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são paulo - a tale of two cities

transfers from other family members or from public transfers, consumption is clearly a better measure of that person’s standard of living than is reported income. In rural areas, where home-produced food and housing services are important, consumption may be both easier to measure and less likely to be underreported’.77

births.79 Amongst the richest 20 per cent of the population, however, the under-5 mortality rate is two-thirds lower, at 33 deaths per 1000 births. Even more dramatically, seven times more infants of poor families die than those of rich families throughout the 39 municipalities of the MRSP.

MAP 3: Health inequalities through infant mortality rates in MSP (1999)

Health Inequalities

Map courtesy of The Centre for the Study of Violence - University of São Paulo (NEV/USP) www.nevusp.org

Inequalities in health-care access and health outcomes remain a major challenge in Brazil. Numerous studies and investigations reveal insufficient coverage, and disparities in the quality of health delivery. Groups such as the mentally ill or the elderly have also been shown to have problems obtaining appropriate and equitable treatment. Regional and income-group health inequalities are particularly dramatic. For example, the rate of infant mortality in the north is twice as high as the same measure in the south. In 1990, it was 2.5 times higher.78 The under-5 mortality rate presents an apt example of health inequality based on socioeconomic status: amongst the poorest 20 per cent of the population, infant mortality is staggeringly high, at 99 deaths per 1000

Nevertheless, Brazil’s progress towards the health-related MDG targets for 2015 has been substantial and considered on-track.80 For example, child mortality was reduced by half in all regions in Brazil between 1990 and 2005. More than 97 per cent of all women give birth in one of over 6,000 hospitals, or receive outpatient care in one of the 65,000 health centres. In relation to immunization against measles and tuberculosis or the presence of professional attendant at births, Brazil achieved 99 per cent coverage in 2004. Measles vaccine coverage has been 100 per cent for some years. Per capita investment in health per year was higher than in many countries with more highly rated levels of human development. Brazil also has 112 doctors per 100,000 people, scoring much higher on this measure than many countries within the

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Profile for UN-Habitat

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Profile for unhabitat
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