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cities & citizens series - bridging the urban divide

Endnotes 1

The City Statute is described in more detail in the Policy Background section of Chapter 5 in this book.


Highlighted and detailed in articles featured in The Economist’s special report on business and finance in Brazil, 12 November 2009.


Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute), 2008 calculations.


Camacho, K. (2008, 26 March). Quase 12 milhões de brasileiros deixam classes D/E em um ano. Folha Online. Retrieved from: folha/dinheiro/ult91u386046.shtml



Condemned to prosperity: Brazil has learned to love its commodity sector. (2009, 12 November). The Economist, p. 11.

Data quoted in Barone, M. & Rebelo, J. (2003). Potential impact Of Metro’s line 4 on poverty in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (MRSP). Retrieved from INTURBANTRANSPORT/Resources/poverty_14_sp.pdf, p. 3.


Ibid., p.4.


UN-HABITAT. (2009). International Gini coefficient database. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT Monitoring and Research Division.



Reckoned by analysts to have fallen further to 0.56 by 2010. As quoted in: UNDP. (2008). Human development report 2008. New York: UNDP.

Composite, the poverty line adopted in this study is the one defined by Sonia Rocha, of the Applied Economic Research Institute/IPEA, for the MRSP, which is Brazilian R$152.51 monthly per capita (in values of September 1997), or approximately US$2 to $3 per day per capita. Barone & Rebelo, 2003, op. cit.


Habitat’s Global Urban Observatory (GUO) collaborated with SEADE, the central data collecting agency in São Paulo on living conditions and other social criteria. The SEADE/HABITAT data was collected in 2006 and made available in early 2007.


43 per cent of Recife’s population is poor, while 37 per cent of Salvador’s population remains poor. Barone & Rebelo, 2003, op. cit.


The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human development reports measure the HDI by combining the different results that fall under three key categories: long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. To give a sense of scale: in 2005, Iceland and Norway shared first place in the national HDI table with a score of 0.968, while Sierra Leone took last place with a score of 0.336.


Specifically, the HPI-1 measures severe deprivation in health by the proportion of people who are not expected to survive to age 40. Education is measured by the adult illiteracy rate. A decent standard of living is measured by the unweighted average of people without access to an improved water source and the proportion of children under age 5 who are underweight for their age.


Quoted in http://geocases! October 2009).


Workman, D. (2008, 27 June). Millionaire wealth statistics by country. Retrieved from: /.../millionaire_ wealth_statistics_by_country. To put these statistics in perspective, Brazil’s number of millionaires represents only 1.4 per cent of the global total. Europe and the United States account for 65 per cent of total millionaires. As a group of countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China (the so-called BRIC group) have recently experienced the fastest growth of millionaires globally.


Presidency of the Republic of Brazil. 2007, op. cit., p. 27.


In its special report on business and finance in Brazil, The Economist (2009, 12 November), claims the Gini coefficient for Brazil is currently 0.52. There is some variation in different calculations of the Gini coefficient.


Presidency of the Republic of Brazil. (2007). Millennium Development Goals: National monitoring report. Brasilia: Government of Brazil, p. 26.


According to a report released on 16 November 2007 in Santiago by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Quoted in: Brazil gets cut by 4.2 percentage points and extreme poverty. Retrieved from: consegue_reduzir_em_4_2_pontos_percentuais_a_ pobreza_e_a_indigencia/12886/


A wide range of direct and indirect assistance programmes for the poor in terms of access to food, agrarian development, income generation and additional targeted assistance for the old, the disabled, children and adolescents. Most analysts cite the Bolsa Familia programme as the most important in terms of effecting cash transfers to the poor. Along with the successive raising of minimum wages above inflation, the impacts on redistribution of wealth are palpable.


This comment on economic improvement in Brazil’s northeast comes from Renato Cybalista of the POLIS Institute, Sao Paulo, November 2009, in personal communicaiton with the author.

2004. (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3867). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

(accessed in


Data for this paragraph is from the Brazil office of Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), and cited in a presentation on World Study on Poverty and Disparities in Childhood. Presented in Panama, 30 June to 1 July 2008 by IPEA [No further details available].


Statistics presented in the special report on business and finance in Brazil, The Economist, 2009, op. cit., p. 16.


Ferreira, Leite & Litchfield, 2006, op. cit.


Associated Press. (2006, 22 September). Brazil’s poverty rate at lowest level in 25 years, survey shows. Retrieved from: ic943.pdf


Estimates vary between 0.56 and 0.57 for the current Gini level. As with poverty analysis, the measurement of the Gini coefficient is dependent on particular assumptions, definitions and interpretations.


Ferreira, F.H.G., Leite, P.G., & Litchfield, J.A. (2006, March). The rise and fall of Brazilian inequality: 1981-


UN-HABITAT. (2010). State of The World’s Cities Report 2010/11: Bridging the urban divide. London: Earthscan.

Profile for UN-Habitat

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Profile for unhabitat