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são paulo - a tale of two cities

regime decentralized the administration by creating 31 municipal government sub-units, invested heavily in the public transport system and sought to maximize popular participation in all housing policy processes, as required by the City Statute. The Informal Settlement Integration Programme in 2001 was created as an umbrella programme for upgrading and legalizing land tenure in squatter settlements, illegal sub-divisions, public housing estates and reservoir basins. Known as the Bairro Legal (Legal Neighborhood) Programme, it gave the São Paulo Municipal Secretariat for Housing the power to develop sub-programmes directly related to the legalization of informal housing and the support of those living in them.199 The programme was piloted in Rio with the name Favela -Bairro before it was implemented in São Paulo and elsewhere, and has become a key federally driven policy towards more inclusive and equal cities. The implementation of Bairro Legal led to the development of several sub-programmes: Housing for the low-income population: 23,000 new housing units were built following different housing formats that included medium-sized housing estates in well-consolidated peripheral areas and small-sized housing estates for low-income families in the centre, as well as renovation of cortiços downtown. CDHU200 was the primary partner in new low-income housing construction. Land tenure in favelas: by applying the new federal legislation and other previously existing tools, this programme issued individual titles that gave dwellers the right to use municipal land, benefiting 45,000 families who lived in 160 favelas. Upgrading and regularization of irregular settlements: focusing on low-income families who lived in illegal subdivisions, this programme included the improvement of infrastructure, social service monitoring, prevention of new illegal subdivisions and municipal legal action to support the full regularization process up to final ownership and registration. This sub-programme started in 1995 and was supported by a loan from the International Development Bank. By 2004, it had benefited

42,000 families in 69 areas of illegal subdivisions. (See Special Features 7 and 9 for more information about slum upgrading projects.) Metropolitan Water Source Programme: this programme has focused on the upgrading of informal settlements and the environmental protection of watersheds that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. This complex initiative started working with the Guarapiranga Water Basin Programme, and was supported by a loan from the World Bank between 1992 and 2000. Since 2001, this programme has been funded by SABESP (the water supply company for the state of São Paulo) and São Paulo’s municipal budget, expanding its coverage to the Billings Water Basin. The new law allowing existing populations to remain in these two previously protected areas was finally approved in 2006 (for Guarapiranga), while the new law for Billings was approved in mid-2009. (See Special Feature 9 for information on the

Urban regularization was an important right expressed in the City Statute. Guarapiranga slum upgrading programme.) Legalization of (federally financed) public housing estates: this initiative focused on legalizing the situation of low- and mediumincome residents who live in public housing estates built in the 1970s and early 1980s. It used three mechanisms to assist low-income families: it offered special conditions for households to legally register their paidfor apartments (benefiting 22,000 families); it cancelled the outstanding debts of 57,000 families whose contracts had been signed before 1987; and it provided regularization and conditions for property registration to families who participated in self-building programmes. Special Zones of Social Interest (ZEIS): as part of the new zoning in the municipal Master Plan preparations (approved in 2004), almost 1,000 areas were defined as Special Zones of Social Interest (ZEIS) and protected.201

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Profile for UN-Habitat

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Sao Paulo; A tale of two cities  

UN-HABITAT’s new Cities and Citizens series examines urban inequality in the developing world through in-depth analysis of intracity data de...

Profile for unhabitat
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