Achieving Development Results in Asia and the Pacific

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UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT RESULTS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Empowered lives. Resilient nations.

2013-2014


In 2013-14, UNDP supported electoral cycle processes in seven countries resulting in 16.7 million new voters. The cover photo shows a polling station registration officer and her daughter during the 2014 elections in Afghanistan and was taken in Kabul. CREDIT: Lorenzo Tugnoli / UNDP Elect


2013

UNDP in the Asia-Pacific Region

Figure 1: UNDP in the Asia-Pacific Region

Mongolia

I.R. of Iran

DPR of Korea

China

Afghanistan Nepal Bhutan

Pakistan India

Lao PDR Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

Sri Lanka

Viet Thailand Nam Cambodia

Philippines Micronesia (Federated States of )

Brunei Darussalam Palau

Malaysia

Papua New Guinea Singapore Indonesia Regional Centre (Bangkok)

Least Developed Country (LDC) UNDP Regional Service Centres UNDP Country Offices

Marshall Islands

Timor Leste

Nauru

Kiribati Tokelau (NZ) Tuvalu

Solomon Islands

Samoa Vanuatu

Fiji

Niue Cook Islands Tonga

Centre (Suva)

Map data source(s): Un Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Development Countries and small Island Developing Countries and small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), 2012 Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers:

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.


TABLE OF CONTENTS LETTER FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR FOREWORD BY THE REGIONAL DIRECTOR CHAPTER 1: MAJOR DEVELOPMENT CHANGES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN 2013-2014 Case Study 1: From the Mountains to the Sea, UNDP Offers Simple Solutions to Help Communities Keep Governments ‘On Their Toes’ CHAPTER 2: TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE Case Study 2: Scaling Up Women’s Economic Empowerment in Nepal CHAPTER 3: SUSTAINABLE AND INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT Case Study 3: New Social Protection Approach Benefits Vulnerable Groups in China CHAPTER 4: INCLUSIVE AND EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE Case Study 4: A Strong Commitment to Reducing Gender Inequality Results in Important Gains Case Study 5: Asia-Pacific Priorities for Post-2015 Agenda from the My World Survey CHAPTER 5:BUILDING RESILIENCE Case Study 6: Recovery in Action in Philippines CHAPTER 6: INNOVATING FOR RESULTS CHAPTER 7: SCALING UP INNOVATION FOR GREATER DEVELOPMENT IMPACT Case Study 7: Scaling Up Innovative Solutions for Accessing Financial Services in the Pacific Case Study 8: Replication Through South-South Cooperation Offers Wide Scaling-Up Potential CHAPTER 8: MOVING FORWARD RESOURCES ENDNOTES SELECTED PUBLICATIONS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

3 4 9 13 15 19 21 27 31 32 36 41 45 49 53 54 57 59 61 62 66 68 70


FIGURES Figure 1: Figure 2a: Figure 2b: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8a: Figure 8b: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17:

UNDP in the Asia-Pacific Region Regional share of the world’s poor living on under $2 per day in 2000 (%) Regional share of the world’s poor living on under $2 per day in 2013 (%) The Human Development Index in the Asia-Pacific Region Demographic Changes in the Asia-Pacific Region UNDP Expenditure in Asia-Pacific by Main Area of Development Work, 2013 UNDP Expenditure in Asia-Pacific in LICs and MICs by Main Area of Development Work, 2013 Protected Areas Supported by UNDP through GEF-Financed Projects Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2000 Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2050 Gender Inequality Index 2013 Asia-Pacific Share of the Developing World’s Deprived People (millions deprived) Number of People Affected and Killed by Disasters in Asia-Pacific Timeline: Key advocacy events and publications produced in 2013-2014 Resources, 2013-2014 Top Donors to UNDP Asia-Pacific UNDP Expenditure in UNDP Asia-Pacific, 2008-2013 UNDP Expenditure by Region, 2013 Government Cost-Sharing, 2013-2014

6 7 10 12 16 18 22 28 29 33 34 42 46 62 63 64 64 65


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LETTER FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR I am pleased to introduce ‘Achieving Development Results in Asia and the Pacific 2013-2014’, a synthesis of results achieved in the region as we close the last chapter of our former Strategic Plan (2008-2013) and embark on the implementation of UNDP’s new Strategic Plan 2014-2017. The Asia-Pacific region is both dynamic and diverse, covering 36 countries and territories. Tremendous progress in economic and human development has been achieved in recent years. Ensuring that this progress continues and benefits all peoples will be critical to eliminating poverty and reducing inequality within the region. UNDP has delivered US$2 billion in programmes in Asia and the Pacific during 2013-2014 to achieve the mutual aspirations of partner governments and donors in UNDP’s three main areas of development: inclusive development pathways, inclusive and effective governance and resilience. Promoting gender equality is a cross-cutting theme of our work. The achievements described in this publication illustrate the importance attributed in 2013-2014 to integrating into our programmes innovative solutions to stubborn development challenges in the region. It also shows how UNDP, in collaboration with its partners within the government, private sector and civil society, is scaling-up these solutions so that they have greater impact on people’s lives. Through the results charted in data, maps and graphs, this publication is testament to the importance of focused and evidence-based programming aligned with the interests of the countries that UNDP serves.

Helen Clark UNDP Administrator

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FOREWORD BY THE REGIONAL DIRECTOR Human development and poverty reduction in the Asia-Pacific region have been impressive in recent years, as the maps in this report show. However, the growth has not lifted all the boats. The levels of inequality and the lack of progress in reducing inequality are striking. In addition, the rapidity of development has brought with it high rates of urbanization, posing new challenges for governments relating to economic opportunity and access to public services. The sustainability of the development gains in Asia and the Pacific are a further issue. The conference on the Small Island Developing States that took place in Samoa in September 2014 highlighted the extraordinary vulnerability of the Pacific to natural disasters and climate change. Likewise, the water and air pollution, disposal of waste and patterns of consumption in some of the region’s countries are unsustainable. UNDP’s work with Baidu, China’s largest

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Internet service provider, to develop a mobile application to aid responsible recycling of the growing volume of waste from electronic devices is an exciting innovation in this regard. This partnership has the potential to eliminate behavior that is damaging the environment, with possible application to other countries. During my first year as Regional Director of Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific (RBAP), I have had the privilege of visiting almost all countries where we work in the region (Figure 1) as well as several donor capitals. It is clear from this experience that UNDP is at the center of national strategic policy debates and is supporting the achievement of development goals. At the national and regional levels, UNDP has led consultations on the post-2015 agenda. UNDP has helped establish links between countries and facilitated the transmittal and sharing of relevant experiences. The breadth and depth of UNDP’s development


network allowed UNDP to facilitate, for example, bringing Indonesia’s experience from the Indian Ocean tsunami recovery effort to Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan hit in 2013. UNDP stands for empowered lives and resilient nations. We emphasize the need for resilience across the whole portfolio of our activities. For instance, UNDP has been supporting for over a decade the government of Odisha in India to strengthen systems for disaster risk reduction, helping reduce human casualties in the most recent super cyclone that struck in 2013 to fewer than 50. A cyclone of comparable intensity had caused more than 10,000 deaths in 1999. UNDP’s strength is its experience and know-how in state-building, and designing institutions which can plan and implement social change. Across Asia-Pacific, UNDP has developed a network of strong partnerships with government which allows us to support reforms

in a way that builds institutions not only in form but also in substance. In Nepal, more than 60,000 lowincome women and youth have become micro-entrepreneurs through the Micro-Enterprise Development Programme. Initially implemented in 10 of the country’s 75 districts, the Government has scaled up the model to 50 districts, with plans to reach all districts. In the two years covered by this report, UNDP focused on innovation and scaling up as important components to improving programme quality and achieving impact. UNDP experience has shown that partnerships are the most critical factor necessary for identifying innovative solutions and scaling them up. To name one example, the Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme brought financial services to 500,000 people in six Pacific Island countries by allowing people in remote or marginalized communities to access finance without leaving the village. This initiative would not have been

possible without the partnership between private sector, local authorities and UNDP. The role and contribution of each partner has been indispensable. This successful experience was then shared and applied to the emergency response mobile phone cash notification system developed in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan. In this publication you will find a selection of development results from UNDP’s programmes and projects in Asia and the Pacific. Although much remains to be done, these examples illustrate that together, we can eradicate poverty in our lifetime.

Haoliang Xu UN Assistant Secretary-General, UNDP Assistant Administrator and Regional Director for Asia and the Pacific

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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2000 2000

Poverty Rate per day) and Income Figure 2a:($2 Poverty Rate ($2Status per 2000 day) and Income Status Regional share of the world’s poor living on under $2 per day (%) China 0%

India 20%

Rest of Asia

40%

60%

Rest of world 80%

100%

Mongolia DPR of Korea I.R. of Iran

Afghanistan

Nepal

China Bhutan

Lao PDR

Pakistan India

Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Viet Nam

Philippines

Cambodia Malaysia Papua New Guinea Indonesia

% pop living on less than USD 2 /day and country income status in 2000

Solomon Islands

Fiji

Low Poverty (Less than 20%) Medium Poverty (20% - 50%) High Poverty (51% and above) Low Income Countries (LICs) The latest Poverty data available up to year 2000 and up to year 2013: BGD (2000), CHN (1999), FSM (2000), IDN (1999), IND (1994), IRN (1998), KHM (1994), LAO (1997), LKA (1996), MYS (1997), NPL (1996), PAK (1999), PHL (2000), PNG (1996), THA (2000), VNM (1998), MDV (1998) Map data source(s): World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers: Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.

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2013

2013

Figure 2b: Poverty Rate ($2 per day) and Income Status

Poverty Rate ($2 per day) and Income Status 2013

Regional share of the world’s poor living on under $2 per day (%) China

India

0%

20%

Rest of Asia 40%

60%

Rest of world 80%

100%

DPR of Korea I.R. of Iran Afghanistan

Nepal

China Bhutan

Lao PDR

Pakistan India Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Viet Nam

Philippines

Cambodia Malaysia

Indonesia

% pop living on less than USD 2 /day and country income status in 2000

Fiji

Low Poverty (Less than 20%) Medium Poverty (20% - 50%) High Poverty (51% and above) Low Income Countries (LICs) The latest Poverty data available up to year 2000 and up to year 2013: BGD (2010), BTN (2012), CHN (2009), FJI (2009), IDN (2011), IND (2010), IRN (2005), KHM (2009), LAO (2008), LKA (2010), MYS (2009), NPL (2010), PAK (2008), PHL (2009), PNG (1996), THA (2010), VNM (2008), MDV (2004) Map data source(s): World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers: Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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8 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


CHAPTER 1

MAJOR DEVELOPMENT CHANGES IN THE ASIAPACIFIC REGION IN 2013-2014 The Asia-Pacific region has been the most economically dynamic region in the world in recent decades, with a number of Asia-Pacific countries reducing poverty (Figure 2), improving human development (Figure 3) and growing in geopolitical influence. The region’s share in the world economy has increased from 14% in 2000 to 25% in 2012. Many countries in the region have graduated to middle-income status (MIC) in the last decade, and by 2030, the region will host about two-thirds of the world’s middle class. Innovation is gaining ground particularly at the grassroots level, an important step in developing knowledge-based, productive economies and transcending the middle-income trap. In addition, the region is undergoing major demographic changes (Figure 4), such as growing youth populations in some countries and ageing populations in others, along with rapid urbanization overall. The region continues to make progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly in reducing income poverty, although hunger, health and

UNDP co-produced a film for Discovery Asia in 2014 which tells how tuna can be managed sustainably for the benefit of the world’s oceans and local fishing communities in the Pacific whose livelihoods depend on this species. Tuna processing plant in Munda, Solomon Islands. Credit: Arrowhead Films. UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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Figure 3: The Human Development Index in the Asia-Pacific Region Human Development Index in 2013 Singapore Hong Kong Rep. of Korea Japan Brunei Darussalam Malaysia Sri Lanka I.R of Iran Fiji Thailand China Maldives Mongolia Samoa Indonesia Philippines Viet Nam Timor Leste India Cambodia Lao PDR Bangladesh Sao Tome and Principe Nepal Pakistan Myanmar Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Afghanistan 0.0

0.3

0.5

0.8

1.0

Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2014

Although the rate of increase varies between countries, all the countries in the Asia-Pacific made significant progress in human development in the last decade. Both low-income countries (such as

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Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Nepal) and middle-income countries (such as China and India) saw the greatest improvement. Seven of the ten countries that have seen the greatest improvement in human

development are among the least developed countries. East Asia has experienced the highest levels of human development while South Asia has experienced the greatest progress.


Sub-Regional Averages in HDI, 2000, 2013 East Asia

Southeast Asia

South Asia

Pacific 0

0.225

0.45 2013

0.675

0.9

2000 Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2014

Top Ten Countries with Greatest Progress in HDI between 2000 and 2013 Afghanistan Timor Leste Cambodia Myanmar Bangladesh China India Lao PDR Mongolia Nepal 0

10

19

29

38

% changes between 2000 and 2013 Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2014

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FIGURE 7: Demographic changes in the Asia-Pacific Region SOURCE: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, DVD Edition.

Figure 4: Demographic Changes in the Asia-Pacific Region

Share of the population (%)

45 40 35

60+ years

30 25 20

0 - 14 years

15 10 5 0

rate. While air pollution in the region’s megacities is one of the most dramatic examples of environmental degradation, deforestation in Southeast Asia and water scarcity in South Asia reveal much deeper problems. Most countries in the region suffer low levels of water security, and 60% of households are without a safe water supply and improved sanitation, according to the Asian Development Bank’s Asia Water Development Outlook 2013.

2100

2090

2080

2070

2060

2050

2040

2030

2020

2010

2000

1990

1980

1960

1970

1950

Some of the biggest threats are related to climate change. Several medium- and high-intensity SOURCE: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, DVD Edition. disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan in Philippines and Cyclone Phailin in India, hit in 2013. Haiyan resulted in a large-scale humanitarian response, while Phailin was a 50 sanitation targets remain off-track. Asia2 appeared relatively robust testament to the work done on Despite45 the huge decline over the in 2013-2014 by global standards disaster risk reduction (DRR) and last decade, poverty – in terms of but nonetheless represented an early warning, with hundreds 40 the proportion of people living on economic slowdown for the region, of thousands of people safely 35 per day – continues under US$2 with prospects of unemployment evacuated. The Pacific is particularly to affect 1.7 billion in the region, rising. vulnerable to extreme weather 30 where 63% of the world’s poor events, and in April 2014, torrential Despite some progress in 25 reside. Critically, gender and income 0-14 rain in the Solomon Islands caused environmental protection, the Asiadisparities are increasing in some widespread flooding, damages and 20 60+ 1 Pacific region is depleting its natural parts of the region (Figure 9). displacement, affecting 10% of the resources at an unsustainable Average15 GDP growth in developing population.

10 5 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100

0 12 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


From the Mountains to the Sea, UNDP Offers Simple Solutions to Help Communities Keep Governments ‘On Their Toes’ To combat a key problem faced by remote Maldivian island communities, a big idea is beginning to connect community members to their municipal councils for better delivery of public services. Drawing inspiration from the United Kingdom’s award-winning Fix My Street initiative, UNDP Maldives leveraged the high levels of mobile technology penetration in Maldives to create Make My Island in concert with Fixmystreet.com, which developed the technical solution for free. It’s simple: Community members use either their mobile phones or log on to a website to report or discuss their complaints, whether it’s a broken street light or uncollected waste. The relevant island council has a short time in which to resolve the complaint, which also is tracked on the website. While the Maldivian prototype has focused on municipal issues at first, communities have already shared further challenges they would like to tackle. Recently, the prototype has gone live, with local council representatives and community members both actively participating in the testing phase. Meanwhile, Bhutan’s remote, mountainous terrain and low road connectivity pose challenges for parliamentarians wishing to communicate frequently with their constituents; for many parliamentarians, it may take more than a week to visit constituents in more remote areas. These limitations mean that representation by parliamentarians, as well as the ability of citizens to hold officials to account between elections, can be compromised; local community groups have noted the difficulty of having their “voice” heard at the national level. Likewise, some parliamentarians have expressed frustration at the situation, and hoped that there could be a better education of parliamentary functions and responsibilities. To address this combination of challenges, UNDP Bhutan conceived of the idea of a “Virtual Zomdu” (virtual parliament) that brings the communities face to face with their parliamentarians, albeit virtually, to help connect Government and constituents. The idea was prototyped, and the Speaker of the National Assembly was the first parliamentarian to field-test it; Bhutan’s largest newspaper, Kuensel, quoted the Speaker as saying that the effort would be important for improving governance and “keep[ing] them on their toes.” The success of the prototype testing lends itself well to Bhutan, which embraced a constitutional democratic system only in 2008. Further developing practices and methods for interaction, consultation and representation is critical at this early phase of Bhutan’s parliamentary development, and the lawmakers’ enthusiasm for the innovation presents an important possibility for nationwide adoption.

In 2014, UNDP Bhutan, together with government partners, developed a Virtual Zomdu based on video conferencing technology, to connect parliamentarians and citizens across the mountainous terrains of the country. Credit: UNDP Bhutan UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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14 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


CHAPTER 2

TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE In 2013, UNDP delivered US$1.15 billion in programmes to address these development challenges (Figure 5), with 88% of UNDP expenditures in the region taking place in low-income countries (LICs) (Figure 6). In Afghanistan alone, US$770 million was spent, accounting for 67% of these expenditure. The development challenges facing the region have translated into three thematic priorities for UNDP in 2013-2014. One focus of UNDP’s work has been inclusive development pathways and comprised 16% of total expenditures. This has been done through programmes that increase productive capacities and create livelihood and job opportunities for the poor and excluded. A second focus has been inclusive and effective governance, and has sought to promote citizens’ voice and stronger accountability in governance systems as

At Same Market, in the rural district of Manufahi, crowds gather to see a theatre performance by NGO Ba Futuru. The activity is part of UNDP’s Justice System Programme micro-grant funding, which supports TimorLeste’s national NGOs in implementing access to justice and prevention of Gender Based Violence (GBV) projects. From July to September 2014, 3,540 people attended these theatre performances, and evaluation has shown increased awareness related to the issue. Before the performance, 68% said that they knew about the Law Against Domestic Violence, and 6% could explain it, whereas after the performance 100% said they knew about it, while 76% could explain it. Before the performance, 22% could list somewhere that they would go to receive assistance for GBV, whereas afterwards, 83% could list at least two places to go for help. Photo credits: Bernardino Soares, UNDP-Timor-Leste

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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well as stronger capacities to deliver universal access to basic services. This also has included the promotion of gender equality and women’s participation in governance institutions, and in total comprised at least 68% of expenditures. A third focus has been building resilience by reducing risk and preparing for crisis as well as early recovery. This work comprised 13% of expenditures. A fourth and final priority has been UNDP’s provision of intellectual leadership to influence the regional development debate (Figure 12). It has done this through preparing national and regional human development and MDG reports, engagement on the post-2015 agenda, and dialogue on the sustainable development goals.3 South-South and triangular cooperation partnerships have been emphasized, as has the sharing of experience from innovating and scaling up of development solutions.

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Critically, 2013 and 2014 saw the emergence of a strong new emphasis by UNDP on both innovation and scaling up as key components for ensuring transformative change. Innovation is not new to the Asia-Pacific region: To operate in such a dynamic and often challenging context requires reactive and innovative thinking (see also Chapter 6). As a region with a large and growing number of middle-income countries, UNDP is expected to provide tested and high-quality policy advisory services and solutions to stubborn development problems, a demand that requires the organization to build on innovation. At the same time, there is a need to understand where UNDP can do more to employ new practices and technologies, and to broker new partnerships, to help improve reach and social impact as well as cost effectiveness. Thus, for UNDP in Asia-Pacific, innovation is about changing the way the organization looks at development challenges and

identifying solutions outside of traditional project cycles. UNDP has recognized that it could do more to support Country Offices in testing and trialing innovative ideas, and it launched an innovation fund in February 2014 (Case Study 1). Under this, 16 projects were each awarded US$25,000 in seed funding to plan and prototype fresh solutions to help reach key development goals in the region. At the same time, the process of scaling up successful innovations and initiatives has been a programmatic principle for UNDP in Asia-Pacific since 2011 and is now a focus of the organization’s Strategic Plan 2014-17 (see also Chapter 7). UNDP is striving for a more systematic approach, with scaling models clearly defined and strategically implemented, to enhance programming quality and achieve transformative change. Notably, scaling up from a development perspective is not just about expanding in size: It is also about ensuring the quality of development impact, reaching


UNDP Expenditure in Asia- Pacific by Main Area of Development Work | 2013

IN U.S. DOLLARS Figure 5: UNDP Expenditure in Asia-Pacific by Main Area of Development Work, 2013

IN U.S. DOLLARS

Other: $27 million (2%)

Inclusive and effective governance: $787 million (68%)

Resilience: $153 million (13%)

Inclusive development pathways: $183 million (16%)

$1.150 billion

Source: UNDP ROAR database 2014

out specifically to those who are excluded, and ensuring the sustainability and adaptability of results. Moreover, scaling up embodies a longer-term process than just one year’s work, instead representing the culmination of

Source: UNDP ROAR database 2014

many years of effort (Case Study 2). Looking ahead, UNDP will continue to attribute high importance to scaling-up successful innovations as a means of achieving greater impact and contributing to national

outcome level change. It seeks to learn lessons from the valuable experience of implementing the Innovation and Scaling-Up Funds and channel those lessons into its work in 2015.

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FIGURE 6:6:UNDP EXPENDITURE IN ASIA-PACIFIC IN LICs Mainby Main Area of Development Work, FIGURE UNDP Expenditure in Asia-Pacific inAND LICsMICs andby MICs Area of Development work, 2013 2013 IN U.S. DOLLARS IN U.S. DOLLARS Source: UNDP ROAR database 2014

LICs with Afghanistan (88% of total expenditure)

MICs (12% of total expenditure)

Other

2%

Inclusive and effective governance

Inclusive development pathways 11%

75%

5% Inclusive development pathways

Inclusive and effective governance

21%

52%

$133

Resillence

12%

Other

million

$1.017 billion

Resillence

22%

LICs without Afghanistan Other

7%

32%

Inclusive development pathways

37%

Inclusive and effective governance

$309 million Resillence

24%

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Source: UNDP ROAR database 2014


Scaling Up Women’s Economic Empowerment in Nepal In Nepal, the Micro-Enterprise Development Programme (MEDEP) is the flagship programme of the Government and UNDP, and has been in operation since 1998. By supporting an integrated approach to entrepreneurship development – particularly for low-income groups, women and youth -- MEDEP ultimately fosters financial self-sufficiency. Micro-entrepreneurs are provided access to a number of business development services such as social mobilization for enterprise development; access to technical skills, to markets, and to finance; improved technologies; and advocacy for mobilizing micro-entrepreneurs associations. In terms of scaling up, the programme has witnessed increasing Government involvement, as well as an expansion in coverage. Initially implemented in 10 of the country’s 75 districts, its success resulted in expansion to 38 districts by the third phase (2008-2013). Now, the Government has replicated the model to 50 districts, with plans to reach all districts with its own resources. Overall, MEDEP is influencing an economic revolution in Nepal:4 More than 60,000 Nepalis have become micro-entrepreneurs, of which 29% are Dalits, 38% indigenous peoples (Adibasis/Janajatis), 74% women and 62% youth. A total of 80% of the entrepreneurs created during the first 12 years of the programme were still in business, and 73% had moved out of poverty. MEDEP participants had experienced a 500% increase in income, compared to 192% for non-participants. Moreover, economic empowerment of MEDEP beneficiaries has led to social and political empowerment as well. Many of the successful entrepreneurs have been proposed for party seats in recent elections. Important factors for achieving results at scale have included the targeting of the high incidence of poverty and underdevelopment in rural economies, focusing on rural enterprise at district level and linking micro- and macro-level initiatives. The programme is demand-driven, capitalizing on the marketing strengths of the districts to initiate and promote economic activities. In addition, strong and continuous advocacy and communication at all levels, including by the Government, has been a driver of the scaling-up process; donors have been particularly responsive to the Government’s advocacy, which has led to significant political commitment, resource mobilization and financial sustainability.

Women micro entrepreneurs sell vegetables in the local market in Surkhet district in Nepal. In 2013, with the support of Australian Aid, the Government of Nepal and UNDP have created nearly 10,000 micro entrepreneurs, 6,800 (68%) are women. Photo credit: Chandra Shekhar Karki/ UNDP Nepal UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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CHAPTER 3

SUSTAINABLE AND INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT Income and social inequality remain major challenges throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Some previously highly unequal East and South Asian countries, such as Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines, witnessed decreasing inequality, while other previously lowinequality countries, including India, Bangladesh and Indonesia, have increasing inequality. In part, this rising inequality in many emerging economies can be explained by uneven development within and across countries in the region: across sectors and locations, with uneven demand between skilled and unskilled labour, high disparities in access to education, infrastructure and services, and insufficiently inclusive public policies. The first focus of UNDP’s work in the region has therefore been the quality of development, ensuring that it is inclusive, that inequalities are curbed, and that it is sustainable. UNDP thus delivered US$183 million in projects and programmes in 2013 across 22 Country Offices. In particular, UNDP contributed to the successful achievement of national outcomes within numerous countries. These included increased employment rates

With the support of the GEF-funded Coastal Afforestation project of UNDP, over 900 of the poorest families gained food and income security by making barren coastal land productive. The photo is of a farmer, Rob Mollah, holding lobsters produced in his farm. Photo: UNDP Bangladesh / Kawser Ahmed UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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2012

Protected Areas Supported by UNDP through GEF-Financed Projects

Figure 7: Protected Areas Supported by UNDP through GEF-Financed Projects

Mongolia

China I.R.of Iran Nepal Pakistan

Bhutan

India Viet Nam

Thailand Coverage of Protected Areas (1000 km) up to 10 km up to 25 km ~ 100 (China)

Philippines

Cambodia Sri Lanka Malaysia

Brunei Darussalam

~ 270 (Mangolia)

Map data source(s): United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2012), World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision. UN Cartographic Section. UNDP-GEF 2014. Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers:

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.

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UNDP helped provide

5

MILLION PEOPLE, more than half of whom were women, social protection in the region in 2013.

2013 Cumulative Results in Protected Areas Country

Total Number of PAs impacted

Total Area of PAs impacted (ha)

Bhutan

3

625,000

Cambodia

7

299,532

China

68

10,097,574

India

5

1,133,632

Iran

20

1,265,846

Malaysia

45

1,173,601

Maldives

18

5,539

Mongolia

74

27,207,871

Nepal

4

229,695

Pakistan

61

2,416,471

Philippines

22

1,086,056

Sri Lanka

4

79,496

Thailand

15

820,599

Viet Nam

6

190,102

Grand Total

352

46,631,014

UNDP SUPPORTED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE FINANCING OF

46.6

MILLION HECTARES,

comprising 352 protected areas within the AsiaPacific region, with GEF support in 2013.

in the private sector, as well as a rise in the numbers of poor people benefiting from social protection schemes and vulnerable groups with access to microfinance and other social services. UNDP especially helped strengthen the resource endowments of the poor and boost their prospects for decent, sustainable employment and livelihoods, including through widening access to financial services and production technologies. Further improvements in the region include the approval of government policies, strategies and plans in support of the sustainable management of natural resources; an increase in the communities that acquired land use rights for managing resources; and better water management plans. As a result, the number of protected areas under sustainable and participatory management programmes also increased, as did the number of critically threatened ecosystems and natural resources sustainably managed by communities (Figure 7). Three-fourths of Asia-Pacific’s poor live in rural areas, while development has been concentrated in urban and coastal areas. For this reason, UNDP has focused on facilitating access to economic opportunities and financial services in rural areas. For example, in China jobs and livelihoods were created primarily among women and ethnic minorities through expanding rural access to finance; delivering new economic opportunities, including

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A farmer collects his harvest of oranges, free of persistent organic pollutants in China (POPs). Photo by UNDP China. UNDP assisted countries in Asia-Pacific to develop solutions at national and sub-national levels for the rapidly emerging issue of inadequate disposal of hazardous chemicals and waste. Primarily in Viet Nam and China, UNDP helped to dispose of 1,631 metric tonnes of chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants, and to safeguard another 3,356 metric tonnes. Building on this, UNDP partnered with Baidu, China’s largest Internet service provider, to develop a mobile application to aid responsible recycling of the growing volume of electronic devices.

24 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


new markets for ethnic wares; and enhancing livelihoods, including the introduction of new farming techniques. At the same time, UNDP also recognizes the rapid urbanization in all countries, which is leading to particularly high inequalities in assets, educational attainment and gender and in turn impeding access to economic opportunities as well (Figure 8). In Bangladesh, for example, UNDP, in partnership with DFID, supported improvements in the livelihoods of more than 3 million urban poor women and men; in so doing, it assisted the mobilization of the urban poor into community structures and the formation of communitybased savings and credit groups for 400,000 poor households (98%

UNDP helped dispose and safeguard of chemicals,

of beneficiaries being women), providing apprenticeships and developing microenterprises, largely targeting women. UNDP support also led to the creation of the first model of land tenure security for poor urban communities in Bangladesh, which is being scaled up in other urban areas. Despite economic gains in the region, most countries — particularly those that have graduated to middle-income status—have not strengthened their systems of social protection.5 Improving access to social protection schemes is crucial, however, to support poverty reduction amid a large informal economy and the growing dependency ratios associated with

youth and ageing populations. Overall, in 2013 UNDP facilitated options for inclusive social protection and delivered projects that directly assisted 5 million beneficiaries of social protection schemes, more than half of which were women, in seven countries,6 including through providing advice on policy and institutional reforms to help reach the poor and other at-risk groups (Case Study 3). For example, in TimorLeste it contributed to enhancing the institutional capacity of the Ministry of Social Solidarity, helping to enable better outreach to poor women and their children through such initiatives as conditional cash transfers tied to a child’s school attendance and completion; in turn, the number of beneficiaries of the Bolsa da Mae programme in TimorLeste doubled in 2013, to 30,000.7

4,990 288,000

METRIC TONNES

such as persistent organic pollutants in the region in 2013, with GEF support.

PEOPLE

were trained in management of chemicals, including persistent organic pollutants, with UNDP and GEF support within the region.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

25


IN

13

COUNTRIES

within the Asia-Pacific region, UNDP assisted Governments in improving service delivery in urban areas and making settlements more sustainable.

IN

23

COUNTRIES

within the Asia-Pacific region, UNDP helped integrate natural resource management into development plans in 2013.

80

COMMUNITIES were assisted in 2013 by UNDP in the Pacific – affecting nearly 40,000 people – to adapt to shifts in climate.

IN

21

COUNTRIES

within the Asia-Pacific region, UNDP helped increase sustainability of growth, addressing consumption patterns, environment policies, new technology and expansion of the productive base.

26 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

Meanwhile, UNDP’s environment work has for many years addressed poverty and environment in an integrated way, and in 2013 addressed biodiversity conservation in 14 countries alongside economic activities such as fisheries, agriculture and tourism. UNDP’s strategy, with financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), is to unlock the potential of 352 protected areas in the region (46.6 million hectares) so they are effectively managed and sustainable financed. In Iran, joint collaboration between UNDP and the Department of Environment is helping to prevent the disappearance of important wetlands areas: Lake Uromiyeh, the largest saltwater lake in the Middle East, is drying up at an alarming rate. In response, UNDP has helped strengthen institutional arrangements for improvement of the Uromiyeh basin, an approach that the Government is scaling up with its own resources to eight further locations. Increasingly, ensuring that development is sustainable and inclusive also requires addressing climate change and environmental

stresses brought about by development. Asia-Pacific is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change, with impacts likely to become more intense. 8 Often it is the poorest and most vulnerable populations who depend on the environment for their livelihoods and who are most affected by environmental change. Countries in the region have been supported to change the way they manufacture goods, raise crops and livestock, and generate energy, including through moving to more resilient and loweremission systems and technologies. UNDP has widely promoted the integration of climateresilient and environmentally sustainable policies and budgets into development plans, in such countries as Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia and eight Pacific Island states. It further assisted 80 communities in the Pacific – affecting nearly 40,000 people – to adapt to shifts in climate by better securing their water supplies, establishing nurseries for resilient plants, and increasing renewable energy prospects.


New Social Protection Approach Benefits Vulnerable Groups in China Supported by UNDP, an alternative approach to social protection has recently been adopted by the Government of China, focusing on the protection of vulnerable groups and guaranteeing a minimum living allowance to those who meet the eligibility criteria. The new social assistance regulation, which came into effect in May 2014, benefits about 250 million people nationwide, according to the National People’s Congress, China’s top legislature. About 75 million receive a minimum living allowance; 5.5 million elderly, under-16 children and people with disabilities in rural areas benefit from ”five guarantees” support for food, clothing, health care, housing and funeral expenses; 78 million receive temporary relief for disasters, and 91 million receive medical relief and rural welfare support. UNDP partnered with the Legislative Affairs Commission of the National People’s Congress, and provided technical assistance to organize expert consultations on a variety of issues during the drafting of the new regulation. UNDP also organized international dialogues between China and New Zealand and Australia on social assistance legislation and pre-legislative review mechanisms.

In Viet Nam, migrants form a dynamic labour force but have limited access to social protection and services. UNDP and its partners are advocating for the Government to reform its mobility policy and improve access to basic services and social protection for the new urban poor, including migrants. UNDP-supported policy research on multidimensional poverty in Ho Chi Minh City, especially among the migrants, has helped raise awareness of the municipal authorities to the contribution of migrants towards the City’s economic development and their equal rights as those of the registered residents. As a result, Ho Chi Minh City has revised its policy so migrants with a six-month temporary registration can access bank loans and their children can go to public schools. Photo credit: © United Nations Viet Nam\2010\Aidan Dockery UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

27


2000 2000

Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2000

Figure 8a: Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2000 #

Country

Year 2000

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

China India Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Viet Nam Philippines Iran Thailand Myanmar

1,280 1,042 208 143 132 80 77 65 62 48

Total Population (Millions) Mongolia

I.R. of Iran

Afghanistan

Nepal

China Bhutan

Lao PDR

Pakistan India

Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

DPR of Korea

Sri Lanka

Viet Nam Cambodia

Thailand

Philippines Palau

Brunei Darussalam Malaysia

Singapore Indonesia

Timor Leste

(Federated States of) Micronesia

Papua New Guinea

Marshall Islands Nauru

Tuvalu Solomon Islands Vanuatu

Percentage of Population Living in Urban Areas

Kiribati

Fiji Tonga

Samoa Niue Cook Islands

13% - 34% 35% - 57% 58% - 79% 80% - 100% Map data source(s): Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers: Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.

28 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


2050

2050

Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2050

Figure 8b: Share of Population Living in Urban Areas in Asia-Pacific Region 2050 #

Country

Year 2050

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

China India Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Viet Nam Philippines Iran Thailand Myanmar

1,620 1,384 321 271 201 157 103 100 61 58

Total Population (Millions) Mongolia

I.R. of Iran

Afghanistan

Nepal

China Bhutan

Lao PDR

Pakistan India

Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

DPR of Korea

Sri Lanka

Viet Nam Cambodia Brunei Darussalam Malaysia

Singapore Indonesia

Philippines Palau

Timor Leste

(Federated States of) Micronesia

Papua New Guinea

Marshall Islands Nauru

Tuvalu Solomon Islands Vanuatu

Percentage of Population Living in Urban Areas

Kiribati

Fiji Tonga

Samoa Niue Cook Islands

13% - 34% 35% - 57% 58% - 79% 80% - 100% Map data source(s): Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers: Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

29


30 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


CHAPTER 4

INCLUSIVE AND EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE Effective and inclusive governance within the Asia-Pacific region enhances productivity and economic growth and tends to improve human development.9 Conversely, poor governance, including corruption, undermines human and economic development. Within the Asia-Pacific region, governance has shown little sign of improvement over the last decade.10 UNDP’s work to enhance citizen voice and accountability ranges from electoral support to women’s empowerment to anti-corruption. In 2013, UNDP in Asia-Pacific delivered US$130 million worth of projects and programmes in this area across 20 Country Offices. Some outcome-level achievements witnessed, attributable in part to UNDP’s support, include the greater proportion of eligible voters turning out in national and local elections, as well as election commissions strengthening their capacities to administer fair and transparent elections. In addition, more policies and mechanisms promoted access to justice by the poor, stronger accountability and transparency, and citizen reporting on corruption cases. More communities and civil society organizations also engaged in policy advocacy. Lastly, the proportion of women elected to

A woman checks her voting registration details on the cell phone by entering her identity card number. With support from UNDP, the Election Commission of Pakistan developed the mobile SMS system in the General Elections 2013 to raise awareness, educate and inform voters on basic electoral processes. People could SMS their identity card number and receive individual registration details such as the polling station where they can vote. Credit: UNDP Pakistan UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

31


A Strong Commitment to Reducing Gender Inequality Results in Important Gains UNDP has been instrumental in 2013 in helping to deepen the knowledge base on gender discrimination in the region, which is a major cause of poverty and inequality. The launching of a regional United Nations report on men and violence against women highlighted the largest cross-country comparable data set ever on men’s perception of violence. The study of 10,000 men found that nearly half reported using physical and/ or sexual violence against a female partner. Nearly a quarter reported perpetrating rape against a woman or girl. These results are expected to provide important evidence in policy advocacy to increase the number of countries in Asia-Pacific that have laws against domestic violence and marital rape.* Notably, in the Pacific UNDP efforts already have helped to result in significant commitments by governments on gender equality, through the Pacific Leaders Gender Equality Declaration. This committed to addressing violence against women, supporting women in decision making, and strengthening women’s economic empowerment, access to reproductive health services and parity in education. In terms of women’s political empowerment, 2013 saw continuing progress in countries such as Papua New Guinea, where the Family Protection Bill was introduced to address gender and family violence, and where political parties proactively supported women candidates in the 2013 local elections. UNDP convened a series of multi-stakeholder consultations that resulted in the development of a National Action Plan to increase women’s representation in elected offices. It also helped strengthen the institutional capacity of the Office of Development for Women and the National Council of Women, both bodies that have been crucial in developing, passing and implementing the Family Protection Bill. At the local level, UNDP helped prepare women to run for elections. These and other efforts have resulted in a tenfold increase in the proportion of women elected to local government since 2011, even as much more remains to be done. * Men were interviewed at nine sites in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Papua New Guinea. The study, Why Do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can We Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, was conducted by Partners for Prevention, a regional joint programme of UNDP, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), UN Women, and United Nations Volunteers (UNV).

Girls in the Jamalpur district, Bangladesh receive ICT training. In 2013, more than 13,000 students, approximately 30% of whom are girls, received basic computer skills training from rural ICT kiosks to help overcome the digital divide. Photo: UNDP Bangladesh/Hasan Benaul Islam

32 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


2013 2013

Gender Inequality Index 2013

Figure 9: Gender Inequality Index 2013

Mongolia

I.R. of Iran Afghanistan

Nepal

China Bhutan

Myanmar Bangladesh

Maldives

Japan

Lao PDR

Pakistan India

Republic of Korea

Sri Lanka

Viet Nam Cambodia

Thailand

Philippines

Malaysia Papua New Guinea Indonesia

Gender Inequality Index Low Inequality (Less than 0.311) Medium Inequality (0.311 - 0.481) High Inequality (0.482 and above)

Map data source(s): UNDP Human Development Report 2014. Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers:

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

33


FIGURE10: 17:Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific share of the develping Figure Share of the Developing World’s world’s deprived people deprived) (millions deprived) Deprived People (millions national parliaments and local-level governments increased in a number of countries.

Number of people [in millions] (latest estimate )

Infected with TB

8

Without Basic sanitation

1722

Underweight children under-5

77

Living below $1.25/day

743

Births without skilled attendance

20

Without safe drinking water

360

Children under-5 deaths

0

3

Maternal deaths

0.1

Out of primary school

18

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Asia-Pacific’s share of the developing world’s deprived people (%) Source: Asia Pacific Aspirations: Perspectives for a Post- 2015 Development Agenda Asia Pacific Regional MDGs Report 2012/13

34 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

80

UNDP’s support to elections focuses on strengthening electoral systems and building democratic societies through encouraging participation, promoting the media, and deepening civic education on the roles and responsibilities of a democratic citizen. Within the Asia-Pacific region, UNDP support led to 16.7 million new voters being registered in 2013. UNDP support to capacity building of election commissions further helped ensure that national and sub-national elections were deemed successful in countries including Pakistan, Nepal and Maldives. A 2012 independent thematic evaluation has stated that UNDP’s assistance is instrumental to the holding of credible elections in post-conflict environments and sensitive political transitions. In Pakistan, which historically has South Asia’s lowest voter turnout, at around 40 percent, UNDP backed a concerted effort to boost the numbers in the 2013 general


16.7 MILLION

new voters were registered in 2013 in the Asia-Pacific region, with UNDP support.

16

NATIONAL AND SUB-REGIONAL CONSULTATIONS took place on proposed options for a post2015 development agenda within the AsiaPacific region.

elections. UNDP helped the Election Commission devise its first voter education plan and mobilized banks, hotels, Government departments, schools, civil society groups and media to disseminate posters, banners, and radio and TV programmes on why and how to vote. This campaign reached 40 million people and, as a result, voter turnout rose to 55 percent, largely due to high levels of participation by women and youth. Meanwhile, as part of UNDP’s partnership with the Election Commission of India, eight electoral commissions from around the world have visited that country to witness the best practices of electoral management in three state elections. As a result of this South-South learning, a number of longer-term partnerships between electoral commissions, supported by UNDP, are being forged. In Afghanistan, UNDP supported the audit of the nearly 23,000 ballot boxes from the 2014 election for the Presidency. UNDP mobilized a large team from around the world for this process - which was carried out by the Independent Election Commission.

In the area of anti-corruption, one of the fastest-growing service areas for UNDP, 19 Country Offices in Asia and the Pacific reported progress in the implementation of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption activities. Eight Country Offices directly supported measures related to the implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), as well as strengthening the capacity of anti-corruption agencies. A further 11 countries mainstreamed transparency and accountability in areas such as local governance, oversight and integrity in the public and justice sectors, service delivery, environment and climate change. In Indonesia, for example, good forest governance is critical to addressing the main drivers of deforestation – logging, mining and plantation concessions. With UNDP/ REDD+ support to the development of a Forest Governance Index, policymakers now are using a tool to assess and monitor the quality of forest governance in Indonesia’s 12 most forested provinces. In Philippines, citizen monitoring of public finance processes of water governance resulted in reduced corruption, an increased budget

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

35


Asia-Pacific Priorities for Post-2015 Agenda from the MY World Survey The MDGs have particularly served as a key entry point to lead policy reform and improve planning within the region. With the final push for MDG achievement by the end of 2015, citizens, governments, and others all are actively participating in discussions on the possible framework of a transformative development agenda beyond 2015 – a marked change from the process that led to development of the MDGs. At the regional level, a UNDP partnership with the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) resulted in more than 16 national and sub-regional consultations on proposed options for a post-2015 development agenda, all of which were brought together in a joint report launched in 2013.

The UN Country Team in Thailand (UNCT) partnered in 2013 with Dhurakij Pundit University International College to undertake in-depth statistical analysis of MY World results. These MY World results, shared with both the general population and relevant government agencies, have begun to have an effect as they are inputted into the policy-making process. Animated videos were produced in English and Thai, which were distributed at the launch of the ‘Have Your Say at the United Nations’ campaign in July 2014, sponsored by the UN and Procter and Gamble, Thailand. As of September 2014, over 70,000 people from Thailand had participated in the global survey.

36 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


Asia-Pacific Findings from MY World Survey Global Results

Asia Results

Oceania Results

A good education

A good education

A good education

Better healthcare

Better healthcare

Access to clean water and sanitation

Better job opportunities

An honest and responsive government

Protecting forests, rivers and oceans

An honest and responsive government

Protection against crime and violence

Affordable and nutritions food

Protection against crime and violence

Better job opportunities

An honest and responsive government

Affordable and nutritions food

Equality between men and women

Freedom from discrimination and persecution

Access to clean water and sanitation

Affordable and nutritions food

Action taken on climate change

Equality between men and women

Access to clean water and sanitation

Protection against crime and violence

Support for people who can’t work

Support for people who can’t work

Better healthcare

Reliable energy at home

Reliable energy at home

Equality between men and women

Freedom from discrimination and persecution

Better transport and roads

Political freedoms

Better transport and roads

Freedom from discrimination and persecution

Better job opportunities

Protecting forests, rivers and oceans

Phone and internet access

Support for people who can’t work

Political freedoms

Political freedoms

Reliable energy at home

Phone and internet access

Protecting forests, rivers and oceans

Better transport and roads

Action taken on climate change

Action taken on climate change

Phone and internet access

Source: MY World Survey, 2014

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

37


9

182,600

developed MDG Acceleration Framework Action Plans in 2013 with UNDP support so as to accelerate progress on lagging MDGs within the region.

benefitted from access to justice initiatives supported by UNDP, across 19 countries within the region in 2013.

COUNTRIES

allocated to water supply, and women’s greater participation in water governance. In all, countries in Asia and the Pacific have made significant improvements in delivering public services, although challenges such as inequitable access, poor quality of services and weak governance remain unresolved.11 UNDP assisted countries to strengthen their institutions to deliver universal access to basic services, providing US$132 million in programmes in 2013.12 National-level outcomes to which UNDP contributed include increased proportions of State budgets allocated to education, health and social protection; increased citizen satisfaction

38 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

PEOPLE

on sub-national administration services; and improved equity in delivery of services and inclusion of the most vulnerable populations. The percentage of people using professional legal services increased, as did the proportion of people with access to education for children and clean drinking water. Governments and citizens are using publicly available national and sub-national human development indicators to inform public debates and decision making. Several countries also began to take stock of their MDG performance and published MDG reports, with many now reporting performance results at sub-national level, with more disaggregated statistics for

improved policy and planning. Nine countries developed MDG Acceleration Framework (MAF) Action Plans in 2013 with the intention of accelerating progress on lagging MDGs (Figure 10). For example, in Indonesia a pilot effort in Central Java province to reduce maternal mortality under the MAF Framework resulted in the issuance of a national strategy on the issue, and in scaling up of the framework to 64 additional districts in 11 provinces, covering 30 percent of the population. In Pakistan, a 2013 outcome evaluation concluded that UNDP had “contributed in a focused manner toward poverty reduction� through a combination of capacity development and poverty reduction initiatives, including


assistance in tracking pro-poor expenditures, which remained well above the target of 6% of GDP.13 Further, UNDP and World Bank partnerships on MAFs in Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal are a practical example of how UNDP is strengthening its relationships with the International Financial Institutions in the region. UNDP also worked in nine AsiaPacific countries on service delivery in urban areas. In Bangladesh, in addition to the achievements noted in Chapter 3, UNDP, in partnership with USAID and the Bangladesh Prime Minister’s Office, supported innovative e-governance services, which provided 4 million people per month with online access to public services and documents, including land records and birth certificates. A recent census shows that 29.5% of these recipients are women. A national survey found that these services reduced average wait times from seven days to one hour, and reduced average travel distance

from 35km to 3km. UNDP also engaged in a number of initiatives in 19 countries to further rule of law and access to justice, particularly for the poor, women and vulnerable groups. These include establishment of legal aid centres, promotion of access to alternative dispute resolution and mobile justice, enhancement of capacities of courts and judges, and awareness-raising on human rights. US$21 million in programmes benefited more than 182,600 people, at least 47,000 of which were women. Again in Bangladesh, UNDP support to village courts was identified in a 2013 mid-term evaluation as an international best practice and a model for national upscaling.

disbursement of salaries and remuneration to approximately 150,000 Afghan police and prison guards. 98% of police are now paid through the Electronic Payroll System and alternative mobilebased payment. LOTFA also contributed to the institutional strengthening of community policing and the recruitment and training of women officers. By October of 2014, 1,877 female police officers held various ranks, an increase of nearly 170% since 2008, yet women still comprised less than 2% of Afghanistan National Police personnel. Efforts to further professionalize the police and transition to a smooth handover of the payroll system to the Government are priorities moving forward.

To strengthen the ability of the Government to maintain law and order as well as justice related services, UNDP’s Law and Order Trust Fund For Afghanistan (LOTFA) supports timely, transparent

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

39


40 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


CHAPTER 5

BUILDING RESILIENCE The Asia-Pacific region is paying a heavy price for manmade and natural disasters, which are negatively affecting the region’s human development. The average number of people exposed to yearly flooding in Asia has more than doubled between 1970 and 2010, while the population resident in cyclone-prone areas has grown from 71.8 million to 120.7 million.17 In relative terms, the Pacific Island countries are the most affected, with average annualized losses estimated for Vanuatu and Tonga at 6.6% and 4.4% of GDP respectively.18 In 2013, the number of deaths caused by natural disasters increased largely due to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines and the floods in Uttarakhand, India.19 In other countries, the number of deaths has shown a declining trend (Figure 11). Any sudden shocks, including natural disasters or climate change, conflict, or financial and economic crisis, risk pulling down about 1 billion people in the region who live just above the extreme poverty line. With a US$72 million programme in Asia-Pacific across 16 countries, UNDP supports nations and their people in building resilience to shocks to help ensure that the development gains made are sustained. During 2013, a number of Country Offices have been moving toward a more preventative and long-term approach to helping build resilience, and UNDP contributed to putting risk reduction on the national agenda in countries such as Pakistan and A first-ever Peace and Development Analysis in the post-conflict Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea consulted over 1,000 men, women and youth at the community level to gauge their priorities for recovery and long-term development. This resulted in a Peacebuilding Priority Plan to be implemented under the UN Peacebuilding Fund starting late 2014, addressing inter-governmental trust building, empowerment of civil society through information sharing, and community social cohesion and security and trauma counselling. Credit Mr. Peter Bauman UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

41


Figure 11: Number of People Affected and Killed by Disasters in Asia-Pacific FIGURE 10: Number of People and Killed by Disasters in Asia and Pacific Data does not include China andAffected Myanmar Data does not include China and Myanmar

120

100 is the average number of disasters per year between 2008 and 2013

100

598

Disasters

80

struck Asia and the Pacific between 2008 and 2013

Number of disasters

60

40

20

0

20

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

48 thousand

261million

people killed in Asia and the Pacific

people affected in Asia and the Pacific

between 2008 and 2013

between 2008 and 2013

2013

8,086 is the average number of people killed per year between 2008 and 2013

60

43.5 million is the average number of people affected per year between 2008 and 2013

50 15

Bangladesh. This also is opening the way to an issues-based approach Number of people killed (in thousands) by helping to integrate community 10 development, recovery, income generation, disaster preparedness and support to livelihoods into more coherent programmes. 5 National-level outcomes to which

40 UNDP contributed include the affected development and People implementation (in millions) of gender-sensitive disaster risk 30 management policy frameworks, systems and skill-sets. Support to development of a comprehensive 20 risk reduction system in Bangladesh facilitated the taking of refuge by

1 million people in nearly 4,000 shelters within 24 hours before tropical storm Mahasen hit in 2013, so that only 17 lives were lost, a figure significantly below the toll in similar disasters. Similarly, the Government of India achieved a major success when a super-

10

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

42 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014 The increase in deaths in 2013 is due to the high numbers killed

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013


60

40

20

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

48 thousand

261million

people killed in Asia and the Pacific

people affected in Asia and the Pacific

between 2008 and 2013

between 2008 and 2013

2013

8,086

20

60

is the average number of people killed per year between 2008 and 2013

43.5 million is the average number of people affected per year between 2008 and 2013

50 15 40 People affected (in millions)

Number of people killed (in thousands)

10

30

20 5 10

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

The increase in deaths in 2013 is due to the high numbers killed in Typhoon Haiyan in Philippines and the Uttarakhand floods in India. In other countries, the number of deaths has shown a declining trend. Deaths from Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar are not included in this graph and number over 138,000.

cyclone which struck Odisha and Andhra Pradesh states of India, and caused less than 50 deaths due to evacuation of more than a million people. A cyclone of comparable intensity had caused more than 10,000 deaths in 1999. For over a decade, UNDP has been supporting

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.emdat.be, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Burssels, Belgium.

the government of Odisha, India, in strengthening systems for disaster risk reduction, working on early warning, community-based disaster management, institutional strengthening, and recovery issues.

UNDP also helped to strengthen capacities of federal-, provincialand district-level disaster management authorities, including technical support to 48 Pakistani authorities that enabled these institutions to conduct risk assessments in 490 villages.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

43


5

IN CRISIS OR POST-CRISIS COUNTRIES in the Asia-Pacific region (Myanmar, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Philippines), UNDP supported the creation of jobs and livelihood opportunities for 477,000 people.

The share of budget resources earmarked for environmental sustainability, disaster risk management, and climate change adaptation and mitigation increased in several countries; at the same time, the share of population with sustainable access to improved water sources and to renewable energy also increased. In turn, coverage of environmentally protected areas and communities with reduced disaster risk significantly rose. Conflict analysis was mainstreamed in government policymaking processes and approaches in at least two countries. UNDP has continued to support social cohesion and conflict sensitive development. Four conflict development analyses were completed in Myanmar, Cambodia, PNG and Afghanistan during 201314 to feed into and national and UN

44 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

planning and programming efforts. In response to inter-communal tensions in Myanmar’s Rakhine State, UNDP has been building confidence between communities and improving people’s lives in 63 villages, through establishing inter-community planning mechanisms and facilitating joint inter-village cash-for-work and training schemes. Since the signing of the Framework Agreement in Philippines in October 2012, UNDP through a joint UN-World Bank facility extended technical support to the Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front for creating the new autonomous region of Bangsamoro. More recently UNDP has supported the drafting of the Basic Law under which Bangsamoro will be established. As part of UNDP’s support to the implementation of the peace accord in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, UNDP responded

16

IN COUNTRIES in the Asia-Pacific region, UNDP supported building resilience to shocks to help ensure that the development gains made are sustained, in 2013.

to a flare up in communal conflict in Taindong with support for recovery and reconciliation. A joint Government-UN effort was mobilized in 2013-14 ensuring that all the people who had fled their homes could return to more durable re-built homes with means to support their livelihoods, and in so doing, reduced their vulnerability to future violence. UNDP contributed to early recovery and rapid return to sustainable development pathways in postconflict and post-disaster settings, with the delivery of US$81 million in Asia-Pacific across four Country Offices. For example, after Typhoon Haiyan – the strongest recorded storm ever to hit land – struck Philippines, UNDP responded by both taking action to fulfil urgent needs and initiating measures to reduce risks and vulnerabilities over the long run (Case Study 6).


Recovery in Action in Philippines UNDP scaled up a massive relief and recovery operation in Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan hit, killing more than 6,000 people and affecting 14 million, and assisted 54 of the hardest-hit municipalities. Nearly 65,000 people cleared the typhoon debris, including potential hazards such as medical waste and animal carcasses, earning incomes for their families and injecting much-needed cash into local economies. Within two months, access to 14 hospitals and more than 700 schools and day care centres had been restored, and nearly 1,000km of roads had reopened. UNDP also supported jobs for thousands more people by helping to set up 10 mobile sawmills to cut fallen trees into lumber for reconstruction, and by training 1,800 of the poorest people as carpenters, masons and electricians to assist rebuilding. By sharing recovery experiences from Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, UNDP has stimulated both national and local governments in Philippines as well. As a result, preparations are under way to establish a national system in Philippines that will track allocated disaster funds, report on outputs and encourage accountability.

UNDP cash-for-work beneficiaries clearing debris in one of the most affected neighborhoods in Tacloban. Immediately after the Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines, UNDP employed 245 women and men in cash-for-work projects. Workers are paid 260 pesos a day to manually clear targeted zones of the worst affected communities. The wages help to jump start the local economy, while the cleared roads allowed easier access for humanitarian aid to reach isolated communities. (Photo: RU Mitra/UNDP) UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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Figure 12: Timeline: Key advocacy events and publications produced in 2013-2014

February 7, 2013

RBAP scaling-up fund launches to promote achievement of broader impact amongst 14 winning initiatives.

September 10, 2013

UNDP, UNFPA, UNWomen and UNV launch a ‘Multicountry Study on Men and Violence in Asia Pacific’, collecting data and adopting a methodology used in several countries of the region.

September 20, 2013

The Regional AsiaPacific MDGs Report, ‘Asia-Pacific Aspirations: Perspectives for a Post2015 Development Agenda’ prepared in partnership between UNDP, ESCAP and ADB presents the AsiaPacific perspectives on the Post-2015 development agenda and makes recommendations for a post-2015 development framework.

January 16-17, 2014

The Guardian Activate Summit in Singapore holds a panel discussion on tech-led innovation in public services.

January 31, 2014

Launch of RBAP Innovation Fund to support country offices to experiment with new ways to tackle complex development issues.


June 8, 2014

Saving our Tuna documentary produced by UNDP and Discovery Channel and shown across Asia and the Pacific on World Oceans Day, contributes to UN advocacy on sustainable fishing, in the run up to the 3rd UN international conference on SIDS.

July 20-25, 2014

UNDP with partners win the Robert Carr Prize for an innovative multipartner, multi-country research on violence against sex workers. The award recognizes the innovation of the project and the diverse number of stakeholders involved in the process to advance human rights-based policies and practices.

September 1-4, 2014

September 15, 2014

The Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in Apia, Samoa brings global attention to sustainable development in the Pacific.

A symposium on Poverty in Asia organised jointly by UNDP/RBAP and Asian Development Bank discusses new methods and challenges to measuring poverty in Asia-Pacific.

December 16-18, 2014

UNDP, jointly with the Government of Nepal and UNOHRLLS, convenes a ministerial meeting of Asia-Pacific LDCs on Graduation and Post-2015 Development Agenda to identify key drivers of graduation and design a support framework.


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CHAPTER 6

INNOVATING FOR RESULTS Working with UNDP’s Innovation Facility, the Bureau’s Innovation Fund is counteracting stubborn development problems with new thinking.20 The Fund collaborated with Country Offices to redefine how persistent development challenges are traditionally framed; in particular, it harnessed new opportunities presented by rapidly changing contexts in the developing world, especially in terms of how people interact with each other, and with their governments, through technology as well as digital media. New partners who have bought into this vision include gaming and design labs, private sector actors, technologists and youth groups such as students and Scouts. UNDP Nepal’s ideas of using animation to encourage young people to challenge gender-based discrimination and violence persuaded the University of Chicago Game Changer Lab to help with the technology. In Bhutan, UNDP is working with a telecoms operator and Emerson College’s Engagement Lab to collaboratively design gaming content to maximize youth participation in tackling unemployment issues. In Maldives and China, UNDP engaged with new technology firms

In Bangladesh, UNDP partnered with local cyber-think tank Urban Launchpad and enlisted 10 transport pioneers who usually travel in their private cars to commute using public transport; then it held a feedback session to understand their experiences and the reasons that prevent them from using public transport regularly. Armed with the users’ new insights, UNDP Bangladesh is now working with a traffic expert from Chicago to convert this feedback into making public transport a more viable – and even a desirable – option for all instead of only for those who cannot afford the alternatives. UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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with experience in public sector innovations (Fixmystreet.com) and massive popular reach (Baidu.com) to adapt technology to the needs of local communities. Consulting the end user when a solution is developed is traditional

50 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

UNDP practice. However, placing the user at the heart of the issue, empathizing and engaging him or her to play a central role in co-designing the solution, is new – and has been integral to the Innovation Fund ethos. Initiatives have used pioneering techniques

to gain feedback from the end user and to design new solutions to old problems. Many of the innovations being developed through the Fund have harnessed opportunities that new technologies bring to human


development. Using technology to increase citizen engagement with parliamentarians and councils lends itself well to countries like Bhutan and Maldives (Case Study 1). In Papua New Guinea, a campaign launched in partnership with the Ministry of Finance uses mobile phones to encourage citizens to report corruption by texting information to a designated line. The short prototyping phase already yielded a substantial data set, pointing to the potential for scaling up.

UNDP Innovation Summit 2014: Rethinking development in a changing Asia and the Pacific Foresight, new partnerships, taking risks, and being open to change to realize creative solutions to stubborn development challenges were among major themes discussed at UNDP’s Innovation Summit in Bangkok. In rapid-fire brainstorming sessions, country office teams from across the region explored new designs and shared lessons. The result was an explosion of ideas aimed at injecting innovation in all programmes, with the goal of making UNDP a global leader in innovation.

Proving that technology only comprises a small part of an innovation, and that much of the innovation relates to rethinking the problem and exploring beyond “business as usual,” Viet Nam combined the forces of local communities and law students to improve people’s legal literacy and change the face of traditional education systems. Community homesteads are where law students now head to get “schooled,” and some of Viet Nam’s top universities, keen to learn from this experience, have reached out to UNDP.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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52 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


CHAPTER 7

SCALING-UP INNOVATION FOR GREATER DEVELOPMENT IMPACT UNDP in Asia-Pacific has worked to build on the existing body of good scaling-up practices and expand the capacity of Country Offices to adopt a scaling-up approach as a matter of course in all programming. In the region in 2013, UNDP awarded US$9.3 million to 14 initiatives to support these efforts to scale up innovative interventions. Three main models focus on (1) expansion, scaling up from one locality and expanding to multiple localities reaching new target groups adapting along the way, often through the use of innovative technologies, training and mentoring, and with an emphasis on vulnerable populations (Case Study 7); (2) policy adoption, based on successful pilots or experiences to ensure institutional and policy-level changes (Case Study 2); and (3) replication when other organisations take up the idea, increasing its use, particularly through SouthSouth cooperation and the forging of connections across borders (Case Study 8). The Scaling-up Fund has been successful in improving programme focus and impact. The initiatives have

UNDP-supported community radios broadcast in 8 Ethnic languages, with up to 200,000 listeners in six districts across Lao PDR. Souek is a community radio volunteer broadcasting on Thateng Ethnic Community Radio in Sekong province. UNDP Lao PDR/Eeva Nyyssonen UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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Scaling-up solutions for accessing financial services in the Pacific. The Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme (PFIP), is a joint program managed and implemented by UNDP and UNCDF. The program was created in 2008 to significantly expand inclusive financial systems in six Pacific Island countries representing 90% of the sub-region’s population.21 As a result, in 2014 PFIP contributed to more than 680,000 clients previously without access to formal financial services – savings, credit, insurance, remittances, transfers, pensions and investments – gaining access to services including bank accounts, mobile wallets and insurance. A total of 42% of these clients were women. In addition, 39,000 people benefited from lower-cost remittance channels, and 21,000 welfare recipients now receive their payments via bank transfers and an extended agent network, saving them time and money each month. National financial competency baselines were established in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa and Solomon Islands, and national financial literacy strategies were developed for each of these countries. In addition, financial literacy has been incorporated into the core curriculum of all grades of primary and secondary schools in Fiji in 2013, meaning that almost 65,000 students are receiving valuable instruction on how to manage money and their finances. Overall, factors important for achieving PFIP results at scale included (1) leading through research to identify the gaps, constraints and opportunities for scaling up; (2) convening and coordinating multiple stakeholders to increase buy-in and develop a sense of accountability; (3) training decision makers, including regulators, private sector leaders and other donors, to ensure that key actors were well-informed of best practices and global trends; (4) documenting and communicating progress and sharing success stories; and (5) focusing on high-level advocacy, which resulted in governments’ endorsement of the 2020 Money Pacific Goals.

The use of mobile phones, point of sale devices, smart cards and other technologies for the ease of payments, as well as third party agents, makes the delivery of financial services more cost-effective and can begin to reach previously underserved and unbanked populations in the Pacific. PFIP wants to ensure that by 2019 half a million of low income Pacific women have access to appropriate and affordable financial services. UN Photo/Josephine Prasad.

54 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014


taken on big challenges and large-scale successes are evident. Some milestones include the establishment of Pakistan’s legal aid clinics and the declaration passed on pro-bono support to marginalized communities and the passing of Bangladesh’s Bricks Act. In China, UNDP supported the development of an online training course to serve their 1.6 million civil society organisations. The most successful initiatives are those where the scale up mechanism is clear. For the community radio initiative in Lao PDR, this mechanism was the master trainers’ training of volunteers; in other contexts, the mechanism was the adoption and implementation of a law, the use of campaigns and committees and the establishment of local governance structures.

attention to the collection of evidence to measure results and using this for advocacy also helps change attitudes and promote upscaling with partners. For example, in India, where UNDP is upscaling energy efficient steel production in the small-scale steel industry in partnership with the Indian Ministry of Steel and Australia, evidence in the form of baseline and postimplementation studies have been essential for persuading the steel mill owners to adopt the new technology.

The Scaling-up Fund also revealed just how critical partnerships are from the outset. Partnerships with government can bring financial sustainability and political commitment and can sometimes attract other donors. Partnerships with private sector can support expansion and financing while civil society can increase awareness and advocacy. In Philippines, five regional hubs were established in Mindanao province comprising community representatives from universities, civil society

A focus on scaling-up from the design and planning stages also improves performance. Giving

In Pakistan, UNDP supported the establishment of 80 legal aid clinics, across all 4 districts, which have been attended by 1200 citizens. These legal aid clinics have filed 118 cases on behalf of vulnerable citizens. Credit: UNDP Pakistan UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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In 2014, UNDP in Asia-Pacific has used a scalability tool to assess whether innovations can be taken to scale

“SCALING UP IS THE PROCESS OF ENSURING COVERAGE, IMPACT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF A DEVELOPMENT INNOVATION” - Nicholas Rosellini, Deputy Regional Director, RBAP, UNDP Innovation Summit, Bangkok, 28 November 2014

organisations, the private sector and elsewhere, to feed into policy and planning on water governance issues. In China, where the Government’s aid budget has continued to expand in 2013-14, UNDP has supported efforts to improve livelihoods and promote economic and social development through its SouthSouth cooperation. In so doing, UNDP has provided policy advice on China’s foreign aid, the role of think tanks and civil society organisations in development assistance and engagement in global issues to enhance development effectiveness. UNDP’s work with China on substantive, concrete trilateral projects progressed strongly in 2013-2014, with the launch and implementation of the second phase of the Cambodia cassava trilateral, funded partly by the Chinese Government. UNDP offices in China, Ghana

56 UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

and Zambia also formulated two four-year projects in 2013 for the effective transfer of renewable energy knowhow from Beijing, with support from Denmark. Trilateral cooperation projects likewise were designed with Burundi in renewable energy and Malawi in disaster risk management, both with funding by China. Lastly, disaster risk management was also the theme for a platform for mutual learning among China, Bangladesh and Nepal, launched in January 2013, in collaboration with DfID. Lastly, the Solutions Exchange, a knowledge sharing and networking forum that allows policymakers to hear directly from specialists, was widely used in Afghanistan in 2013. The new Gender Community of Practice for Afghanistan, coconvened by UNDP and UN Women, more than doubled its membership in its first two months of existence, and by the end of the year had

grown to 228 members from 18 countries and organizations. In addition, the General Directorate of Municipal Affairs, responsible for managing all 153 municipalities in the country, is considering Solutions Exchange members’ suggestions for involving the private sector in municipal governance and has started developing publicprivate partnership policies for 33 provincial and 120 district municipalities. Similarly, ideas from Solutions Exchange members for Afghanistan, located in numerous countries, on ways to mitigate urban pollution from brick factories resulted in the identification of a successful brick-baking technology used in Bangladesh for application in Afghanistan. This is expected to result in far fewer carbon emissions and a reduction in pollution.


Replication Through South-South Cooperation Offers Wide Scaling-Up Potential In Beijing in October 2014, a bilateral country-to-country peer exchange event between China and Bangladesh introduced innovative thinking on the provision of social services to the urban poor. Attended by three city mayors, one CEO and a government secretary, the contingent from Bangladesh was interested in how China had provided a range of services to the urban poor. Through the exchange, the Bangladeshi contingent identified areas where they could implement a similar service geared to their own situation. Some of the South-South exchanges encompassed short-term knowledge sharing and training events, while others involved larger aspirations for replication. For example, UNDP collaborated with the Government of Malaysia in designing and implementing a pilot South-South initiative to strengthen the institutional capacities of 18 anticorruption agencies, both globally and domestically. This project represents the first joint initiative by UNDP with both the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) and Malaysian Anti-Corruption Academy (MACA), the key anti-corruption institutions in the country.

The photo shows Bernise Ang, co-founder and Executive Director of Zeroth Labs, who participated in the Dhaka-Beijing exchange. Credit: UNDP China UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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CHAPTER 8

MOVING FORWARD The new UNDP Strategic Plan 2014–2017 resonates strongly with the priorities of the Asia-Pacific region, the overall vision for which is to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality. Within this overall vision, four development challenges serve as specific priorities for UNDP in AsiaPacific. First, UNDP will continue to support countries to achieve inclusive growth, addressing the unevenness of development across and within countries and across social groups. Second, UNDP will support countries to achieve inclusive and effective governance, supporting improved quality of governance systems. Third, UNDP will continue to support countries in Asia and the Pacific in achieving gender equality, a critical underpinning to reducing poverty and inequality. And last but not least, sustainable, resilient development is a fourth priority, important within the Asia-Pacific region given its vulnerability to conflict and natural disasters induced by climate change and inequality. Looking ahead, UNDP in the region will also strengthen its capacity at the country and regional levels to support countries in rolling out the post-2015 agenda for Sustainable Development Goals, once these are finalized.

Building on the National Human Development Report 2014, UNDP Sri Lanka together with Colombo Hub of the Global Shapers Community hosted a Social Good Summit Youth Meet-Up. The initiative brought together various partners including young politicians representing the three main parties in Sri Lanka, and created interest in working together to promote active youth engagement. Here, a young participant shares his views at the event. Credit: UNDP Sri Lanka UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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By building its policy capacity within the region, UNDP seeks over the coming year to demonstrate thought leadership on critical emerging development issues, including urbanization, the impact of extractive industries, social protection, and youth. To stay relevant in the fast-changing development landscape, UNDP in Asia-Pacific will respond by striving to strengthen partnerships with the countries that it serves, improve accountability for results, and increase efficiency, employing three main approaches: First, it will build new types of partnerships. The focus will be on implementation of the strategic partnerships signed with China, India and Indonesia and the promotion of South-South cooperation, including through the documentation and sharing of good practices between countries. UNDP will explore deeper

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engagement with new partners, including the private sector, academia and civil society, and will continue to deepen partnerships with regional institutions. It also will continue to work closely with Government partners to identify sources for financing development programmes. A second organizational priority for UNDP in Asia-Pacific is to improve accountability for results. This means proactively aligning UNDP Country Programmes with the key outputs and priorities of the global Strategic Plan, using a robust method and in-depth consultation for diagnosing any amendments needed. It also means demonstrating more clearly how UNDP’s efforts contribute to broader national outcome-level change. This requires improving the collection of evidence for designing, monitoring and evaluating UNDP programmes. Furthermore, it requires improving the quality of

programmes, through scaling up innovations and successful pilot projects to achieve broader impact. Improving organizational efficiency and effectiveness is the third organizational priority for UNDP in Asia-Pacific. Following an in-depth review of the financial sustainability of all 24 Country Offices, the Regional Bureau will the Regional Bureau will focus on improving operational efficiency so as to free up Country Offices to focus on providing substantive services to the countries they serve. UNDP in the region also will explore the wider use of technology, including real-time monitoring tools, to streamline delivery and monitoring, enhance user inputs into programmes, and reduce risk. Lastly, the Bureau will seek to promote a more agile workforce by mapping the expertise throughout the region and creating opportunities for its use across Country Offices.


In India, UNDP’s partnership with the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests and the government of Maharashtra state, with GEF support, has led to significant adoption of sustainable fishing practices, including using devices that limit the fish by-catch. Sustainable livelihood options have been promoted by training more than 100 local snorkeling guides, including on topics such as the significance of the area’s biodiversity, thereby increasing incomes as well as awareness among both tourists and the community. Local communities are also conserving the highly endangered Olive Ridley turtle, which has seen a fivefold increase in nesting areas protected by villagers between 2011 and 2013. Credit: Prashanth Vishwanathan/ UNDP India UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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2013 RESOURCES Resources, 2013 - 2014

Figure 13: Resources, 2013-2014 Mongolia DPR Korea I.R. of Iran

Nepal

(out of range)

Afghanistan

China Bhutan

Lao PDR

Myanmar

India

Viet Nam

Thailand

Pakistan

Maldives

Sri Lanka

Philippines Niue

Cambodia Malaysia

Papua New Guinea

Bangladesh

Indonesia

Timor Leste

Solomons Islands

Fiji Multi Country office % of core funding

Samoa Multi Country office Cook islands

% of non-core funding

Bubble size is proportional to the total funding 100 mill USD 70 mill USD 30 mill USD 10 mill USD

Map data source(s): Source: Atlas, Expenditure using commitments as of 15 september Map Source: United Nations Cartographic Section

Disclaimers:

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.

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FIGURE 14: Top donors to UNDP Asia-Pacific FIGURE 13: Top donors to UNDP Asia Pacific IN MILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS IN MILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS

USA

$538 (37%) $326 (22%)

Japan

$99

United Kingdom

$96

European Union Germany

$87 $79

Global Environment Facility

$77

Australia Norway

$60

Republic of Korea

$60

Montreal Protocol

Committed funds $1.458 billion

$36

Source: UNDP Atlas 2014, as of 15 September

Source: Atlas 2014, as of 15 September

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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FIGURE 14: Expenditure in UNDP Asia-Pacific (2008-2013) Figure 15: Expenditure in UNDP Asia-Pacific, 2008-2013 IN U.S. DOLLARS IN U.S. DOLLARS 1,400 1,200

(Mill USD)

1,000 800 600 400 200

2008 2008

2009 2

Regular Resources

2010 3

2011 4

2012 5

2013 6

Donor Resources

Local Resources

Source: UNDP Atlas 20082013, Annual report of the Administrator Statistical Annex for years 2008 – 2013

Source: Atlas 2008-2013, Annual report of the Administrator Statistical Annex for years 2008 – 2013

FIGURE 15: UNDP Expenditure by Region,by 2013 Figure 16: UNDP Expenditure Region, 2013 IN U.S. DOLLARS

IN U.S. DOLLARS 1,200

28% 23%

1000

21%

(Mill USD)

800 600 11%

400

8%

8%

200 2%

0 Asia and the 2008 Pacific

Africa 2

Latin America 3 and the Caribbean

Arab States 4

Global and 5 Others

Europe and 6 CIS

Source: Atlas 2014, Financial report and audited financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2013. A/69/5/Add.1

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Programme for Palestinian People

Source: UNDP Atlas 2014, Financial report and audited financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2013. A/69/5/Add.1


FIGURE 17: 16: Government Government Cost-Sharing in 2013-2014 Figure Cost-Sharing in 2013-2014 IN MILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS IN MILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS

$16.5

India $12.1

China $1.7

Afghanistan

$1.4

Pakistan Nepal

$1.0

Malaysia

$0.9

Iran

$0.4

Timor Leste

$0.2

Mongolia

$0.2

Viet Nam

$0.18

Others

$0.09

Source: UNDP Atlas 2014, as of 15 September

Source: Atlas 2014, as of 15 September

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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SELECTED PUBLICATIONS Making Sense of Climate Finance: Linking public finance and national climate change policy in the Asia-Pacific region. (13 Jan 2013) Regional Legal Reference Resource: Protective Laws Related to HIV, Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender People in South Asia. (17 Jan 2013) Advancing Sustainable Development: The Case of Extractive Industries. (23 Feb 2013) Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Affordable ARVs in China. (19 Mar 2013) Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Technical Background Paper 2012/12 - Climate Change Fuelling ResourceBased Conflicts in the Asia-Pacific. (18 Apr 2013) MDG 1 Case Study Brief no. 4: Scaling up the Women’s Food Processing Home-industry in Indonesia. (23 Apr 2013) MDG 1 Case Study Brief no. 5: Towards Food and Nutrition Security in Bangladesh. (23 Apr 2013) MDG 1 Case Study Brief no. 6: Tobacco Control. (1 May 2013) Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Technical Background Paper 2012/18 - Nuclear Energy in Combating Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific. (3 May 2013)

2013

Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Technical Background Paper 2012/07 - Climate Change and Pacific Island Countries. (7 May 2013) Stigma, Discrimination and Key Affected Populations: Strengthening the Role of Media Advocacy in Sri Lanka through a Critical Analysis of News Media Coverage. (12 Jun 2013) Promoting Local Election Management as Part of an Electoral Cycle Approach. (4 Jul 2013) Women’s Perspectives of Peace and Security Vol. 2. (Published on 02 Aug 2013) Achieving Sustainable Energy for All in the Asia-Pacific. (Published on 14 Aug 2013) Creating Enabling Legal Environments: Conducting National Reviews and Multi-Sector Consultations on Legal and Policy Barriers to HIV Services. (29 Aug 2013) Strategy Paper: Sustainable and Inclusive Urbanization in Asia Pacific. (9 Sep 2013) Why Do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can We Prevent It?. (Published on 10 Sep 2013) Scaling-Up Disaster Preparedness in Bangladesh. 11 Sep 2013) Scaling-Up Access to Information in Bangladesh. (11 Sep 2013) Scaling-Up Access to Justice in India. (11 Sep 2013) Financing Local Responses to Climate Change. (13 Sep 2013) “The Time Has Come” Enhancing HIV, STI and other sexual health services for MSM and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: Training package for health providers to reduce stigma in health care settings. (13 Sep 2013)

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Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Technical Background Paper 2012/01 - Climate Change, Growth and Human Development. (16 Sep 2013) Asia-Pacific Aspirations: Perspectives for a Post-2015 Development Agenda. (Published on 20 Sep 2013)

2013

Asia-Pacific Issue Brief Series on Urbanization and Climate Change No. 1: Urbanization and Climate Change. (7 Oct 2013) Discussion paper: Linkages between violence against women and HIV in Asia and the Pacific. (14 Nov 2013) Protecting the rights of key HIV-affected women and girls in health care settings: A legal scan. (20 Nov 2013) Regional Report: The Capacity of National Human Rights Institutions to Address Human Rights in Relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and HIV. (17 Dec 2013)

A Post-2015 Development Agenda: Lessons from Governance of HIV Responses in Asia and the Pacific. (29 Jan 2014) A Framework for Media Engagement on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Asia. (30 Apr 2014) Pacific Centre Annual Report 2013. (22 Jun 2014) Capacity Assessment Manual for National Human Rights Institutions. (24 Sep 2014) Asia-Pacific Issue Brief Series on Urbanization and Climate Change No. 2: The Impact of Decentralization and Urban Governance on Building Inclusive and Resilient Cities. (20 Jan 2014) Asia-Pacific Issue Brief Series on Urbanization and Climate Change No. 3: Promoting Resilient Housing and Secure Tenure in a Changing Climate. (27 Jan 2014)

2014

Asia-Pacific Issue Brief Series on Urbanization and Climate Change No. 4: Designing Climate-linked Social Protection in Asia-Pacific Cities. (3 Mar 2014) Community Leadership and Advocacy Framework and Resource Guide: HIV, Human Rights and Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Islands of Southeast Asia. (19 Jun 2014) South Asia Regional Advocacy Framework and Resource Guide: HIV, Human Rights and Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. (27 Jun 2014) Strengthening the Governance of Social Protection: The Role of Local Government. (11 Jul 2014) Youth and Democratic Citizenship in East and South-East Asia: Exploring political attitudes of East and South-East Asian youth through the Asian Barometer Survey. (8 Aug 2014) Innovative Approaches - HIV-Sensitive Social Protection in India. (16 Sep 2014) Capacity Assessment Manual for National Human Rights Institutions.(24 Sep 2014)

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DRR

Disaster Risk Reduction

GBV

Gender Based Violence

GEF

Global Environment Facility

LOTFA

Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan

MAF

MDG Acceleration Framework

MEDEP

Micro-Enterprise Development Programme, Nepal

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MIC

Middle Income Country

PFIP

Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme

POPs

Persistent Organic Pollutants

RBAP

Regional Bureau for Asia-Pacific

REDD

Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation

SSC

South-South Cooperation

UNCDF

United Nations Capital Development Fund

UNCAC

United Nations Convention Against Corruption

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCAP

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

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In 2013-14 in Vietnam, under the Poverty Reduction Policies Project co-financed by Irish Aid, UNDP and its partners have supported over 11,500 poor women and men from 18 ethnic minority groups to actively participate in community meetings where they discuss problems, define solutions and plan development of their communities. They also participate in training programmes that have equipped them with new skills to improve their livelihoods. UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the many people who contributed to the production of this report. First, I am grateful to our colleagues in Country Offices for the case studies, information and photos of the programmes and projects they implement. My special thanks also go to colleagues in the Asia-Pacific Regional Hub in Bangkok and the Pacific Centre in Suva. I am indebted to colleagues in other Bureaus for their contributions to the report. These include the UNDP – Global Environment Facility, the UN Cartographic Section, the Human Development Report Office, UNDP Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, the UNDP Bureau for External Relations and Advocacy and the UNDP Bureau of Management. Special thanks go to Nicholas Rosellini and Silvia Morimoto for overseeing the production of the publication, Francine Pickup, coordinator and author, and the core team comprising Kay Dorji, Issa Zboun, Scott Standley, Carolina Gasiorowski, Abha Nigam and Aleen Karakashian. At various points, the study also benefited from the support of numerous people including Emmas Barredo, Nancy Bennet, Nick Beresford, Vineet Bhatia, Lazima Bhatta, Emmanuel Buendia, Bakhodir Burkhanov, Alessandra Casazza, Blerta Cela, James Chacko, Cecilia Cruz, Supaporn Daophises, Chris Dew, Maurice Dewulf, Faiza Effendi, Jeanne Finestone, Daniela Gasparikova, Mazen Gharzeddine, Ramya Gopalan, Lise Grande, Narmina Guliyeva, Cherie Hart, Patrick Haverman, Martins Hildebrants, Arndt Husar, Fatimah Inayet, Kamolmas Jaiyen, Sanny Ramos Jegillos, Gordon Johnson, Ayoko Kaqawa, Milorad Kovacevic, Dale Leach, Gary Lewis, Verena Linneweber, Fadhil Mansoor, Jessie Mee, Tasneem Mirza, Cedric Monteiro, K Morshed, Tanni Mukhopadhyay, B Murali, Kyo Naka, Denis Nkala, Thangavel Palanivel, Tam Pham, Narayan Parajuli, Tshering Pem, Joyce de Pina, Josephine Prasad, Devanand Ramiah, Ricarda Rieger, Marta Ruedas, Stephen Rodriques, Stanislav Saling, Vivi Saensathit, Joana Saraiva, Samar Singha, Alexandra Solovieva, Qi Song, Sitara Syed, Pauline Tamesis, Ashiqul Tareq, Rashida Tenny, Elena Tishenko, Bishwa Nath Tiwari, Marta Vallejo, Krishna Vatsa, Nguyen Viet Lan, Caitlin Wiesen, Setsuko Yamazaki and Mohammad Younus.

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ENDNOTES 1.

Human Development Report: Gender Inequality Index, 2012, 2013. Gender inequality appears to have increased in Southeast Asia, while is has fallen in East and South Asia between 2012 and 2013.

2.

According to the International Monetary Fund, average GDP growth for developing Asia stood at 6.6% in 2013 and 6.4%, as of April 2014.

3.

In 2013, National Human Development Reports were launched for China and Philippines. In 2014, as of September, NHDRs were launched in Maldives, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Before the end of the year, further NHDRs will be launched in Viet Nam, Cambodia and Papua New Guinea.

4.

Key achievements of the first 12 years of the MEDEP programme, Narma Consultancy, “Impact Assessment of Micro-Enterprise Development Programme,” November 2010.

5.

Asian Development Bank, The Social Protection Index: Assessing Results for Asia and the Pacific, June 2013.

6.

Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Pakistan, Samoa, Timor-Leste.

7.

Studies have shown that this type of initiative has the potential not only to succeed in increasing overall school enrolment of children from poorer households, but also to close the gender gap in education, thereby enhancing young women’s prospects in the labour market. N. Kabeer, in Prayas, “Towards Improved Social Protection in India,” Issue 7, February 2012.

8.

According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), rising temperatures and extreme weather events have contributed to the loss of crop yield in many countries. Sea-level rise is likely to result in significant losses of coastal ecosystems and put nearly 1 million people along the coasts of South and Southeast Asia at risk. Diarrheal disease associated with climatic changes also will put many lives at risk in South and Southeast Asia. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions from a number of Asia-Pacific countries are large already and are expected to grow significantly if no actions are taken to curb emissions.

9.

UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Human Development Report 2008, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives.

10. The World Bank’s database on global indicators of governance measures six components of governance: government effectiveness, control of corruption, political stability, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability. The database includes data for 31 UNDP programme countries in Asia-Pacific. Across the region, on average, indicators for government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability all declined between 2000 and 2012. Control of corruption and political stability were largely unchanged. 11. Asian Development Bank, Empowerment and Public Service Delivery in Developing Asia and the Pacific, April 2013. 12. This figure excludes expenditures on the Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA). 13. The evaluation goes on to say “… Many of [UNDP’s] projects have resulted in the creation of physical, financial, human and social capital… In all the districts and areas where UNDP has had community-based interventions, there has been progress in terms of mobilizing communities, restoring public and private goods, reinvigorating and strengthening livelihoods.” 14. UNESCAP/UNISDR Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2012, Reducing Vulnerability and Exposure to Disasters. 15. World Bank, Strong, Safe and Resilient – A Strategic Policy Guide for Disaster Risk Management in East Asia and the Pacific, 2013 16. Together these two disasters account for about 12,000 deaths. 17. The emerging UNDP innovation framework was crystallized in the Innovation for Development inaugural conference that took place in Budva, Montenegro, in 2013. 18. Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu.

UNDP in Asia-Pacific 2013 - 2014

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“We are getting fit for purpose to implement the post-2015 development agenda by adjusting our systems to encourage innovation and investing in technologies that connect people and accelerate development progress.” Helen Clark UNDP ADMINISTRATOR

United Nations Development Programme One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 www.undp.org

February 2015

Empowered lives. Resilient nations.