Water for Cities UN-HABITAT QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER
ISSUE TWENTY SIX
UN-HABITAT Develops Framework to Monitor Water and Sanitation Coverage By Iole Issaias in the Lake Victoria Region
N-HABITAT has developed a comprehensive framework to monitor water and sanitation coverage in 15 towns as part of the Lake Victoria Region Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN). This process will help in tracking progress towards meeting the water and sanitation targets as set out in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG 7 Goal 10) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. It will also ensure that investments in the LVWATSAN Programme target the poorest communities in these towns. The monitoring framework incorporates a household survey (the Urban Inequities Survey), development of Geographic Information Systems for each urban centre (including acquisition of spatial data), and capacity building of local institutions to maintain and update the information regularly.
Urban Inequities Survey (UIS) The UIS is being implemented in Kenya first, to be followed by Uganda and then Tanzania. Administered by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), In Kenya, the survey is being carried out in Kisii, Homa Bay, Migori, Siaya and Bondo. Preparatory work, including the translation of questionnaires into Kiswahili, preparation of enumeration area maps, and selection of cont. on pg 4
Public Toilet Complex Project in Addis By Tekalign Tsige Ababa Targets Poor Residents
tudies estimate that 24 percent of households in the city of Addis Ababa lack private or communal sanitation facilities, while many of the existing facilities are below acceptable standards. Although there are some 68 public toilets for use by those with no access to private sanitation facilities, they are not evenly distributed within the city, making most of them inaccessible to residents with the greatest need, particularly poor people. Improving sanitation for the urban poor is one of the six thematic areas of focus in the Water for African Cities Programme, Phase II. A pilot project supported by UN-HABITAT is being implemented by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of the Addis Ababa City Government, in collaboration with the Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA). The pilot project is in Addis Ketema, an inner city located near the highly congested central market area commonly known as Merkato, and is close to the regional bus terminus. Shoppers, travelers, street families, business people and slum dwellers will be the main users of the facility. The area around the Public cont. on pg 2
Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative
Water for African Cities Programme in Senegal
Federal Minister Commends UN-HABITAT Approach in Nigeria 7 WAC II Programme for Senegal
Siddhipur Demonstrates Sustainability of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Systems 9 Rain Water Harvesting Initiatives in Kathmandu
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Editorial Targeting Secondary Towns By Robert Goodwin1
With over 25 percent of the worldâ€™s population living small urban centers, the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation will not be met without sustained international efforts to address the critical deficiencies in water and sanitation service provision in small urban centres in the developing world. Available data from the secondary towns in the Lake Victoria region support this conclusion. Preliminary surveys indicate that less than 60 percent of the population in these towns has access to safe drinking water, even though official statistics indicate that the proportion of urban residents with access to safe drinking water sources in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda is in the order of 80 percent. The availability of basic socio-economic data within a spatial framework is crucial to ensuring optimal design of projects, the targeting of investments and subsidies to meet the needs of the poor, as well as the formulation of special programmes for vulnerable groups such as orphan headed households that are often located outside the areas of coverage by town water and sanitation systems. The cover story in this issue describes an innovative framework that has been developed by UN-HABITAT to monitor water and sanitation coverage in 15 towns which are being targeted for water and sanitation improvements under the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN). Vulnerable groups living at the periphery of these towns will require special programs to ensure that they are not left out. The rain water harvesting initiatives described on Pages 5 (Lake Victoria Initiative) and 11 (Kathmandu) reflect UN-HABITATâ€™s commitment to ensuring that poor and vulnerable groups not covered by piped water systems, can also benefit from investment programmes to improve access to safe drinking water. Small towns face unique challenges in addressing the problems of inadequate sanitation coverage. Because of physical size and low average population density, centralized sewerage systems are usually not viable from an economic standpoint. Piped sewerage systems with attendant pumping and treatment works also pose operational and maintenance challenges. At the same time, many small towns have to cope with temporary surges in population (on market days, for example), and large concentrations of people in locations such as public markets, schools and prisons. On site sanitation systems often represent the only feasible option, but they require careful design and location to minimize adverse environmental effects and to ensure that the facilities are consistent with local cultural norms and take into account gender considerations. Setting up community based management systems for operation and maintenance offer opportunities for local economic initiatives. The Public Toilet Complex Project in Addis Ababa (page 1) is an example of a communal sanitation facility that can improve access to sanitation for poor communities both in large cities and small towns. Such a complex, however, requires a reliable supply of water and underscores the need to adopt an integrated approach to the development of water and sanitation facilities. The Lake Victoria Initiative will also provide similar communal facilities in critical locations in poor areas and public markets as well as institutions such as schools and prisons. A capacity building programme, now being formulated, will address complementary activities in hygiene education and community-based approaches to the management of communal water and sanitation facilities. Robert Goodwin is the Chief Technical Adviser for the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN). E-mail: Robert.firstname.lastname@example.org.. 1
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Public Toilet Complex Project in Addis Ababa Targets Poor Residents Toilet Complex is mainly dedicated to commercial and residential use. With a large slum in the neighbourhood, much of the open space in between is polluted by human waste, indicating the severity of the sanitation problem. The sub-city administration approved the project and allocated land for construction of the facilities at the beginning of June 2006. UN-HABITAT support for the project is based on the commitment demonstrated by the Addis Ababa city government to improving the operation and management of public toilets in the city. In addition to establishing an institution charged with improving sanitation in the city (SBPDA), the city government is also outsourcing the management of public sanitation facilities to Community Based Organizations (CBOs).
Objectives The demonstration public toilet project aims to:l
Encourage participation by a wide range of stakeholders including CBOs, NGOs, and the private sector in replication and up-scaling by demonstrating the social and commercial viability of the project.
Empower local communities by providing a forum for them to articulate their needs and participate in identifying solutions, thereby creating a stronger sense of ownership of the facilities among beneficiary communities.
Mitigate the hazardous effects to health and productivity of communities resulting from exposure to open field defecation.
Raise levels of awareness about, and promote the benefits of good sanitation and hygiene practices at the household and community levels. cont. on pg 3
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Stakeholder Consultations Extensive stakeholder consultations preceded project implementation, with overall project planning being carried out in close collaboration with the Addis Ababa City Government. The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) was responsible for identifying a suitable sub-city for project implementation, site selection, and establishment of the modalities for management and operation at the phase-out stage of the project. The agency also managed the bidding and bid evaluation process, and set indicators for monitoring and evaluation of progress in project implementation. The sub-city government was involved in the coordination of community participation, allocation of land, issuance of construction permits, and monitoring of activities at the community and local administrative levels. Leaders at beneficiary community level, or Kabele participated in community mobilization, coordinating the community’s role in project implementation, and providing feedback on progress in project implementation. Sulabh International offered technical assistance in reviewing and, where necessary, amending the designs prepared by AAWSA.
Design of the Toilet Complex At the design stage, gender considerations, the needs of the physically challenged, and the needs of children were taken into consideration. The public toilet complex, which will serve about 1500 users per day, will comprise of: l Urinals l
Separate squatting pans for men and women
Separate showers for men and women
A water tank
Hand washing basins
Kiosks selling soap, towels, tissue paper, etc.
The design was prepared AAWSA experts based on knowledge gained from a two-week training program on sanitation technologies at Sulabh International. An expert from Sulabh International visited Addis Ababa to review the designs. Tekalign Tsige is the Chief Technical Adviser, Ethiopia, Water for African Cities Programme. E-mail: “Tekalign” <email@example.com>
Water for Cities Newsletter Editorial Board Kalyan Ray Mariam Lady Yunusa Graham Alabaster Andre Dzikus James Ohayo–Editor
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from pg 1 WatSan News–Africa from pg 1
UN-HABITAT Develops Framework to Monitor Water and Sanitation Coverage in the Lake Victoria Region interviewers, has already been completed. In August, the CBS team moved to the field where their first assignment was to train 25 interviewers and pre-test the questionnaire. The training, conducted at the National History Museum in Kisumu from 2 - 20 August 2006, covered the use of survey tools (the community profile, household questionnaire, women’s questionnaire and child questionnaire). It also introduced the use of GPS, to map infrastructure as a key tool in developing community profiles. A comprehensive Interviewers’ Manual has been produced for the survey and will be made available on the LVWATSAN website1 after the survey has been completed. Following the training, the team moved to the selected urban centres to complete the community profiles and listing. This exercise is being done in parallel in all five urban centres and will, for the first time in Kenya, use satellite images of the urban centers2 to build a profile of water, sanitation, solid waste and other infrastructure in each of the enumeration areas of the towns. After completion of data collection for the community profiles and listing of houses, the CBS will finalize a sample design which can be used for other household surveys in the future. In October, the team will move to the field to administer the main household survey. The results of the UIS will be available from January 2007.
these maps to develop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is the organized geo-referencing of features from maps onto a database. The purpose of creating the database is to facilitate evaluation of the quality of information on the maps and update it at any time. A partnership was entered into between UN-HABITAT and Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) based in Nairobi, to develop GIS databases for each of the 15 towns. The first step was to convert the images into the East African projection and datum (see figure 1 ); the satellite images were then taken on WGS84 Reference Ellipsoid and converted to Arc 1960 UTM Zone 36S UTM Clark, and documented into the metadata. Converting these images to the correct projection is necessary in order to accurately use other available maps (already in the UTM projection) to support the LVWATSAN GIS database. RCMRD has now digitized all the information on the satellite images such as buildings, roads, foot paths, water bodies and any major landmarks. In May 2006, RCMRD visited each of the 15 towns to collect available maps from local authorities and utilities, and to verify with town officials the information on the satellite images. This information has been used as the first building block of the GIS databases.
G.I.S (Geographic Information System) Cartographic information is scarce in the East African Region, and most of the existing information is more than 10 years old. With the rapid growth experienced by most urban areas in the region, their morphology is constantly changing. Development of maps for use in urban planning, utility networks and socioeconomic mapping is not only required for implementation of the LVWATSAN Programme, but also for use by local authorities and governments in planning and formulating policy. UN-HABITAT therefore decided to start from scratch by procuring satellite images through Digital Globe at resolution of 0.6m2 of each urban centre, with the intention of using
Digitize stellite images
Field verification and acquisition of maps
Input UIS data
Train users on maintaining GIS database
Figure 1: Methodogy for the development of a Geographic Information System
Attribute tables have also been developed, similar to a database, whereby all the information such as the name of buildings, location, size, plot number, purpose etc...has been recorded. This is being refined jointly by UN-HABITAT and RCMRD, and will need to be continually updated by appropriate local institutions. In parallel with developing the GIS database, RCMRD worked closely with CBS to create enumeration area maps (see figure 2) from the satellite images in order to merge the information from the community profiles and the GIS database under development. This was the first time the CBS used this technique and is now considering replicating it country-wide. (In the past enumeration area maps and listing of households have been hand drawn.) Iole Issaias is Assistant Project Officer in the Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch, UN –HABITAT. E-mail: Iole. Issaias@unhabitat.org © UN-HABITAT
http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=462 2 The towns in this survey have been defined by the municipal boundaries. 1
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This article is a follow-up of one on “Mapping the Urban poor:...” carried in Issue Twenty One of this newsletter.
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Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Targets Improved Access to Water and Sanitation for Orphan and Child Headed House holds By Anne Malebo
he HIV/AIDS pandemic is arguably the greatest single challenge to sustainable human development facing Africa today. The rate at which able bodied men and women in their prime are succumbing to AIDS has stretched the capacity of conventional orphan care systems, giving rise to Orphan or Child Headed Households (O/CHH).
© UWESCO By Luzze
An Orphan or Child Headed Household is defined as a household of orphaned children headed by a child below the age of 18 years. The household is recognized by the local community as being independent, and the child head is recognized as being responsible for providing leadership and making key decisions in the running of the house hold. The child head is the also the breadwinner for the household, and takes on the parental role of caring for younger siblings. First noted in the Rakai District of Uganda in the 1990s, “Child Headed Households” (CHHs) have become a growing phenomenon in the Lake Victoria region. A study conducted in eight districts of Uganda in 1993 revealed that 2 percent of all orphans in Uganda were living on their own in O/ CHHs. The majority of these were male orphans living in households headed by male children. The four major categories under which O/CHHs are classified are: l Orphans living purely on their own in Child-Headed Households recognized by the community as such; l
Orphans living with an ailing or bed ridden parent;
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Orphans living with relatives, mostly old grandparents or old foster guardians; and,
Orphans who have eloped to start their own households (street children).
The emergence of O/CHHs stems largely from the failure by traditional extended family systems to cope with the rapidly growing number of orphans, many of whom have special needs. Many of these neglected orphans suffer verbal abuse, are forced to undertake exploitative work, not allowed to attend school, and often denied their rights to inherit family land. Some girl children are lured into early marriages, while others are exposed to sexual exploitation as child prostitutes. More and more orphans are opting to remain in households within their communities, where they feel safer living with their brothers and sisters in a familiar location, rather than be separated and sent to different institutions. Remaining within their communities also improves their chances of protecting their property and escaping adoption. However, a large number move to urban centers to become street children, or to provide cheap labor. Making O/CHHs sustainable is now considered one of the strategies for
coping with this challenge. This requires that the lack of basic needs such as food and clothing, poor housing conditions, insecure tenure, lack of access to medical care, education and skills training be addressed. For O/CHHs to be viable, the absence of psychological support from an extended family network, poor life skills and knowledge, rampant abuse and exploitation, and lack of access to clean water and adequate sanitation would also need to be taken into account. The need for orphan children to walk long distances in the search for water is a major risk factor, particularly for the girl child, who is most vulnerable to harassment and molestation. With many of them living in mud and wattle makeshift structures, access to basic sanitation is also a serious problem. The UN-HABITAT Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN), has developed a project known as the Improved Access to Water and Sanitation for HIV/AIDS Orphan-Child-Headed Households in the Lake Victoria Region , to be implemented in collaboration with Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) in the Lake region. In Uganda, the Uganda Women’s Efforts to Save Orphans (UWESO), is a key partner in a demonstration project in Masaka. The project will subsequently be replicated in neighboring towns including Kyotera, Nyendo and Mutukula. In Tanzania, Huduma ya Watoto, (HUYAWA) will take the lead in implementing the project in Bukoba, Muleba and Mutukula, while in Kenya, the Adventist Development and Relief Agency ADRA will implement the project in Homa Bay and Kisii towns in partnership with UN-HABITAT. The objective of these pilot projects is to demonstrate that on-site sanitation and Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) schemes are viable and sustainable alternatives for marginalized and disadvantaged groups, including HIV/AIDS Orphan or Child Headed Households (O/CHH) Issue Twenty Six April-June 2006
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that are not connected to local authority water and sanitation networks. The focus will be on improving knowledge and enhancing skills in on-site sanitation and rain water harvesting systems in orphan headed households. After a rapid assessment of the scale and specific needs of the HIV/AIDS orphanheaded households, the project will undertake provision of improved water and sanitation facilities for selected HIV/AIDS Orphan headed households, capacity building at the community level to manage the facilities, establishment of a microcredit facility to support expansion and scale up of the project, documentation and dissemination of best practices from the demonstration projects, and production of appropriate advocacy tools.
UN-HABITAT interventions in water and sanitation are guided by the need to encourage community participation and involvement at all stages of project design and implementation, in order to build a strong sense of ownership of the project at the local level. Through its local partners, UN-HABITAT will reach out to other NGOs, CBOs and beneficiary communities to ensure their active participation in the process, as well as their contribution to project activities in cash or in kind. The project intends to promote appropriate technologies that respond to real needs on the ground, are affordable, can be managed by the communities, and are replicable. Awareness raising approaches will be inclusive and participatory to ensure
a meaningful and lasting transformation of attitudes, behavior and practices, resulting in proper use and management of water at the household community levels, and the adoption of good hygiene and sanitation practices. Supporting HIV/AIDS orphaned children to access affordable clean water and basic sanitation will result in substantial household savings, enabling HIV/AIDS care-givers, many of them women and girls, to devote more time to income generating activities and to schooling respectively.. Anne Malebo is a consultant in the Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch, UN-HABITAT. E-mail: Anne.firstname.lastname@example.org
Water for African Cities Programme in Senegal Focuses on Protecting Major Freshwater By Eric Moukoro Source for Dakar
ac de Guiers, located some 250 Km from Dakar, is a major source of potable water supply for the city. A study undertaken by the Government of Senegal’s Millennium Water and Sanitation Programme (PEPAM), whose objective is to achieve water and sanitation related MDG targets in Senegal, helped to identify a number of challenges to the sustainability of Lac de Guiers as a source of freshwater for Dakar. These include high salinity in the southern region and in the lower Ferlo area, eutrophication in the central parts of the lake, proliferation of aquatic plants, pollution, and the danger to public health posed by poor sanitation and inadequate supplies of potable water for riparian villages. Studies conducted in September 2004 indicated that the sanitation situation around Lac de Guiers remains precarious. With only a few households having latrines, people resort to defecating in the open, or on the banks of the lake, increasing the risk of contaminating the water. The result is a high prevalence of water - borne diseases. With the role of Lac de Guiers in the socio-economic development of Senegal becoming increasingly significant, the need to control, monitor, and protect the lake to ensure its sustainable use, has become critical.
Water for African Cities Phase II Programme in Senegal © UN-HABITAT
A pilot project to support improved management and protection of the lake’s ecosystem was implemented in 2001-2002 under Phase I of the UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities Programme. The interventions included monthly monitoring of the quality of water from the lake, raising awareness on the need for better sanitation practices among riparian communities, and construction of sanitation facilities in seven towns around the lake.
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Senegal, which enjoys the support of the African Development Bank (AfDB) for its rural water supply and sanitation programme (RWSS), has selected the Louga region for the implementation of innovative pro-poor water and sanitation projects that will support villages around Lac de Guiers to achieve the water and sanitation related MDGs. A Memorandum of Understanding signed between UNHABITAT and the African Development Bank (AfDB) at the 4th World Water Forum in Mexico sets out the framework cont. on pg 6
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under which the two organisations will collaborate to facilitate provision of safe water and improved access to sanitation in African cities and small urban centres. The UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities Programme Phase II in Senegal has established close collaboration with the AfDB in the effort to reduce poverty in the catchment area of Lac de Guiers. In addition to consolidating the gains made in the pilot phase (WAC I), the WAC II programme will incorporate the following components: l Monitoring indicators of sanitation around the Lac de Guiers identified jointly with PEPAM, while improving the sanitation conditions of riparian villages. l
Strengthening capacity of the Water Resources Management and Planning
Department (DGPRE) for more effective monitoring of the lake’s water quality. l
Mitigating the impact of human activity on the lake’s ecosystem by significantly reducing the discharge of pollutants into the lake.
Raising awareness levels of all stakeholders, particularly the different actors involved in the management and exploitation of the lake’s resources, through enhanced sensitization activities, including communitybased water, sanitation and hygiene education.
These activities support the “Integrated Wa t e r R e s o u r c e s M a n a g e m e n t ” component of the Long-term water project (PLT) which is an integral part of PEPAM.
DGPRE and CREPA-Senegal (an NGO), are conducting a baseline study in settlements around Lac de Guiers in collaboration with PEPAM and the African Development Bank. The study will provide in-depth information on sufficiency, safety, acceptability, affordability and physical accessibility of water and sanitation facilities and services. This information will be entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to be used in tracking the impact of water and sanitation interventions on the living standards of communities around the lake. Eric Moukoro is the Chief Technical Adviser for West Africa, UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities Programme. E-mail: “Eric Moukoro” <email@example.com
Federal Minister Commends UN-HABITAT Approach to Addressing the Challenge of Meeting Water and Sanitation MDGs in Nigeria
UN-HABITAT mission visited Nigeria from 13-19 May 2006 to update senior officials of the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Plateau State on progress in implementation of the Water for African Cities Programme, Phase II, in Jos, Plateau State. The UN-HABITAT team comprising the Programme Manager, Mariam Yunusa and the Chief Technical Adviser, Water for African Cities Programme, Daniel Adom, paid a courtesy call on the Federal Minister for Water Resources, Alhaji Mukhtar Shehu Shagari, and formally presented him with a copy of the signed Memorandum of Understanding for the Jos project. The MoU, which is the legal basis for the partnership between UN-HABITAT and the Federal Government of Nigeria, provides a framework for replication of the WAC II Programme in other cities in Nigeria. Over the last six months, programme identification and formulation has been concluded for Jos, and following the signing of the MoU, the Government of Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to the programme by releasing counterpart funds amounting to US $ 740,000 for the project. Calling upon other development partners in the country to emulate the patient, empowering, and inclusive approach adopted by UN-HABITAT in implementing their programmes, the Minister noted that extensive consultations were carried out with all stakeholders, and that the interests
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and needs of the poor have been well articulated in the project document. He requested that the programme be extended to more cities in Nigeria. Minister Shagari assured the UN-HABITAT team that the Federal Government of Nigeria is committed
to working with its partners towards achieving water and sanitation related MDGs. During the mission, the Ministry of Water Resources organized a donors’ consultative meeting on the WAC II cont. on pg 8
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Programme to which its key partners who are actively involved in the water and sanitation sector in Nigeria, including the World Bank, the European Union, and the African Development Bank, were invited. The empowering and i n c l u s iv e a p p r o a ch t o programme formulation adopted by UN-HABITAT ensures cost-effective and well targeted investments in the sector, and was endorsed by t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t partners. For its part, the UNHABITAT team reiterated the need for the State and Federal governments to continue identifying and building linkages between the WAC II Programme and programmes being implemented by the other development partners. In a statement that was widely disseminated by the print and electronic media throughout the country, Minister Shagari observed that in future elections in Nigeria, the delivery of much needed water and sanitation services, particularly for poor, disadvantaged and marginalised citizens, would constitute a major benchmark for eligibility of political leaders all levels. The steering Committee for the WAC II Programme in Jos was formally inaugurated by Governor Joshua Chibi Dariye of Plateau State who expressed appreciation to the Gwarandok and Longwa communities for donating land and a site office for the project. The two communities, who between them have a population of 35, 000, have been fully mobilized and are eager to participate in programme implementation when it commences.
Workshop Validates WAC II Programme for Senegal
workshop to review and approve the Water for African Cities Phase II (WAC II) Programmme document for Senegal was held on April 6, 2006 at the Novotel Hotel in Dakar. Jointly organised by the Ministry of Prevention, Public Hygiene, Sanitation and Urban Water and the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Water and Food Security, the workshop brought together members of the steering committee of National Programme of Action for Water and Sanitation (PEPAM), and partner institutions of the Water for Cities Programme in Senegal. Among institutions represented were the United Nations Development Agency (UNDP), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organisation (WHO), the African Development Bank, The World Bank, the European Union, and the French International Development Agency. Various local authorities representing beneficiary communities in Dakar, Non-Governmental Organisations, Community Based Organisations and national technical institutions working i n t h e wa t e r a n d sanitation sectors were also represented, as were the Embassies o f C a n a d a , Th e Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, who jointly fund the UNHABITAT Water and Sanitation Trust Fund. The WAC II Programme in Senegal has been formulated under the strategic f ra m e wo r k o f t h e National Programme of Action for Water and Sanitation (PEPAM 2015), which reflects Senegal’s vision for the achievement of Target 10 of Millennium Development Goal 7, to halve the number of people without access to safe water and adequate sanitation by the year 2015. Evaluation of the impact of social connections and stand pipe policy for the poor, improved access to drinking water and sanitation in Malika and Keur Massar, in Dakar, and extension of access to sanitation systems in Ngor, Yoff and Ouakam, Dakar
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were given particular attention during the workshop. The reduction of water wastage in Dakar, particularly in administrative buildings, facilitating the extension of water services to more consumers, development and implementation of a water quality monitoring programme for Lac de Guiers, and implementation of public awareness campaigns on the social, environmental and economical dimensions of water and sanitation were also discussed. W o r k s h o p participants asked that the agreed activities be implemented speedily to support Senegal in its commitment to reduce poverty and improve access to basic services by the poor. Noted Dr. Issa Mbaye Samb, ” things must be done speedily as © UN-HABITAT time is running out fast for those in need... we also know that we can always count on the support of UN-HABITAT.”
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Siddhipur Demonstrates Sustainability of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Systems By Bhushan Tuladhar
he residents of Siddhipur, a small sleepy town just outside the bustling city of Kathmandu are digging drains, laying pipes, and building ecosan toilets. This little peri-urban settlement, with just over 6000 people living in 1308 households, is converting itself into a model eco-community that demonstrates the sustainability of an eco-friendly community-based water supply and sanitation system. The people of Siddhipur are building a system that will supply clean water 24 hours a day, as well as ecosan toilets designed to collect human faeces and urine separately, and recycle them as organic fertilizer. The water needs of the people of Siddhipur have been met largely by a thirty year old system that supplies water straight from the local stream through 52 public stand posts, and a few wells. This system meets less than 50 percent of the total water demand for the town. Additionally, because of the poor quality of the water, many people, especially children, suffer from water-borne diseases. With less than half the houses in Siddiphur having toilets, open defecation has been a common practice, with the community designating four areas for use by women. As the town does not have a central sewer system, household toilets are connected to pits or holding tanks. Consequently, many people with toilets in their houses still defecate in the open to reduce the frequency of emptying their tanks or pits, a costly exercise for many. Those who have traditional compost pits
called “sagaa” and “naugaa” in their houses suffer from the lack of proper drainage and aeration. With help from the UN HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Programme (WAC), the Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), and Water Aid Nepal, the residents of Siddhipur are playing an active role in improving access to clean water for all, and promoting the adoption of environmentally friendly sanitation technologies. The Siddhipur Integrated Water and Sanitation Programme was initiated in 2005 to demonstrate a fast track approach to community-based water and sanitation provision. The project, which is a partnership with a local NGO, the Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), and Water Aid Nepal, incorporates a water treatment facility, improvements to onsite and communal sanitation, solid waste management, and capacity building. The project began with a detailed
analysis of the current situation, including a gender assessment and poverty mapping, followed by the preparation of technical designs. The community, which has been actively involved in from the beginning will be fully responsible for project operation and maintenance through local Water and Sanitation User Committees. To ensure that the project benefits the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged groups, and that it is sustainable, an appropriate tariff system has been designed, with consumers who draw their water from private household taps paying different rates from those drawing their water from communal facilities. The 11 member Siddhipur Water and Sanitation User Committee includes three women, one of whom is the vice chairperson, and representatives from all major political parities, traditional guthis and Village Development Committee (VDC). For the past year, the group has been meeting twice a week to cont. on pg 10
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from pg 9
discuss the progress and plan future activities. They interact regularly with local communities to update them on progress and address any issues of concern. Recently, when the Committee called for applications for private water connections, it received more than 900 applications within a week, a clear indication of the popularity of the programme and the Committee’s reach within the community. The Committee is now busy raising funds locally (about US$75 per household) for the water supply system, and encouraging people to construct toilets. Another committee of 15 women has been formed to promote household waste management and sanitation. The women have trained over 600 other women on household composting and have also distributed little metal hooks called “Suiro” to collect plastic waste. The plastic waste from households is then collected once a month through the 24 women’s groups in Siddhipur and sold to a scrap dealer. In order to promote composting of organic waste at the source, the programme has designed five different types of household composting systems and these are being sold at a subsidized rate. Trained local women provide after sales services where required. “The place is much cleaner than before. It is difficult to see plastic litter these days,” says Laxmi Maharjan, a Committee member.
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The programme has also involved school children in this initiative. Nature clubs have been formed in local schools and the students are spreading messages on hygiene and sanitation through street plays, rallies and various competitions. The construction of a new water
intake has been completed at the Godavari River, and the pipe network for transmission and distribution of water has been laid. Construction work has also started on a treatment system consisting of tube settlers, slow sand filters and a chlorination unit. “Just having water is not enough. It has to be treated” says Krishna Kumar Maharjan the charismatic leader of the Siddhipur Water and Sanitation User Committee. Siddhipur now has more than 100 Eco-San toilets, including a few indoor ones, about 150 new home composting systems, as well as a plastic waste collection system. Work is ongoing to construct community toilets and communal septic tanks for people who do not have enough space in their houses, or who cannot afford a private toilet. The community also plans to purchase a septic tank sludge cleaning unit to provide affordable faecal sludge management services at the local level. It is not just people of Siddhipur who are excited. Lately the town has received national and international visitors who want to learn more about communitybased initiatives for sustainable water and sanitation solutions. UNHABITAT is now joining hands with Water Aid Nepal as well as other partners and local governments to replicate this model in other communities in Nepal. Bhushan Tuladhar is Executive Director of ENPHO. Water for Cities
Rain Water Harvesting Initiatives Improve Access to Clean Water in Kathmandu
ith the support of the UN-HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Programme, and collaboration of the NGO Forum, Nepal is implementing a number of rainwater harvesting initiatives designed to alleviate perennial water shortages in Kathmandu and improve access to clean water for city residents not connected to municipal supplies.
The Multipurpose Martial Arts Centre (MMAC), a project of the Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) has installed rainwater harvesting system on its 800 sq. feet roof. The system was inaugurated on June 5, 2006 by Mr. Koji Tomita, First Secretary, Embassy of Japan in Kathmandu, Also present was the Chief Executive Officer of the KMC Mr. Padma Raj Regmi and the Executive Director of the NGO Forum, Mr. Prakash Amatya. The MMAC is a symbol of friendship between the city of Kathmandu and Matsumoto City in Japan. The installation of the rainwater harvesting system enhances the status of the Multipurpose Martial Arts Centre as an environment friendly sports center, and provides a replicable model for other sports centres and gymnasia in the country. The NGO Forum will use the MMAC as a rainwater harvesting training centre to support local capacity building in rainwater harvesting techniques. Typically, all rainwater-harvesting systems, irrespective of the size of the system, comprise of six basic components. These are: 1. Catchment Area: The surface upon which the rain falls. This has to be appropriately slopped, preferably towards the direction of storage and recharge... 2. Gutters and Downspouts: The transport channels from catchment surface to storage. The design of gutters and down pipes depends on site, rainfall levels and surface characteristics of the catchment area... 3. Leaf Screens and Roof washers: These are systems that remove contaminants and debris from the collected Water for Cities
water. A first rain separator is included to divert and manage the first 2.5 mm of rain. 4. Cisterns or Storage Tanks: These include sumps, tanks and other storage units for safe storage of the collected rain-water. This is also where the recharging of ground water through open wells, bore wells or percolation pits takes place. 5. Conveying: This is the delivery system for the treated rainwater. The water is conveyed either using a pump, or by gravity. 6. Water Treatment: Filters are used to remove solids and organic material from the water, while equipment and additives are used to settle, filter, and disinfect the water. In urban areas, roof water collection systems can also be designed for high-rise buildings with the water being stored in separate tanks for non-potable purposes. There are larger and more complicated systems for educational institutions, stadia, airports and other facilities, and the harvested water can be stored in underground reservoirs and generally used for non-potable applications after suitable treatment. Issue Twenty Six April-June 2006
Download Our New Publications
he Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch recently launched two publications for sector practitioners which can be downloaded from our new website on www.unhabitat.org/watsan.
HIV/AIDS Checklist for Water and Sanitation Projects. At the end of 2001, an estimated 40 million people globally were
infected with HIV/AIDS. For the water and sanitation sector, this means that the Millennium Development Goal to halve the proportion of people, without access to safe drinking water, and the World Summit on Sustainable Development goal to halve the number of people without access to improved sanitation, will be jeopardized. It is recognized that better access to water and adequate basic sanitation improves the health and status of people living with HIV/AIDS. This checklist has been developed as a guide and a reference on appropriate and effective HIV/AIDS intervention strategies in the water supply and sanitation sector. It helps to identify priorities in addressing HIV/AIDS in the water supply and sanitation sector and is intended to support the development of appropriate and robust HIV/AIDS sensitive strategies, components and indicators in response to the AIDS pandemic.
Gender Mainstreaming Strategy Framework As managers of family and household hygiene who shoulder the responsibility for collecting water for household use, women suffer most from poor access to water supply and sanitation facilities. Many women and young girls suffer indignity as a result of inadequate sanitation, and face numerous security risks associated with the location of sanitation facilities. Education also suffers as more than half the girls in their puberty who drop out of school, do so, for lack of adequate sanitation facilities. UN-HABITAT has developed a Gender Mainstreaming Strategy Framework in collaboration with the Gender and Water Alliance (GWA), which promotes the incorporation of gender concerns into all policies, programmes and activities in the water and sanitation sector. The framework addresses imbalances and inequalities in access to water and sanitation services. It emphasizes the need to bring about democracy, good governance, and greater participation by women in decision making at the municipal level. The framework promotes a bottom-up approach starting at community level, through improved advocacy, training, strengthening of institutional capacity in gender mainstreaming, resource mobilization, and the integration of gender needs in all programme activities.
WATER FOR CITIES newsletter is published quarterly by the Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch of UN-HABITAT. The Newsletter covers activities of the regional programmes: Water for African Cities and Water for Asian Cities, and the special initiatives Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN) and the Mekong Water and Sanitation Initiative (MEKONG-WATSAN). All enquires should be sent to the Editor, Water for Cities Newsletter, Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch, UN-HABITAT, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254-2-7624538, Fax: 254-2-7623588. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, URLs: www.unhabitat.org, www.unwac.org. Issue Twenty Six April-June 2006 Water for Cities Contributions from programme partners are encouraged.
Published on Mar 22, 2006
UN-HABITAT has developed a comprehensive framework to monitor water and sanitation coverage in 15 towns as part of the Lake Victoria Region...