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male intimate partners, male relatives or others they know, whereas men are more often victims of strangers. The largest and most detailed study carried out in healthcare services in 2003 interviewed over three thousand women aged 15 to 49 years in 19 healthcare services that formed gateways to the public healthcare system in the greater São Paulo region.156 The results were as sobering as they were staggering: the study found that 55 per cent of the women had suffered physical or sexual violence by some aggressor at some point in their lives. Among the women interviewed who had ever had a partner during their lives (virtually all), 52.8 per cent reported having suffered psychological violence, 40.4 per cent physical violence and 21 per cent sexual violence. Overall, 61.1 per cent of this sample of women reported suffering one form of violence or another. With regard to violence committed by aggressors other than a partner or former partner, 44.8 per cent of the women reported psychological violence, 20.5 per cent physical violence and 9.4 per cent sexual violence. These were lower rates than for violence committed by partners, but very high all the same. Among the other aggressors, the great majority were family members. Partners and family members together were responsible, as the aggressors in domestic violence, for more than 70 per cent of the cases of physical or sexual aggression. This brief analysis of gender inequalities in São Paulo has touched briefly on violence, health and employment inequalities in a legal context of substantial equality and parity before the law. Clearly, gender is a cross-cutting issue where, like race, inequalities and dis-

são paulo - a tale of two cities

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parities are deeply embedded in social structures, affecting women at multiple layers in their lives. The subject is sizable and deserves deeper analysis, which is beyond the scope of this publication.

The Metro in São Paulo is currently extending its services benefit millions of residents with swift, low-cost transport services.

Security, Crime and Violence Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world. In the decade between 1993 and 2003, according to United Nations figures, the average annual number of peacetime deaths by firearm was 32,555, surpassing the number of deaths in wars such as Chechnya, Nicaragua, El Salvador or Guatemala over the same 10-year period.157 São Paulo accounted for a quarter of these deaths, which took place

...the violence of Brazilian cities has focused international attention towards the problem of organized crime... during years when violent crime began to define the city and its citizens. Security, crime and violence are critical lenses through which to view and understand aspects of social exclusion, social segregation and the urban divide. The social phenomenon of violent crime in rapidly urbanizing areas around the world has been well-documented and is an increasingly unavoidable reality for urban residents. In particular, the violence of Brazilian cities has focused international attention towards the problem of organized crime and the violence of the

Image: Marcelo Min Fotogarrafa Agency

Profile for UN-Habitat

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Profile for unhabitat
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