective teaching, which affects learning2 (Ministry of Education, 2012). These factors are further exacerbated by the fact that often teachers (27% at the primary school level3) are not qualified, so the quality of service is reduced and not focused enough on the children’s learning needs. Improving access to safe drinking water and sanitary facilities in Angolan schools is a crucial factor in the provision of a safe and healthy environment that enables effective learning by children. It is known that improving access to water, sanitation and hygiene in schools provides a better understanding of current education issues, challenges, and also an environment conducive to learning, closely linked to attendance and retention (Bowen et al, 2007).  

1 The NAR (net attendance rate) is the number of pupils of the official age group for a given level of the education system who attend this level of education, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official age group. 2

UNICEF, Situation Analysis of Children in Angola, Draft 1, 25 February 2014

3

MED (2012)

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |3


Since the beginning of the medium-term education programme (2009-2014), UNICEF and the Government of Angola (GOA) have promoted the concept of Child Friendly Schools. A Child Friendly School is one that abides by the following principles: 1) the educational work is based on the rights of the child, 2) it is a secure and protected environment for the child, 3) it is healthy and hygienic, 4) it is gender sensitive, 5) it provides quality teaching and learning and 6) there is participation of the community and families. In 2013, the Ministry of Education (MED) agreed to focus first on three main issues4; 1) Access to education for all children, 2) Quality of teaching and learning and 3) Health and hygiene. According to different studies carried out by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), water and sanitation facilities in schools have a strong, positive impact, not only in reducing diseases and mortality, but also in the increase of enrolment for girls and the retention and completion rates. In addition, interventions in water and sanitation reinforce community ownership and participation in school management. Besides mobilizing support in the construction of new water and sanitation facilities, communities are encouraged to take full responsibility for implementation and maintenance to ensure sustainable access and use of those resources (WHO 2009).

1.2 CHILD FRIENDLY SCHOOL CONCEPT AS A DIAGNOSIS BASIS In order to carry out a situational analysis and guide the development of a model of Child Friendly Schools for Angola (CFS), the Ministry of Education launched a survey which was conducted in 15 schools across municipalities in five provinces – Bié, Cunene, Huíla, Luanda and Moxico – involving children, municipal and provincial education managers, directors, teachers, staff, parents and the community. The central question of the “Child Friendly Schools” survey was: what is the school of your dreams? The intention was to get the idea of everyone involved of an ‘ideal school’ that meets their expectations and needs considering the context in which they live. This was the basis for the suggestion of a CFS model for Angola whose results were drawn solely from the needs of its population and reflections made on the basis of context analysis and reports, emphasizing the opinions of the actors involved. Children’s rights refer to the need to see children as the subjects of rights and to transform schools into places where those rights are guaranteed. Safety and security means eliminating all kinds of violence against children and creating a safe environment which protects all involved in the school context. Inclusion and gender sensitivity are related to respecting diversity, promoting inclusion and ensuring meaningful learning for all children indiscriminately. Academic efficiency means promoting good quality teaching and learning for all children. And last but not least, community involvement refers to the need for schools to develop strategies to encourage the involvement of families and the community. Based on these concepts, the Education, Water and Sanitation Section of UNICEF along with the National Delegation of General Education took the opportunity to make a diagnosis which would draw attention to the fact that many schools lack very basic elements such as water, sanitation (toilets or latrines), and even suitable places for hand washing, often causing disappointment and school drop-outs.

4

Stated by the MED as the main issues (2013)

4| WASH in Schools - Angola


Š UNICEF/ANGA2014-0344/Federica Polselli

Chapter 1. Introduction

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |5


© UNICEF/MLWB2005-00082/Pirozzi


2. APPLYING AN OBSTACLES ANALYSIS TO WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE IN ANGOLAN SCHOOLS Based on studies showing a strong correlation between children’s health and their ability to actively participate in the learning process as well as current studies, analyses and surveys with data on water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Angola (COSEP 2007 and MED 2005 study), a review and “Obstacle Analysis to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Angolan Schools in 2012” was carried out. Faced with the challenge of Child Friendly Schools in 2013, the DNEG decided to look into the critical situation of the water, sanitation and hygiene components in schools. Hence, health promotion refers not only to physical health, but also the mental health of everyone involved in school (Blanton et al, 2010). The variety of infectious diseases caused by poor hygiene, poor sanitation and the consumption of unsafe water contribute to the lack of progress made by children at school, frequent repetitions (1.3 million exceeded the age of primary school) and a high dropout rate (17%) (Ministry of Education, 2010).

Figura 1 – Escola em Kilamba Kiaxi ”Do Not Pee Here. Use the WC. Let’s Avoid Diseases”.

The objective of this case study is to analyse potential barriers to the water, sanitation and hygiene programmes of schools in Angola by implementing the Tanahashi 1978 comprehensive Model while taking the following priority areas into account: Enabling Environment, Supply, Demand, and Quality. The Tanahashi Model analyses these four key areas and so allows for the development of a strategy which addresses and reduces the barriers identified in the Angolan framework.

2.1 PURPOSE OF THE DIAGNOSIS Making a diagnosis always has its cost, both financially and in terms of time. For this reason, it should be very well used and maximized. The sense of maximizing means to guide the search towards specific objectives of the sector under study. Maximizing also means motivation, interest and responsibility from any natural and/or legal person involved in the process and at all levels of the political division – the current administration in the country – to ensure the quality of the desired result, and therefore give meaning to the investment. This diagnosis is aimed at analysing possible obstacles and seeks to recommend a water, sanitation and hygiene programme to the DNEG for schools in Angola by physically checking 600 schools in six provinces and in different municipalities (Luanda, Huíla, Huambo, Bié, Cunene and Namibe), while also taking into account priority ‘problem areas’ such as access to water and to a toilet, as well as the ability to wash hands with soap and water. These factors are conducive to an Enabling Environment, and are central to allow for the definition of an action plan to address and reduce the barriers identified in the Angolan framework and to enhance the school admission through improved access to sanitation in schools. As both the National Directorate of General Education (DNEG) and UNICEF are working on the concept of “Child Friendly Schools”, they have seen the reality that although many new classrooms are being built to accommodate children through their schooling, no one is paying the necessary attention to some very basic services that are fundamental to a child’s development in a healthy environment. Once we became aware of this fact, we tried to bring the sanitary conditions of the schools to the forefront of discussions and the negative effects these factors were having on the Angolan children. In this way, it is hoped that real work and progress can be made in the areas of health and hygiene in schools and that this single survey can shed light onto a national survey and so accommodate a policies and regulations in this area.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |7


© UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1530/Asselin


3. METHODOLOGY

In Angola there is still a lack of a systematic methodology for data collection on water and sanitation in schools. This hinders the possibility of carrying out an analysis and thus comparing data from different areas of the country. There is a gap when it comes to knowledge about the current water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in schools which makes it impossible to get a realistic picture of the situation. It has become a real challenge to implement a suitable water, sanitation and hygiene programme in Angola using a global approach and the systematic collection of data is proving to be a major constraint. The data that is available are documents and surveys, which do not really provide a true or complete picture of the situation in the country and are not reliable as statistical analysis. What makes matters even worse is that current data sets are using indicators that are not correlated among the key stakeholders. This makes it even harder to develop an overall national framework. In view of this, it therefore became necessary to develop a rapid methodology to allow us to get useful information related to the aforementioned factors quickly and efficiently. The idea being that this same information should trigger a brief reflection on the subject through a debate sponsored by the National Directorate of General Education (DNEG). A simple survey was developed in which “YES and NO” answers were used so that the answers from the survey would be comparable to the answers in the interview with the school directors. Just six (6) provinces (Luanda, Huíla, Huambo, Bié, Cunene and Namibe) were selected to receive quick answers to the survey. It was determined that the diagnosis should be carried out in 600 schools - 100 schools per province - with an average of 20 schools by municipality previously agreed between DNEG and DPEs. We must point out that the choice of the provinces was random. In order for this survey to take place, UNICEF and the DNEG formed six (6) teams to complete the forms with practical and theoretical training held in the Municipality of Kilamba Kiaxi. 33 interviewers and six supervisors from DNEG participated in this training to understand and handle the forms. Each province was visited by a team of four (4) interviewers, a supervisor from DNEG and one from the Provincial Directorate of Education for visiting schools and to ensure the quality of the surveys and the data provided. For fieldwork, 4 x 4 vehicles were rented to travel to cities throughout the survey period. Each school produced a report which was introduced in Excel tables where the results were formulated. Field reports from the teams in each province and the ambiguity in the answers in some fields were also taken into account. The form has seven sections: 1) General Data, 2) Type of construction, 3) Water Supply, 4) Environmental Sanitation, 5) Hygiene Practices, 6) Budget, 7) The school’s commitment to water, sanitation and hygiene issues in school. These areas were addressed individually throughout the survey.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |9


© UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0962/Asselin


4. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

To facilitate understanding, the analysis of the data was compiled in accordance with the survey and the first part is focused on general aspects, followed by more specific issues of water, sanitation and hygiene in schools.

4.1 GENERAL INFORMATION BY PROVINCE The first data analysed were those relating to the numbers of students, teachers and classrooms. These data allowed for the evaluation of the extent of access to water and sanitation, as well as a scale the agility and continuity of students in the normal functioning of a school.

Chart 1. Number of children covered by province 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Girls

35,501

11,658

68,475

32,616

21,729

40,779

Boys

36,173

12,833

64,757

32,071

19,214

45,259

401

29

148

289

126

139

72,075

24,520

133,380

64,976

41,069

86,177

Disabilities Total

The total number of students in the six provinces is 422,197, where 210,758 are female, 210,307 are male and 1,132 are physically disabled. Luanda has a total of 72,075 students, BiĂŠ 24,520 students, Huambo 133,380 students, Namibe 64,976 students, Cunene 41,069 students and Huila 86,177 students. These totals refer to the 600 schools visited.

Chart 2. Number of teachers covered by province 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

1,114

2,076

1,989

1,575

764

1,962

Male

885

1,159

807

1,471

335

680

Total

1,999

3,235

2,796

3,046

1,099

2,642

Female

With regard to teachers, there is a huge difference between the number of male and female teachers, and the number of female teachers is almost double the number of male teachers. There is a total of 9,480 female teachers, compared to 5,337 male teachers, totalling 14,817 spread across 600 schools.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |11


Chart 3. Number of classrooms covered 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0

Luanda

Classrooms

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

917

815

912

1,014

397

328

18

370

828

51

556

326

Open air  c lassrooms

It was found that most schools had two shifts, one in the morning and another in the afternoon, with some exceptions who operated a night shift. There is also a growing need for classrooms as some provinces have a large number of open air classrooms, like Huambo, Bié, Cunene and Huíla. The number of classrooms is 4,383 and open air classrooms total 2,149, which at the moment is half the existing number of rooms. This aspect of open air classrooms should also be looked into because there has been a very large increase in the number of students at various levels and the number of classrooms has not increased at the same pace. We must look at temporary solutions that can better accommodate these students.

Chart 4. Number of students per classroom 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Total Number  students Total  Number  of  c lassrooms students  per  Classroom

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

72,075

24,520

133,380

64,976

41,069

86,177

935

1,185

1,740

1,065

953

654

77.09

20.69

76.66

61.01

43.09

131.77

Checking charts 3 and 4 and making the ratio of the number of classrooms and the number of students per class, the average is 68.38 students per classroom. It is also evident that the number of outdoor classrooms is still very large in provinces like Bié, Huambo, Cunene and Huila. This may be an inhibiting factor for children to go to school because many are uncomfortably exposed to the sun or cold for most of the school year and when the rainy season comes, many of the classes are cancelled. Intermittent education harms the interest of students and often leads to drop-out or absenteeism (MED 2014).

12| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

Figure 2. Outdoor classroom, Bié

Figure 3. Classrooms of a school in Namibe

Chart 5. Parents committees and hygiene clubs in schools 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Hygiene Club  at  s chool

21

22

46

16

26

Huila 8

Parent's Commis s ion  at  s chool

43

93

94

97

82

95

The parents committee and the hygiene club represent the involvement of students and the community in the activities and decisions of school life. With the exception of Luanda with 43, all other provinces have a significant number of parents committees. When asked which activities were carried out by the parents committees and how often they meet a month, no school could give a concrete answer as to the activities carried out with parents. The average was one to two meetings per year but there was no indication to their importance or role in school life. However as far as hygiene clubs are concerned, it is evident that this participatory form of action is promoted in schools. The answers received from the various provinces show that there is no sufficiently strong structure that addresses the need for participatory activities to promote welfare at school. Considering that this is a voluntary activity, the hygiene club does not have a format linked to the school curriculum nor an educational means to make it educational and attractive to children. It is vital that the launch of the School Education Project (PEE) by the Ministry of Education which will begin operating this year (2014) to bridge this gap, should be promoted.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |13


4.2 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION As far as the type of construction structures used in schools is concerned, the survey sought to find out about the conditions of structures based on those already in use.

4.2.1 Roof in the school Chart 6. Roof in the school Without roof,   13.69%

With roof,   86.31%

According to data collected, it is true to say that in general, the schools of permanent construction that were surveyed have roofs. However, some are in poor condition. In the schools built in adobe, mud and grass, the roof is the most important part, but it is often in a precarious condition. A roof helps to create a conducive environment for educational activity which requires peace and protection against environmental intrusions such as rain. This means, that there will be frequent interruption of classes in schools with no roof or with a badly damaged one. The outdoor schools depend on trees in some cases while others are exposed to the environment. 86% of schools have a roof and 13.69% did not have one.

Chart 7. Type of construction 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

83

40

78

92

59

63

Adobo

2

36

21

5

3

19

Mixed

18

23

6

0

0

13

0

4

0

3

38

5

Masonry

st icks and  mud

The type of construction in Angola varies from province to province, and also from municipality to municipality. There is a definite predominance of masonry schools. There are 69% of masonry schools in all provinces, followed by adobe with 14.3%. Mixed construction schools are predominant in Luanda, Bié and Huila (10%), and those made of mud and grass are largely predominant in Cunene, a total of 38% of all schools

14| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

built. It should be pointed out that in this area we must provide a different style of school or classroom (for example, prefabricated) to meet the difficult teaching conditions that some municipalities face. Outdoor classrooms were not counted, but they are a reality in all areas visited in the country.

4.3 WATER SUPPLY Water in schools contributes greatly to the establishment of a favourable environment during school time and for extracurricular activities and in creating a culture of respect for the environment. Water is also linked to degrees of learning, health and hygiene, as well as retention levels in school and the socio-economic and cultural development of the child.

Chart 8. Does the school have water? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Yes

61.17%

28.43%

44%

86%

7%

Huila 45%

No

38.83%

71.57%

62%

14%

93%

55%

According to data collected, the scenario differs considerably between the provinces and municipalities and this is linked to the survey areas chosen by the Provincial Directorates of Education (DPE). We found that in the Namibe province, the DPE favoured the urban structure rather than peri-urban or rural areas which thus gave a very inflated value for access to water, as urban structures benefit from their connections to various institutions’ networks. In the provinces where the diversity of the survey was higher and also included periurban areas, it was found that access to water in schools was poor and in need of repair. With the exception of the provincial capitals, the remaining municipalities show worrying results in terms of alternatives for access to water. In fact, the scenario reflects the problem of a deterioration of the public system of water distribution in peri-urban areas and the use of other sources, such as public fountains, reservoirs and wells is exploited by the schools management, but the cost is often high. Inside the municipalities and rural areas in general, access is even more difficult because the water is usually collected in wells or distant rivers, and therefore the priority is to have water at home. Schools needs attention. Of the schools surveyed, an average of 45% have water and 55% do not have water. In Cunene, only 7% of schools have water, which is going to be a huge challenge; in Luanda 61.17% of the schools have water, 86% in Namibe, 45% in Huila, 44% in Huambo, and 28.43% in BiÊ. This analysis tried to look at the following factors: supply variables, the level of sustainability and how to turn difficulties into opportunities for better service to children in schools, the connection to the supply network for water tankers, maintenance of hand pumps and protected and open wells and finally the as well as the fountains found in some municipalities.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |15


Chart 9. Is the school connected to the water supply network? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

39.81%

20.39%

15%

68%

7%

31.11%

No

60.19%

79.61%

85%

32%

93%

68.89%

When it comes to water network connection, Namibe and Luanda have the highest number of schools connected. This is due to the fact that surveys in these provinces have focused more on the town areas. Luanda has a 38.81% index, whereas Namibe’s is 68%, followed by 31% in Huila. There is a total of 30.16% schools connected to the network and a total of 69.84% not connected to the network. It was found that the operation is very low and only 23.12% of all connected networks are operational. These data suggest that sustainability and the provision of an adequate service to schools need to be improved, considering that overall 76.88% were not operating. The operation of the network is very inefficient, except for the provinces of Namibe, Luanda and Huila. The level of unsustainability varies between 37% in Namibe, 73% in Huila, 75.76% in Luanda, 87% in Huambo and BiÊ and 100% in Cunene. It must be pointed out that Cunene is making a great effort to connect schools to the Xangongo network.

16| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

Chart 10. Does the connection to the network work? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

24.24%

12.62%

12.26%

62.65%

0.00%

26.97%

No

75.76%

87.38%

87.74%

37.35%

100%

73.03%

14.65% of the surveyed schools use a hand pump and 85% do not. There is variation in the percentages in each province. Huambo uses 45.28% of pumps in schools, followed by BiĂŠ with 17.48%; the remaining ones range from 1% in Luanda, 4.12% in Huila and 9% in Cunene.

Chart 11. Does the school have a borehole with hand pump? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

1%

17.48%

45.28%

4.12%

9%

11.00%

No

99%

82.52%

54.72%

95.88%

91%

89%

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |17


Chart 12. Does the hand pump work? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

1.00%

55.56%

30.77%

14.29%

5.00%

37.50%

No

99.00%

44.44%

69.23%

86%

95%

62.50%

The sustainability of hand pumps also proved to be a problem. Only 24% are working and 76% are not. There is an increased operation rate in the BiĂŠ province (55.56%), followed by HuĂ­la with 37.50% and Huambo with 30.77%, respectively. Cunene has 9% of operational hand pumps and a 4% breakdown rate. These levels of breakdowns in both the network and the hand pumps installed in schools hinder the daily performance of school activities such as physical education, hygiene and maintenance of the space itself (MED 2014). The main breakdowns are related to lack of spare parts or lack of qualified personnel and financial resources in the schools and municipal authorities to enable operations to take place and ensure that maintenance work is carried out on a daily basis.

Chart 13. Is the school water supplied by an open well? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

6.86%

5.83%

0.95%

4%

4.17%

0%

No

93.14%

94.17%

99.04%

96%

95.83%

100%

Open wells are still used in most provinces as an alternative source for collecting water. This source is normally contaminated and used by many people and in some cases animals use them. About 3.65% of the surveyed schools use this source. It should be pointed out that the use of open wells in Luanda is 6.86%,

18| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

Bié is 5.83% and Cunene is 4.17%. It should be noted that we do not mean chimpacas, as is the case of Huila and Cunene.

Chart 14. Is the school water supplied by a tanker truck? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Yes

45%

3.88%

8.49%

36%

12.50%

Huila 17%

No

55%

96.12%

91.51%

64%

87.50%

83%

The water supply by tanker is common practice in all the provinces, especially the provinces of Luanda, Namibe, Huíla and Cunene. The variation in the use of tanks for water supply ranges from 4% in Bié to 45% in Luanda. In total, 20% of surveyed schools are served by tankers. This practice is a large financial burden for schools and they are unable to sustain this service over long periods of time, causing reductions in the allocation of funds for sanitation areas. It is important to point out here that the average number of students per school is very high and each thousand cubic meters of water costs an average of 1,000 Akz (10 USD), depending a lot on the supply area and distance from the school.

Figure 4. Water system with electrical pump, Namibe

Figure 5. Water system with hand pump, Huíla

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |19


Chart 15. Is the school water collected from a protected well? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

28.16%

11.65%

4.76%

19%

1.03%

2%

No

71.84%

88.35%

95.24%

81%

98.97

98%

It was also found that the protected well is a source used by schools in all of the provinces, varying according to the municipalities. About 11.10% of surveyed schools use protected sources. Luanda also is a big user of protected wells with 28.26% of schools and Namibe with 19%, followed by Bié with 11.65%. 4.76% of schools in Huambo use this source, followed by Huíla and Cunene with 2% and 1.03%, respectively.

Chart 16. Is the school water collected from a fountain? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

5.83%

0.97%

0%

14%

3.03%

0%

No

94.17%

99.03%

100%

86%

96.97%

100%

Fountains are used by many of the municipalities visited and this system of ‘public water sharing’ is proving to be an open competition between public and private interests. Competition among water vendors and water supply institutions has led to vandalism and even occupation by people at the properties, causing both damage and destruction. Illegal connections to the supply lines are another problem. They have decreased the flow of water to institutions, depriving those very communities from a secure source of supply, and endangering children because of contamination resulting from bad connections.

20| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

Chart 17. Does the school have drinking water? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

60.19%

20.59%

40%

62%

11.11%

35%

No

39.81%

79.41%

60%

38%

88.89%

65%

Access to safe drinking water determines the well-being of the school life of children, teachers and the running of the institutions. This issue shows that schools do not have enough water – 38.09% of surveyed schools have drinking water, and 61.92% do not have a source of drinking water. Luanda with 60.19% and Namibe with 62% have the highest coverage and Cunene the lowest with 11.11% coverage. Huambo has 40% coverage, Huíla 35% and Bié 20.59%.

Chart 18. Is the drinking water treated? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Yes

52.00%

17.38%

25%

28%

5.10%

Huila 17%

No

48.00%

82.61%

75%

72%

94.90%

83%

In terms of water treatment, the answers were very diverse and it was found that many schools had no idea of how to treat the water, or had no answer at all, particularly in the municipalities. Most schools in Luanda had an idea about what water treatment is, thanks to television and radio campaigns and to the distribution of bleach. The remaining provinces gave ambiguous answers or did not answer at all.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |21


Chart 19. How is the water treated?

18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

bleasch

16.00%

2.00%

0%

11%

0%

3%

Boiling

0.00%

0.00%

0%

0%

0%

0%

1%

0%

0%

1%

0%

0%

other

When people were asked more specifically about type of water treatments available, their lack of knowledge on the subject stood out across the board and when the questions differed to those asked in the surveys, they never knew the answer. This is very worrying because we do not know the quality of drinking water in schools and because it is responsible for the students’ performance and development; it is also linked to diarrhoea and cholera outbreaks, as well as other water-borne diseases (WHO 2009).

Figure 6. Source of drinking water, Namibe

22| WASH in Schools - Angola

Figure 7. Water fountain for the school and the community, Cunene


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION The latrine or toilet inside the school is another factor that strongly contributes to a favourable environment for school activity because it greatly reduces the discomfort of both the teacher and the student. It also allows the student to have contact with or strengthen principles on the basic rules of hygiene. To get the desired results, this factor cannot be dissociated from the previously addressed issue of water.

Chart 20. Does the school have toilets? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Yes

93%

No

7%

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

73.79%

85.71%

96%

46.46%

61%

26.21%

14.29%

4%

53.54%

39%

Most schools have some type of toilets serving students and teachers. We had an average coverage of 76% overall, compared with 24% without coverage. Luanda has a coverage of about 93%, Namibe 96%, followed by Huambo with 85.71%, BiĂŠ with 73.79%, Huila with 61% and Cunene with 46.46%.

Chart 21. Do the toilets work? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

89.90%

56.94%

73.53%

92.71%

11.46%

78.18%

No

10.10%

43.06%

26.47%

7%

88.54%

21.82%

When students and school directors were asked if the toilets were working, all provinces had a certain level of functioning, but at the same time, there was a certain level of breakdowns, too. Despite the fact that the

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |23


general level of functioning was 67.12%, 32.88% still did not have access to working toilets. Looking at the figures more closely, it turns out that Cunene with 88%, Bié with 43%, Huambo with 26% and Huíla with 21% still have a long way to go before their schools have working toilets or latrines. Also Luanda, Huambo and Huíla should work on improving access and functionality.

Chart 22. Does the school have toilets for disabled people? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Yes

1%

3.90%

2.00%

5%

1.01%

0%

No

99%

96.10%

98.00%

95%

98.99%

100%

Access to sanitary facilities for the disabled is a major problem in all municipalities with a very low access level of just 2%. Most schools do not provide for the access of disabled people and these people do not know how to handle the situation. Bié with 3.90% and Namibe with 5% have the highest coverage ratio. Luanda and Cunene have a coverage ratio of 1%, Huambo 2% and Huila 0%.

Chart 23. Are there urinals in the toilets? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Yes

Cunene

Huila

21.57%

17.11%

14.00%

No

78.43%

82.89%

86.00%

40%

0%

26.98%

60%

100%

73.02%

It was found that the use of urinals in schools is still very low. This fact is related to the planning stage of the sanitary areas. Only 19.94% of schools had urinals in their toilets for boys. Namibe leads with 40% coverage, Huíla with 26.98%, followed by Luanda with 21:57%, Huambo with 14% and Bié with 17.11%.

24| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

4.5 HYGIENE PRACTICES Chart 24. What kind of toilet facilities does the school have? 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huam bo

Nam ibe

Cunene

Huila

Dry pit  latrines

12%

38.00%

23.00%

11%

9.00%

12%

Latrines with  septic  tank

62%

40.00%

61.00%

30.00%

43%

Connected to  the  grid

2%

2%

2%

Other

28.00%

Open defecate

6.00% 11.00%

51%

When schools were asked about their hygiene habits, the answers were ambiguous. However, the latrine with a septic tank is the most used, followed by the pit latrine. It appears that 32% of schools defecate in the open, 18% in pit latrines, 47% in latrines with a septic tank and 2% are connected to a sewer system. The health and hygiene education in schools should be strengthened so that the teaching and administrative staff are able to handle issues in a timely manner. This need was felt when we found schools with full tanks and stools and no action was taken.

Figura 8. Instalações sanitárias limpas

Figura 9. Instalações sanitárias fechadas

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |25


Chart 25. Are there defecation sites in the school? 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Toilet

96.12%

38.38%

70.59%

80.00%

11.34%

52.04%

Latrine

45.07%

39.13%

55.45%

10.23%

4.08%

17.17%

Clos e to  t he  s chool

6.06%

77.45%

35.24%

37.00%

40.63%

67.00%

Bus h

0.00%

58.51%

21.36%

30.00%

86.73%

76.34%

Despite the fact that schools said that they use toilets and latrines, it is clear through this chart that the practice of defecation in the open is evident in all provinces. Many schools think that defecation close to the school is not really open air defecation. In this detailed analysis, it emerged that 58.08% of schools use WCs, 28.52% use latrines and 44.69% defecate outside. Open air defecation occurs in all provinces because of a lack of sufficient and working toilets. Open air defecation puts children at risk, as they have to move to areas far from school and are subject to abuse as well as animal stings or bites. Defecation close to school is a form of protection, but it is also shameful and often causes children to retain the stools or urine and so they suffer from constipation. This is also the reason why girls at a menstrual age miss classes due to the lack of appropriate areas for hygiene (WHO 2009, UNICEF 2012, Bowen et al, 2007).

Chart 26. Number of students and average access to WC 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

Total

Girls

35,501

11,658

68,475

32,616

21,729

40,779

210,758

Boys

36,173

12,833

64,757

32,071

19,214

45,259

210,307

401

29

148

289

126

139

1132

Disabilities Total

72,075

24,520

133,380

64,976

41,069

86,177

422,197

wcs

355

265

323

240

78

101

1362

average

203

93

413

271

527

853

310

The average number of students per toilet or latrine is far too high. It should be 50 students per latrine or toilet. Luanda has an average of 148 students per cubicle, Bié 65 students per cubicle, Huambo 301, Namibe 166, Cunene 314, and Huíla 549. This finding in all provinces may well inhibit children from accessing and

26| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 4. Analysis of results

using toilets or latrines because the sanitary conditions inside the toilets are too poor. This has a knockon effect, contributing to absenteeism and drop-outs, particularly for girls who are most vulnerable. It also appears that the provinces with a very high average like Huíla and Cunene are those that have more cases of open air defecation in their schools, thus showing that there is a major deficiency in the access to sanitation at schools.

Chart 27. Number of teachers and average access to WC 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Female teachers Male  teachers Total

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

TOTAL

1,114

2,076

1989

885

1,159

807

1,575

764

1,962

9,480

1,471

335

680

1,999

3,235

2,796

3,046

5337

1,099

2,642

14,817

Ttotal t oilets

133

111

120

151

53

56

624

average

15.0

29.1

23.3

20.2

20.7

47.2

23.7

When the numbers of teachers and toilets or latrines are calculated, the result is that teachers have a better access to and use of latrines and toilets. The overall average for teachers is 23, except for Huila with 47. This is due to the fact that in most schools the toilets or latrines for teachers are separated by gender and for the students they are often the same for both boys and girls.

Chart 28. Hygiene in schools 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Luanda

Bie

Huambo

Namibe

Cunene

Huila

school has  handwashing     points  

61.17%

16.67%

24.53%

51.00%

9.09%

25.51%

Is s oap  available  at  s chool

52.94%

3.00%

7.55%

49.00%

7.14%

17.00%

Is t here  hygiene  Club  at  s chool

20.39%

21.78%

44.66%

16.00%

27.08%

8.16%

All provinces do actually provide places for hand washing, but the percentage is very low compared to the

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |27


number of students. By the same token, many schools had hand washing points, but they were not working. In Luanda, 61% of schools have a place for hand washing; Namibe has 51%, Huíla 25.51%, Huambo 24.53%, Bié 16% and Cunene 9%. When asked about the availability of soap for hand washing, there was a sharp drop in hand washing points. Luanda has soap available in 53% of the schools, Namibe 49%, Huíla 17%, Huambo and Cunene 7% and Bié 3%. It appears that schools seek to be active by creating hygiene clubs in order to promote good practices. Huambo has about 44.66% of schools with a hygiene club, while Luanda has 20%, Bié 22%, Cunene 27%, Namibe 16% and Huíla 8%. During our visit, the schools that had hygiene clubs were asked about attendance at meetings and the activities being carried out, but we did not get a concrete answer or an activity plan for the club. Schools also said that there was soap available for hand washing, a fact that was not verified in the WCs.

4.6 BUDGET The budget for primary schools is a serious problem. These are not budgeted and schools simply lack the means to support current maintenance costs like purchasing cleaning supplies and water for school tanks, as well as for paying the cleaning staff. The budgets for second cycle schools that have committed funds and are budgeted find that there is not enough money to cover even half of the year in terms of the above costs. Also because primary schools are in a position to bring about changes, it means that if they are not provided with the necessary means, this force is or will certainly be lost. The lack of a clear budget for primary schools creates a gap in education that becomes further exacerbated by the lack of qualified teaching and administrative staff. For a primary school to be able to benefit from this budget, it has to apply to the School Education Project and follow the various negotiation protocols. Many schools do not have qualified staff to take care of these mechanisms and so many of them do not know how to access these resources. We must strengthen the training of school directors, as well as the provincial and municipal directorates so that they are able to take care of application and negotiation processes. On the other hand, primary education should be budgeted because it is the most important phase in the career of a human being.

4.7 SCHOOL’S COMMITMENT All schools surveyed are willing to include and revitalize the sanitary and environmental education in their curricula, but support should be given to the schools interested so that they can take up proper, structured and sustainable implementation. There must be clear identification of areas for both students and teachers so that funding can be properly targeted. It was also clear that school boards were willing to embrace change.

28| WASH in Schools - Angola


Š UNICEF/MLWB2012-01620/Nesbitt

Chapter 4. Analysis of results

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |29


© UNICEF/MLWB2012-01595/Nesbitt


5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

The multidimensional aspects that affect the Angolan children in their access to water such as hygiene and sanitation at school have a direct influence on their approach and willingness to get an education. These facts are exacerbated when the system is at its embryonic phase of change that will be the catalyst for an improvement in both school and curriculum. The development of the basic documentation for a Child Friendly School and its design and composition has been a priority in the new formulation of the school and the Ministry of Education. The document produced by the Ministry of Education on educational reform shows these needs (MED 2014). The concept of Child Friendly Schools promotes the principles of 2013 and the MED has agreed to focus first on the following three key aspects5: 1) Access to education for all children 2) Quality of teaching and learning 3) Health and hygiene. It is known that the improvement of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in schools provides a better understanding of current education issues and challenges, and offers an enabling learning environment in close relationship with attendance and retention (Bowen et al, 2007). The diagnosis shows that every school visited in the municipalities of each province somehow lacked a hygienic and sanitary environment that is conducive for carrying out its tasks. Given the overall figures, it appears that each province has a large number of students for the number of existing classrooms. The average class size varies from 43 students per class in Cunene to 131 students per class in Huila, with 77 in Luanda and 76 in Huambo, an average of 68.38 students per class. These figures clearly underline the government’s efforts to try and build more classrooms, however what is needed first and foremost is to start building in the neediest places through a more refined planning and financing process. These conditions are reflected in significant aspects of school life like water hygiene and sanitation. While all schools present some form of school sanitation, there isn’t a very clear idea of the impact that sanitation can have on school life. Neither the school administration nor the students considered these factors as inhibitors because they believe that alternative solutions can also be moulded to fit their hygiene habits. This idea became evident because few students actually knew what kind of toilet facilities their school had to offer. When asked what defecation sites were available, we got a series of answers where the prevalence of open air defecation was very evident. The average number of students using a WC is 58%, the use of latrine 28.52%: close to school 43.90% and 45.49% was in the bush. The average open air defecation is actually 44.70% when the defecation values close to school and defecation in the bush are combined. When the number of toilets or latrines is related to the average number of students, it turns out that we have between 93 students per cubicle in BiÊ with a smaller number of toilets to 203 students per cubicle in Luanda (with more toilets) and 853 students per cubicle in Huila. We have an overall average of 310 students per cubicle, which becomes an inhibiting factor for a student to have access to the toilet or latrine. When analysing the hygiene conditions of toilets and latrines, it can be seen that schools lack a hygiene policy, a person responsible for cleaning, cleaning materials and often students are forced to do the cleaning themselves, thus making it a challenge to have access to toilets or latrines because of strong smells and poor conditions of use. It is also a fact that many toilets have turned into warehouses. If we look at the percentage of 64% of separate toilets (boys and girls) and relate that to the number of students per cubicle (1/50 ratio), we see a huge disparity. The shortage of water also makes access to toilets an obstacle that affects school retention. When analysing access to water in schools, it is evident that there is a supply source, i.e. the water network, an open or protected well, a fountain or tankers. When asked about the operation of the sources, it appears that the

5

Stated by the MED as the main issues (2013)

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |31


network connection has a very low degree of sustainability. About 70% of schools are not connected to the water network at all and about 78% of those that are connected, are not operating. The use of hand pumps is still very widespread and has been the easiest way of access to water in rural and peri-urban areas. Contrary to the network connection, there is a higher sustainability index for the level of hand pump operation when they are installed in schools – about 24% – and not in the community. The use of the open well is still part of the daily life for many schools in various areas of the country, with the highest incidence occurring in rural and peri-urban areas with 3.64% usage. Wells also serve many schools in all provinces and this is a water supply source that can be found very frequently in the central and southern provinces and Luanda. The supply by tankers is the third most used source and the most expensive one; about 20% of schools resort to this source. This supply source creates huge imbalances in school budgets and is very disturbing because its source is not clear. For primary schools where funds are not directly allocated, they are unable to make running expenses, which total around Akz 40,000 (400 USD) per month, depending on the distance. As far as drinking water is concerned, only 35% of schools have drinking water available and 62% are not allocated to any source at all. As for treatment, 24% of schools said they treated their drinking water and 76% did not treat the water in any way and therefore had huge health problems with students according to the directors. When asked about the type of treatment for the water, 5.33% treat it with bleach but this proved to be erratic due to the costs involved. Most schools did not have conditions to accommodate students with disabilities or mechanisms to support them. Access to schools is poor and access to toilets or latrines is inexistent, which does not allow for any continuity. It was also found that schools did not have a say whatsoever in the planning of their space, which meant that they received products that they could not say NO to.

32| WASH in Schools - Angola


Chapter 5. Discussion of results

5.1 ANALYSIS OF BOTTLENECK AREAS The tool used for analysis of the four key areas (Enabling Environment, Supply, Demand, and Quality) is the Tanahashi extended Model for the analysis of obstacles, adopted by UNICEF for the water, sanitation and hygiene programme in schools. The analysis of obstacles researches and assesses the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in schools by focusing on the availability of services and on the factors influencing children’s access to school services in the areas of water, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. washing hands, water supply or adequate separate sanitary facilities for boys and girls). The aim of this model is to overcome obstacles and barriers and so offer an enabling environment that provides for supply, demand and quality components. The following table shows the factors analysis for the chools assessed, with the respective indicators. The bottleneck areas will be shown in the charts with red arrows and these will be areas to invest in.

Category

Enabling Environment

Determinants

Indicators

Analysis

Legal and policy framework

Ministry of Education includes water, hygiene and sanitation in schools and a monitoring system in the CFS framework

Budget / expenses

Budget available for primary schools to meet the basic water and sanitation needs

6%

Sanitary coverage

% of schools with access to working toilets and latrines

43%

Water coverage

% of schools with access to water

23%

Adequate geographical coverage

% of schools with ratio of sanitary coverage (1:50)

0%

Human Resources

% of teachers trained in hygiene promotion, operation and maintenance

1%

Financial barriers

% of schools with budget for operation and maintenance

6%

Application

% of schools with clean toilets

25%

Sociocultural barriers

% of schools with separate toilets for boys and girls

32%

Hygiene practices

% of schools with daily hygiene practices

31%

Quality of water and sanitation services

% of schools with a working system of maintenance of water and sanitation facilities.

25%

Supply

Demand

Quality 6%

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |33


5.2 ENABLING ENVIRONMENT As far as the Legal and Policy Framework is concerned, the Ministry of Education in Angola has started to consider the legal and policy importance in the school context of the inclusion of water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in schools. In this scenario, the first version of the School Construction Standards started to be developed for the Child Friendly Schools and water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the components of both documents. Nevertheless, this is a long process before a consolidated National Law pertaining to water, sanitation and hygiene in schools is completed.

Chart 29. Enabling Environment

Considering the budget allocation for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools both for meeting needs and for resources, we can say that the government does not make an equitable budget allocation that benefits all kinds of education levels and in particular primary education is not included.

30% 25%

25% 20% 15% 10%

6%

5% 0%

Policy Framework

Budget /  Expenses

Chart 30. Supply 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

43%

23%

0%

1%

The study carried out by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNICEF (MED 2005) on the availability of Essential Goods and learning sites across the country revealed that 53% of existing primary schools don’t have toilets. This number decreases when considering specific facilities for each sex, but only 7% of these schools have access to an adequate water supply and are totally operational, with large disparities between urban and rural areas. This does not differ much from the study of 600 schools with a 43% health coverage average. However, the KAP study (COSEP, 2007) states that 75% of schools have a fully operational water reservoir as an alternative to an adequate water supply, but 63.6% of them do not work and only 40% of these schools have a water reservoir on their premises. Also in this study of 600 schools, it is apparent that 23% have fully operational water coverage. The rest is intermittent.

When it comes to appropriate geographical coverage, it was found that the ratio of toilets is 1:93 in rural settings, which may rise to 1:500 in peri-urban areas. These conditions, together with the lack of facilities for washing hands with soap and the inappropriate operation and maintenance of these sites, leave the students, especially adolescent girls, exposed to health risks and an early drop-out rate. None of the schools surveyed had the average ratio of 1:50. The current inexistence / lack of water supply in health facilities, including soap means that students in schools nationwide do not adopt safe hygiene practices. The percentage of teachers trained in hygiene promotion is Sanitary coverage

Water coverage

34| WASH in Schools - Angola

Adequate geographical   coverage

Human resources


Chapter 5. Discussion of results

estimated at about 25% (COSEP, 2007), which is a challenge for the development of educational activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene in schools, particularly in disadvantaged rural areas. The study of 600 schools shows that only 1% of teachers from schools surveyed have some training in matters related to water, sanitation and hygiene in schools. The reduction / lack of human resources trained in hygiene promotion causes a barrier in achieving the objectives of the water, sanitation and hygiene programme in schools.

5.3 DEMAND

Chart 31. Demand 32%

35% 30%

25%

25% 20% 15% 10%

6%

The percentage of schools with a budget for maintenance is estimated at 10% (COSEP, 2007), which represents a financial and operational barrier in the implementation and maintenance of a sustainable school. Schools do not have cleaning materials or staff, and this task is often left to the students, and most probably the girls. This financial barrier remains evident in this study of 600 schools where only 6% of schools have some funds available for their maintenance and operation.

5%

General cleaning activities in schools are included in irregular activities called “cleaning campaigns”, and Financial Application Socio-­cultural   despite adopting this strategy, the issue of hygiene barriers barriers and cleanliness in schools remains a challenge to be overcome throughout the country; thus, even with these campaigns in place, it is evident that in most schools there are no dustbins available and garbage is accumulated in the classrooms and in the outdoor facilities of the school buildings. Waste disposal is done improperly, usually through fires on the school premises, with little regard for environmental considerations. Due to lack of cleaning staff, this activity often has to be carried out by children, putting their health at risk because they do not have the ability to deal with dirty toilets. 0%

The proportion of schools with toilets separated by gender is still low, estimated at only 20%. This causes a strong socio-cultural barrier whenever boys and girls are forced to share the same facilities. It is estimated that the percentage of clean / well maintained toilets is 30%; in 37.2% of cases, students are responsible for cleaning the toilets, and in 35.3% of the cases it is the auxiliary staff’s responsibility. (COSEP, 2007). The current study carried out in 600 schools shows that 25% have clean and adequate toilets, 32% of schools have separate toilets but it also shows that cleaning the school and sanitary areas is often done by children. The existence of hygiene clubs also shows some activity by the students, but without much curriculum promotion by teachers.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |35


5.4 QUALITY With regard to social standards, the percentage of children in schools who wash their hands can be inferred from the IBEP 2009 data which shows that 30% of the total population wash their hands in key moments. In this study we found 31% in 600 schools. Considering the water, sanitation and hygiene issues in schools, this percentage may be even less than 30%, as in this study we only have a 25% ratio of clean toilets in 600 schools, 23% of schools with water available all the time and 22% of schools with soap available for hand washing.

Chart 32. Quality 35%

31%

30% 25% 20% 15% 10%

6%

5% 0%

Hygiene practices

Quality of  water  and   sanitation  s ervices

The quality of services offered in operation and maintenance is closely related to the funds available in each institution or the ability of human resources to work within the limits of the funds available from state mechanisms. Therefore, most schools do not have qualified human resources or funds and more training should be offered to technicians, so that primary schools are able to work within the funds that are available.

36| WASH in Schools - Angola


Š UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1758/Pirozzi

Chapter 5. Discussion of results

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |37


© UNICEF/ANGA2014-0494/Bruno Caratão


6. CONCLUSÃO

The excessive number of students in primary schools and in the first cycle show that better planning should be taken into account, and a better database should be created so that verification sources are available for basic areas, such as water, hygiene and sanitation. All key factors show that the development of any strategy must define what kind of school and what kind of design is wanted, according to the guidelines of the Child Friendly Schools and then define the mechanisms to make it sustainable, accommodating local input to meet local needs (MED 2014). Budgeting that only reflects policy implementation is not sustainable at a provincial, municipal or communal level, as there are enormous problems in primary schools due to a lack of funds to sustain any extra school activity, maintenance and services. This immediately determines the failure of any programme or even any policy. The ineffectiveness of existing mechanisms in schools due to lack of funds and planning causes the collapse of already weak structures which are often vandalized by communities, or damaged by improper use. These factors are multiplied by the number of students who have never had access to toilets or latrines and don’t know how to use them, due to lack of information and sanitary or environmental education. The multidimensionality is based on the lack of adequate school infrastructure and appropriate teaching materials. This leads to overcrowded classrooms and inadequate access to clean water and sanitation, as well as failure to deliver efficient teaching, and consequently learning (Ministry of Education, 2012). These factors are exacerbated by the fact that teachers (27% at the primary school level) are often not qualified, so the quality of service offered is reduced and not focused enough on the children’s learning needs. Similarly, because these issues are not specifically provided for in the school curriculum, teachers are not equipped with sufficient knowledge to promote them. The disparities encountered are even more pronounced when we look at the dropout and repetition rates that are around 17% and 29% respectively, and the completion rates are only 47% for primary education (Ministry of Education 2010). However in 2013, data from the Ministry of Education indicates improvements referring a completion rate at primary school level of 80%, a 13% repetition rate and a reduction of school drop-outs up to 7% (Ministry of Education 2013). Analysing the water variable based on the alternatives that are presented to schools that do not have water within their premises, it can be seen that, globally, they require proper planning at the construction phase in order to include access. In some cases, schools were built with no alternative for access to water, be that a connection to the network, fountain / well, spring or rainwater collection. The situation worsens when analysed according to other alternatives in schools located outside the municipalities, which have no alternative to access water. The known variables are unsustainable due to competition with the community for water and 61.92% of schools do not have a source of drinking water and only 24% have water for hygiene purposes. Also, because this component is closely linked to sanitation, it shows the need for urgent action. With an average of 213 students per cubicle and an open air defecation index of 44.69%, there is evidence that something is not working when it comes to providing a healthy environment to schools. It is therefore necessary to develop a plan that defines realistic objectives, allows for the efficient allocation of funds and the development of suitable evidence based policies to guide the operation and management of the country’s schools, thus making it possible to progressively achieve the dream of access to water, hygiene and sanitation in schools.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |39


© UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1847/Gilberts


7. RECOMMENDATIONS

1

It is important to promote a broad discussion in the education sector to define the guiding documents that should be subject to regular monitoring processes under the Education Management Information System (EMIS). To this end, it is necessary to develop a methodology to formalize tools for continued / regular collection of information.

2

The selection of the variables analysed (water, sanitation and hygiene) must provide for monitoring indicators of educational policies; for example, in the framework of educational reform, it is important to identify the type of target research variables for monitoring the degree of implementation.

3

We also suggest that the EMIS is decentralized to a municipal level and the school directors must be responsible for regular delivery of information relating to their schools. The municipal delegates will have the task of verifying and consolidating data in order to ensure the desired quality. Therefore, there could be a simple and quick information management system, making it an accessible and safe secondary source for case studies at national level.

4

Diagnosis of this nature should occur at the end of each school year, since it is an opportunity to: (1) make use of the teaching staff to collect real information for planning water and sanitation; (2) collect very important data to supplement the information on the educational sector, such as educational achievement, school dropout and completion rates at a certain level / class, as schooling is not just the act of filling out the registration form; (3) look at relevant aspects of school life that need attention and improvement.

5

Above all, there must be a multi-sectoral debate on water, sanitation and hygiene in schools initiated by the Ministry of Education, and in particular the National Directorate of General Education.

6

The Ministry of Education should develop a national plan in partnership with stakeholders for the development of a national survey on water, hygiene and sanitation in schools and its impact on school life and children.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |41


© UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1994/Asselin


REFERENCES

Bowen et al 2007. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a hand washing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. am. j. trop. med. hyg. Instituto Nacional de Estatística (IBEP 2009). Inquérito do Bem-estar da População. IRC (International Water and Sanitation Centre) (2007). Towards Effective Programming for WASH in Schools: A manual on scaling up programmes for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools. Delft, Holanda. Joint Call to Action (2010). Raising Clean Hands – Advancing learning, health and participation through WASH in Schools. Ministério da Educação (2008) Evaluation of the Education and Teaching in Angola 2002-2008. Ministerio da Educação (2010) Escola Amiga das Crianças Pesquisa Completa. Ministerio da Educação (2014) Avaliação global da Reforma Educativa. Ministério da Educação e UNICEF (2005) Diagnostico Rápido as Escolas Publicas do Ensino Geral. Ministério de Energia e Águas e UNICEF - Estudo CAP (COSEP 2007). Relatório do Estudo da Linha de Base e Pesquisa Formativa sobre Água, Saneamento e Higiene em Angola. Ministry of Health, Cholera Task Force 2006-2012. Bulletin of Cholera. UNICEF & Emory University (2012) - WASH in Schools Distance learning Course, Learning from the field. UNICEF (2011) WASH in Schools Monitoring Package, Unite the Nations Children`s Fund. (Module 2). UNICEF (2012) Rapid Monitoring of WASh in Schools Bottlenecks. Assessing Progress in Improving Management and hygiene Practices, Unite the Nations Children`s Fund. WHO (World Health Organization) (2009) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Standards for Schools in Low cost Settings. Publicado por John Adams, Jaimie Bartram, Yves Chartier, Jackie Sims.

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola |43


UNICEF Angola P.O Box 2707 Luanda | Angola Tel: +244 222 331 181 Email: luanda@unicef.org facebook.com/UnicefAngola | www.unicef.org

Profile for UNICEF Angola

WASH in Schools in Angola  

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola

WASH in Schools in Angola  

Diagnosis of water and sanitation conditions of 600 schools in 6 provinces of Angola

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded