Page 1

SC/EES/BIODIVERSITY/2010

 



$ !"' !M !M# M 



        


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

ZKDWLV ¦8<i,:

 

Z/DELRGLYHUVLGDGRGLYHUVLGDGELROyJLFDHVODYDULHGDGGHIRUPDVGH ODYLGDHQOD7LHUUD&RPSUHQGHWRGDVODVFRVDVYLYDVFRQVXHVWUXFWXUD JHQpWLFDSDUWLFXODU\DEDUFDGHVGHORVYLUXVPLFURVFySLFRVKDVWDORV DQLPDOHVPiVJUDQGHVGHOSODQHWDWDOHVFRPRODEDOOHQDD]XOLQFOX\H SHTXHxDVDOJDVSODQWDVHQRUPHVFRPRODVHFXR\DJLJDQWHDVtFRPR H[WHQVRVSDLVDMHVIRUPDGRVSRUXQDJUDQYDULHGDGGHHFRVLVWHPDV /RVVHUHVKXPDQRVVRQWDPELpQXQDSDUWHLQWHJUDOGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG /DELRGLYHUVLGDGFRPRFRQFHSWRHVDODYH]VHQFLOOR\GHVDÃ&#x20AC;DQWH 1RVRPRVDMHQRVDODJUDQYDULHGDGGHDQLPDOHV\SODQWDVTXH FRPSDUWHQFRQQRVRWURVHOSODQHWDSHURQRVRPRVWDQFRQVFLHQWHV GHOSDSHOIXQGDPHQWDOTXHGHVHPSHxDODELRGLYHUVLGDGHQHO PDQWHQLPLHQWRGHOHTXLOLEULRQDWXUDOGHOTXHGHSHQGHPRVRGHQXHVWUR ELHQHVWDUWDQWRItVLFRFRPRPHQWDO (VWDH[SRVLFLyQQRVD\XGDUiDGHVFXEULUKDVWDTXHSXQWRHVWDPRV YLQFXODGRVFRQHOPXQGRQDWXUDO\SRUTXpHVIXQGDPHQWDOFRQVHUYDU ODELRGLYHUVLGDGGHOD7LHUUDSDUDTXHODKXPDQLGDGWHQJDXQIXWXUR VDOXGDEOH3UHVHQWDUiWDPELpQORTXHSRGHPRVKDFHUSDUDUHGXFLU ODSpUGLGDGHELRGLYHUVLGDGSDUDODVJHQHUDFLRQHVIXWXUDV

(VWDH[SRVLFLyQPRVWUDUiTXHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVODSDUWHYLYD GHODQDWXUDOH]DODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVQXHVWUDYLGD ZBiodiversity or biological diversity is the variety of life on Earth. It comprises all living things including their unique genetic make-up and ranges from microscopic viruses to the largest animals on the planet such as the blue whale, small algae and big plants such as the giant sequoia, and the expansive landscapes comprised of a variety of ecosystems. Humans are also an integral part of biodiversity.

This exhibition will help uncover the extent of our links with the natural world and why conserving the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biodiversity is fundamental to a healthy future for humanity. It will also introduce what we could do to reduce biodiversity loss for future generations.

This exhibition will show you that Biodiversity is the living part of nature. Biodiversity is our life.

k   

   

             

k          

        !

k"      #$     %&         '  

Â&#x2039;,5'%256$3KLOLSSH

Biodiversity as a concept is both simple and challenging. We are familiar with the wide range of animals and plants that share our planet but are less familiar with the vital role biodiversity plays in maintaining our mutual life support system, and in both the physical and mental aspects of our well-being.

k     #$(  )*+,  -  $ (    

k."/ 0   & "  #  $    1  $ (#  

k23  4 5  5       #  

k     #  5  

 #  #       

    

k"  

  #     %&5         

k    

    # *+,  -         

k . #0  6  7 &5 " #        8  #   

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH3,//$,5(0DULH-HDQQH

Â&#x2039;,5':,550$11'HQLV

Â&#x2039;1DVD

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH 3$57(16.<)UpGpULF/,:LOOLDP.:


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

YDULHW\RIOLIHDW =(90,+(++,=0+(

   

Z/DELRGLYHUVLGDGFRPSUHQGHORVJHQHVHVSHFLHVHFRVLVWHPDV\ SDLVDMHVTXHFRQIRUPDQQXHVWURPXQGR /DELRGLYHUVLGDGLQFOX\HODYDULDFLyQJHQpWLFDTXHGHĂ&#x20AC;QHODQDWXUDOH]D SDUWLFXODUGHFDGDVHUYLYRHLPSOLFDGLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHORVLQGLYLGXRV GHQWURGHXQDHVSHFLH3RUHMHPSORODYDULDFLyQJHQpWLFDGHODUUR] HVYLWDOSDUDVXUHVLVWHQFLD\VXFDSDFLGDGSDUDDGDSWDUVHDORV FDPELRVHQODVFRQGLFLRQHVFOLPiWLFDV\GHOVXHOR/RVKXPDQRVKDQ XVDGRODYDULDFLyQJHQpWLFDSDUDFUHDUPLOHVGHYDULHGDGHVGHFXOWLYRV DOLPHQWLFLRVDVtFRPRSDUDFULDUDQLPDOHVGRPpVWLFRV /DELRGLYHUVLGDGLQFOX\HHVSHFLHVGHSODQWDVFRPRHOEDREDEDQLPDOHV FRPRHORVRSDQGD\PLFURRUJDQLVPRVFRPRHOSODQFWRQPDULQR /DELRGLYHUVLGDGLQFOX\HHFRVLVWHPDVDJUXSDPLHQWRVGLQiPLFRVGH DQLPDOHVSODQWDV\PLFURRUJDQLVPRVLQWHUDFWXDQGRHVWUHFKDPHQWH HQWUHHOORV\FRQHOPHGLRItVLFRHQTXHYLYHQFRPRSRUHMHPSOR KXPHGDOHVRDUUHFLIHVGHFRUDO /DELRGLYHUVLGDGLQFOX\HSDLVDMHVFRQPRVDLFRV\JUXSRVGHHFRVLVWHPDV LQWHUDFWXDQGRHQWUHHOORVFRPRWLHUUDVGHFXOWLYRERVTXHVRODJRV /DELRGLYHUVLGDGHVWiSRUWDQWRFRQVWDQWHPHQWHLQWHUDFWXDQGRHQ WRGRVVXVQLYHOHV

ZBiodiversity is made up of all the genes, species, ecosystems and landscapes that comprise our world.

Biodiversity includes VSHFLHV of plants such as the baobab, animals such as the panda and microorganisms such as marine plankton. Biodiversity comprises HFRV\VWHPV - dynamic groupings of animals, plants and microorganisms, in close interaction with each other, and the physical environment in which they live, for example, wetlands or coral reefs. Biodiversity includes ODQGVFDSHV, with mosaics and clusters of interacting ecosystems such as farmland, forests and lakes. Biodiversity is therefore constantly interacting at all levels.

k 9 *- $

  .  '9 #  0  1  1  

k:

      #$    1        #    (            

k     *;# -    

      $           

Â&#x2039;,15$%266(11(&<YHV

Biodiversity includes JHQHWLFYDULDWLRQ, which deďŹ nes the unique nature of any living thing and brings about differences between any two individuals within a species. For example, genetic variation in rice is vital for resilience and its ability to adapt to changing climatic and soil conditions. Humans have used genetic variation to breed thousands of varieties of food crops as well as domesticated animals.

k(    .  0

 .< 0  # ; *;# -     

k29 *-  45.9 #   0      

k3   

  5  #             #    

     

k&  7    *;# - 8   

5  

5     5       

k     . 045 .< 0  ;  # *;# -   

Â&#x2039;,5'02,=2%HUQDUG

Â&#x2039;,5'0217252,-HDQ3LHUUH

Â&#x2039;,15$*(123/$17(&+$7,1-

Â&#x2039;,5'02,=2%HUQDUG


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

FRPPXQLWLHVDQG *64<50+(+,:

 

Z7RGRVORVVHUHVYLYRVYLYHQHQHFRVLVWHPDVGLQiPLFRVGRQGH FRPSDUWHQHOPLVPRKiELWDW\FRQGLFLRQHVItVLFDVYLQFXODGRVHQWUH VtPHGLDQWHXQDUHGGHYLGD(QHVWHDPELHQWHFRPSDUWLGRVXVYLGDV HQWUHWHMHQXQWHMLGRGHUHODFLRQHVUHJXODGDVSRUODFRRSHUDFLyQ ODFRPSHWHQFLDODGHSUHGDFLyQODVLPELRVLVRHOSDUDVLWLVPR (VWHVLVWHPDLQWHUFRQHFWDGRGHOLFDGDPHQWHHTXLOLEUDGRSURSRUFLRQD DOLPHQWR\UHIXJLRFLFODMHGHHQHUJtD\SHUPLWHODUHSURGXFFLyQ &DGDPLHPEURGHHVWDFRPXQLGDGGHVHPSHxDXQSDSHOHVHQFLDOHQ HOPDQWHQLPLHQWRGHOHTXLOLEULRHQHVWDWUDPD /RVVHUHVKXPDQRVVRPRVSDUWHLQWHJUDOGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG$XQTXH SRGDPRVSDUHFHUPX\DOHMDGRVGHOPHGLRDPELHQWH´QDWXUDO¾FRQ QXHVWURVHVWLORVGHYLGDFDGDYH]PiVXUEDQRVVHJXLPRVtQWLPDPHQWH FRQHFWDGRVDORVHFRVLVWHPDV\VXVSURFHVRVPHGLDQWHQXHVWUDGLHWD DFWLYLGDGHVUHFUHDWLYDVHOXVRGHPDWHULDOHVHODJXD\PXFKRVRWURV UHFXUVRV

ZAll living things inhabit dynamic ecosystems where they share the same habitat and physical conditions linked through a web of life. In this shared environment their lives are interwoven in a web of relationships regulated by cooperation, competition, predation, symbiosis or parasitism. This delicately balanced interconnected system provides food and shelter, cycling of energy, and reproduction. Every member of this community plays an essential role in keeping this web in balance.

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH)217$1$<DQQ

People are very much part of biodiversity. No matter how far removed we may seem from the â&#x20AC;&#x153;naturalâ&#x20AC;? environment in our increasingly urban lifestyles, we remain intimately connected with ecosystems and their processes through our diets, recreational activities, use of materials, water and much more.

Â&#x2039;)XQGDFLyQ%LRGLYHUVLGDG

k        (

  $8 

      '8

k=    #   =  '

  

    

k       #     %    

 #*" -

k    

# &  *;# -

k  (   #  

(  '

    #)    >       8      ? #$   '           .0           '  

Â&#x2039;,15$%(*8(<$ODLQ

k    

5          

  *@ -

k =       =   45   5 

k6 4      5 

  

   ? 

#  4   # *" -

k"5 #  & 5 *;# -                           *  -    A 

k  5  ## 

  

       

   B   #  5   5.0   

Â&#x2039;,5'/$%287(3LHUUH

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH*$80(9,$//DXUHQFH

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH,5%,%(=,(5$QQLH


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

XQGHUVWDQGLQJLWV *6479,5+,9,

  Z/DGLYHUVLGDGGHHFRVLVWHPDVSURYHHJUDQFDQWLGDGGHVHUYLFLRVGH ORVHFRVLVWHPDVORVHFRVLVWHPDVPDULQRVSRUHMHPSORUHJXODQOD WHPSHUDWXUDGHOD7LHUUDSURSRUFLRQDQDOLPHQWR\VRQOXJDUHVGH UHFUHRSDUDODSREODFLyQKXPDQD/RVERVTXHVWURSLFDOHVSURSRUFLRQD PDWHULDOGHFRQVWUXFFLyQ\DOLPHQWRSDUDODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV\ D\XGDQDUHGXFLUHOFDOHQWDPLHQWRJOREDODODEVRUEHUHOGLy[LGRGH FDUERQRGHODDWPyVIHUD 8QDPD\RUGLYHUVLGDGGHHVSHFLHVHQORVHFRVLVWHPDVGDFRPRUHVXOWDGR HFRVLVWHPDVPiVDGDSWDEOHV\UHVLVWHQWHVDORVFDPELRVHQODVFRQGLFLRQHV DPELHQWDOHV&DGDHVSHFLHFXPSOHXQDIXQFLyQHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDHQODWUDPD GHODYLGD\GHSHQGHGHRWUDVHVSHFLHVSDUDVXVXSHUYLYHQFLD /DWUDPDGHODYLGDSLHUGHVXHTXLOLEULRFXDQGRGHVDSDUHFHXQDHVSHFLH ORFXDODIHFWDXOWHULRUPHQWHDORVVHUYLFLRVHFRVLVWpPLFRVGHORVTXHQRV EHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLDPRV &XDQWRPD\RUVHDODFDQWLGDGGHLQGLYLGXRVHQODSREODFLyQGHFDGD HVSHFLHPD\RUVHUiODUHVHUYDJHQpWLFDGHHVDSREODFLyQSDUDDGDSWDUVH PHMRUDXQPXQGRHQFRQVWDQWHFDPELR /DGLYHUVLGDGJHQpWLFDHVHOUHFXUVREiVLFRTXHSHUPLWHDODVHVSHFLHV UHVSRQGHUDQWHFDPELRVDPELHQWDOHV\SDWyJHQRVWDQWRSDUDODV HVSHFLHVVDOYDMHVFRPRSDUDODVGRPHVWLFDV

ZThe diversity of ecosystems delivers a number of ecosystem services. For example, marine ecosystems regulate the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s temperature, and provide food and recreation for human populations. A tropical forest provides building material and food for local communities and helps reduce global warming by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

A greater number of individuals in a population of a particular species increases the genetic pool in the population for better adaptation in a changing world. Genetic diversity is the basic resource that enables species to respond to environmental change and pathogens, both in wild and domesticated species.

k              #

 (

 */$>'8      -

k  C     #     # > *  6  -      

    

k8           1 ; *  -   

Â&#x2039;Â&#x2039;,5'6(59$,1-DFTXHV

Greater species diversity in ecosystems results in ecosystems that are more adaptable and resilient to changing environmental conditions. Each species fulďŹ ls a speciďŹ c role in the web of life, relying on other species for its survival. The web of life loses its balance when a species disappears, eventually affecting the ecosystem services we enjoy.

k>   k"            *; -    *; -   "    

k     

 

      #

    *>8/      -

k  C      #    >  # *6  6  -  4 #    

k> 8         1  ; * 1 -4  

Â&#x2039;,5')25(67,(5+XEHUW

Â&#x2039;,5'(03(5$,5(/DXUH

Â&#x2039;,5'6,0211($8;9LQFHQW

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH$0,&((UZDQ

k@      9   *; -

k/ 2   *; -    #         

# 


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

ZKHUHLV ÂŚ+Ă&#x201D;5+,,:;Ă?

 

Z/DELRGLYHUVLGDGSXHGHHQFRQWUDUVHHQWRGDVSDUWHVHQOD7LHUUD GHVGHHQPHGLRVH[WUHPRVFRPRORVSRORV1RUWH\6XUKDVWDHQ SURIXQGDVURFDVGHEDMRGHODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHGHOD7LHUUD\GHVGHORVRFpDQRV PiVSURIXQGRVKDVWDODVQXEHVPiVDOWDV<DVHDHQODV]RQDVVLOYHVWUHV RHQODViUHDVQDWXUDOHVSURWHJLGDVRD~QHQODViUHDVDOWHUDGDVSRUORV KXPDQRVFRPRJUDQMDVSODQWtRVGHERVTXHV\FLXGDGHVODELRGLYHUVLGDG QRVURGHD'LIHUHQWHVSDWURQHVGHELRGLYHUVLGDGH[LVWHQHQWRGRHO PXQGRFRQIRUPDQGRUHLQRVELRJHRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FRVFRQXQDKLVWRULDHYROXWLYD \FOLPiWLFDFRPSDUWLGD 6HFDOFXODTXHKD\GHDPLOORQHVGHHVSHFLHVHQOD7LHUUDSHUR ORVFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FRVVyORKDQLGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;FDGRPLOORQHV6yORDOJXQRVJUXSRV GHHVSHFLHVHQWUHHOORVORVPDPtIHURVODVDYHVORVDQĂ&#x20AC;ELRV\ODV FRQtIHUDVHVWiQELHQGRFXPHQWDGRV\FXHQWDQFRQXQDHYDOXDFLyQ GHVXHVWDGRGHFRQVHUYDFLyQ1RWHQHPRVFRQRFLPLHQWRVXĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWHGH PXFKRVRWURVLQFOXLGRVODVHVSHFLHVGHDJXDVSURIXQGDVORVKRQJRV \ORVPLFURRUJDQLVPRV $OJXQDVUHJLRQHVJHRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FDVVRQFHQWURVGHXQDJUDQGLYHUVLGDG GHHVSHFLHVDVtFRPRGHHQGHPLVPRV(VWRV´SXQWRVFDOLHQWHVÂľ UHSUHVHQWDQVyORHOGHODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHGHOD7LHUUDSHURFRQFHQWUDQ HOGHODVSODQWDVGHOPXQGR\HOGHWRGRVORVYHUWHEUDGRV WHUUHVWUHV6XHOHQFRQFHQWUDUVHHQUHJLRQHVDLVODGDVRWRSRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FDPHQWH YDULDEOHV LVODVPRQWDxDVSHQtQVXODV \VRQSDUWLFXODUPHQWHYXOQHUDEOHV

Some geographical regions are centres of both high species diversity and endemism. These 34 â&#x20AC;&#x153;hotspotsâ&#x20AC;? represent only 2.3% of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface yet concentrate 50% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plants and 42 % of all terrestrial vertebrates. They are frequently concentrated in isolated or topographically variable regions (islands, mountains, peninsulas) and are particularly vulnerable.

k          *( - #    #  8         

 

k;  k"     * -   8 # *&     @  " -    C )    "  2  

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH,3(9$0,&((UZDQ

ZBiodiversity can be found everywhere on Earth, from extreme environments such as the North and South Poles, to deep rocks beneath the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, to the deepest oceans and the highest clouds. Whether found in the wilderness or protected natural areas or even in areas altered by humans such as farms, forest plantations and cities, biodiversity surrounds us all. Distinctive patterns of biodiversity exist around the world, made up of recognized bio-geographic realms with a shared evolutionary and climatic history. There are an estimated 10 to 100 million species on Earth, but scientists have only identiďŹ ed around 1.9 million species. Only some groups of species, among them mammals, birds, amphibians and conifers are well documented and beneďŹ t from conservation status. We lack knowledge about many others, including deep-sea species, fungi or microorganisms.

k< 1     &  *;# -

k      

#  (  C   

  



 1*@ -

k?   $ * - #   

   #  # 

  5

k;   * #-  @    D6 # D  "  2  E++,

k"   # 5  k< &   *&5" - *;# -

Â&#x2039;,5'/$%287(3LHUUH

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH%(,/+()DELHQ

Â&#x2039;&,)XQGDFLyQ%LRGLYHUVLGDG

Â&#x2039;,5'%25e-HDQ0LFKHO

k       =   4 54      *@ -


:+$7,6%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢48((6/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

H[WLQFWLRQDQG ,?;05*0Ă&#x201D;5@,=63<*0Ă&#x201D;5

   

Z6HFDOFXODTXHOD7LHUUDWLHQHPLOPLOORQHVGHDxRV/RVFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FRV FDOFXODQTXHODYLGDHQOD7LHUUDVXUJLyKDFHPLOPLOORQHVGHDxRV 'HVGHHQWRQFHVODELRGLYHUVLGDGKDVHJXLGRHYROXFLRQDQGRHQVX QDWXUDOH]DYDULHGDG\FDQWLGDG 'HELGRDFDPELRVDPELHQWDOHVUDGLFDOHVHQOD7LHUUDODVHVSHFLHVKDQ HYROXFLRQDGRSDUDVREUHYLYLU\SURVSHUDU\DOJXQDVKDQGLVPLQXLGRR VHKDQH[WLQJXLGR/RVFDPELRVFOLPiWLFRV\ODDFWLYLGDGYROFiQLFDDVt FRPRHOLPSDFWRGHDVWHURLGHVVREUHOD7LHUUDKDQOOHYDGRDLPSRUWDQWHV FDPELRVHYROXWLYRVHQODELRGLYHUVLGDG'HHVWHPRGRORVHFRVLVWHPDV KDQFDPELDGRDORODUJRGHOWLHPSR 3RUORVUHJLVWURVIyVLOHVVDEHPRVGHFLQFRJUDQGHVH[WLQFLRQHVTXHKDQ DIHFWDGRDODELRGLYHUVLGDGHQODKLVWRULDGHOD7LHUUD /DPiVFRQRFLGDHVODGHORVGLQRVDXULRVTXHVHH[WLQJXLHURQGXUDQWH HOSHULRGR&UHWiFLFR7HUFLDULRKDFHXQRVPLOORQHVGHDxRV 'HVDIRUWXQDGDPHQWHGXUDQWHORV~OWLPRVFLQFXHQWDDxRVODDFWLYLGDG KXPDQDKDDXPHQWDGRLQWHQVDPHQWHODWDVDGHH[WLQFLyQQDWXUDO FDOFXODGDHQWUH\YHFHVPD\RUTXHODGHOUHJLVWURJHROyJLFR \TXHHVPXFKtVLPRPD\RUTXHODWDVDDODTXHVXUJHQQXHYDVHVSHFLHV ORTXHUHVXOWDHQXQDFODUDSpUGLGDGHELRGLYHUVLGDG 'HWHQHUODSpUGLGDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVWiDKRUDHQQXHVWUDVPDQRV

Due to drastic changes in the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environment, species have evolved to survive and thrive, some have decreased or become extinct. Climatic changes, volcanic activity and the impact of asteroids on the Earth have led to major evolutionary changes in the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biodiversity. Ecosystems have, as a result, changed over time. From the fossil record we know of ďŹ ve major extinctions affecting biodiversity in the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history. The most well known is the extinction of dinosaurs during the Cretaceous-Tertiary period about 65 million years ago. Unfortunately, over the past 50 years human activity has sharply increased the natural extinction rate, calculated at 100 to 1000 times that of the geological record, and much greater than the rate at which new species arise resulting in a net loss of biodiversity. Halting biodiversity loss is now in our hands.

k>     '      #      # ! 8 1 *C -

k

# # & "         A  1     

k "     '

           (#    #

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH*(25*(6-HDQ<YHV

ZThe Earth is estimated to be 4.65 billion years old. Scientists estimate that life on Earth ďŹ rst emerged 3.8 billion years ago. Biodiversity has continued to evolve in its nature, variety and quantity ever since.

k>    #   GH, 

 )  >     

k9 

    F ( 6   *@ -

k     #A  4    

  4   8   *C -

k # # 

 &5"  7    7   A  #    

k2" 7       5      5       # *; -

kGH,

 7      #>      

Â&#x2039;):HVWDOOHWDO*HRO6RF$PHU6SHF3XE

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH5$*8(7+XEHUW

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH*$//277,5RVDOLD

Â&#x2039;,5'-$))5e7DQJX\

k@      ?  F *@ -


ELRGLYHUVLW\VSULQJRI

+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

3()06+0=,9:0+(+!-<,5;,+,



  



Z1XHVWURELHQHVWDUGHSHQGHGHOHVWDGRGHVDWLVIDFFLyQGHQXHVWUDV QHFHVLGDGHVItVLFDV\DIHFWLYDV6LYLYLPRVYLGDVVDQDVWUDQTXLODV \VHJXUDVVLVHVDWLVIDFHQQXHVWUDVQHFHVLGDGHVVRFLDOHVHQWRQFHV QXHVWURPRGRGHYLGD\VHQWLGRGHSHUWHQHQFLDDXQDFRPXQLGDGVH DJUHJDQDOYDORUTXHOHGDPRVDQXHVWURPXQGR /DELRGLYHUVLGDGFRQWULEX\HDDVSHFWRVFODYHVGHQXHVWURELHQHVWDU VLQORVFXDOHVQRSRGHPRVYLYLUHQWUHORVTXHHVWiQ ORVELHQHVEiVLFRVDOLPHQWRVXĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWH\GHEXHQDFDOLGDGPDWHULDOHV GHFRQVWUXFFLyQSDUDYLYLHQGDVURSDĂ&#x20AC;EUDV\DFFHVRDFRPEXVWLEOHV FRPROHxD ODVHJXULGDGDFFHVRVHJXURDORVUHFXUVRVQDWXUDOHVVHJXULGDG SHUVRQDO\SURWHFFLyQDQWHORVGHVDVWUHVQDWXUDOHV\DTXHOORV SURYRFDGRVSRUHOKRPEUH ODVDOXGXQDVHQVDFLyQGHVDOXG\IXHU]DTXHSURYLHQHGHXQHQWRUQR ItVLFRVDQRTXHQRVGpDLUH\DJXDOLPSLRV\PHGLFDPHQWRV EXHQDVUHODFLRQHVVRFLDOHV\OLEHUWDGGHHOHFFLyQ\DFFLyQOD FRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHOOLEUHDFFHVRDHOOD\HOUHSDUWR HTXLWDWLYRGHORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVTXHVHGHULYDQGHVXXVRIDYRUHFHQHO UHVSHWRPXWXRKDFLDORVGHPiV\XQDPRWLYDFLyQ\FDSDFLGDGGH VDWLVIDFHUODVQHFHVLGDGHVGHTXLHQHVQRVURGHDQ\FRQWULEXLUDOD FRKHVLyQVRFLDOGHODFRPXQLGDGDVtFRPRDODOLEHUWDGLQGLYLGXDO \FROHFWLYDGHHOHFFLyQ\DFFLyQ

ZOur well-being depends on the state of our physical and emotional welfare. When we live healthy, contented, and secure lives, and when our social needs are met, our way of life and sense of community belonging add to the value we attach to our world.

ZOVY[[LYT SVUN[LYT

  

#!'*(#'!&'+%,*-"

 !" #$%&'()'#*(!% `)(:0*4(;,90(3-69(.66+30-, `/,(3;/ `.66+:6*0(39,3(;065: `:,*<90;@ `-9,,+646-*/60*,(5+(*;065

Â&#x2039;,5'0,&+21*HQHYLqYH

Biodiversity contributes to key aspects of our well-being, which we cannot live without and include: %DVLFJRRGV - sufďŹ cient food of good quality, building materials for shelter, clothing, ďŹ bre and access to fuel such as ďŹ rewood; 6HFXULW\ - secure access to natural and other resources, personal safety, and security from natural and human-made disasters; +HDOWK â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a sense of wellness and strength that comes for a healthy physical environment that provides us with clean air, water and medicines; *RRGVRFLDOUHODWLRQVDQGIUHHGRPRIFKRLFHDQGDFWLRQâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; conservation of biodiversity, fair access to it and the equitable sharing of the beneďŹ ts deriving from its use enhance mutual respect for others and a sense of purpose and ability to provide for children, and to contribute to the social cohesion of the community as well as to individual and collective freedom of choice and action.

`+,46.9(7/0* `,*65640*

LNNSVIHSPaH[PVU[YHKLTHYRL[HUKWVSPJ`MYHTL^VYR

`:6*067630;0*(3

LNNV]LYUHUJLPUZ[P[\[PVUHSHUKSLNHSMYHTL^VYR

`:*0,5*,(5+;,*/5636.@ `*<3;<9(3(5+9,30.06<: LNILSPLMZJVUZ\TW[PVUJOVPJLZ

*%+)+(+'&!*+

!'*(#'!&'+%,*-"

`796=0:06505.

`*/(5.,:0536*(33(5+<:,(5+*6=,9 `:7,*0,:05;96+<*;065699,46=(3 `;,*/5636.@(+(7;(;065(5+<:, `,?;,95(3057<;:

LNMVVK^H[LYMPILYHUKM\LS

`9,.<3(;05.

LNJSPTH[LYLN\SH[PVU^H[LYHUKKPZLHZL

`*<3;<9(3

LNZWPYP[\HSHLZ[OL[PJYLJYLH[PVUHUKLK\JH[PVU

`:<7769;05.

LNWYPTHY`WYVK\J[PVUHUKZVPSMVYTH[PVU

LNMLY[PSPaLY\ZLWLZ[JVU[YVSHUKPYYPNH[PVU

`*304(;,*/(5., `5(;<9(37/@:0*(3 (5+)0636.0*(3+90=,9: LNL]VS\[PVU]VSJHUVLZ

    

('("!+#!('&(!%+

Â&#x2039;0LOOHQLXP(FRV\VWHP$VVHVVPHQW

k  (  #   ;  8  *2-

k  A                       

k (       



k  ##       * -

k    #)  $ '

 (   < >       

#    

k    k?  A  #  ;   #   

*2-        # #    

k>        5#

k; ##  #

5   > 4*  -

k    #,    A5<$  2    8 

5 

Â&#x2039;,5'0217252,-HDQ3LHUUH

Â&#x2039;,15$0$,75(&KULVWRSKH

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH3217$,//(5-HDQ<YHV


OLQNHGWRHFRV\VWHP

+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

+,7,5+0,5;,:+,36::,9=0*06:

      

Z/RVVHUYLFLRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVVRQORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVTXHREWHQHPRVORV VHUHVKXPDQRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV\GHVXVFRPSRQHQWHV /RVHFRVLVWHPDVQRVSURSRUFLRQDQEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVWDOHVFRPRDOLPHQWRV DJXDFRQWUROGHHQIHUPHGDGHVUHJXODFLyQGHOFOLPDVDWLVIDFFLyQ HVSLULWXDOJR]RHVWpWLFR\PXFKRVPiV1XHVWURELHQHVWDUGHSHQGH GHODFDSDFLGDGGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVSDUDSURSRUFLRQDUQRVFRQWLQXDPHQWH HVRVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVTXHDVXYH]GHSHQGHQGHODDGDSWDELOLGDGGHORV HFRVLVWHPDV\VXFDSDFLGDGSDUDUHSRQHUVHUiSLGDPHQWHGHORVFDPELRV DGYHUVRV (OHIHFWRGHODVDFFLRQHVKXPDQDVHVORTXHOOHYDDORVFDPELRVHQ ORVHFRVLVWHPDV\VXVVHUYLFLRVORFXDOHVWiDIHFWDQGRJUDYHPHQWH QXHVWURELHQHVWDU3RUORWDQWRHVQXHVWUDUHVSRQVDELOLGDGUHĂ H[LRQDU FRQVHQVDWH]DFHUFDGHQXHVWUDDFWLWXG\QXHVWUDFRQGXFWDUHVSHFWR GHOPHGLRDPELHQWH\HQSDUWLFXODUVREUHODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHOD ELRGLYHUVLGDG

It is the effect of human action that is driving the changes in ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are gravely affecting our well-being. It is therefore our responsibility to think wisely about our attitude and behaviour towards the environment, and in particular to the conservation of biodiversity.

!"#!

 ./  %((!,%'#!(!% )+%*!%*%%!*,*(%'+

   



'%&!+!%!" `-66+ `-9,:/>(;,9 `>66+(5+-0),9 `-<,3 `ÂŻ

$$%'(!" `5<;90,5;*@*305. `:603-694(;065 `7904(9@796+<*;065 `ÂŻ

('%" #! .0

%

"(!" `*304(;,9,.<3(;065 `-366+9,.<3(;065 `+0:,(:,9,.<3(;065 `>(;,97<90-0*(;065 `ÂŻ (' `(,:;/,;0* `:7090;<(3 `,+<*(;065(3 `9,*9,(;065(3 `ÂŻ

    

Â&#x2039;,5'5$))$,//$&-HDQ3LHUUH

ZEcosystem services are the beneďŹ ts people obtain from ecosystems and all their components. Ecosystems provide us with such beneďŹ ts as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulďŹ lment, aesthetic enjoyment and many others. Our well-being depends on the ability of ecosystems to continually provide these beneďŹ ts for our use, which in turn relies on ecosystem resilience and their capacity to quickly recover from adverse changes.

 ./ . (+!()%,!0"+ (*%+)+( +'&!*+#- !"

   .  

*'!() `7,9:65(3:(-,;@ `:,*<9,9,:6<9*,(**,: `:,*<90;@-964+0:(:;,9:

+!*('!,%'"%%#!, `(+,8<(;,30=,30/66+: `:<--0*0,5;5<;90;06<:-66+ `:/,3;,9 `(**,::;6.66+:

(`:;9,5.;/ `-,,305.>,33 `(**,::;6*3,(5(09 (5+>(;,9

'#%%,*-%!* #*(!% 67769;<50;@;6), ()3,;6(*/0,=, >/(;(5+05+0=0+<(3 =(3<,:+605. (5+),05.

%%#+%*!'(!%+ `:6*0(3*6/,:065 `4<;<(39,:7,*; `()030;@;6/,376;/,9:

Â&#x2039;0LOOHQLXP(FRV\VWHP$VVHVVPHQW

k> ( 2<%  k%# '

          =      1    *  -

k> 1 8   '               *@ -

k      #   '  

k =                   )   (  *@ -

k #   2<%  #  =  # # 

     *  -

k%#  4     5

7#

k 8 

          

5   #  *@ -

k6 5       

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH,%035$-$8%HQRvW

Â&#x2039;,5''(-28;&ODXGH

Â&#x2039;,15$*(/+$<(3LHUUH

k = #    # 5 5   5  #   *@ -


+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

3URYLVLRQLQJ :,9=0*06:

     Z/RVHFRVLVWHPDVQRVSURSRUFLRQDQORVHOHPHQWRVEiVLFRVSDUDOD YLGDFRPRDOLPHQWRVDJXDIUHVFDPDGHUDĂ&#x20AC;EUDVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRV PHGLFDPHQWRV\SURGXFWRVRUQDPHQWDOHV\FXOWXUDOHV(VWRVVHUYLFLRV VRQSURYLVWRVSRUODELRGLYHUVLGDGTXHHVODEDVHGHORVVHUYLFLRVGH DEDVWHFLPLHQWRGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV6RQHVHQFLDOHVSDUDPDQWHQHU\ DVHJXUDUODVXEVLVWHQFLD\DVHJXUDQODVDOXGGHODVFRPXQLGDGHVVX VHJXULGDG\VXELHQHVWDU /RVKXPDQRVKDQXWLOL]DGR\GRPHVWLFDGRPXFKDVHVSHFLHVGHSODQWDV \DQLPDOHVVLOYHVWUHVSDUDDOLPHQWRĂ&#x20AC;EUD\YLYLHQGD/DELRGLYHUVLGDG HVODEDVHGHXQDJUDQSDUWHGHODVHFRQRPtDVORFDOHVHLQWHUQDFLRQDOHV $OUHGHGRUGHPLOORQHVGHSHUVRQDVGHSHQGHQGLUHFWDPHQWHGH VLVWHPDVDJUtFRODV\DVHDQFXOWLYRVJDQDGHUtDVLOYLFXOWXUDRSHVFD /RVPHGLFDPHQWRVLQFOXLGDVODVPHGLFLQDVWUDGLFLRQDOHV\ODLQGXVWULD IDUPDFpXWLFDGHSHQGHQHQJUDQSDUWHGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGYHJHWDO TXHHVXQDYDOLRVDIXHQWHGHUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRV &RQHOFUHFLPLHQWRGHODSREODFLyQKXPDQDMXQWRFRQXQDGHPDQGD FDGDYH]PD\RUGHDOLPHQWRV\RWURVUHFXUVRVODSUHVLyQVREUHORV HFRVLVWHPDVKDDXPHQWDGRDIHFWDQGRJUDYHPHQWHDODFDOLGDGGHHVWRV VHUYLFLRVVLWXDFLyQTXHKDHPSHRUDGRHQORV~OWLPRVFLQFXHQWDDxRV ZEcosystems provide us with the basic elements for life including food, fresh water, wood, ďŹ bre, genetic resources, medicines, and ornamental and cultural products. These services are provided by biodiversity, which forms the basis of the provisioning services of ecosystems. They are essential for sustaining and securing livelihoods, and they ensure the health of communities, their security and well-being. Humans have directly used, and domesticated, many species of wild plants and animals for food, ďŹ bre and shelter. Biodiversity is the basis for a large part of local and international economies. About 2.6 billion people rely directly on agricultural systems, be it farming, livestock production, orestry or ďŹ shery.

As the human population grows, together with an ever-increasing demand for food and other resources, pressure on ecosystems has severely affected the quality of these services, a situation which has worsened over the past 50 years.

k>!)    " *6# -

kF    

    "

$  " *  -

k(  

     (   #  I '   (      

    (  *@ -

Â&#x2039;,5'&$<5(3DWULFH

Medicines, including traditional medicines and the pharmaceutical industry greatly rely on plant biodiversity, which is a valuable source of genetic resources.

k2        $     '6 1I  '        *;# -

k"       #   1# ' J 4  8>  ;  *> & C -

k 8 # #   "  *6# -

k: ## 5  5   5  "

$  4 " *  -

k>              #    I      

 



      *@ -

Â&#x2039;,15$'835$=&KULVWLDQ

Â&#x2039;,5'/$%287(3LHUUH

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Â&#x2039;,5'-e*80LFKHO

k2           

6 1 I          *;# -

k6  # 7     3 9 # J 4  # 

   *> &5C -


+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

UHJXODWLQJ :,9=0*06:

  1 Z/RVHFRVLVWHPDVVDOXGDEOHVPHGLDQWHVXVVHUYLFLRVUHJXODGRUHV D\XGDQDUHJXODUQXHVWURFOLPD\RWURVDVSHFWRVGHOPHGLRDPELHQWH QDWXUDO/RVERVTXHV\ORVRFpDQRVUHJXODQHOFOLPD\PRGHUDQHO FDOHQWDPLHQWRJOREDODODEVRUEHUORVJDVHVGHLQYHUQDGHURGHODDWPyVIHUD /RVHFRVLVWHPDVVDOXGDEOHV\VXELRGLYHUVLGDGD\XGDQDPDQWHQHUOD FDOLGDGGHODLUHSXULĂ&#x20AC;FDUHODJXDSURFHVDUORVGHVHFKRV\SURWHJHUQRV GHORVSHOLJURVQDWXUDOHVODHURVLyQODVSODJDV\ODVHQIHUPHGDGHV /DELRGLYHUVLGDGLUUHPSOD]DEOHGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVGHKXPHGDOHV SRUHMHPSORD\XGDDODSXULĂ&#x20AC;FDFLyQQDWXUDOGHODJXDORViUEROHVHQODV FLXGDGHVUHGXFHQODFRQWDPLQDFLyQGHODLUH\ORVPDQJODUHV\DUUHFLIHV GHFRUDOSURWHJHQODVFRPXQLGDGHVFRVWHUDV\VXVFRVWDVGHODHURVLyQ \GHODJUDQIXHU]DGHODVRODVORVWVXQDPLV\ORVFLFORQHV /DFXELHUWDYHJHWDOD\XGDDSUHYHQLUDYDODQFKDV\ODHURVLyQGHOVXHOR /DSURSDJDFLyQGHHQIHUPHGDGHVFRPRHOFyOHUDVHFRQWURODPHGLDQWH HODFFHVRDODJXDOLPSLDTXHHVSURGXFWRGHORVVHUYLFLRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV 3RUORWDQWRORVVHUYLFLRVUHJXODGRUHVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVFRQWULEX\HQ HQJUDQPHGLGDDOHTXLOLEULRQDWXUDOGHQXHVWURSODQHWDTXHDVXYH] EHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLDODVHJXULGDG\HOELHQHVWDUGHORVKXPDQRV

ZHealthy ecosystems through their regulating services help regulate our climate and other aspects of our natural environment. Forests and oceans regulate climate and moderate global warming by absorbing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

For example, the unique biodiversity of wetland ecosystems assists in the natural puriďŹ cation of water, trees in cities reduce air pollution, and mangrove forests and coral reefs protect coastal communities and their coastlines from erosion and the full force of tsunamis and storm surges. Vegetation cover helps prevent landslides and soil erosion. The spread of diseases such as cholera is controlled by access to clean water, a product of ecosystem services. The regulating services of ecosystems therefore make an important contribution to the natural equilibrium of our planet, which in turn beneďŹ ts human security and well-being.

k  ( k   "    

  ';      #    ;#   *   -

k    A  "/E #       

 *"(-

Â&#x2039;,5'(,66(1-HDQ3KLOLSSH

Healthy ecosystems and their biodiversity help maintain air quality, purify water, treat waste, and protect us from natural hazards, erosion, pests and diseases.

k/  1 A I    *F-

k" 8>  ;    ?& 6"/  >  & 6   %   

#     &  K  / IG

 

'   (H++(  *6# -

k5 #  "   ##    *   -

k%#    #  ;  <     ;# 

k5    A ="/E5   5         *"-

k/  A5 # "   I

 *F-

k" 83  9 #?& 6"/  % & > 4   6     5 ##     &     3 I  G

 5   H++   *6# -

Â&#x2039;'5&HQWUH6FLHQFHV

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH3217$,//(5-HDQ<YHV

Â&#x2039;,5'/(0$6621-HDQ-DFTXHV

Â&#x2039;,5'6,0211($8;9LQFHQW


+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

VXSSRUWLQJ :,9=0*06:

 

Z/RVVHUYLFLRVGHEDVHGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVWDOHVFRPRORVFLFORVGH QXWULHQWHVVRQORVSURFHVRVIXQGDPHQWDOHVDXQTXHPXFKDVYHFHV LQYLVLEOHVGHORVTXHGHSHQGHQWRGRVORVRWURVVHUYLFLRVHFRVLVWpPLFRV LQFOXLGRVODSURGXFFLyQGHDOLPHQWRV\DJXD\ODUHJXODFLyQFOLPiWLFD &UHDQODVFRQGLFLRQHVEiVLFDVSDUDODYLGDHQOD7LHUUD /DSURGXFFLyQGHDOLPHQWRVSRUHMHPSORGHSHQGHGHODIRUPDFLyQGH VXHORIpUWLOTXHDVXYH]GHSHQGHHQJUDQPHGLGDGHODVFRQGLFLRQHV FOLPiWLFDVDVtFRPRORVSURFHVRVTXtPLFRV\ELROyJLFRVUHDOL]DGRV SRUEDFWHULDV\KRQJRVTXHGHVFRPSRQHQORVGHVHFKRV\SHUPLWHQ TXHORVQXWULHQWHVOOHJXHQDORVFXOWLYRV/RVFXOWLYRVXVDQHO&2GHO DLUHGXUDQWHODIRWRVtQWHVLVSDUDSURGXFLUD]~FDUHV\ODELRPDVDTXH FRQVXPLPRVSDUDREWHQHUHQHUJtD(VWRVSURFHVRVGHSHQGHQGHORV FLFORVGHQXWULHQWHV\DJXDTXHDVXYH]LQĂ X\HQHQORVUHFXUVRV GLVSRQLEOHVSDUDSODQWDV\DQLPDOHVHQXQVLVWHPDFtFOLFRPX\ELHQ DĂ&#x20AC;QDGR /DUHGXFFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGLQGXFLGDSRUHOVHUKXPDQRSRUOR WDQWRSHUWXUEDODPDQHUDHQTXHIXQFLRQDQORVSURFHVRVHFRVLVWpPLFRV ORTXHSURYRFDTXHVHGHJUDGHQORVVHUYLFLRVGHDSR\RGHORV HFRVLVWHPDVTXHDOĂ&#x20AC;QGHFXHQWDVDIHFWDQXHVWURELHQHVWDU ZZThe supporting services of ecosystems such as nutrient cycling are the fundamental but often invisible processes, on which all the other ecosystem services depend, including the production of food and water, and climate regulation. They create the basic conditions for life on Earth.

Human-induced reduction in biodiversity therefore disrupts the way ecosystem processes function causing the supporting ecosystem services to degrade, which ultimately affects our well-being.

k<      =      '           

k   2# 1!        # > ;      ?& 6"/

k>: #

              !

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH'(/+$<(&ODXGH

For example, food production depends on VRLOIRUPDWLRQ, which itself greatly depends on climatic conditions as well as chemical and biological processes carried out by bacteria and fungi, which decompose waste and make nutrients available to food crops. Food crops use CO2 in the air during SKRWRV\QWKHVLV to produce the sugars and ELRPDVV that we consume for energy. These processes depend on QXWULHQW and ZDWHUF\FOLQJ, which in turn inďŹ&#x201A;uences the amounts available to plants and animals in a ďŹ nely-tuned cyclic system.

k?'8

  (              C 

k 8        18  # $           *@ -

k"

 #  =      45 #  

k2# L @

    5 1   #  ?& 6"/  3  9 #

k: #   5

   5      

Â&#x2039;,5'&+$1*(8;7KRPDV

k# 

            C 

Â&#x2039;,5'52*(53LHUUH

Â&#x2039;,5'/$85(-RVHSK

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH&+$9(-pU{PH

k  8    8  8=   #         *>  -


+2:'2(6%,2',9(56,7<6(59(86"Â&#x2021;¢(148(126%(1(),&,$/$%,2',9(56,'$'"

FXOWXUDO :,9=0*06:

 

Z/RVVHUYLFLRVFXOWXUDOHVVRQORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVQRPDWHULDOHVTXHODJHQWH REWLHQHGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVPHGLDQWHHOHQULTXHFLPLHQWRHVSLULWXDO HOGHVDUUROORFRJQLWLYRODUHĂ H[LyQODUHFUHDFLyQ\ODVH[SHULHQFLDV HVWpWLFDV 1XHVWUDVGLYHUVDVFUHHQFLDV\FRVWXPEUHVUHOLJLRVDV\HVSLULWXDOHV VXHOHQHVWDUOLJDGDVDODQDWXUDOH]D/DVKLVWRULDVHQWRUQRDOD ELRGLYHUVLGDGFRQIRUPDQQXHVWUDVOH\HQGDV\DUUDLJDQQXHVWUR VHQWLGRGHSHUWHQHQFLDDXQOXJDURFRPXQLGDGHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FRV0XFKDV FRPXQLGDGHVHQWRGRHOPXQGRWLHQHQXQDUHODFLyQHVSLULWXDOFRQ ODQDWXUDOH]D/DELRGLYHUVLGDGKDLQVSLUDGR\FRQWULEXLGRPXFKRD QXHVWUDVFXOWXUDVKLVWRULDV\DUWHV1XHVWUDKHUHQFLDFXOWXUDODVtFRPR QXHVWURVFRQRFLPLHQWRV\YDORUHVHGXFDWLYRVHVWiQDUUDLJDGRVHQQXHVWUR DPELHQWHQDWXUDO /DELRGLYHUVLGDGWLHQHWDPELpQXQYDORUHFRQyPLFRTXHSXHGHPHGLUVH HQUHODFLyQFRQODUHFUHDFLyQ\HOHFRWXULVPRSHURVXYDORUHQWpUPLQRV GHHQULTXHFLPLHQWRHVSLULWXDO\JR]RHVWpWLFRHVLQFRQPHQVXUDEOH

Our various spiritual and religious beliefs and customs are often connected to nature. Stories around biodiversity shape our legends and ground our sense of belonging to a distinct place or community. Many communities around the world have a spiritual relationship with nature. Biodiversity has greatly contributed to, and inspired our cultures, history, and arts. Our cultural heritage, our knowledge and educational values are all rooted in our natural environment. Biodiversity has measurable economic value in relation to recreation and ecotourism, but its value in terms of spiritual enrichment and aesthetic enjoyment is beyond measure.

k #  

#  M        !    #  J 4 *6 < -

k            #  8   

  #   #

k? ' (

  



1 *;$=-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXHSURJUDPPHŠ$GDSWDWLRQELRORJLTXHHWFXOWXUHOOHOHV\VWqPHUHQQHÂŞ

ZCultural services are the non-material beneďŹ ts people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reďŹ&#x201A;ection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences.

k%         #A  2  6  #         1*2-

k?44



      

    A* 4 ??-

k% #  #   M

          

    NN<# J 4*6 -

k   4       #%      5     # 

4

k9        4   *;=-

Â&#x2039;,5'%(5186(GPRQG

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH6$80$'()UpGpULF

Â&#x2039;,5')25(67,(5+XEHUW

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH$/,;&ODLU

k2 ?        A5    2 6   # 4



#   *2-

k&44

#       5* 4-


DODUPLQJUDWHRI

:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

<5(;(:((3(94(5;,

 2    Z(VWDPRVSHUGLHQGRHVSHFLHVDXQDWDVDDODUPDQWH/D8QLyQ ,QWHUQDFLRQDOSDUDOD&RQVHUYDFLyQGHOD1DWXUDOH]D 8,&1 VHxDODTXH XQDGHFDGDRFKRHVSHFLHVGHDYHVXQDGHFDGDFXDWURGHPDPtIHURV XQDGHFDGDWUHVGHFRQtIHUDVXQRGHFDGDWUHVDQĂ&#x20AC;ELRV\VHLVGHFDGD VLHWHWRUWXJDVPDULQDVHVWiQDPHQD]DGDVFRQODH[WLQFLyQ$GHPiV VHKDSHUGLGRHOGHODGLYHUVLGDGJHQpWLFDGHFXOWLYRVDJUtFRODV\ HOGHODVSHVTXHUtDVGHOPXQGRHVWiQWRWDOPHQWHH[SORWDGDV RVREUHH[SORWDGDV (ODXPHQWRGHSREODFLyQODDVSLUDFLyQDPHMRUHVFRQGLFLRQHVGHYLGD\ HOGHVDUUROORHFRQyPLFRFRQGXFHQDJUDQGHVFDPELRVDPELHQWDOHV(VWRV SURYRFDQODGLVPLQXFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGFRPRFRQVHFXHQFLDGLUHFWD GHODSpUGLGDGHKiELWDWV\FDPELRVHQHOXVRGHVXHORHOFDPELR FOLPiWLFRODVHVSHFLHVLQYDVRUDVODVREUH[SORWDFLyQ\ODFRQWDPLQDFLyQ H[LVWHQWDPELpQFDXVDVVXE\DFHQWHVFRPRXQDJREHUQDQ]DLQVXĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWH \PDUFRVOHJDOHVHLQVWLWXFLRQDOHVTXHLQFOX\DQODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHOPHGLR DPELHQWH7RGDVHVWDVFDXVDVLQWHUDFW~DQHQWUHVt /DELRGLYHUVLGDGHVXQHOHPHQWRFHQWUDOSDUDORVVHUYLFLRVTXHORV HFRVLVWHPDVSURSRUFLRQDQDOELHQHVWDUKXPDQR/RVFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FRVFDOFXODQ TXHHOGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVGHOD7LHUUDKDGLVPLQXLGRVXFDSDFLGDG SDUDRIUHFHUORVVHUYLFLRVYLWDOHVGHORVTXHGHSHQGHPRVLQFOXLGRHO DEDVWHFLPLHQWRGHDJXDOLPSLD\DOLPHQWRVODUHJXODFLyQGHOFOLPD\OD IRUPDFLyQGHVXHORIpUWLO /DGHJUDGDFLyQGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV\ODUHGXFFLyQHQODDEXQGDQFLD GHHVSHFLHVHURVLRQDQHOFDSLWDOQDWXUDO\ORVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVGH ORVTXHREWHQHPRVWRGRVQXHVWURVFXOWLYRV\DQLPDOHVGRPpVWLFRV ORTXHFRQOOHYDXQDSpUGLGDGHDGDSWDELOLGDG\XQDLQFDSDFLGDGSDUD DGHFXDUQRVDORVFDPELRVDPELHQWDOHVGHOIXWXUR /DSpUGLGDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGWDPELpQOOHYDDXQDSpUGLGDGH GLYHUVLGDGFXOWXUDO ZWe are losing species at an alarming rate. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that 1 species of bird out of 8, 1 mammal out of 4, 1 conifer out of 3, 1 amphibian out of 3, and 6 marine turtles out of 7, are all threatened with extinction. In addition, 75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost and 75% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ďŹ sheries are fully or over-exploited. With increasing population, aspirations for better living conditions and economic development leading to environmental changes, biodiversity is being lost through direct causes such as habitat loss and land use changes, climate change, invasive species, over-exploitation and pollution, and underlying causes such as poor governance and legal and institutional frameworks with respect to its conservation. All these causes interact with each other.

(VSHFLHVHQSHOLJUR 6SHFLHVLQGDQJHU

Degraded ecosystems and a fall in the numbers of species erode the natural capital and the genetic resources from which we derive all our crops and domesticated animals, leading to lesser resilience and an inability to adapt to future environmental changes. Loss of biodiversity also leads to loss of cultural diversity.

3KRWRE\$OH[0DUWWXQHQ )LQODQG

Biodiversity is a central element to the services the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems provide for human well-being. Scientists estimate that 60% of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems have reduced their capacity to deliver the vital ecosystem services on which we all depend, including the provision of clean fresh water and food, the regulation of climate and the formation of fertile soil.

Â&#x2039;5HG/LVW8,&1

k?#  ) k>      # = 

  8'  555 ##   # '   !#  

     

   #   # 

k   ( # '  1 

 (  

  )*-

k#  

  ( (#     *1  -

k # #        ; / OPPE   '  ; (* #-

k9     5 #    

 555 ##   #

k> # # =          #   45

              #   

k  # 

     O+ 7

          *-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH%/$6&2)UDQoRLV Â&#x2039;,5'6,/9$,1-HDQ)UDQoRLV

Â&#x2039;,5'3,(55(7$ODLQ

k;#  #   # 7    *1  -

k   5     ;    OPPE     ;    * #-


:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

+DELWDW 7i9+0+(

 3

Z8QFDPELRGHKiELWDWSXHGHRFXUULUGHPDQHUDQDWXUDOGHELGRDVHTXtDV HQIHUPHGDGHVLQFHQGLRVYROFDQHVWHUUHPRWRVOLJHURVFDPELRVHQOD WHPSHUDWXUDHVWDFLRQDORHQODSUHFLSLWDFLyQ6LQHPEDUJRODVFDXVDV SULQFLSDOHVGHODIUDJPHQWDFLyQGHOKiELWDWVXGHWHULRURRSpUGLGDVRQ ODVDFWLYLGDGHVKXPDQDVHQHVSHFLDOODDJULFXOWXUDSHURWDPELpQODFUtD GHJDQDGRODFRQVWUXFFLyQGHLQIUDHVWUXFWXUDODWDODODPLQHUtD\OD XUEDQL]DFLyQDFHOHUDGD/DVWLHUUDVGHFXOWLYRRFXSDQ\DPiVGHOGH ODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHWHUUHVWUHH[FOX\HQGROD$QWiUWLGD (QpSRFDVUHFLHQWHVODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHIRUHVWDOGHOD7LHUUDVHKDUHGXFLGR HQXQORVKXPHGDOHVHQXQORVDUUHFLIHVGHFRUDOHQXQ\ ORVPDQJODUHVHQXQ/DSHVFDHQDOWDPDUHVWiSURYRFDQGRXQGDxR FRQVLGHUDEOHDORVOHFKRVPDULQRVFRQODSRVLEOHSpUGLGDGHPLOORQHVGH HVSHFLHV\VXVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRV /DVSUHVDV\ORVFDQDOHVKDQIUDJPHQWDGRHOGHORVJUDQGHVUtRV /RVKXPDQRVXWLOL]DPRV\DHOGHODJXDTXHOOHJDDORVUtRV(O0DU GH$UDOSRUHMHPSORIXHXQDYH]HOFXDUWRODJRPiVJUDQGHGHOPXQGR $KRUDVHSUHYpTXHGHVDSDUH]FDHQHOSUy[LPRGHFHQLR

ZHabitat loss can occur naturally through drought, disease, ďŹ re, volcanoes, earthquakes, slight changes in seasonal temperature or rainfall, but it is the changes in land use through human activities particularly agriculture, but also cattle rearing, construction of infrastructure, logging, mining and rapid urbanization, which are the main drivers of habitat fragmentation, deterioration and loss. Croplands account for more than 25% of land surface excluding Antarctica. In recent times, the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forest surface has been reduced by 40%, wetlands by 50%, coral reefs by 20% and mangroves by 35%. Deep-sea ďŹ shing is causing considerable damage to sea beds with the potential loss of millions of species and their genetic resources.

Â&#x2039;6DQWL%XUJRV

Dams and canals have fragmented 60% of large rivers. Humans use 45% of the water running into rivers. The Aral Sea, for example, was once the fourth biggest lake in the world. It is now predicted to disappear within the next decade.

k 

  1      (       >   &    % "

7 7 ; * )-

k   

    (  1    ; (      1*@ -

kC (      !       #   )   $ #    (    *  -

k%    "( ;C  *  -

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH/(72851($8)UDQoRLV0LFKHO

k # (  #  

          (          *2-

k5  5 B  5  5    %  6 & > 4 *6-

k3 

      1   ;       #   #  *@ -

k #            1     5       * 1 -

k%     "  ;C * 1 -

k###5    #     

    

5    #   #  #*2-

Â&#x2039;<DQQ$UWKXV%HUWUDQGŠ/D7HUUHYXHGXFLHOÂŞ81(6&2

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH+$50(/,1 Â&#x2039;,5''()25(67$+XEHUW


:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

&OLPDWH *(4)06

3

Z(OFDPELRFOLPiWLFRHVWiDIHFWDQGRDODELRGLYHUVLGDGJOREDODPHGLGDTXH ODWHPSHUDWXUDSURPHGLRGHOD7LHUUDDXPHQWD\VRQPiVIUHFXHQWHV ORVDFRQWHFLPLHQWRVFOLPiWLFRVH[WUHPRVTXHDIHFWDQQHJDWLYDPHQWHOD ELRGLYHUVLGDGHOIXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHHFRVLVWHPDV\SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHOD SURYLVLyQGHORVVHUYLFLRVHFRVLVWpPLFRV\HOELHQHVWDUGHORVKXPDQRV /DGLVWULEXFLyQGHODVHVSHFLHVDQLPDOHV\YHJHWDOHVWDQWRVLOYHVWUHV FRPRGRPHVWLFDGDVHVVHQVLEOHDFRQGLFLRQHVFOLPiWLFDVWDOHVFRPROD WHPSHUDWXUD\ODKXPHGDG'HELGRDODXPHQWRGHODWHPSHUDWXUDGHO RFpDQR\FDPELRVHQODTXtPLFDGHODJXDGHPDUSRUHODOPDFHQDPLHQWR GHFDUERQROD*UDQ%DUUHUDGHDUUHFLIHVGH$XVWUDOLDSRGUtDSHUGHUKDVWD HOGHVXVFRUDOHVYLYRVSDUDHODxR(QĂ&#x2030;IULFDORVHOHIDQWHVVH KDQYXHOWRPX\YXOQHUDEOHVDOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRFRQSHULRGRVGHVHTXtD PiVODUJRV\KiELWDWVFDGDYH]PiVUHGXFLGRV(Q$VLDODHOHYDFLyQSUHYLVWD GHOQLYHOGHOPDUSRGUtDUHVXOWDUHQODGHVDSDULFLyQGHPDQJODUHV ORFXDODPHQD]DUtDODVXEVLVWHQFLDGHODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV /DVĂ XFWXDFLRQHVHQODWHPSHUDWXUDDIHFWDQDORVFLFORVGHYLGDGHORV FXOWLYRV\ORVDQLPDOHVGRPpVWLFRV/DVSHUWXUEDFLRQHVHQODĂ RUDFLyQ \ODIUXFWLĂ&#x20AC;FDFLyQGHODVSODQWDVSXHGHQSURYRFDUTXHIUDFDVHQDOJXQDV YDULHGDGHVGHFXOWLYRV/RVFDPELRVHQODVpSRFDVGHUHSURGXFFLyQ\ GHPLJUDFLRQHVSXHGHQDIHFWDUDGYHUVDPHQWHDORVDQLPDOHVVLOYHVWUHV \GRPpVWLFRV/DVSUiFWLFDVFXOWXUDOHVOLJDGDVDOFDOHQGDULRDJUtFROD WDPELpQVHYHUiQDIHFWDGDVSRUHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFR

ZBiodiversity is being affected globally by climate change as the average temperature on Earth becomes warmer, with more frequent extreme weather events negatively affecting biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and ultimately the provision of ecosystem services and human well-being.

Temperature ďŹ&#x201A;uctuations affect the life cycles of crops and domesticated animals. Disturbances in plant ďŹ&#x201A;owering and fructiďŹ cation can cause crop varieties to fail. Shifts in breeding periods and migrations can adversely affect both wild and domesticated animals. Cultural practices linked to the agricultural calendar are also ultimately affected by climate change.

k            (  (

     * 4@-

k? ; 2   k   #/        "( ?    '    $1          ?    $  61 #*& #-

Â&#x2039;,5'*,0211($8;*HRIIUH\

The distribution of wild and domesticated animal and plant species is sensitive to such climatic conditions as temperature and humidity. Due to increases in ocean temperature and changes in sea water chemistry due to carbon sequestration, Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Great Barrier Reef could lose up to 95% of its living coral by 2050. In Africa, elephants have become highly vulnerable to climatic change with longer dry periods and shrinking habitats. In Asia, projected rises in sea levels could result in the disappearance of mangrove forests, threatening livelihoods.

k"     ;$= #         

*;$=-

k   #  )  # "        

   #   *6 ( -

k6          "  # 5

      * 4@-

Â&#x2039;,5''(-28;&ODXGH

Â&#x2039;,5'%28512)0DUF

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH$1'5(0DULH)UDQoRLVH

k/    2 4/  5   "   ?6

k  4# 5         #                1#  # 61 # *& 5-

k  ;=  #         

*;=-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH48(12/+HUYp

k3  6     " #     

#   5 #*6   -


:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

,QYDVLYHDOLHQ ,:7,*0,:

   

Z/DLQWURGXFFLyQ²DFFLGHQWDORLQWHQFLRQDO²GHHVSHFLHVLQYDVRUDV YHJHWDOHVFRPRHOMDFLQWRGHDJXDHQORVWUySLFRVRDQLPDOHVFRPR ODDUGLOODJULVHQ(XURSDSXHGHWHQHUXQLPSDFWRGHYDVWDGRUHQODV HVSHFLHVORFDOHVQDWXUDOHV\FXOWLYDGDV\HQORVHFRVLVWHPDV 'HVSXpVGHODSpUGLGDGHOKiELWDWODVHVSHFLHVLQYDVRUDVVRQODVHJXQGD FDXVDPiVLPSRUWDQWHGHODH[WLQFLyQGHHVSHFLHV/DVHVSHFLHVLQYDVRUDV LQWHUĂ&#x20AC;HUHQFRQODUHGGHUHODFLRQHV\GLVWRUVLRQDQORVVHUYLFLRV SURSRUFLRQDGRVSRUHOHFRVLVWHPDVREUHWRGRHQHFRVLVWHPDVDLVODGRV FRPRUtRVHLVODV (QDxRVUHFLHQWHVODIUHFXHQFLD\HOULHVJRDVRFLDGRVFRQODLQWURGXFFLyQ GHHVSHFLHVH[yWLFDVKDQDXPHQWDGRVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLYDPHQWHGHELGRDO FUHFLPLHQWRGHODSREODFLyQKXPDQD\VXVDFWLYLGDGHVDVtFRPROD PD\RURSRUWXQLGDGSDUDTXHODVHVSHFLHVVHH[WLHQGDQJUDFLDVDORV WUDQVSRUWHVHOFRPHUFLR\HOWXULVPR /RVFRVWHVHFRQyPLFRV\KXPDQRVSXHGHQVHUFRQVLGHUDEOHV(Q(VWDGRV 8QLGRVHOFRVWHĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLHURGHODLQYDVLyQGHHVSHFLHVH[yWLFDVVXSHUD ORVPLOORQHVGHGyODUHVSRUDxRPiVTXHHOWRWDOGHWRGRVORV RWURVGHVDVWUHVQDWXUDOHVMXQWRV/DLQWURGXFFLyQGHODSHUFDGHO1LORHQ HO/DJR9LFWRULDHQĂ&#x2030;IULFDSURYRFyODH[WLQFLyQGHHVSHFLHVQDWLYDV GHSHFHVMXQWRFRQODSpUGLGDGHODVSUiFWLFDVFXOWXUDOHVUHODFLRQDGDV FRQODSHVFDWUDGLFLRQDOGHODVHVSHFLHVH[WLQWDV

ZThe introduction, whether accidental or intended, of alien invasive species of plants, such as water hyacinth in the tropics, or animals such as the grey squirrel in Europe, can have a devastating impact on natural and cultivated species and ecosystems. After habitat loss, invasive alien species are the second most important driver of species extinction. Invasive species interfere with the web of relationships and distort the services provided by the ecosystem particularly in isolated ecosystems such as rivers and islands.

The economic and human costs can be considerable. In the United States, the economic costs of non-native species invasion exceed US$ 137 billion each year, more than the combined total of all other natural disasters. The introduction of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria in Africa caused the extinction of 200 native ďŹ sh species along with the loss of cultural practices relatedto traditional ďŹ shing of the extinct species.

k      2  J #  8  # Q2Q      

   (

k  #  1 $ # 6 *   2-(  #  (

   #  2<%      



k  #                ;  ; (  ( 



                    (

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH/(%289,(50DUF

The rate and risk associated with the introduction of alien species have in recent years signiďŹ cantly increased due to human population growth and activities, as well as the opportunities for species to spread due to travel, trade and tourism.

k)  $ "   *   -

k  #       

          

k%     J #  2         4 # ##  

k   # 8  46 *  - # 2   2<%  #       

k 5             ;      5  

      5        ; 

Â&#x2039;,5'328<$8'/DXUHQW

Â&#x2039;,5''$1*/(62OLYLHU

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH*5$,//(5RODQG

Â&#x2039;,15$0$,75(&KULVWRSKH

k> #5  "    *   -

k   8               


RYHUH[SORLWDWLRQ

:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

:6)9,?736;(*0Ă&#x201D;5

1

Z/DVREUH[SORWDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHQORVHFRVLVWHPDVGHOD7LHUUD SRUORVKXPDQRVPHGLDQWHIRUPDVQRVRVWHQLEOHVGHFD]DSHVFD\ H[WUDFFLyQGHPDWHULDVSULPDVHVWiDXPHQWDQGRODKXHOODHFROyJLFDTXH QRHVPiVTXHXQDPHGLGDGHODGHPDQGDKXPDQDVREUHORVHFRVLVWHPDV GHOD7LHUUD/DVREUH[SORWDFLyQHURVLRQDHOFDSLWDOQDWXUDOSHUWXUED ODVUHODFLRQHVHQHOHFRVLVWHPDGLVPLQX\HODFDQWLGDGGHHVSHFLHV\OD GLYHUVLGDGGHODUHVHUYDJHQpWLFDGHpVWDV\SXHGHOOHYDUDODH[WLQFLyQ GHHVSHFLHV &RQHOULWPRDFWXDOGHH[WUDFFLyQVHFDOFXODTXHODVHVSHFLHVDFWXDOHV GHSHFHVFRPHUFLDOHVGHOPXQGRHVWDUiQH[WLQWDVSDUDHODxR 6HHVWLPDTXHHOFDODGHURGHEDFDODRGHO$WOiQWLFR1RUWHTXHIXHXQR GHORVPiVSURGXFWLYRVFXHQWDDFWXDOPHQWHFRQPHQRVGHOGHVX FDSDFLGDGRULJLQDOFRQHIHFWRVGHYDVWDGRUHVHQFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV /DWDODGHiUEROHVWURSLFDOHVHQ$VLDHVWiGHVWUX\HQGRJUDQGHViUHDVGH ERVTXHVWURSLFDOHVULFRVHQELRGLYHUVLGDG/DFD]DGHDQLPDOHVVREUH WRGRHQĂ&#x2030;IULFDHVWiUHGXFLHQGRORVHMHPSODUHVGHPHJDIDXQDWDOHV FRPRHOHOHIDQWHHOULQRFHURQWH\ODMLUDID /DFRQWDPLQDFLyQRFXUUHFXDQGRORVKXPDQRVHPLWHQPiVGHVKHFKRV GHORVTXHORVHFRVLVWHPDVVRQFDSDFHVGHDEVRUEHU/RVJDVHVGHHIHFWR LQYHUQDGHURORVIHUWLOL]DQWHV\ORVGHVKHFKRVDJUtFRODV\Wy[LFRV SHUWXUEDQODVLQWHUDFFLRQHVHQHOVHQRGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVORFXDOLPSDFWD HQODELRGLYHUVLGDG/RVGHVKHFKRVDJUtFRODVSRUHMHPSOROOHYDQDOD HXWURĂ&#x20AC;FDFLyQGHORVUtRV\ODPXHUWHPDVLYDGHHVSHFLHVGHSHFHV

ZThe over-exploitation of biodiversity on the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems by humans through unsustainable hunting, ďŹ shing and the extraction of raw material is increasing the ecological footprint, a measure of human demand on the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems.

Pollution occurs when humans emit more waste than the absorption capacity of the ecosystem. Greenhouse gases, fertilizers, agricultural and toxic waste all disturb interactions impacting on biodiversity. For example, agricultural waste leads to the eutrophication of rivers and the widespread death of ďŹ sh species.

k           



k 

#  '

   4   1   

  &   " 44 *6 < -

k>! *6 

-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH+$50(/,1-HDQ*HRUJHV

Over-exploitation erodes the natural capital, disrupts the relations in the ecosystem, decreases the number of species and the diversity of the genetic pool and can lead to species extinction. At the current rate of extraction, it is estimated that the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current commercial ďŹ sh species will be extinct by 2048. The Atlantic cod ďŹ shery, once the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most productive is now estimated at less than 1% of its original capacity with devastating effects on local communities. Logging of tropical timber in Asia is destroying large tracts of biodiversity-rich tropical forests. Animal hunting, particularly in Africa is reducing the numbers of megafauna such as the elephant, rhinoceros and giraffe.

k?   '6#  ;  ) 555 ##   #

k            */$R-

k3       

 # 

kC 5    #   4

#     #   5   #    &   " 44*6 -

Â&#x2039;,5'3(,*121&KULVWRSKH

k@ #   *6 

-

k5 

 6# < ;  6 555 ##   #

k6   ## 8        5 4 *2/-

3KRWRE\6DUD&XHQFD8xDF 6SDLQ

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH&+,&+/2%RULV

Â&#x2039;,5',)5(0(5)DGLR7$48(70DUF


:+<$5(:(/26,1*%,2',9(56,7<"Â&#x2021;¢32548e(67$0263(5',(1'2%,2',9(56,'$'"

XQGHUO\LQJFDXVHVRI *(<:(::<)@(*,5;,:+,3(

2   

Z/DSpUGLGDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVWiFDXVDGDGLUHFWDPHQWHSRUOD SpUGLGDGHOKiELWDWHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRODVHVSHFLHVLQYDVRUDV ODVREUH[SORWDFLyQ\ODFRQWDPLQDFLyQTXHVRQFRQVHFXHQFLDGHRWUDV FDXVDVEiVLFDVRVXE\DFHQWHV\TXHDĂ&#x20AC;QGHFXHQWDVOOHYDQDODSpUGLGD GHODELRGLYHUVLGDG(VWDVLQFOX\HQHOFUHFLPLHQWRGHPRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FR \HFRQyPLFRHOFRQWH[WRSROtWLFR\VRFLDO\IDFWRUHVFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FRV WHFQROyJLFRVFXOWXUDOHVRUHOLJLRVRV

(ODXPHQWRGHODSREODFLyQJOREDOGHORVPLOPLOORQHVHQOD DFWXDOLGDGDDOUHGHGRUGHPLOPLOORQHVHQHODxRFRQVWLWX\H XQDSUHVLyQFDGDYH]PD\RUVREUHORVHFRVLVWHPDVORTXHFRQGXFHD XQDSpUGLGDGHELRGLYHUVLGDG6HHVSHUDTXHODDFWLYLGDGHFRQyPLFDVH PXOWLSOLTXHSRUXQIDFWRUGHDSDUDHODxRSHURHOHVWDWXVGH ODELRGLYHUVLGDGPHMRUDUiVyORVLHOFUHFLPLHQWRHFRQyPLFRGHOIXWXURHV VRVWHQLEOH\HĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWHHQHOPDQHMRGHORVUHFXUVRV /DVVRFLHGDGHVGHPRFUiWLFDVHQODVTXHODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHVHQ HVSHFLDOODVPXMHUHV\FRPXQLGDGHVYXOQHUDEOHVSDUWLFLSDQHQODWRPD GHGHFLVLRQHV\GRQGHVHLQYLHUWHHQFLHQFLDWHFQRORJtD\HGXFDFLyQ FLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FDSXHGHQLQĂ XLUSRVLWLYDPHQWHVREUHHOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWRGH HVWUXFWXUDVLQVWLWXFLRQDOHVSDUDHOPDQHMRGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVDVtFRPR VREUHHOGHUHFKRDORVVHUYLFLRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV 1XHVWUDFXOWXUDpWLFD\SHUFHSFLRQHVGHOPXQGRLQĂ X\HQHQODPDQHUD HQTXHFRQVXPLPRV\ODLPSRUWDQFLDTXHDWULEXLPRVDODFRQVHUYDFLyQ GHODELRGLYHUVLGDG

ZBiodiversity loss is directly caused by habitat loss, climate change, invasive species, over-exploitation and pollution, which are the consequences of other root or underlying causes which ultimately drive biodiversity loss. These include population and economic growth, the social and political context, and scientiďŹ c, technological, cultural or religious factors.

Democratic societies in which local communities, e specially women and vulnerable communities are involved in decision-making, and where there is an investment in science and technology, particularly science education, can positively inďŹ&#x201A;uence the institutional arrangements for ecosystem management as well as rights over ecosystem services. Our culture, ethics and perceptions of the world inďŹ&#x201A;uence the way in which we consume and the importance we attribute to biodiversity conservation.

k'8 

  !   O+O++

      F '(./  0> *2 -

k      

     # #    

   : & %  *2-

k#   K# "   * ?-

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

The rising global population from todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 6.8 billion people to around 9 billion by 2050 is increasing pressure on ecosystems with a projected loss of biodiversity. While economic activity is expected to multiply by a factor of 3 to 6 by 2050, the status of biodiversity will improve only if future economic growth is sustainable and resource-efďŹ cient.

k"  

 2  > 

       ='8 E++,   1      

A 

k 

 1      ##6 #  *" -

k6 5O+O++ 

         C */  - > *2 -

k6

 

#  # 5   # #  A  :  &5% *2-

k #   # "  *?6-

k"  

2  > @   5 8 =E++,      A 

Â&#x2039;,5'&+$53</RwF

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH7+(5<+HUYp

Â&#x2039;<DQQ$UWKXV%HUWUDQGŠ/D7HUUHYXHGXFLHOÂŞ81(6&2

Â&#x2039;,5')$9,(50DULH1RsOOH

k6 5  

    

  ##6 #  *" -


WKHHFRQRPLFYDOXH

%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

,3=(369,*65Ă&#x201D;40*6

   Z(VWLPDUHOYDORUGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVXQGHVDItRHQHVSHFLDOHO YDORUHFRQyPLFRHQWpUPLQRVGHORVVHUYLFLRVHFRVLVWpPLFRVDORVTXH FRQWULEX\HWDOHVFRPRHODEDVWHFLPLHQWRGHDOLPHQWRVODUHJXODFLyQ GHOFOLPDODIRUPDFLyQGHOVXHOR\HOGHVDUUROORFXOWXUDO\HVSLULWXDO (VWXGLRVFRPR/DHFRQRPtDGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV\ODELRGLYHUVLGDG 7((% OODPDQODDWHQFLyQVREUHORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVHFRQyPLFRVGHOD ELRGLYHUVLGDG\VXEUD\DQORVFRVWRVFDGDYH]PD\RUHVGHODGHJUDGDFLyQ DPELHQWDO6HKDFDOFXODGRHOYDORUWRWDOGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG\VXV VHUYLFLRVHQPLOORQHVGHGyODUHVSRUDxRHVGHFLUHOGREOHGHO YDORUGHODHFRQRPtDPXQGLDO 3RGHPRVFDOFXODUHOYDORUHFRQyPLFRGHVHUYLFLRVFRPRORVDOLPHQWRV ODPDGHUD\ORVSURGXFWRVIDUPDFpXWLFRVWRPDQGRHQFXHQWDVXYDORU GHPHUFDGR3RUHMHPSORSRGHPRVFDOFXODUHOFRVWRGHODPDGHUDGH XQERVTXHSHUR¢FyPRSRGHPRVPHGLURWURVVHUYLFLRVYDOLRVRVGHHVH HFRVLVWHPDFRPRODUHWHQFLyQGHOVXHORODUHJXODFLyQGHOFOLPDOD SXULĂ&#x20AC;FDFLyQGHODJXDODSROLQL]DFLyQ\ORVDOLPHQWRVDGLVSRVLFLyQGH ODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV"6LHVWRVVHUYLFLRVGLVPLQX\HQWHQGUiQTXHVHU FRPSHQVDGRVHQDOJ~QPRPHQWRSRUODLQYHUVLyQĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLHUD$WULEXLU XQYDORUGHPHUFDGRDHVWRVVHUYLFLRVSRFRWRPDGRVHQFXHQWDQRV SXHGHD\XGDUDHQWHQGHUVXYDORUUHDO\IDFLOLWDUODWRPDGHGHFLVLRQHV ,JQRUDUVXYDORUKR\HQGtDSRGUtDUHVXOWDUH[WUHPDGDPHQWHFRVWRVRHQ HOIXWXUR

ZTo estimate the value of biodiversity is a challenge, particularly the economic value in terms of the ecosystem services to which it contributes, such as the provision of food, the regulation of climate, the formation of soil and to cultural and spiritual fulďŹ lment. Studies such as 7KH(FRQRPLFVRI(FRV\VWHPVDQG%LRGLYHUVLW\ (TEEB) draw attention to the economic beneďŹ ts of biodiversity and highlight the growing economic costs of environmental degradation. They estimate the total value of biodiversity and its services at US$ 33000 billion/year, or twice the value of the world economy.

Â&#x2039;,5''()25(67$+XEHUW

We can estimate the economic value of services such as food, wood and pharmaceutical products by taking into account their market value. For example, we can calculate the cost of wood from a logged forest, but how can we measure other valuable ecosystem services such as soil retention, climate regulation, water puriďŹ cation, pollination, and food sources for local communities? These services, if diminished, need to be compensated, sooner or later, by investment. Attributing market value to these undervalued services can help us understand their real value and can facilitate decision-making. Disregarding their value today could prove extremely costly in the future.

k"       = ' (         #J  *2-

k;     F 4  555 ##   #

k  (  '1  #

           #$M        '1      #$6 $ " J *;$=-

k$ 

 # ;  < 5  > ;   *2-

k A   1M         

k #        =          J  # *2-

k   F 4C  555 ##   #

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH6$80$'()UpGpULF

k         9   2   #  M      ##    1    #  6 $"  J*;=-

k8  #  ; < 5 3 9 #6 *2-

k9#  A5    >

4  #

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KHZRUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

3KRWRE\-XOLD.UHVVH *HUPDQ\

Â&#x2039;,15$&$55(6HUJH


%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

JUHHQHFRQRP\EXVLQHVVFDVH ,*6564Ă?(=,9+,!<5,1,4736

  1  4 5     Z/D´HFRQRPtDYHUGHÂľGHVFULEHODUHFLHQWHWHQGHQFLDGHOPHUFDGR KDFLDODSURGXFFLyQGHELHQHV\VHUYLFLRVPiVUHVSHWXRVRVFRQHODPELHQWH TXHVRQPiVVRVWHQLEOHVDODUJRSOD]R\TXHDVtPRGHUDUiQVXFRQWULEXFLyQ DOFDPELRFOLPiWLFR(MHPSORVGHODVLQGXVWULDVGHHFRQRPtDYHUGHVRQ ODSURGXFFLyQGHHQHUJtDUHQRYDEOHPHGLRVGHWUDQVSRUWHYHUGHVOD FDSWXUDGHFDUEyQSUiFWLFDVGHFRQVWUXFFLyQVRVWHQLEOHVDJULFXOWXUD RUJiQLFD\HFRWXULVPR(VWHHVXQVHFWRUTXHHVWiFUHFLHQGRFRQUDSLGH] \HVWiDGTXLULHQGRPXFKDLPSRUWDQFLDHQODHFRQRPtDJOREDO /DELRGLYHUVLGDGHVODIXHQWHGHPDWHULDSULPDSDUDPXFKDVGHODV LQGXVWULDVGHOPXQGR(VWiQVXUJLHQGRQXHYDVRSRUWXQLGDGHVGHPHUFDGR FRQODLQYHUVLyQGHHPSUHVDVSULYDGDVHQFDSLWDOQDWXUDO\ODFRPSUDGH GHUHFKRVDVHUYLFLRVDPELHQWDOHVJHQHUDGRVSRUODVUHVHUYDVGHERVTXHV WURSLFDOHVK~PHGRV6HUHFRQRFHTXHVHUYLFLRVFRPRHODOPDFHQDPLHQWR GHDJXDHOPDQWHQLPLHQWRGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG\ODUHJXODFLyQGHODJXD GHOOXYLDSURSRUFLRQDQXQH[FHOHQWHUHQGLPLHQWRGHODLQYHUVLyQ 3RUHMHPSORHOYDORUGHPHUFDGRHVWLPDGRGHORVDUUHFLIHVGHFRUDO YDGHDGyODUHVDQXDOHVSRUKHFWiUHDPLHQWUDVTXHHOFRVWH GHVXFRQVHUYDFLyQHVVyORHOGHHVWHYDORU(Q7DLODQGLDODV JDQDQFLDVREWHQLGDVSRUODFRQYHUVLyQGHPDQJODUHVHQFULDGHURV FRPHUFLDOHVGHFDPDUyQHVGHDOUHGHGRUGHGyODUHVDQXDOHVSRU KHFWiUHDPLHQWUDVTXHORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVGHVyORDOJXQRVGHVXVVHUYLFLRV SURGXFWRVPDGHUHURV\GHVLOYLFXOWXUDFULDGHURVGHSHFHVPLWLJDFLyQ GHGHVDVWUHV HVGHORUGHQGHGyODUHVDQXDOHVSRUKHFWiUHD

ZThe â&#x20AC;&#x153;green economyâ&#x20AC;? describes the recent business trend towards the production of environmentally-friendly goods and services that are more sustainable in the long-term and can thus moderate climate change. Examples of green economy industries include: renewable energy production, green transportation, carbon capture, green building practices, organic agriculture and eco-tourism. It is a rapidly growing and increasingly important sector of the global economy.

For example, the estimated market value of coral reefs ranges from US$ 10 000 to US$ 60 000 per hectare/year, while the conservation cost is equal to only 0.2 % of this value. In Thailand, proďŹ ts obtained by the conversion of mangroves into commercial shrimp farms, is around US$ 1 220 per hectare/year while the beneďŹ ts of only some of its services (wood and forest products, ďŹ sh nurseries, disaster mitigation) is in the order of US$ 12 000 per hectare/year.

k  '> # ( *  -=  I             7 #  ?   (   ( 

  =  #   #     ( 

k"       ' #  <#       

            = C *6# -

Â&#x2039;,5'7850,1(9LQFHQW

k       #    ; 5 *C -      

    A      (# 

Â&#x2039;<DQQ$UWKXV%HUWUDQGŠ/D7HUUHYXHGXFLHOÂŞ81(6&2

Â&#x2039;,5'6$%$7,(5'DQLHO

kC    "   *   -

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH)2851,(5-pU{PH

Biodiversity is the source of raw materials for a lot of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industries. New market opportunities are emerging with private equity ďŹ rms investing in natural capital, and buying rights to environmental services generated by tropical rainforest reserves. They recognize that services such as water storage, biodiversity maintenance and rainfall regulation provide an excellent return on investment.

k   =         ;

      2<%          

     

  

  *2-

k > # ( * 1 -5  # 7 #   A  5   7 # =     # 5

 

=  # #  ##  5 

k  # 5#  #  "

 5      4    

  

     =  C *6# -

k C    < *   -

k57 #  #  ;   5*C -   # 

   A      #   

k>  =                  2<% #     

# 5  

# 

  *2-

Â&#x2039;,5'6$85,1+HP


%LRGLYHUVLW\DQG

%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

)06+0=,9:0+(+

 1 Z¢4XpWLHQHQHQFRP~QHOYHOFURORVLQIUDUURMRVORVVRQDUHV\ODV VXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHVDXWROLPSLDGRUDV"7RGRVHVWRVVRQHMHPSORVGHELRPtPLFD XQFDPSRGHHVWXGLRTXHHVWiFUHFLHQGRHQTXHLQJHQLHURVFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FRV \DUTXLWHFWRVSRQHQODPLUDGDVREUHODELRGLYHUVLGDGQRSDUDH[WUDHU SURGXFWRVGHODQDWXUDOH]DVLQRSDUDEXVFDUVROXFLRQHVLQVSLUDGRUDV LQQRYDGRUDV\VRVWHQLEOHVSDUDSUREOHPDVTXHUHSUHVHQWDQXQGHVDItR WpFQLFR(VWRHVYLWDOPHQWHLPSRUWDQWHSDUDLQGXVWULDVFRPRODELRPHGLFLQD ODQDQRWHFQRORJtD\ODFLHQFLDGHPDWHULDOHV $OJXQDVLQGXVWULDVHVWiQLQVSLUDGDVSRUODQDWXUDOH]DFRPRODDYLDFLyQ TXHVHEDVDHQLPLWDUODVDODV\HOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHODVDYHVODVDYHV PDULQDVUHDFFLRQDQDODVFRUULHQWHVGHDLUHDVFHQGHQWHDMXVWDQGRODIRUPD GHVXVSOXPDVSDUDUHGXFLUODHOHYDFLyQ'HODPLVPDIRUPDXQDYLyQ DMXVWDODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHGHVXVDODV2WURHMHPSORHOHGLĂ&#x20AC;FLRGHO&HQWUR (DVWJDWHHQ=LPEDEZHHVWiLQVSLUDGRHQORVWHUPLWHURVTXHSXHGHQ PDQWHQHUXQDWHPSHUDWXUDLQWHUQDHVWDEOHDXQFXDQGRODWHPSHUDWXUD H[WHUQDĂ XFW~DHQWUH\JUDGRV&(OHGLĂ&#x20AC;FLRXVDVyORHOGHOD HQHUJtDFRQVXPLGDHQXQHGLĂ&#x20AC;FLRFRQYHQFLRQDOFRQDLUHDFRQGLFLRQDGR UHGXFLHQGRDVtORVFRVWRVGHHQHUJtD\ODVHPLVLRQHVGH&2 3HUGHUELRGLYHUVLGDGVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDSHUGHUSRWHQFLDOSDUDHQFRQWUDUVROXFLRQHV LQQRYDGRUDVDSUREOHPDVIXWXURVDORVTXHOD+XPDQLGDGWHQGUiTXH HQIUHQWDUVH

ZWhat do Velcro, infrared, sonars and self-cleaning surfaces all have in common? They are examples of biomimicry, a growing scientiďŹ c ďŹ eld of study where modern engineers, scientists and architects are turning to biodiversity, not to extract products from nature, but for inspirational, innovative and sustainable solutions to technically challenging problems. This is vitally important to such industries such as biomedicine, nanotechnology and materials science.

Losing biodiversity means losing the potential to ďŹ nd innovative solutions to future problems faced by humankind.

k                2    1     ##    &

k #4       )   )

 #    

    1 ( O++4 

k !      (    

#   '    #  # '   $    $   1  





   

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH'(9(=$ODLQ

Some industries are inspired by nature like aviation, which is based on mimicking birdsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; wings and behavior: sea birds react to rising air by adjusting the shape of their feathers to decrease lift. Likewise, a plane adjusts the surface of his wings. Another example, the Eastgate Centre building in Zimbabwe is modeled on termite mounds which can maintain a stable inner temperature even when outside temperatures ďŹ&#x201A;uctuate between 3°C and 42°C. The building uses only 10% of the energy consumed in a conventional airconditioned building, thus reducing energy costs and CO2 emissions.

k6     *

  1-    G,+          (#          #    8        

 ( 8

k?    8    OG          1 #

  

k6# 

#4 5    #  #  # 

5   &% 

k 5#4  745   

   1

1      O++4#

k2!      4 8#              # <  

           

7 

k6    *  #-    G,+          #    5#5   

5        5#  #  8 

Â&#x2039;*DU\7DFN$ODP\3KRWRE\$LUEXVSDUWQHURI81(6&2LQWKH,QWHUQDWLRQDO<HDURI%LRGLYHUVLW\

Â&#x2039;.HOODU$XWXPQ/HZLV &ODUN&ROOHJH3RUWODQG

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH%LRJpRVFLHQFHV'LMRQ025(7<DQQLFN

Â&#x2039;7%HUURG0RQD/LVD3URGXFWLRQ)UDQFH

k ?   5  # OG  #      # 4   


ELRGLYHUVLW\DQG

%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

)06+0=,9:0+(+



  Z/DPD\RUtDGHORVPiVSREUHVGHOPXQGRVREUHWRGRHQiUHDVUXUDOHV GHSHQGHGLUHFWDPHQWHGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGSDUDDOUHGHGRUGHOGH VXVQHFHVLGDGHVLQFOXLGRVORVDOLPHQWRVHOFRPEXVWLEOHODVDOXG ODYLYLHQGD\HOWUDQVSRUWH6HLQWHUFDPELDQFDUQHGHFD]DSHVFDGR\ SURGXFWRVYHJHWDOHVSDUDREWHQHUDUWtFXORVEiVLFRVFRPRMDEyQURSD\ ~WLOHVHVFRODUHV&RQVHUYDUODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVVyORXQDPDQHUDGHSURYHHU DHVWDVFRPXQLGDGHVFRQODVHJXULGDGGHXQLQJUHVRDFRUWRSOD]R\OD PDWHULDSULPDSDUDVXGHVDUUROORDODUJRSOD]R /DELRGLYHUVLGDGHVODEDVHVREUHODTXHVHFRQVWUX\HQLQGXVWULDVORFDOHV FRPRODGHOSHUIXPHHQ0DGDJDVFDUTXHXWLOL]DLODQJLODQJHVSLFDQDUGR YDLQLOOD\XQDRUTXtGHDGHORVERVTXHVORFDOHVOD$QJUDHFXP3HUGHUOD ELRGLYHUVLGDGWDPELpQVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDSHUGHUODYDULDELOLGDGJHQpWLFDHQORV FXOWLYRV\HOJDQDGRORFXDOSRQHHQULHVJRODVHJXULGDGDOLPHQWLFLDGH PLOPLOORQHVGHODVSHUVRQDVPiVYXOQHUDEOHVGHOPXQGR 6HSUHYpTXHODSpUGLGDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGODLQWHUUXSFLyQGHORV VHUYLFLRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV\ORVHIHFWRVGHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRGDUiQ OXJDUDXQRVPLOORQHVGHHFRPLJUDQWHVSDUDHODxR $VtODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVXQVHJXURSDUDODVFRPXQLGDGHV PiVSREUHVGHOSODQHWD ZMost of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poorest people, particularly in rural areas, depend directly on biodiversity for as much as 90% of their needs including food, fuel, medicine, shelter and transportation. Bushmeat, ďŹ sh and plant products are traded to obtain such basic items as soap, clothing and school equipment. Conserving biodiversity is just one way of providing these communities with income security in the short-term, and the raw materials for development in the long-term.

It is predicted that the loss of biodiversity, the disruption in ecosystem services, and the effects of climate change will result in 200 million eco-migrants by 2050. Biodiversity is thus an insurance policy for the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poorest communities.

k (   *-

k             *6# -

k           '       *   -

Â&#x2039;,5')$9,(50DULH1RsOOH

Biodiversity is the basis on which to build local industries such as the perfume industry in Madagascar which uses ylang ylang, vetiver, vanilla and a local forest orchid, Angraecum. Losing biodiversity also means losing genetic variability in crops and livestock, which threatens the food security of one billion of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most vulnerable people.

k     '2 

   (   OPSG #       (  

   .    0*2 -

k" 9            #     =  # *:-

k6

#   4*-

k3        *6# -

Â&#x2039;,5'&$<5e3DWULFH

k/    4   #  

      T    #  *   -

k     2    8 #     OPSG

 #     

  # 5.  0 *2 -

k"9              4    #45    

 5 5 *:-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH0$5,$7(PLOLH

Â&#x2039;,5')$9,(50DULH1RsOOH

Â&#x2039;,5''8.+$10LFKHO


%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

ELRGLYHUVLW\DQGWKHPLOOHQQLXP 3()06+0=,9:0+(+@36: 6)1,;0=6:+,+,:(996336

  

Z/RV2EMHWLYRVGH'HVDUUROORGHO0LOHQLR 2'0 IXHURQHVWDEOHFLGRVSRU ODV1DFLRQHV8QLGDVHQHOFRQHOĂ&#x20AC;QGHSURPRYHUHOGHVDUUROORSDUD HODxRHQRFKRiUHDVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDVGHOELHQHVWDUKXPDQR $VHJXUDUODVXVWHQWDELOLGDGGHOPHGLRDPELHQWHHVHO2EMHWLYRH LQFOX\HXQDPHWDHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDUHODWLYDDODELRGLYHUVLGDGTXHSUHWHQGH ORJUDUXQDUHGXFFLyQVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLYDHQVXWDVDGHSpUGLGDSDUDHODxR HO2EMHWLYR%LRGLYHUVLGDG3HURODELRGLYHUVLGDGHVWDPELpQ XQIDFWRULPSRUWDQWHSDUDORJUDURWUDVPHWDVGHGHVDUUROOR (UUDGLFDUODH[WUHPDSREUH]D\HOKDPEUH 2'0 GHSHQGHGHSUiFWLFDV DJUtFRODVVRVWHQLEOHV\SURGXFWLYDVSDUDODVTXHYDULHGDGHVGHFXOWLYRV VXHORVIpUWLOHV\DJXDDEXQGDQWHSURSRUFLRQDGDSRUHFRVLVWHPDV VDOXGDEOHVVRQHVHQFLDOHV0DQJODUHV\DUUHFLIHVGHFRUDOVDQRVFRQVX ELRGLYHUVLGDGLQWDFWDSXHGHQSRUHMHPSORDEDVWHFHUGHSHVFDGRDODV FRPXQLGDGHVFRVWHUDVORFDOHV /RV2EMHWLYRV\SUHWHQGHQPHMRUDUODVDOXG\ODKLJLHQHORTXH UHTXLHUHXQDEDVWHFLPLHQWRDGHFXDGRGHDJXDOLPSLDTXHSURYLHQH GHHFRVLVWHPDVVDQRV$VHJXUDUHODFFHVR\HOGHUHFKRDORVUHFXUVRV \UHFRQRFHUHOSDSHOLPSRUWDQWHTXHGHVHPSHxDQODVPXMHUHVHQ HOPDQHMRGHORVUHFXUVRVGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGFRPRDJXD\PDGHUD SDUDFRPEXVWLEOHFRQWULEX\HDHPSRGHUDUDODVPXMHUHV\IRPHQWDOD LJXDOGDGGHJpQHUR 2'0  ZThe Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were established by the United Nations in 2000 to promote development by 2015 in eight speciďŹ c areas of human well-being. Ensuring environmental sustainability is Goal 7 and includes a speciďŹ c biodiversity target that aims to achieve a signiďŹ cant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the 2010 Biodiversity Target. Biodiversity is also an important factor in achieving the other development goals.

MDGs 4, 5 and 6, aim to improve health and sanitation, which require adequate supplies of clean water that can be provided from healthy ecosystems. Securing resource access and rights and recognizing the important role that women play in managing biodiversity resources, such as water and fuel woods, contributes to the empowerment of women and gender equality. (MDG3)

k&) #

) #   1# '  J 4 8 > ;   *> & C -

k>     C64 J  4  6   *2-

k")   62% #1      .><3/<J60 OPPU  %  *6 ( -

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger (MDG 1) depends on sustainable and productive agricultural practices, whereby crop varieties, fertile soils and abundant water provided by healthy ecosystems are available. For example, healthy mangroves and coral reefs with their biodiversity intact can provide ďŹ sh to local coastal communities.

k# 

      

Â&#x2039;6LQDU0DV)RUHVWU\DQG,QGRQHVLDQ0$%&RPPLWWHH3URJUDPPH

k '        M    #  #     *#-

k"   #8 75  3 9 #J 4  # 

  6 *> &5C -

k6      C64 J  4  6   *2-

k"## 2%6 #16       .><3/<J60OPPU    5 *6   -

k  # 

    

k       M     # 8   7  *#-

Â&#x2039;,5''(/,5<$17+($80((OLVDEHWK

Â&#x2039;3KRWRE\$QQH%XULOOH0pUHW

Â&#x2039;,5'328,//<0DUF


%,2',9(56,7<(&2120<$1''(9(/230(17Â&#x2021;%,2',9(56,'$'(&2120Ă&#x152;$<'(6$552//2

5HFRQFLOLQJELRGLYHUVLW\FRQVHUYDWLRQ 9,*65*030(5+63(*65:,9=(*0Ă&#x201D;5 +,3()06+0=,9:0+(+

 

 

Z(O3URJUDPD+RPEUH\%LRVIHUD 0$% GHOD81(6&2SUHVHQWyD SULQFLSLRVGHODGpFDGDGHXQRVREMHWLYRVTXHDWUDYpVGHODV FLHQFLDVHFROyJLFDV\VRFLDOHVHQWUHHOORVORVFRQRFLPLHQWRVGHODV FRPXQLGDGHVDXWyFWRQDV\ORFDOHVSUHWHQGtDQUHFRQFLOLDUDORVKRPEUHV FRQODQDWXUDOH]DDOSURPRYHUHOGHVDUUROORVXVWHQWDEOH\HOELHQHVWDU KXPDQR (O3URJUDPD0$%SURPXHYHODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGHO SURJUHVRHFRQyPLFR\VRFLDO\HOUHVSHWRDORVYDORUHVFXOWXUDOHV /RVVXESURJUDPDV\VXVDFWLYLGDGHVVHFHQWUDQHQHFRVLVWHPDVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FRV PRQWDxDVWLHUUDVVHFDVERVTXHVWURSLFDOHVHFRVLVWHPDVXUEDQRV KXPHGDOHVHFRVLVWHPDVLVOHxRVPDULQRV\FRVWHURV\VDEDQDV 8WLOL]DOD5HG0XQGLDOGH5HVHUYDVGHOD%LyVIHUDFRPRYHKtFXORSDUD FRPSDUWLUORVFRQRFLPLHQWRVSDUDODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ\ODHYDOXDFLyQ SDUDODHGXFDFLyQ\HOHQWUHQDPLHQWR\SDUDODWRPDGHGHFLVLRQHV SDUWLFLSDWLYD /DV5HVHUYDVGHOD%LyVIHUDVRQ´VLWLRVGHDSUHQGL]DMHÂľLQQRYDGRUHVTXH PXHVWUDQGLIHUHQWHVHQIRTXHVGHODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG \HOGHVDUUROORVRVWHQLEOHSDUDOXJDUHVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FRV(VWiQEDMROD MXULVGLFFLyQQDFLRQDOVREHUDQDSHURFRPSDUWHQVXH[SHULHQFLD\VXV LGHDVHQVXQDFLyQVXUHJLyQHLQWHUQDFLRQDOPHQWHGHQWURGHOD5HG 0XQGLDOGH5HVHUYDVGHOD%LyVIHUDGHOD81(6&2+D\PiVGH 5HVHUYDVGHOD%LyVIHUDHQPiVGHSDtVHV

ZUNESCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) launched in the early 1970s aims through the ecological and social sciences, including the knowledge of indigenous and local communities, to reconcile humans and nature by promoting sustainable development and human well-being.

Â&#x2039;81(6&2&DELOGRGH)XHUWHYHQWXUD

The MAB programme promotes biodiversity conservation, economic and social improvement, and respect for cultural values. Sub-programmes and activities focus on speciďŹ c ecosystems: mountains, drylands, tropical forests, urban systems, wetlands, island and marine and coastal ecosystems and savannas. It uses its World Network of Biosphere Reserves as vehicles for knowledgesharing, research and monitoring, education and training, and participatory decision-making.

Biosphere reserves are â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;learning sitesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that innovate and demonstrate sitespeciďŹ c approaches to biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. They are under national sovereign jurisdiction yet share their experience and ideas nationally, regionally and internationally within UNESCOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s World Network of Biosphere Reserves. There are over 550 biosphere reserves in over 100 countries.

k@         $ #

" 



 #  ( $  $  (    * )-

k    

     # Q2Q #        @   * )-

k      2 @     ##  

    > ;  

?& 6"/C 6 *   -

k    # ;

M

  ( 

1   # #   # *;$=-

kF #   =        1    #   #   8 <     * -

k@      "   7  #

5 #    7    7  *6-

Â&#x2039;81(6&2)DYLR0D\RUJD

k  5  5     

   7        @   *6-

k @   2 5   5    4  ?& 6"/B3 9 # C 6 *   -

k3   #  ;

         # 1 #  #   *;=-

Â&#x2039;%LRVSKlUHQ]ZHFNYHUEDQG%OLHVJDX

Â&#x2039;81(6&2&DELOGRGH)XHUWHYHQWXUD

Â&#x2039;)UDVHU&RDVW6RXWK%XUQHWW7RXULVP

k: #  #  5   =     #  5   ##       8*C -


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

OLQNVEHWZHHQFXOWXUDODQG =Ă?5*<36:,5;9,+0=,9:0+(+

 1

Z'HVGHVXSULPHUDDSDULFLyQHQOD7LHUUDORVKXPDQRVKDQHQWDEODGR XQGLiORJRFUHDWLYRFRQODGLYHUVLGDGELROyJLFD/DJHQWHFRQIRUPD\ PDQHMDHOPXQGRYLYLHQWHFRQWULEX\HQGRDVtDODGLYHUVLGDGGHVXV HVSHFLHVHFRVLVWHPDV\SDLVDMHV $VXYH]ODVFXOWXUDVKDQVLGRFRQIRUPDGDVSRUVXVHQWRUQRVQDWXUDOHV SURFHVRTXHKDFRQWULEXLGRDXQDDVRPEURVDYDULHGDGGHSUiFWLFDVPRGRV GHYLGD\YLVLRQHVGHOPXQGR(VWRVHDGYLHUWHVREUHWRGRHQFRPXQLGDGHV LQGtJHQDV\ORFDOHVTXHKDQGHVDUUROODGRFRPSOHMRVVLVWHPDVGH FRQRFLPLHQWR\SUiFWLFDVTXHVHVLJXHQPDQWHQLHQGRFRPRUHVXOWDGR GHVXVODUJDVKLVWRULDVGHLQWHUDFFLyQFRQVXVHQWRUQRVQDWXUDOHV

ZSince their ďŹ rst appearance on Earth, humans have engaged in a creative dialogue with biological diversity. People shape and manage the living world, contributing to the diversity of its species, ecosystems and landscapes.

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Cultures have in turn been shaped by their natural environments,a process that has contributed to an astounding variety of practices, ways of life and worldviews. This is particularly evident amongst indigenous and local communities, who have elaborated and continue to maintain complex systems of knowledge and practice as a result of their long-standing histories of interaction with their natural surroundings.

k     > ;   * 5-

k>     #J4  *&-

k?#  #

 1       *& " -

k?       

  *  1- " *      -     

    * #     -      1 *6# -

k .0*     -  

 K    # A   

  <"      (         *6# -

Â&#x2039;<DQQ$UWKXV%HUWUDQGŠ/D7HUUHYXHGXFLHOÂŞ81(6&2

k<4   3  9 #6  * 5-

k9

#  #J4  *&-

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH6(9(1(77KLHUU\

k<   

   4     4  *&5" -

k  4     #     # 

  *  -"

* -   ##     

#  * #     -      *6# -

k. 0  

   

     7#

 # A5      #< 7 "  45      5     *6# -

Â&#x2039;,5'/(0$6621-HDQMDFTXHV

Â&#x2039;,5'/(0$6621-HDQ-DFTXHV


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

LQGLJHQRXVDQGORFDOFRPPXQLWLHVDQG *64<50+(+,:05+Ă?.,5(: @36*(3,:

  

Z/DVFRPXQLGDGHVLQGtJHQDV\ORFDOHVGHVHPSHxDQXQSDSHOIXQGDPHQWDO HQODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG6XVWHUULWRULRVHVWiQHQWUHORV PiVELROyJLFDPHQWHGLYHUVRVGHOSODQHWD6HFDOFXODTXHORVWHUULWRULRV LQGtJHQDVWUDGLFLRQDOHVFXEUHQKDVWDHOGHODVXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHWHUUHVWUH GHOPXQGR\FRQWLHQHQHOGHORVHFRVLVWHPDVVDOXGDEOHVTXHTXHGDQ HQOD7LHUUD0XFKDVGHODViUHDVSURWHJLGDVHVWiQXELFDGDVHQWLHUUDV GHLQGtJHQDV (VWDQRWDEOHFRQYHUJHQFLDHVSDFLDOHVHQSDUWHSURGXFWRGHORVSXHEORV LQGtJHQDVTXLHQHVPDQHMDQDFWLYDPHQWHODELRGLYHUVLGDGGHVXVWLHUUDV\ ODVSURWHJHQGHODH[SORWDFLyQSRUSDUWHGHJHQWHDMHQDDODFRPXQLGDG (VWRSUHVHQWDXQDRSRUWXQLGDGHQRUPH\XQGHVDItRFRQVLGHUDEOHSDUD TXLHQHVVHRFXSDQGHODFRQVHUYDFLyQ'HEHQDSUHQGHUDWUDEDMDU FRQORVSXHEORVLQGtJHQDVFRPRVRFLRV\FRPSUHQGHU\UHVSHWDUVXV FRVWXPEUHV\FRVPRYLVLRQHV

This remarkable spatial convergence is due in part to indigenous peoples actively managing the biodiversity of their lands, and protecting them from outside exploitation. This presents an enormous opportunity and a considerable challenge to conservation managers. They must learn to work with indigenous peoples as full partners and to understand and respect indigenous ways and worldviews.

k;  4   1 1     2 6  * -

k# 

     

 M '  

 *   -

k   '#

         #@1  " #*   -

Â&#x2039;81(6&21DUXPRQ+LQVKLUDQDQ

ZIndigenous and local communities play a key role in biodiversity conservation. Their territories are among the most biologically diverse on the planet. Traditional indigenous territories are estimated to cover up to 24% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land surface and contain 80% of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remaining healthy ecosystems. Many protected areas are located on indigenous lands.

k  #  JV* '-(  #  

 = 6     '  

    # '

k  

  

      A   #                  '8      #'*?#-

k;45  

      1  6 2 *  -

k  # 

    M    *   -

Â&#x2039;,5'02,=2%HUQDUG

k  #     5 4 

 5    #

k    JV* -    ###  7 2   #1  

    #     

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH-8+(%($8/$721'RPLQLTXH

Â&#x2039;81(6&2$%&XQQLQJKDQ

Â&#x2039;,5''$1*/(62OLYLHU

k>        A     #        45 #      #   5 4#    # *?#-


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

LQGLJHQRXVPDQDJHPHQW 4(5,1605+Ă?.,5(

   Z/DVFRPXQLGDGHVLQGtJHQDV\ORFDOHVKDQGHVDUUROODGRXQDJUDQ YDULHGDGGHGLVSRVLFLRQHVVRFLDOHVSDUDHOFXLGDGRGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG 'HKHFKRFDVLWRGDVODVWpFQLFDVPRGHUQDVGHJHVWLyQDPELHQWDOWLHQHQ HTXLYDOHQWHVHQODSUiFWLFDWUDGLFLRQDO /DVFRVHFKDVVRVWHQLEOHVVHDVHJXUDQPHGLDQWHFRQWUROHVVRFLDOHVVREUH HOWLSRGHUHFXUVRVTXHSXHGHQH[WUDHUVHHQGHWHUPLQDGDVWHPSRUDGDVR OXJDUHVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FRV(QDOJXQRVFDVRVHOPDQHMRLQGtJHQDVHH[WLHQGHD SDLVDMHVFRPSOHWRV(MHPSORVLQFOX\HQHOXVRTXHORVDERUtJHQHVDXVWUD OLDQRVGDQDOIXHJRSDUDFUHDU\PDQWHQHUYDVWRVPRVDLFRVGHKiELWDWV ULFRVHQELRGLYHUVLGDG(OPDQHMRDERULJHQGHODTXHPDGHERVTXHDKRUD HVSDUWHGHODSROtWLFDGHSDUTXHVQDFLRQDOHVHQ$XVWUDOLD /DELRGLYHUVLGDGIRUHVWDOHQ6XPDWUD,QGRQHVLDWDPELpQHVFXLGDGDSRU ODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHVTXHFUHDQ´DJURERVTXHVÂľGRQGHVHPDQWLHQHQ RFXOWLYDQFLHUWDVHVSHFLHVVHOHFFLRQDGDV

ZIndigenous and local communities have developed a vast array of social arrangements for biodiversity management. Indeed, virtually all modern management techniques have equivalents in traditional practice.

Â&#x2039;0HQXND6FHWERQ'LGL

Sustainable harvests are ensured through social controls on the types of resources that can be taken in speciďŹ c seasons or places. In some cases, indigenous management extends across entire landscapes. Examples include Australian Aboriginal use of ďŹ re to create and maintain vast habitat mosaics rich in biodiversity. Aboriginal ďŹ restick management has become part of national park policy in Australia. Forest biodiversity in Sumatra, Indonesia, is also managed by local communities, creating â&#x20AC;&#x153;agroforestsâ&#x20AC;? where a selection of species is carefully maintained or cultivated.

k# 

  1   )   9'      # 

        # 7   # '

<     5& # 

k6    > C  <    > * '-

k    #            (#     

   6   '8     '#       #   '    >  & J4   & *   - >  & J # *6 ( -    *@ - @   $  * 4@-

k?  *& " - )      

    .450     )  



k6    # 

 5 #  1  #1   # # 

      #   #  9    5    < & # 

Â&#x2039;,5',17(6$QGUp

k #  ;#>    >     < * -

k  8     #    #7         

 3   8 #  5# # 8 4#   6  

k8   *&5" -  #    4# #   .450  5 #   1  

&     J4 > 4 J # > 4*6   @   *@ @ 5   8 * 4@-

Â&#x2039;,5'0217252,-HDQ3LHUUH

21)Â&#x2039;,15$0$,75(&KULVWRSKH

Â&#x2039;,5')2851,(5$QQH

Â&#x2039;81(6&20%28$05$1(

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH/(%/,&,VDEHOOH


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

FUHDWLQJ *9,(9

  Z/DVFRPXQLGDGHVLQGtJHQDV\ORFDOHVWLHQHQXQFRQRFLPLHQWRSURIXQGR \XQWUDWRKiELOHQORTXHVHUHĂ&#x20AC;HUHDOPXQGRYLYLHQWH6XFRPSUHQVLyQ tQWLPDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGJHQpWLFDOHVKDSHUPLWLGRFUHDU\PDQWHQHU XQDVRUSUHQGHQWHSURIXVLyQGHYDULHGDGHVGHSODQWDVUD]DVGHDQLPDOHV \FXOWLYRVEDFWHULDQRV (MHPSORVGHHVWRVRQORVFORQHVGHWDUR\xDPHTXHDEXQGDQHQODV KRUWDOL]DVGHO3DFtĂ&#x20AC;FRORVPLOHVGHWLSRVGHTXHVRIDEULFDGRVHQWRGR HOPXQGRPHGLDQWHODDSOLFDFLyQGHGLIHUHQWHVEDFWHULDV\KRQJRVRORV FLHQWRVGHYDULHGDGHVGHDUUR]FXOWLYDGDVHQ$VLD/RVSXHEORVGHORV $QGHVVRQJXDUGLDQHVGHPLOHVGHYDULHGDGHVGHSDSDVRFDVPDVKXDV ROOXFRV\TXLQRDV (VWDELRGLYHUVLGDGVLUYHSDUDĂ&#x20AC;QHVSUiFWLFRV\VLPEyOLFRV8QDPD\RU GLYHUVLGDGGHFXOWLYRVDVHJXUDODDGDSWDELOLGDG\Ă H[LELOLGDGIUHQWH DOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRPLHQWUDVTXHDOJXQDVYDULHGDGHVVHFXOWLYDQ H[FOXVLYDPHQWHSDUDXVDUVHHQIHVWLYLGDGHVRULWXDOHV

ZIndigenous and local communities have in-depth knowledge and know-how about the living world. Their intimate understanding of genetic biodiversity has allowed them to create and maintain an astounding array of plant varieties, animal races and bacterial cultures. Examples include the taro and yam clones that abound in PaciďŹ c horticultural gardens, the thousands of cheese types sustained around the world through the discerning application of bacteria, the hundreds of rice varieties cultivated throughout Asia. The peoples of the South American Andes are guardians of thousands of varieties of potatoes, ocas, mashuas, ollucos and quinoa.

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

This biodiversity serves both practical and symbolic ends. A higher diversity of crops ensures resilience and ďŹ&#x201A;exibility in the face of climate change, while some varieties are cultivated exclusively for use in festivities or rituals.

k" 6F ;W  >  ;  *6 1-

k     # ##$'8     # 1   ' > ;  I

k) 



C 1   2 "  * )-

>   # J1( ; C  >  & 6#      5

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

k$        I( #     #     ;V *@ -

k"5   "6F  ;W 3 9 # 6*651 -

k9   8 #  #  #   9  3 9 # 6I    # # J14  ;  C  6#& > 4     5

k C  

1 "  2 *6-$

k/ 5 5       I #    5  5   ;V *@ -

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Â&#x2039;<DQQ$UWKXV%HUWUDQGŠ/D7HUUHYXHGXFLHOÂŞ81(6&2

Â&#x2039;,15$)28&+$5'0DUF


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

ELRGLYHUVLW\HFRV\VWHPVDQG )06+0=,9:0+(+,*6:0:;,4(:

  

 

Z/DVYLVLRQHVGHOPXQGRGHPXFKRVSXHEORVLQGtJHQDVVHEDVDQHQ UHODFLRQHVGHUHFLSURFLGDG\UHVSHWRTXHDWUDYLHVDQODVIURQWHUDV HQWUHODVSHUVRQDV\ODQDWXUDOH]D\TXHOLJDQORVHFRVLVWHPDVDORV VLVWHPDVVRFLDOHV(VWDGLIHUHQFLDIXQGDPHQWDOUHVSHFWRGHODVĂ&#x20AC;ORVRItDV GHFRQVHUYDFLyQ´RFFLGHQWDOHVÂľODVFXDOHVWLHQGHQDVHSDUDUDORV KXPDQRVGHODQDWXUDOH]DPHUHFHUHFRQRFHUVHFRPRXQFDPLQRSDUD ORJUDUXQDH[LWRVDJHVWLyQFRQMXQWDGHOHFRVLVWHPD /RVSDLVDMHVUHĂ HMDQODVUHODFLRQHVKXPDQDV\ORVYtQFXORVTXHODV FUHDQ/DVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHVSXHGHQFRQIHULUXQHVWDWXVSDUWLFXODU DHVSHFLHVDQLPDOHV\YHJHWDOHVPRQWDxDVODJRVRERVTXHVDO LGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;FDUORVFRPRVLWLRVVDJUDGRV(VWRVVLWLRVVDJUDGRVSURWHJLGRV SRUFXVWRGLRVORFDOHVVXHOHQFRQYHUWLUVHHQLVODVGHJUDQELRGLYHUVLGDG GHQWURGHiPELWRVGHJUDGDGRV3XHGHQVHUYLUFRPRLPSRUWDQWHV UHVHUYDVGHGLYHUVLGDGJHQpWLFD\GHHVSHFLHVORFXDOSXHGHSURWHJHU ORVHFRVLVWHPDVGHXQDGHJUDGDFLyQDPELHQWDOIXWXUD

ZThe worldviews of many indigenous peoples are founded upon relationships of reciprocity and respect that traverse the boundaries between people and nature, and interlink ecosystems and social systems. This fundamental difference from â&#x20AC;&#x153;Westernâ&#x20AC;? conservation philosophies, which tend to separate humans and nature, deserves recognition as a pathway towards successful collaborative ecosystem management.

3KRWRE\$QQD&/23(7

Landscapes reďŹ&#x201A;ect the human relationships and attachments that create them. Local communities may confer special status on animal and plant species, mountains, lakes or forest groves by identifying them as sacred sites. These sacred places, protected by local custodians, often become islands of high biodiversity in otherwise degraded environments. They may serve as important reservoirs of genetic and species diversity, which can help protect ecosystems from future environmental degradation.

k.#A 0

 6    6    '   6    

#   ' 

k K  (    #      1   

     *6# -

k C 1         7    #  >4(

k6  # 

# # # '   =     '     M

 1;  (    =    *> !-

k?   !   ' * -#8   ( (            9   # ( 

             >'8

k .A5  0   6 

 5 6     5          

     

k2         5 5 4

     *6# -

k C #      #         # >4

Â&#x2039;6&%'0XVHXPRI1DWXUHDQG&XOWXUH 0RQWUHDO

k>      # 

      5   2 = 5     #     #        ;   #  5 5 =     *> -

k     *  - #8    8 #          5 #

      #         >8

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH7+(5<+HUYp

Â&#x2039;,5'/(0$6621-HDQ-DFTXHV

Â&#x2039;)UDQFLV5+,&.(<


+2:,6%,2',9(56,7</,1.('727+(:25/'¡6&8/785(6"Â&#x2021;¢'(48e02'2/$%,2',9(56,'$'(67Ă&#x2030;9,1&8/$'$$/$6&8/785$6'(/081'2"

ELRGLYHUVLW\DQG )06+0=,9:0+(+

 

Z&DVLODPLWDGGHODVOHQJXDVTXHVHKDEODQHQHOPXQGRKR\HQ GtDHVWiQHQSHOLJURGHGHVDSDUHFHUGXUDQWHHVWHVLJOR/DVOHQJXDV DGHPiVGHVHUYHKtFXORVSDUDODWUDQVPLVLyQGHFRQRFLPLHQWRV GHPXHVWUDQWDPELpQODPDQHUDHQODTXHHOKDEODQWHYH\HQWLHQGHHO PXQGR&RQRFLPLHQWRV~WLOHV\VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLYRVGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGSXHGHQ VHUWUDQVSRUWDGRVHQXQDWHUPLQRORJtDFRPSOHMDTXHVHSHUGHUiFXDQGR PXHUHXQDOHQJXD $OYLJLODUODYLWDOLGDG\ODGLYHUVLGDGGHODVOHQJXDVLQGtJHQDVSRGHPRV LGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;FDUWHQGHQFLDVHQODVDELGXUtDWUDGLFLRQDOUHOHYDQWHSDUDOD FRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG([LVWHXQDVXSHUSRVLFLyQHYLGHQWH HQWUHORVPDSDVJOREDOHVGHiUHDVGH´PHJDGLYHUVLGDGÂľELROyJLFDHQHO PXQGR\ODViUHDVGHJUDQGLYHUVLGDGOLQJ tVWLFD\FXOWXUDO3RUHMHPSOR GHHQWUHORVQXHYHSDtVHVTXHMXQWRVFXHQWDQFRQHOGHOHQJXDV KXPDQDVVHLVVRQFHQWURVGHGLYHUVLGDGFXOWXUDO\FRQWLHQHQFDQWLGDGHV H[FHSFLRQDOHVGHHVSHFLHV~QLFDVGHSODQWDV\DQLPDOHV 'HVGHHOHVWDWXV\ODVWHQGHQFLDVGHOQ~PHURGHKDEODQWHVGH OHQJXDVLQGtJHQDV\ODGLYHUVLGDGOLQJ tVWLFDVHKDQGHVLJQDGRFRPRXQ ,QGLFDGRUGHO2EMHWLYR%LRGLYHUVLGDGHQHOPDUFRGHOD&RQYHQFLyQ VREUH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFD

ZNearly half of the 7000 languages spoken in the world today are in danger of disappearing during this century. Languages are vehicles for knowledge transmission, but they also demonstrate the way the speaker views and understands the world. Useful and meaningful knowledge of biodiversity may be carried in complex terminology that will be lost when a language dies.

Since 2002, the status and trends in the numbers of speakers of indigenous languages and linguistic diversity has been designated as a 2010 Biodiversity Target Indicator in the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

k 

)     # 8#    

       (           # *&'# -

k;      # >1         *  -

k?  ##             *"#-

Â&#x2039;,5'-e*80LFKHO

Â&#x2039;,5'%(5186(GPRQG

By monitoring the vitality and diversity of indigenous languages, we may be able to identify trends in traditional knowledge relevant to biodiversity conservation. There is a visible overlap between the global mapping of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s areas of biological â&#x20AC;&#x153;megadiversityâ&#x20AC;? and areas of high cultural and linguistic diversity. For example, in 9 countries, which together account for 60% of human languages, 6 of these are centres of cultural diversity and contain exceptional numbers of unique plant and animal species.

k      ( 

 6# I

            #  8(         

k>        1  6  *2-

k           # # 8#     5      

         # *&# -

k6

 4     #>1 #       *  -

k.&##0     #         *"#-

k           #   6#   #15   #      8#         4  4

 

k>   

5  #5   6  *2-

Â&#x2039;,5'.$7=(VWKHU

Â&#x2039;,5'%$55,Ă&#x2039;5(2OLYLHU

Â&#x2039;,5')25(67,(5+XEHUW


:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

WKHFRQYHQWLRQRQ ELRORJLFDO 3(*65=,5*0Ă&#x201D;5:6)9,

 1 Z(QOD&XPEUHGHOD7LHUUDGH5tRGH-DQHLURHQORVGLULJHQWHV PXQGLDOHVDFRUGDURQXQDHVWUDWHJLDJOREDO\ORVLQVWUXPHQWRVOHJDOHV QHFHVDULRVSDUDORJUDUXQ´GHVDUUROORVRVWHQLEOHÂľ8QRGHORVLQVWUXPHQWRV FODYHHVWDEOHFLGRVHQ5tRIXHOD&RQYHQFLyQVREUH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFD &'% FX\RVWUHVREMHWLYRVSULQFLSDOHVVRQ ODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODGLYHUVLGDGELROyJLFD HOXVRVRVWHQLEOHGHVXVFRPSRQHQWHV HOUHSDUWRMXVWR\HTXLWDWLYRGHORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVSRUHOXVRGHORVUHFXUVRV JHQpWLFRV +R\HQGtDOD&'%JR]DGHXQDDFHSWDFLyQFDVLXQLYHUVDO0iVGH SDtVHV\XQDRUJDQL]DFLyQHFRQyPLFDUHJLRQDOKDQUDWLĂ&#x20AC;FDGROD&RQYHQFLyQ SHURQRVHDSOLFDGHPDQHUDXQLIRUPH6XDPELFLyQHVLQWHJUDUHVWRV WUHVREMHWLYRVHQWRGRVORVQLYHOHVGHODWRPDGHGHFLVLRQHVQRVyORHQ ORVPLQLVWHULRVGHPHGLRDPELHQWHVLQRWDPELpQHQWRGRVORVVHFWRUHV GHORVJRELHUQRVQDFLRQDOHV\RWUDVLQVWDQFLDVUHOHYDQWHV (QHOOD&%'DGRSWyXQDFXHUGRVXSOHPHQWDULRFRQRFLGRFRPR HO3URWRFRORGH%LRVHJXULGDGGH&DUWDJHQDTXHLQWHQWDSURWHJHUOD GLYHUVLGDGELROyJLFDGHORVULHVJRVTXHSUHVHQWDQORVRUJDQLVPRVYLYRV PRGLĂ&#x20AC;FDGRV(VWRVHORJUDFUHDQGRODVFRQGLFLRQHVSDUDDVHJXUDUTXHORV SDtVHVFXHQWHQFRQODLQIRUPDFLyQDGHFXDGDSDUDWRPDUGHFLVLRQHVELHQ LQIRUPDGDVDFHUFDGHOPRYLPLHQWRWUDQVIURQWHUL]RGHRUJDQLVPRVYLYRV PRGLĂ&#x20AC;FDGRV

ZAt the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy and the legal instruments needed to achieve â&#x20AC;&#x153;sustainable developmentâ&#x20AC;?. One of the key instruments established at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) which has three main objectives: - the conservation of biological diversity; - the sustainable use of its components; - the fair and equitable sharing of the beneďŹ ts from the use of genetic resources.

In 2000, the CBD adopted a supplementary agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety which seeks to protect biological diversity from the risks posed by living modiďŹ ed organisms. It does this by creating the conditions to ensure that countries are provided with adequate information to make informed decisions about the transboundary movement of living modiďŹ ed organisms.

k; A "    ;4#*-

k>  &   #&4  *J- #  9   < 2  2  

k@      *%   -   ;*"#-

3KRWRE\%85,//(9LQFHQW

Today, the CBD has near universal acceptance around the world. Over 190 countries and one regional economic organization have ratiďŹ ed the Convention, but it is not uniformly implemented. The goal is to integrate the three main objectives into decision-making, not only in environment ministries, but also across all sectors of national government and relevant stakeholders.

k28    (  X       Y   C  * )- @        $  1 # ;  & 9  &  *> '-

k<        $ #@ $

#    

 (       HO+++   9'  =OE++         *@ -

k@ # 4 " ;4#%  *-

k> <  3 2   2  &  > 44&4  *J-

k@     *%   -  ; *"#-

k  5Z        Y   C  *6- >4A#      $  #   & ;   &  9 *> -

@      $   '  ;  *"(-

k    #6   <   4 5   

  

5 5   HO+++ 4     =  OE++            *@ -

>A5     $  # ;   *"-

Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP&KDXVLQKR

Â&#x2039;0DWHXV]%DĸVNL6&%'

Â&#x2039;0DWHXV]%DĸVNL6&%'

Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP$QGULHVRXGVKRRUQ

Â&#x2039;$UFKLSHODJR6HD%LRVSKHUH5HVHUYH

Â&#x2039;,5'.$7=(VWKHU


:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

ILQDQFLQJ -05(5*0(9

  Z3DUDORJUDUORVWUHVREMHWLYRVGHOD&RQYHQFLyQVREUH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFD &'% \HO2EMHWLYR%LRGLYHUVLGDGVHFDOFXODTXHVHQHFHVLWDUiQ IRQGRVGHHQWUH\PLOORQHVGHGyODUHVDQXDOHV (O)RQGR0XQGLDOSDUDHO0HGLR$PELHQWH )0$0 TXHHVHOPHFDQLVPR Ă&#x20AC;QDQFLHURGHOD&'%DSR\DDORVSDtVHVHQGHVDUUROOR\ODVHFRQRPtDV HQWUDQVLFLyQSDUDTXHFXPSODQVXVFRPSURPLVRVFRQOD&'%(O)0$0 KDRWRUJDGRPLOORQHVGHGyODUHVHQVXEYHQFLRQHV\FDSWDGR PLOORQHVGyODUHVSDUDDSR\DUSUR\HFWRVHQELRGLYHUVLGDGHQ SDtVHV6HKDLQYHUWLGRPiVGHPLOORQHVGHGyODUHVHQODFUHDFLyQ \HOPDQHMRGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDVTXHDEDUFDQPLOORQHVGH KHFWiUHDV\PLOORQHVGHKHFWiUHDVGHVXHORIXHUDGHODViUHDV SURWHJLGDVSDUDTXHPHMRUHODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG (O)0$0DSR\DDORVSDtVHVSDUDTXHLQFRUSRUHQODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHOD ELRGLYHUVLGDGHQVXVSODQHVQDFLRQDOHVLQFOXLGRVORVGHDJULFXOWXUD SHVFD\JHVWLyQIRUHVWDO&RQHOĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLDPLHQWRGHO)0$0PiVGH SDtVHVKDQPHMRUDGRVXVFDSDFLGDGHVHQELRVHJXULGDG 6HDOLHQWDDORVSDtVHV\ODVRUJDQL]DFLRQHVSDUDTXHH[SORUHQPHFDQLVPRV HLQVWUXPHQWRVGHĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLDFLyQQXHYRVHLQQRYDGRUHV\DTXHUHGX]FDQ ODVEUHFKDVĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLHUDVDODVTXHQRVHQIUHQWDPRVKR\HQGtD

The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the ďŹ nancial mechanism of the CBD supports developing countries and transition economies to fulďŹ l their commitments to the CBD. The GEF has provided US$ 2.8 billion in grants and attracted US$7.6 billion more from other sources in support of 750 biodiversity projects in 155 countries. It has invested over US$ 1.5 billion in the creation and management of 2 300 protected areas covering 632 million hectares and supported 100 million hectares of land outside protected areas to advance biodiversity conservation. The GEF supported projects has helped countries to incorporate biodiversity conservation into national plans, including agriculture, ďŹ sheries, and forestry sectors. With the GEF funding, more than 122 countries improved their biosafety capacities. Countries and concerned organizations are also encouraged to explore new and innovative ďŹ nancial mechanisms to reduce the ďŹ nancial gaps that we face today.

k9  

 #*2-

k C #     @;;      

  #



  

#  # 

 "  # %  *C #-

k;    2  @;;    

 '           8    # > (    2

Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP$QGULHVRXGVKRRUQ

ZIn order to achieve the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the 2010 Biodiversity Target, it is estimated that funding of between 10 to 50 billion US$ dollars per year will be needed.

k     @;;&          (   #>1#   >   &    *&-

k"  (  6  M    

     )

       

k;5 4# # 5 8 *2-

Â&#x2039;*()-61((6%<DQG%:,/.,1621

Â&#x2039;21*(ONDQD*HRUJLD

Â&#x2039;*()&$51(0$5.&XUW

k2C # C @          # 7 5  7  #   @ 5  %  *C #-

k! C @    2      B       8  #   6 7 #   2

k C @    &     #       3     5   & > 4*&-

Â&#x2039;,5'.XKQ&KULVWRSKH

k # B 6  M     7       A# *2-


:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

WRH[SDQGDQGWR VWUHQJWKHQ ,?7(5+09@-69;(3,*,9

 3    

Z/DViUHDVSURWHJLGDVVRQXQUHIXJLRSDUDODELRGLYHUVLGDG\XQ PpWRGRHĂ&#x20AC;FD]SDUDVXFRQVHUYDFLyQ(VWDV]RQDVGHERVTXHPRQWDxDV WLHUUDSDQWDQRVDSUDGHUDVGHVLHUWRVODJRVUtRVDUUHFLIHVGHFRUDO\ RFpDQRVVHJHVWLRQDSDUDTXHPDQWHQJDQVXELRGLYHUVLGDG/RVSDUTXHV UHVHUYDVQDWXUDOHViUHDVPDULQDVSURWHJLGDV\VDQWXDULRVGHIDXQDVDOYDMH VHJHVWLRQDQSDUDXVRVP~OWLSOHVSHURFRPSDWLEOHVHQWUHHOORVOD FRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGODUHFUHDFLyQHOWXULVPRODSURWHFFLyQ GHFXHQFDVODWDODFD]DRSHVFDVRVWHQLEOHODLQYHVWLJDFLyQFLHQWtĂ&#x20AC;FD\ ODHGXFDFLyQDPELHQWDO0iVGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDVHQHOPXQGR JDUDQWL]DQODVXEVLVWHQFLD\ODHFRQRPtDGHFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV&HUFD GHPLOORQHVGHSHUVRQDVGHSHQGHQGHiUHDVIRUHVWDOHVSURWHJLGDV SDUDVXVXEVLVWHQFLD (O3URJUDPDGH7UDEDMRSDUDĂ&#x2030;UHDV3URWHJLGDVGHOD&RQYHQFLyQGH 'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFDHVXQPDUFRDPSOLRSDUDHOHVWDEOHFLPLHQWRGH VLVWHPDVGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDV (O)RQGRSDUDHO0HGLR$PELHQWH0XQGLDO )0$0 KDVLGRUHFRQRFLGR SRUVXFRQWULEXFLyQDOORJURGHOREMHWLYRJOREDOGHSURWHJHUXQGHOD VXSHUĂ&#x20AC;FLHWHUUHVWUHGHOPXQGR0HGLDQWHXQSUR\HFWRDSR\DGRSRUHVWH IRQGR1DPLELDKDDXPHQWDGRHOĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLDPLHQWRGHOJRELHUQRSDUDHO VLVWHPDGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDVHQPiVGHXQEDViQGRVHHQHOUHWRUQR GHODLQYHUVLyQREWHQLGDDWUDYpVGHOHFRWXULVPR$VtODFDSDFLGDGSDUD ODJHVWLyQGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDVVHKDIRUWDOHFLGR\ODVODJXQDVHQOD FREHUWXUDJHRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FDGHLPSRUWDQWHVHFRVLVWHPDVVHKDQVXSHUDGR

ZProtected areas are havens for biodiversity and an effective method for its conservation. These are forests, mountains, wetlands, grasslands, deserts, lakes, rivers, coral reefs, and oceans that are managed to maintain biodiversity. Protected areas are managed for multiple, yet compatible uses, including biodiversity conservation, recreation, tourism, watershed protection, sustainable forestry, hunting or ďŹ shing, scientiďŹ c research, and environmental education. Over 108 000 protected areas in the world support livelihoods and the economies of local communities. Nearly 1,1 billion people depend on protected forest areas for their livelihoods.

The GEF has been recognized for its substantive contribution to the global achievement of the 10% target of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land area under protection. For instance, with the support of the GEF, Namibia has increased government ďŹ nancing for the protected areas system by more than 300%, based on the favorable return on investment achieved through nature-based tourism. Capacity for protected area management has been strengthened and gaps in geographic coverage of important ecosystems ďŹ lled.

k?  >  &  6 #*&- ? !             # #    1  @;; C  &

k2       6   >   &  6   %     >  ;    ?& 6"/  #9   < 2  2  

k"      >             

  *;# -

Â&#x2039;*()&ROHHQ0$11+(,0(5

The Convention on Biological Diversity Programme of Work on Protected Areas is a comprehensive framework for the establishment of protected area systems.

k     #     >  &  95#[5

k      = 

  >   & &7& 4

 *&-

k#5  6 #& > 4 *&-/ 

 #5           4    C @  C &

k2 5     6   %  &   6   5  3  9 #?& 6"/  <  3 2   2 

k&  5  > 4 5         

 *;# -

k2#   5 95# & > 4 [5

555 #

k>      4             3

     =#    &7& 4

 & > 4*&-

555 #

Â&#x2039;,5'%/$1&+213DWULFN

Â&#x2039;&1563KRWRWKqTXH+(5''(%,$6)UDQoRLV

Â&#x2039;,5'/(0$6621-HDQ-DFTXHV

Â&#x2039;*()0LGRUL3D[WRQ


ELRGLYHUVLW\

:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

<:6:<:;,5;()3,

   Z/D2UJDQL]DFLyQGHODV1DFLRQHV8QLGDVSDUDOD$JULFXOWXUD\OD $OLPHQWDFLyQ )$2 FDOFXODTXHDOPHQRVHOGHQXHVWUDHFRQRPtD JOREDOVHEDVDHQHOXVRGHUHFXUVRVELROyJLFRV(OXVRVRVWHQLEOHGH UHFXUVRVELROyJLFRVUHQRYDEOHVHVODPHMRUPDQHUDGHDVHJXUDUOD FRQVHUYDFLyQFRQWLQXDGHODGLYHUVLGDGELROyJLFD$GHPiVFRQVHUYDUHO FDSLWDOELROyJLFRSXHGHFUHDURSRUWXQLGDGHVGHLQJUHVRVSDUDODJHQWH 3RUHMHPSOR*HRUJLDWLHQHPiVGHHVSHFLHVORFDOHVGHFHUHDOHV PiVGHHVSHFLHVGHiUEROHVIUXWDOHVQXHFHV\ED\DV\ YDULHGDGHVORFDOHVGHXYD'XUDQWHHO~OWLPRVLJORODLQWURGXFFLyQ GHSUiFWLFDVDJUtFRODVPRGHUQDVVXVWLWX\yODSURGXFFLyQDJUtFROD GLYHUVLĂ&#x20AC;FDGD&RPRUHVXOWDGRHOFXOWLYRGHPXFKDVYDULHGDGHVORFDOHV GHSODQWDVYDOLRVDVVHKDDEDQGRQDGRFRQODSpUGLGDGHLPSRUWDQWHV YDULHGDGHVQDWLYDV&RQHODSR\RGHO)0$0ORVFDPSHVLQRVGH*HRUJLD KDQUHDQXGDGRHOXVRGHYDULHGDGHVORFDOHVGHSODQWDV\FRQHOORKDQ DXPHQWDGRVXVLQJUHVRV6HKDQIRUPDGRFRRSHUDWLYDVFDPSHVLQDV ORFDOHVSDUDGLVWULEXLUVHPLOODVGHYDULHGDGHVORFDOHVTXHVRQPiV UHVLVWHQWHVDODVSODJDV\PiVQXWULWLYDVORTXHDXPHQWDVXDWUDFWLYR SDUDHOPHUFDGR\HOFRQVXPLGRU/DSURGXFFLyQGLYHUVLĂ&#x20AC;FDGDGHFXOWLYRV WDPELpQDVHJXUDUiTXHORVFXOWLYRVHVWpQPHMRUDGDSWDGRVDQWHHO FDPELRFOLPiWLFR ZThe United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that at least 40 % of our global economy is based on the use of biological resources. Sustainable use is a valuable tool to promote conservation of biodiversity, since in many instances it provides incentives for conservation and restoration because of the social, cultural and economic beneďŹ ts that people derive from it.

Â&#x2039;21*(ONDQD*HRUJLD

For example, Georgia has over 350 local species of grain crops, more than 100 species of fruit-trees, nuts and wild berries, and 500 local varieties of grapes. During the past century, introduction of modern agriculture practice replaced diversiďŹ ed agricultural production. As a result, the cultivation of many valuable local plant varieties has been abandoned, with the loss of important native cultivars. With the support of the GEF, farmers in Georgia have resumed the use of local plant varieties, and in the process increased their income. Local farmer cooperatives have been formed to distribute seeds of local varieties which are more pest resistant and nutritious, adding to their market and consumer appeal. DiversiďŹ ed crop production will also ensure that crops are better adapted to climate change.

k>        1      # # ' C #  @;;  +P

   O\

 <       C #

Â&#x2039;21*(ONDQD*HRUJLD

kC    @;;  C #

      8   ( 

 #(  

                # *  

 -

k                 #   < 

  3  *"(-

k

  <     > 447   . 8   

  

       )0 %   # $

k<     

C #B #  C @ #  ]+P

 8]O\

 "

     5      C #

k 4C @     C # 

   8   5          #  4       #   *@ =   -

k       5 #   

4  #   3    <  *"-

k<       <  > 447  .2 55

   5 5 3   5 5   35

   5  5  # 0 %  6#   

Â&#x2039;21*(ONDQD*HRUJLD

Â&#x2039;81(6&2*3(&+

Â&#x2039;35,2.6.27(55$61<,%LRVSKHUH5HVHUYH


:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

IRUIDLUDQGHTXLWDEOH VKDULQJ 769<5(7(9;0*07(*0Ă&#x201D;51<:;(

 4     

Z/RVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVGHRULJHQYHJHWDORDQLPDOSXHGHQXVDUVHSDUD JHQHUDUQXHYRVPHGLFDPHQWRV\FRVPpWLFRV/DVJDQDQFLDVPRQHWDULDV LQFOX\HQHOSDJRGHSDWHQWHVFXRWDVGHDFFHVRRFRSURSLHGDGGH ORVGHUHFKRVGHSURSLHGDGLQWHOHFWXDO/DVJDQDQFLDVQRPRQHWDULDV LQFOX\HQHQWUHQDPLHQWR\ODHGXFDFLyQUHVXOWDGRVGHODLQYHVWLJDFLyQ\ HOGHVDUUROORRODWUDQVIHUHQFLDGHWHFQRORJtD (OWHUFHUREMHWLYRGHOD&RQYHQFLyQVREUH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFDODV 'LUHFWULFHVGH%RQQ\ODSURSXHVWDGH5pJLPHQ,QWHUQDFLRQDOGH$FFHVR \3DUWLFLSDFLyQHQORV%HQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRV $%6 DOLHQWDQDORVXVXDULRV\ SURYHHGRUHVGHORVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVDTXHFRPSDUWDQHODFFHVR\ORV EHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVSRUVXXVRGHPDQHUDMXVWD\HTXLWDWLYD /RVXVXDULRVGHORVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVGHEHUtDQFRQVHJXLUHOFRQVHQWLPLHQWR LQIRUPDGRSUHYLR\QHJRFLDUORVWpUPLQRV\ODVFRQGLFLRQHVFRQHO SDtVSURYHHGRUSDUDVXXVR/RVSDtVHVSURYHHGRUHVGHEHUtDQFUHDUODV FRQGLFLRQHVSDUDIDFLOLWDUHODFFHVRDVXVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVSDUDXVRV DPELHQWDOPHQWHVDQRV (O)0$0DSR\DXQSUR\HFWRHQOD,QGLDSDUDSURPRYHUHO$FFHVR \3DUWLFLSDFLyQHQORV%HQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVGHORVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRVGHOD ELRGLYHUVLGDGDOHVWDEOHFHUUHJODV\SURFHGLPLHQWRVEDMROD/H\1DFLRQDO GH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFDGHOD,QGLD/D,QGLDSRGUiGHWHUPLQDUFyPR VHJHVWLRQDUiHODFFHVR\ORVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLRVGHORVUHFXUVRVJHQpWLFRV HVWDEOHFLHQGRLQFHQWLYRVSDUDIRPHQWDUVXFRQVHUYDFLyQ ZGenetic resources of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms can be used for variety of purposes, including medicines and cosmetics. Monetary beneďŹ ts include royalty payments, access fees or joint ownership of intellectual property rights. Non-monetary beneďŹ ts include training and education, research and development results, or the transfer of technology. The third objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Bonn Guidelines and the proposed international regime on Access and BeneďŹ t Sharing (ABS) encourage users and providers of genetic resources to share access to, and beneďŹ ts from their use in an equitable and fair way.

The GEF supports a project in India to promote access and beneďŹ t sharing of genetic resources from biodiversity by establishing laws and procedures under Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s National Biological Diversity Act. India will determine how access to, and beneďŹ ts from, genetic resources are to be managed by providing incentives for its conservation.

k@;;8G, k; A  

    2 8UE

    1      & %   # 2  #  (      8      9*2-

kC ^ (#  F0*    - #  

 2      6   1    

 M    7 $           ??

Â&#x2039;,5'/e9Ă&#x2C6;48(&KULVWLDQ

Users of genetic resources should seek the prior informed consent from, and negotiate the terms and conditions with, the provider country for their use. Provider countries should create conditions to facilitate access to their genetic resources for environmentally sound uses.

k6 # #     '    M '

   

  *;

 -

k      

  

 $ 

       #$*> !-

k6 # #      #   

5    8 6  # C @ # ?6]G,

 R8?6] UE

#  

   4 9*2-

Â&#x2039;*()&$51(0$5.&XUW

k@ 5  4 k@  .FB 2  0*    &   # 5 2    

%      4# 4 M    7    #  4  ?6

kC4       M    

  *;

 -

k3

7     

          #   *> -

Â&#x2039;,5'5,9$/$ODLQ

Â&#x2039;81(6&2%(1$9,'(6&ODXGLD

Â&#x2039;*()&$51(0$5.&XUW


:+$7&$1:('272+$/7%,2',9(56,7</266"Â&#x2021;¢48e32'(026+$&(53$5$'(7(1(5/$3e5','$'(%,2',9(56,'$'"

IXWXUH /(*0(

 

Z7~HUHVXQDSDUWHLQWHJUDOGHODQDWXUDOH]D\WXIXWXURHVWi tQWLPDPHQWHOLJDGRDODELRGLYHUVLGDGTXHWHSURSRUFLRQDDOLPHQWR DJXDFRPEXVWLEOHVDOXG\ORVRWURVVHUYLFLRVHVHQFLDOHVGHODYLGD 3HURHVWDULFDGLYHUVLGDGVHHVWiSHUGLHQGRDXQDUDSLGH]DODUPDQWH GHELGRDODVDFWLYLGDGHVKXPDQDV(OVLVWHPDYLWDOGHOD7LHUUDGHOTXH GHSHQGHPRVVHHVWiGHELOLWDQGRHQVXFDSDFLGDGSDUDUHVSRQGHUD DPHQD]DVFRPRHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRODSpUGLGDGHELRGLYHUVLGDG\OD GHVHUWLĂ&#x20AC;FDFLyQ (OHVHO$xR,QWHUQDFLRQDOGHOD'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFD3RGHPRV HVIRU]DUQRVHQUHGXFLUODSpUGLGDGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG 6HHVWiQOOHYDQGRDFDERDFFLRQHVHQWRGRHOPXQGR ,QVSLUDGRVHQHOp[LWRGHO*UXSR,QWHUJXEHUQDPHQWDOGH([SHUWRVVREUH HO&DPELR&OLPiWLFR ,3&& HQKDFHUYLVLEOHVORVULHVJRVGHOFDPELR FOLPiWLFRORVJRELHUQRVDKRUDHVWiQFRQVLGHUDQGRODFUHDFLyQGHXQD 3ODWDIRUPD,QWHUJXEHUQDPHQWDOVREUHOD%LRGLYHUVLGDG\ORV6HUYLFLRV GHORV(FRVLVWHPDV ,3%(6 SDUDHYDOXDUODSpUGLGDGHELRGLYHUVLGDG\VX LPSDFWRHQORVVHUYLFLRVGHORVHFRVLVWHPDV\HOELHQHVWDUKXPDQRDVt FRPRSDUDD\XGDUHQODWRPDGHGHFLVLRQHV /D,QLFLDWLYD/LIHZHEGH$OHPDQLDHVWiPRYLOL]DQGRUHFXUVRVSDUDOD FUHDFLyQGHiUHDVSURWHJLGDVHQWRGRHOPXQGR (QHOORVJRELHUQRVOOHJDUiQDXQDFXHUGRVREUHHOQXHYR3ODQ (VWUDWpJLFRSDUDOD&'%\HVWDEOHFHUiQQXHYRVREMHWLYRVSDUDDVHJXUDUOD SURWHFFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG\HOELHQHVWDUKXPDQR\SDUDDPRUWLJXDU ORVLPSDFWRVGHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFR ZYou are an integral part of nature, and your fate is intimately linked to biodiversity to provide you with food, water, fuel, medicine and lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s other essential services. Yet this rich diversity is being lost at an alarming rate due to human activities. The Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life support system, on which we depend, is weakening its ability to respond to such threats as climate change, biodiversity loss and desertiďŹ cation. 2010 is the International Year of Biodiversity. We have to work to reduce biodiversity loss.

The Lifeweb Initiative of Germany is mobilising resources for the creation of protected areas worldwide. 010, governments will agree on the new strategic plan for the CBD, and set new targets to ensure that biodiversity is protected for human well-being, and to buffer the impacts of climate change.

k.2# 0 8   >  @ 4 4 *F-

k."

 0 "  <# #   * -

k^   _         #$ &           >   /45*F-

Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP6(%.()XNXRND

Actions around the world include: Inspired by the success of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in raising awareness about climate change, governments are now considering the creation of an Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) to evaluate biodiversity loss and its impact on ecosystem services and human well-being and as an aid to decision-making.

k  <    > 5  ?& 6"/*@ -I .@   0 "

      #  

k.6 1 0 " >   & > 

<      * )-

k.#0 9    # >   @ 4 4*F-

.  0 1 

k.# 50 <8   <# #   *C -

k. 0        #   &           /45 >  *F-

k/ > 5   <  *>  - . # 0 "

      # 

k. 5 0 3 4  > & > 4    <   *6-

.0 " #  

Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP3DFLĂ&#x20AC;FNODXV Â&#x2039;)OLFNUFRP&KULVWLDQDEH

Â&#x2039;81(6&2%(48(77()UDQFH

Â&#x2039;81(6&2%(48(77()UDQFH

Â&#x2039;3LFRGH(XURSD%LRVSKHUH5HVHUYH


FDULQJIRURXU

:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

79,:,9=(*0Ă&#x201D;5+,3

  Z(OFRQFHSWRGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOVHEDVDHQODFRQYLFFLyQGHTXH DOJXQRVVLWLRVHQHOPXQGRWLHQHQXQYDORUXQLYHUVDOWDQVREUHVDOLHQWH TXHIRUPDQSDUWHGHOOHJDGRFRP~QGHODKXPDQLGDG\SRUORWDQWR UHTXLHUHQSURWHFFLyQLQWHUQDFLRQDO/D&RQYHQFLyQVREUH3DWULPRQLR 0XQGLDOHVHO~QLFRLQVWUXPHQWROHJLVODWLYRTXHYLJLODUHJXODUPHQWHORV VLWLRVSDUDDVHJXUDUVXLQWHJULGDGSURWHFFLyQ\RSHUDFLyQ(O&RPLWpGH 3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOWLHQHHOPDQGDWRLQWHUJXEHUQDPHQWDOGHLQWHUYHQLU \GHVHPSHxDXQSDSHOHVHQFLDOHQODSURWHFFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG &XDWURFULWHULRVDEDUFDQORVVLWLRVQDWXUDOHV>YLLYLLLL[[@FRQGRV FULWHULRVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FRVHQUHODFLyQFRQODELRGLYHUVLGDG HOFULWHULR L[ VHUHĂ&#x20AC;HUHDORVSURFHVRVHFROyJLFRV\ELROyJLFRVVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLYRV HQFXUVR HOFULWHULR [ VHUHĂ&#x20AC;HUHDODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG\ODVDPHQD]DV UHODFLRQDGDVFRQHOOD +R\HQGtDVLWLRVQDWXUDOHV\PL[WRVGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOHQ SDtVHVSURWHJHQPiVGHKHFWiUHDVGHWLHUUD\PDUHVGHFLU DOUHGHGRUGHODPLWDGGHOWDPDxRGH(XURSD0XFKRVGHORVVLWLRVGH SDWULPRQLRPXQGLDOHVWiQXELFDGRVHQSXQWRVFDOLHQWHVGHELRGLYHUVLGDG

ZThe concept of World Heritage is based on the conviction that certain sites in the world are of such outstanding universal value that they form part of the common heritage of humankind and thus require international protection. The World Heritage Convention is the only international legislative instrument that regularly monitors sites to ensure integrity, protection, and management. The World Heritage Committee has the intergovernmental mandate to intervene and plays an essential role in biodiversity protection. Four criteria cover natural sites [(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)] with two speciďŹ c biodiversity-related criteria: Criterion (ix) refers to signiďŹ cant ongoing ecological and biological processes. Criterion (x) refers to biodiversity conservation and their associated threats.

Â&#x2039;0 *7KHULQ:HLVH

Today, 201 natural and mixed World Heritage sites in 81 countries protect over 177 million hectares of land and sea, or about half the size of Europe! Many of the World Heritage sites are situated in biodiversity hotspots or regions.

k2 6 (  & [              `  ==a

k>  > ;  

 #       

k"  1 

   %1    I b# & " *@ - `  ==a b>  & J*2- `  =a b@  & #IC #   &c d *& #- `  a b6  4*F- `  ==a b<

 *2 6 - `  =a

k ##I '  (      6    ## 6 *" - `  =a

k &5[  6 7 2   #     5   

  `  *=-*=-a

Â&#x2039;-DFTXHV%ODQFKDUG

k> 3  9 #  5 B   #

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

k@#  @ <I b#&5" *@ - `  *-*=-*=-a bJ& > 4*2- `  *-*=-a b3& 5#@ DC #   &c d *& 5`  *-*-a b6  4*F- `  *=-*=-a b <

*6 2 `  *=-a

Â&#x2039;81(6&2/DUV/ÂĄIDOGL

Â&#x2039;81(6&2+DL[LDQJ=KRX

Â&#x2039;8QLWHG1DWLRQV(QYLURQPHQW3URJUDPPH:RUOG &RQVHUYDWLRQ0RQLWRULQJ&HQWUH 81(3:&0&

Â&#x2039;0LQLVWqUHGHO¡HQYLURQQHPHQW-DSRQDLV

k C>I        6 C> 6  *" `  *=-a

Â&#x2039;81(6&25\DQ3DGG\


:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

OLYLQJZLWKWKUHDWVFRSLQJ *65=0=09*65(4,5(A(:

   

Z'DGRTXHDOJXQRVSUREOHPDV\FULVLVDPELHQWDOHVHVWiQDIHFWDQGROD ELRGLYHUVLGDG\DVHDHOFDPELRFOLPiWLFRODGHIRUHVWDFLyQRODVHVSHFLHV LQYDVRUDVELHQSRGUtDPRVVHQWLUQRVLPSRWHQWHV$IRUWXQDGDPHQWHHO &HQWURGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOGHOD81(6&2HQWDQWR6HFUHWDUtDGH OD&RQYHQFLyQVREUH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDODFW~DGHDFXHUGRFRQOD LQIRUPDFLyQSURYLVWDSRUODVPLVLRQHVGHYLJLODQFLDLQIRUPHVSHULyGLFRV 21*VHLQFOXVRLQIRUPHVQRVROLFLWDGRVSDUDFRPSURPHWHUVHFRQORVJRELHUQRV \D\XGDUDDERUGDUODVDPHQD]DVDORVVLWLRVGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO /D/LVWDGHORVVLWLRVGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOHQ3HOLJURHVXQ LQVWUXPHQWRXWLOL]DGRSDUDODSUHVHUYDFLyQGHORVVLWLRVD\XGDDHOHYDU HOSHUĂ&#x20AC;OSROtWLFR\IRPHQWDPD\RUHVLQYHUVLRQHVĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLHUDV\WpFQLFDV (OFDPELRFOLPiWLFRSRUHMHPSOR MXQWRFRQRWURVIDFWRUHV FRQHO WLHPSRSXHGHPLQDUODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHXQVLWLRORFXDODIHFWDVX LPSRUWDQFLDQDWXUDO\VXLQWHJULGDG\SRUORWDQWRVXGHVWDFDGRYDORU XQLYHUVDO /DGLIXVLyQGHODDSUHFLDFLyQGHORVVLWLRVTXHHVWiQHQODOLVWDSXHGH DWUDHUODDWHQFLyQGHORVPHGLRV\IRPHQWDUHODSR\RS~EOLFRWDQWR QDFLRQDOFRPRPXQGLDOSDUDXQPD\RULPSDFWR

ZWith environmental issues and crises affecting biodiversity, whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s climate change, deforestation or invasive species, we could easily feel helpless. Fortunately, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, as Secretariat to the World Heritage Convention, acts on information gathered from monitoring missions, periodic reports, NGOs or even unsolicited reports to engage with governments and help tackle threats to World Heritage sites. The List of World Heritage in Danger is an instrument used in the preservation of sites: it helps raise the political proďŹ le and encourages greater ďŹ nancial and technical investments. Climate change for example (together with other stress factors) may eventually undermine the characteristics of a site, affecting its natural signiďŹ cance and integrity, and thus its outstanding universal value.

k> ;   > # I $   ( 1 #  A  1 #    )  >  &  # *<! % (  "#-

k> 

#   #    1 *E++SE++P- @ I       " 3  9 #  I;  #       E++S7E++P

k   ( (  6  * #  -         $   (

Â&#x2039;81(6&2-XDQ3DEOR0RUHLUDV

The widespread appreciation of listed sites can attract media attention and galvanize public support both nationally and worldwide to greater impact.

         

k    (#     (

   

   SEe       J   *<! ? 1-OPPGE++E

k 6   (#  / =*/-      

*    

   

   %  - (  # '  P+e

k3 9 # %# I    #  A    # 

  #& > 4 *% <   "#-

k> #       #   *E++S E++P- 6 I        3  9 #  I  #       E++S7E++P

Â&#x2039;1$6$*RGGDUG6SDFH)OLJKW&HQWUH

Â&#x2039;81(6&20DUF3DWU\

Â&#x2039;86*6(5261$6$9LVLEOH(DUWK

E++S

E++P

\S U, U,

U\ HP GU E+ EG

E+ OE

%      

k    # #   6   * #  -5  #    



/    &   ;#     #  

k  #    #  #       SEe    ;J  7 *?<   1-2OPPG E++E

/   

k  / = 6  */-  5  *   #  

    %  

 C -        P+e


:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

IRUJLQJ3DUWQHUVKLSVIRU -691(9*65:69*06:

   Z/DFRRSHUDFLyQFRQJRELHUQRVLQVWLWXFLRQHVLQWHUQDFLRQDOHV21*V \FRUSRUDFLRQHVSULYDGDVHVFUXFLDOSDUDVDOYDJXDUGDUHOSDWULPRQLR PXQGLDO(QFLHUWRVHQWLGRODXQLYHUVDOLGDGGHHVWHOHJDGRFRP~QHVWi OOHYDQGRDODFRPXQLGDGJOREDODDFWXDUSRUHOELHQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDG TXHDOĂ&#x20AC;QGHFXHQWDVHVHOQXHVWUR(VWDFDPSDxDPXQGLDOHVHVHQFLDO SDUDORJUDUHO2EMHWLYR%LRGLYHUVLGDG\HVWHWUDEDMRQRSXHGH FXPSOLUVHVLQODDFFLyQXQLĂ&#x20AC;FDGD /D,QLFLDWLYDGH&RQVRUFLRVSDUDOD&RQVHUYDFLyQGHO3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO ODQ]DGDHQLQFOX\HDPiVGHPLHPEURVWRGRVVXVFULEHQORV SULQFLSLRVXQLYHUVDOHVGHO3DFWR*OREDOGH1DFLRQHV8QLGDV6HKD HVWDEOHFLGRFRRSHUDFLyQHQORVDVSHFWRVFRQVXOWLYR\WpFQLFRFRQOD 8,&1HO318')0$0\RWURVDFXHUGRVDPELHQWDOHVPXOWLODWHUDOHV LQFOXLGRHO*UXSRGH(QODFHVREUH'LYHUVLGDG%LROyJLFDRHQDVSHFWRV Ă&#x20AC;QDQFLHURVSDUDGLYHUVLĂ&#x20AC;FDUODVIXHQWHVGHĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLDPLHQWR (OSURJUDPDGH(GXFDFLyQGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOVHGLULJHDMyYHQHVFRQ SUR\HFWRVFRPRHO.LWGH0DWHULDOHVUHODFLRQDGRVFRQ3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO SDUD-yYHQHV HQOHQJXDV \ODVHULHGHGLEXMRVDQLPDGRVGH 3DWULPRQLWR HSLVRGLRV 

ZCooperation with governments, international institutions, NGOs and private corporations is crucial to safeguard World Heritage. In a sense, the universality of this common heritage is driving the global community to act for biodiversityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sake, and ultimately our own.

The World Heritage Education Programme targets youth with projects such as the World Heritage in Young Hands Resource Kit (in 32 languages) and the â&#x20AC;&#x153;3DWULPRQLWRâ&#x20AC;? cartoon series (8 episodes).

k?  \I.         /   2  0  *    0

k     F# 7"

   2  9            > # ;  > ;    >  ;      *@ -     #1  F# 7"

 

k J9    > 8 &# 

   @  6 

           "  #)1   5    ; 

Â&#x2039;81(6&2

This worldwide campaign is essential in order to achieve the 2010 Biodiversity Target; work that cannot be accomplished without uniďŹ ed action. The World Heritage Partnerships for Conservation Initiative, launched in 2002, involves more than 70 partners; all adhere to the universal principles of the UN Global Compact. Cooperation exists on an advisory or technical capacity with IUCN, UNDP-GEF, and other Multilateral Environmental Agreements including the Biodiversity Liaison Group, or ďŹ nancial, by diversifying funding sources.

k    > ;     >   ;     *@ -              33@ >&?%7@;;

k  " % %  *<?-

#  8     #8 $  #   F "     (   

Â&#x2039;0RQLFD5DKPDQLQJVLK

k \ .        /     0 * 10

Â&#x2039;81(6&27027XEEDWDKD5HHI

Â&#x2039;7RSS[Â&#x2039;,QWHUQDWLRQDO+HUDOG7ULEXQH

k3 4  F# 7"

   2   9     5     3 9 # ; > #     < ; > 4*>  -      #1 F# 7"

 

k  > #  47  5  6 

@   #          5      #  ;   

k3 9 # # 5 4#   <;  > 4*>  -     5 # 

 

5    33@ ?&%>7C @

Â&#x2039;81(6&2-HQQLIHU&DWKHULQH

k %   %"*? J#-  #8   #

5# #  F "  5      #    


:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

ELRGLYHUVLW\0$NLQJ 3()06+0=,9:0+(+!

   



Z(VWDUSUHVHQWHHQOD/LVWDGHO3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOGHVGHOXHJRUHVDOWD HOYDORUGHORVOXJDUHVFRPRGHVWLQRVWXUtVWLFRV'HKHFKRFRVHFKDU ODVJDQDQFLDVVRFLDOHV\HFRQyPLFDVHVXQVXWLODFWRGHHTXLOLEULRHQWUH FRQVHUYDFLyQ\GHVDUUROOR/DSRSXODULGDGFRQOOHYDXQPD\RUGHVHP EROVRSRUSDUWHGHORVWXULVWDVPD\RUHVRSRUWXQLGDGHVFRPHUFLDOHV\ ODERUDOHVPHMRULQIUDHVWUXFWXUDS~EOLFD\FRQIUHFXHQFLDSUHVWLJLR\ RUJXOORSDUDODFRPXQLGDG (O3URJUDPDGH7XULVPRGHO3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOHQOD]DODFRQVHUYDFLyQ GHODELRGLYHUVLGDG\HOWXULVPRVRVWHQLEOHDOWUDEDMDUFRQODVFRPXQLGDGHV ORFDOHV\ORVUHVSRQVDEOHVGHORVVLWLRVSDUDHTXLOLEUDUHODXPHQWRGHO WXULVPRFRQODSURWHFFLyQGHOKiELWDW (QHOFDVRGHODV*DOiSDJRVODFDQWLGDGFDGDYH]PD\RUGHPLJUDQWHV DIHFWDHOPHGLRDPELHQWH/DSHVFDLQGXVWULDOLOHJDOVHDxDGHDODSUHVLyQ PLHQWUDVTXHODVHVSHFLHVLQWURGXFLGDVFRPSLWHQFRQODELRGLYHUVLGDG HQGpPLFDGHODVLVODV\GLĂ&#x20AC;FXOWDQORVWUDEDMRVGHFRQVHUYDFLyQ 6yORDOLQFXOFDUXQSURIXQGRVHQWLGRGHUHVSRQVDELOLGDGHQODVFRPXQLGDGHV ORFDOHVDQWHHO3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOSRGUHPRVFRQĂ&#x20AC;DUHQTXHODGLYHUVLGDG FXOWXUDO\QDWXUDOGHOSODQHWDSHUGXUHHQHOIXWXUR

ZWorld Heritage listing certainly enhances properties as tourist destinations. In fact, reaping the social and economic beneďŹ ts is a subtle balancing act between conservation and development. Popularity brings increased tourist spending, enhanced commercial and employment opportunities, improved public infrastructure, and often, community prestige and pride. The World Heritage Tourism Programme links biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism by working with local communities and site managers to balance the boon in tourism with habitat protection.

Only by instilling a deep sense of responsibility among the local communities towards World Heritage can we be conďŹ dent that the planetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cultural and natural diversity will endure into the future.

k 

   ; > *> !-

           

kX%Y 2 C (# *   -  > ;   > # 

kF  @   &?  ?& 6"/ =  #  > ;                 ?  K  "  &# # *<!  ?1-

Â&#x2039;7LP*XOLFN

In the case of the GalĂĄpagos, the growing number of migrants impact on the environment. Illegal industrial ďŹ shing adds to the strain while introduced species compete with the islandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; unique biodiversity, hampering conservation efforts.

k2            

'8  > ;       #     >  & ;   >*%-

k   '

    J ;     > ;    F

k"#5 

  ; > *> -  ##      

k  5 #Y C (# 2 *   -3  9 ## 

k#  5   ?& @ ?& 6"/ =   @ 3 9 #      5       / &# #  "  *? <  1-

k2 #     

     

  3 9 #    #  ;  > & > 4*%-

´1HFHVLWDPRVHPSUHVDV SDUDGDUXQVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDGR SUiFWLFR\XQPD\RUDO FDQFHDORVYDORUHV\ SULQFLSLRVTXHFRQHFWDQODV FXOWXUDV\ORVSXHEORVGHO PXQGRHQWHURÂľ %DQ.LPRRQ6HFUHWDULR*HQHUDO GHODV1DFLRQHV8QLGDV Â&#x2039;81(6&20&OXVHQHU

Â&#x2039;2853/$&(7KH:RUOG+HULWDJH&ROOHFWLRQ

Â&#x2039;81(6&2.LVKRUH5DR

Â&#x2039;81(6&29HVQD9XMLFLF/XJDVV\

k #        3 9 #: # 9  4


:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

KROLVWLFLQQDPH /63Ă?:;0*6,5,3-65+6

  

Z8QRGHORVDVSHFWRVPiVRULJLQDOHVGHOD&RQYHQFLyQHVHOYtQFXOR H[SOtFLWRHQWUHHOOHJDGRQDWXUDO\HOFXOWXUDOWUDGLFLRQDOPHQWH FRQVLGHUDGRVSRUVHSDUDGR(QOD&RQYHQFLyQVHFRQYLUWLyHQHO SULPHULQVWUXPHQWROHJDOLQWHUQDFLRQDOTXHUHFRQRFLHUD\SURWHJLHUDORV SDLVDMHVFXOWXUDOHV(VWRVVRQOXJDUHVGRQGHODJHQWHODQDWXUDOH]D\ ORVHFRVLVWHPDVLQWHUDFW~DQFRQIRUPDQGRDVtODFXOWXUD\ODLGHQWLGDG \HQULTXHFLHQGRODGLYHUVLGDGWDQWRFXOWXUDOFRPRELROyJLFD $OJXQRVSDLVDMHVFXOWXUDOHVUHĂ HMDQWpFQLFDVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDVGHXVRVVRVWH QLEOHVGHODWLHUUDTXHWRPDQHQFRQVLGHUDFLyQODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV\ORV OtPLWHVGHOHQWRUQRQDWXUDO\FRQIUHFXHQFLDXQDUHODFLyQHVSLULWXDOFRQ ODQDWXUDOH]D3RUORWDQWRMXQWRFRQORVVLWLRVQDWXUDOHVVDJUDGRVVRQ iUHDVLPSRUWDQWHVGHFRQVHUYDFLyQGHODELRGLYHUVLGDGLQVLWX $OJXQRVSDLVDMHVFXOWXUDOHVWDPELpQSURSRUFLRQDQODEDVHSDUDORV FXOWLYRVGHOPDxDQDDVtFRPRGHVFXEULPLHQWRVPpGLFRVGHELGRDVXV UHVHUYDVGHJHQHV,JXDOPHQWHLPSRUWDQWHVVRQORVVLWLRVTXHSUDFWLFDQ ODFRQVHUYDFLyQGHSODQWDVH[VLWXFRPRORV-DUGLQHV.HZHQ/RQGUHV

Some cultural landscapes reďŹ&#x201A;ect speciďŹ c techniques of sustainable landuse that consider the characteristics and limits of the natural environment with often a spiritual relationship to nature. Together with sacred natural sites they are therefore important areas of LQVLWX biodiversity conservation. Certain cultural landscapes also provide the basis for the crops of tomorrow as well as medical breakthroughs because of their gene pools. Equally important are sites practicing H[VLWX plant conservation such as Kew Gardens in London.

k 1  (       > 2#  (    # 

 '      #    1  1 " 

  @ *@ -

k       6

 ;

   F J5       =    <   C J5*< ?-

k >#

# 2  2      *;$=-      

        

Â&#x2039;6DUDK(QFDERDQGÂ&#x2039;+DUOH\)3DODQJFKDR

ZOne of the most original aspects of the Convention is the explicit link between natural and cultural heritage, traditionally considered as separate. In 1992 the Convention became the ďŹ rst international legal instrument to recognize and protect cultural landscapes. They are places where people, nature and ecosystems interact, thus shaping culture and identity, and enriching both cultural and biological diversity.

k           (  1  

    4J<   #  ;4*J-

k    9  "  ; 2#  9 #        5  2 #     <   >   " 

 *>  -

kJ5B;

 6 4    

 #=       5 <   C J5*? J#-

Â&#x2039;81(6&2)%DQGDULQ

Â&#x2039;81(6&26WHYH2NRNR

Â&#x2039;81(6&2&DUOR7RPDV

k #  2    @    *;=-    

    5      

k6   7            

     JJ<  ;4@  *J-


:25/'+(5,7$*(' (   )  *  &+(O3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO' , (    -  * .  &

NHHSLQJWUDFNRIWKH 4(5;,5,9:, 05-694(+6:6)9,

  Z&RQXQDFDQWLGDGFDGDYH]PD\RUGHVLWLRV3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO\ VLWLRVQDWXUDOHVHQSHOLJURHO&RPLWpGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOWUDEDMD GXURSDUDPHMRUDUHOVHJXLPLHQWR\ODLQIRUPDFLyQ(O&RPLWpVHDSR\DHQ ORVLQIRUPHVVREUHHOHVWDGRGHFRQVHUYDFLyQXQVHJXLPLHQWRUHIRU]DGR \HQLQIRUPHVSHULyGLFRVSDUDDGHODQWDUVHDSRVLEOHVDPHQD]DV\ PDQWHQHUVHDOGtD /RVLQIRUPHVSXHGHQGDUOXJDUDXQDYLJLODQFLDPiVDFWLYDVROLFLWDQGR RWUDVPLVLRQHVGHVHJXLPLHQWRH[WUDFXDQGRH[LVWHDOJXQDSUHRFXSDFLyQ HVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDDFHUFDGHODFRQVHUYDFLyQ/DVSURYLVLRQHVGHD\XGD LQWHUQDFLRQDOGHO)RQGRGH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO\ORV)RQGRVGH 5HVSXHVWD5iSLGD 55) HVWiQHQWUHORVPHFDQLVPRVPiVLPSRUWDQWHV SDUDHODSR\RĂ&#x20AC;QDQFLHURHQWLHPSRVGHFULVLV

ZWith a growing number of World Heritage sites, and 16 natural listed sites In Danger, the World Heritage Committee works hard to improve monitoring and reporting. The Committee relies on the state of conservation reports, reinforced monitoring and periodic reporting to anticipate potential threats and keep track. Reports can initiate reactive monitoring by requesting monitoring missions where speciďŹ c conservation concerns may exist. The World Heritage Fundâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s international assistance provisions and the Rapid Response Facility are among the most important mechanisms for ďŹ nancial support in times of crises. IUCN plays an important role as Advisory Body on natural World Heritage sites making recommendations on nominations, particularly from identiďŹ ed eco-regional gaps in the World Heritage List, or for speciďŹ c actions. At the local level, where detrimental changes are often ďŹ rst detected, World Heritage site managers work with local communities and NGOs to place global conservation in local hands.

k)  1 k6 >     ;           #  >   &    K > #  " *  -#   <<@

k?    ' >   &   " 5 *& -   $    "$ >  ;     $OPP+    

!    

Â&#x2039;(PDV132UHDGHV5DSLG5HVSRQVH)DFLOLW\

/D8QLyQ,QWHUQDFLRQDOSDUDOD&RQVHUYDFLyQGHOD1DWXUDOH]D 8,&1  GHVHPSHxDXQSDSHOLPSRUWDQWHFRPR&XHUSR&RQVXOWLYRVREUHORVVLWLRV GH3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDOQDWXUDO\DTXHUHFRPLHQGDDFFLRQHVHVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDV RQXHYDVQRPLQDFLRQHVSURYHQLHQWHVVREUHWRGRGHHFRUHJLRQHVDXVHQWHV HQOD/LVWD$QLYHOORFDOGRQGHVXHOHQGHWHFWDUVHSULPHURORVFDPELRV SHUMXGLFLDOHVORVUHVSRQVDEOHVGHORVVLWLRVGHO3DWULPRQLR0XQGLDO WUDEDMDQFRQODVFRPXQLGDGHVORFDOHV\ODV21*VSDUDFRQWDUFRQ H[SHULHQFLDORFDOHQODFRQVHUYDFLyQJOREDO

k<#K       > ;   8 #  2

*% -

 ! > ;      "' 

>   K 

Natural Sites (Sites naturels)

N0. of WH mixed sites (N0. de sites mixtes)

Sites in Danger (Sites en pĂŠril)

Asia (Asie)

33

7

1

38

Africa (Afrique)

33

3

12

36

North America (AmĂŠrique du nord)

25

0

0

20

South America (AmĂŠrique du sud)

29

3

3

31

Europe

40

7

0

31

Continent/ RĂŠgion

k  81   #      

  '  

        >  & 2# 1! *  -

k:     4 @# #8    & > 4"  >  * 1 -  4<<@ #

k&  3 9 # 6  f #

k      < " 5 & > 4*& - 5

5#   3  9 #"   OPP+   4   

 # 7    

k  <#  # 3  9 #2

 2 *% 4-  5  3  9 #       "  

k   #  #       5

# 5    5 4 2# L & > 4 * 1 -

Â&#x2039;-LP.UHKOÂ&#x2039;/XPLqUH3DEOR1LFROiV7DLEL&LFDUp

Â&#x2039;0 *7KHULQ:HLVH

Â&#x2039;0 *7KHULQ:HLVH

Total


    

International Year of Biodiversity exhibition organized by UNESCO in partnership with 8ZcigZÂ&#x2122;HX^ZcXZhOrlĂŠans, France

Z

 6 

UNESCO CBD GEF UNEP " &< b6"2 &" 6

Z MINISTĂ&#x2C6;RE DES AFFAIRES Ă&#x2030;TRANGĂ&#x2C6;RES ET EUROPĂ&#x2030;ENNES

6 

GEF Netherlands Funds in Trust French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs

Z

.6 6  6

CNRS FundaciĂłn Biodiversidad 2&< 2<% MNHN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment NASA Our Place Airbus

Graphic design by Vincent BURILLE, Orleans -France Printed by API, Saint-Denis-en-Val - France Aluminium furniture Creuset, Ormes - France Plastic furniture BCF, Jouy-le-Potier - France Additional pictures - StockFonts

 

La Biodiversidad es vida - Carteles de nuestra exposición  

Esta exposición ha viajado por todo el mundo para ayudar a que la gente comprenda porque conservar la biodiversidad de la Tierra es clave pa...

Advertisement