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Undercurrents ............................ 3 Eddies. ......................... 5 Nmus updata Beast News.. .................... 11 John &y's animals column NATTA News. ................... 12 Letters

Dead1 Dioxin..

.................. 24

Why 24]?Tmustbe banned

The North Sea Waste Dump

Europe's dustbin for chemical wastes investigatedby Brim Price


......... 27

Petra Kelly: Women and the Future The chairperson of the German Grows on the

Alternatiw Tachnotow information column and ndeabmrd

... 29

connection! between the women's and ecology


.............. 14 Editorial ........................ 15 Acid Rain Forecast. ............... 16 Acid RÂ¥AA i l s Britain. Feature Updata by John Mw Greenwork .......................17 On Yer Electric Bike.

Be the fiaton your block with w electric bike

It than mom to lift than tha dole or a boringjob? Andmw Tyifron 'pwn'a~roschwto work.

Forests Axed.

.................... 19

Is i t toot&t*to stop the dmtruction of the world's fowls?

The Trouble With Zoos.

............ 21

JonÈthon8mrzd d i t c u whether ~ ~ vw nmd 2001 wid wlut'f wmng with the onw w h e w

Sizin Up Sizewell.

................ 32

Needlesand Pins..



Daw lliott cowdars tha stratfSi8~to & uifd la imp the Siivmll PWR T n d i t i o ~01ift9f9 l Acupuncture wpMned by Colin Lang

Weird Stuff. Sa-fIIngws, broomsticks.

..................... 35

phantom c n p p m andwlf-igniting

Sweet Words and Sour Cream

........ 36

Barnay &r&w reports on working ina fwninlft publkhing co-op

.....................37 .....................38 .......................39 .................... 46 .................... 483 ......................... 48 goes apa

What's On.. What's What Reviews.. Classified Ads Subscriptions. Froth.. Loony Doomrtar


undmrcurrmnti was brought to you by Pat Sinclalr (News), Pmter CuliXaw (FeatumS), Lowin* Veal (Ustlnoi and Rmvtewsh Antonla MIIlmn (Rmvlws), Ed Fmnton (Adwrtlslng), Ian Pollock (Cow). Davà Smith, John May, O w n Oumptmton, Simon woodhmad, and Dçvl Ron. S~mclalthanks t o Porn Bmnlcc) for dulgn advlc*. EDITORIAL OFFICE: 27 Clwkenwll Clon, London ECIR OAT. TeI: 01-253 7303. ACCESS; w m n t at 7.30pm wary WÑnMdm and mII frimdi of the mumzlnm are wkoma Undwcuwmntt Ltd 1sa commny ngktarmd undw th* lW of England (no. 1146 454) and IlmltW by guwinf.Tenth y n r o f ksu*. ISSN 0306 2392.


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'coiin Sweet has as good a perceptton of the ~iitish nuclear industry as anyone I know, and the m u m to apeak his mind." Peter Bunvan in Nuclear Britain. ~

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emotions etc., Undercurrent0 is one of the few "hard" magi available it seems t o be going soft. Not that hard is better than soft, I reckon we need both. I'm not suggesting you try and emulate New Scientist, let's have an imaginative colourful style, but a practical, technical, factual content. I suspect the change may have something t o do with facts being harder to research than feelings. I really d o feel the Left is getting lout in a softy ghetto - compare the number of socialist social workers and socialist tractor drivers. The balance needs redressing. Well




So many past articles in the magazine advocate selfsufficiency etc., seemingly forgetting that t o practise this, it's necessary to have use of some land. What of those of us dispossessed, by our own society, of the means of providing for ourselves? When you're in a low-paid job, or reliant on state benefit, it's often hard enough t o provide the basic shelter of a flat or bedsit, never mind rent anywhere with land upon which to grow food. Ownership of large tracts of land is a way of manipulating a basic resource t o gain money and power, with the full backing of the laws of the country. I feel that any proposed land reform would be strongly resisted! This will always be so in a society where you are judged and evaluated not on how you live and act, but on what you can own and acquire. Sue Parkex 147 Wellsway, Bath, Avon.

1 THE FACTS MATTER 1 I DON'T know if it's became I've got a degree (Agricultural Engineering) but I must say that I preferred Undercurrents when it was more technically orientated, ie about a year ago. I remember two or three issues about that time which seemed really packed with information, I especially liked it when articles ended in lists of useful addresses - made it possible to do something about it if you wanted to. No apologies for these "male" words like "infor mation" and "do", thing is there's loads of alternative magazines who deal with things like auras, feminism,

LEGAL HELP NEEDED In Undercurrents 54 Charlie Pye-Smith gives a good introduction to the problems and iniquities of land tenure as presently established in this country. It would have been more helpful if he had included a summary of the Henry George proposals referred to, if only as a starting point for further discussion What appears t o be suggested is a tax o n unimproved site values, gradually increased over a period of years until it became a substantial proportion of the economic rent for the land concerned. It could displace income tax and others taxes on work and enterprise as the principal revenue source for governmental expenditure. Something like this has been tried in Denmark where experience is reported t o haw shown enormous difficulties and controversy over the establishment and up-dating of site valuations for tax purposes. There would also seem t o be a danger that, if bodies such as the National Trust o r the RSPB had t o pay tax on large wildlife reserves and recreational areas, these might be prewurised to show a financial profit t o pay the tax. Of course the present situation is wrong and should be changed but could we not have some competent expert t o spell out the options and clarify the proposals for real legislation t o make these ideas into law. Perhaps Charlie Pye-Smith could comment? Owen W. Dumpletoi Harrow.


It is called the Socialist Countryside Group and is a t present at an embryonic stage. The aim of this group i LAND REFORM t o start a dialogue which involves both agricultural IT WAS interesting to read workers and people conthe thoughtful article by cerned with the countryside charlie pye-~mithin the last issue of undercurrents. cer- from a conservationmt and amenity point of view. t&ly land reform is both an We are considering a important and politically sensitive issue. thin^ that number of possible policies, which would be both radical can be portrayed as taking and yet hard for the landed land from people will meet interests t o oppose; planning severe political resistance. controls for rural areas, Charlie also makes the selective public ownership of point that the political organisation likely to ' places of particular scientific or recreational importance, introduce land reform into such as Exmoor or the the UK ig the b b o u r party, Norfolk Broad8 Unfortunately many people in the Labour Party are still As w a r e s t i very much hmked o n nationalisation, a t the formative stage, we which in the case of land would welcome any ideas ant could be something of a suggestions as t o how a rural night-, centralist, bureau- policy based on social justice eratic, hwnritive and so on and ecological common sense and not a t all the kind of could he developed. If you land reform that most are interested in getting in Undercurrents readers would touch, write to Socialist wish t o see. Countryside Group, c/o There is a group of people SERA, 9 Poland Street, however, who are attempting London Wl. t o influence the agenda of the John Bradbrool debate within the labour 23 Offord Rd, movement on rural matters. London ~ 1 .



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hundred people, most of them women, spend the best part of their summer holiday marching 3,000 miles, from Stockholm to Minsk? The answer goes back t o last summer, when a group of Scandinavian women had the idea for a Peace March from Copenhagen t o Paris. Critic's then said: "Why are you marching in the West? You should be going to Moscow." This was the start of Peace March 82, organised by Women for Peace from Scandinavia, a three week long journey by foot, boat and train from Stockholm to

Minsk. This was an historical occasion. The first time the domiu "No t o Nuclear weapons in Europe, East and West", "No t o Nuclear Weapons in the worid" and "Yes,

Russian people. During the marches through Leningrad, Moscow and Minsk many women watching cried. The memory of twenty million dead in World War II is still very close to their hearts and there is a real fear of another war - and of the United States. Altogether the march left a cobweb of impressions. Spontaneous meetings with Russian people in Leningrad. Short marches and tight security in Moscow. Much singing and dancing in Minsk, all accompanied by a tight schedule of sightseeing and factory visits. There were frustrations but the march was a success t o Disarmament and Peace" to raise the conaciouaness in as it held out a hand of would be carried by W a t ourselves and everyone else of friendship with no stringa Europeans in Russia. the need t o fight against attached. Above all, it "The main idea behind the destruction. We are not showed once again the march", said Eva Nordland, marching against NATO or leading role women are one of the chief o r g m h m , the Warsaw Pact." playing in the struggle for "is that we are marching This message was not a peace and disarmament. against the suicide weapons difficult one t o put acron t o Danielie G6nberg &e

First Strike Service "MY FUNDAMENTAL DUTY as a member of the security force is to serve mankind". Or that, at least, is what the military "desideratum" claims above the security desk in Building 100 at the United States Air Force base at Upper Heyford in Oxfordshire.

rather than on Russia, which is beyond their operational

range. Their efficiency will be dramatically increased by , the planned introduction in 1984 of EFI111 planes which can jam radar and will turn the F l l l l s from retaliatory into first-use weapons. The Ministry of Defence is taking over 30 acres of arable land t o accommodate the EFI111s and a new type of deadly nerve gas. Tory controlled Cherwell Council When they aren't being has (liven its consent to the deafened by overflying bombers the crew-cutted plans. Down the road from officers at the desk exchange desultory conversation. They. Building 100 is Upper Heyford Peace Camp. 1 5 chew gum and glare at strangers through their people, living in three small shades; they are in the poseur caravans and half a dozen tents - a presence not business -at the lower end. They and their confederates receiving the Council's consent. They are, after all, are "serving mankind" by a pain in the neck. Especihousing 71 out of the 150 F / l l l nuclear bombers ally the USAF, whole membased in Britain. bers are under instruction The F / l l l s are tactical not t o communicate with the weapons whose bombs would peace camper. One US fall on Hungary, Poland, airman is said t o have been Czechoslovakia and other court-martialled for "fratemking with the enemy" (ie, ISast European countries



talking t o the camuersl and I But. they have won much local support. now twiddling his ih&, Charlie Pya-Smith back in a US jail. The camp 1s -lung a proton march from The campers endure B l o s m to Upptf Heyford on 25th Sçpt streof insults from More information from C M ~ Wtom, paçsincars as well as the din 37 m i w rroij Oxford or uppç of bombers during the day. Camp

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IN LINE with the leaked

Pentagon document disclosing that the Reagan Admihirtration is saving up £10,00 io far for R&D on Nuke-proof Postmen - for a six month nuclear war, is the US State Department's mounting respect for 'healthy' trade in the nuclear market. In rules, currently h i f i d by the State Department, the Administration has slackened the 1978 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Already South Africa a country which refuses international inspection of its fuel enrichment plant - has benefited from the greater flexibility of US sales policy, with the purchase of helium-3, an ingredient for tritium, Ostensibly the US is banned from cooperating



with any country whose nuclear activities are not under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, but now in contravention t o this the US Has approved export 9 Argentina of a computerised control system for a heavy water plant. To circumvent selling directly to the country whose nuclear programme is not under the safeguards, the manufactwere, Foxboro Co., dealt with the Swiss firm Sulzer Bra. which holds the overall contract for the plant. Foxboro's intentions were never a secret to the State Department which ratifiis such trading. Argentina, with thif deal clinched, is now contracting a larger reprocessing plant capable of producing weapons grade fuel, for1983.' 5

Drugclamp- down AN IMMEDIATEban on 287 largely -harmful9 medicines and the removal of another 1500 'unnecessary' drugs by the end of 1982 has been announced by the Bangladesh Government as part of a new National Drug Policy. An eight member committee of experts drew up the

policy and lift of drugs to be banned which includes combination antibiotics, multivitamins, combination analgesics, cough mixtures and lozenge*, many tonics, and products with a high alcohol content, anabolic steroids, and product* containing strychnine, clioquinol or c d i e . The new policy, which clowly follows recommendntiom of the World Health Oiouiiution (WHO), is expected to nave over £1 million a yew in foreign exchange, allowing e ~ e n t i a l drqptoroachalargerlector of the population. Chair penon of the committee, Protestor Nurul Islam says, 'Nobody will die becaw. of the want of medicines in the country if we stick to the euential250 drum which include 100 Hte-~avingmediCma."

The multinational drug companiu are leu happy with the policy. Sources in

&nfladegh indicated that aome of the major compani n were threatening to totally withdraw all production facilitiesin the country, includii thou for essential

The market for drugs in Banglad& is.ertimated at more than <35 million annuilly. Although there ue at l a s t 176 c~rnpÇni involved in drug production and marketing, more thin 80%of the BU$atieJh market b controlled by ftut 8


the country 's enorgy plan*. l'he recçntlç*cta omtotype wind power pGt on the 1011th coast will be followed by the construction of a xcond plant this summer on the Baltic idand of Gotland. A group representing official bodies, power companies and

on remandbwuà of hi* alleged In-roh>ÈKiIn


Northern Animal Liberation

hcdBuigted~d6 found guflty or à § v tried ~ comomia Â¥r mow onthudhidm hi nilÑOut Bmndm &about the policy :the I be detdoed unffl hi*trial on government intend* September 20th. prioritise the necwnuy faciliIn support of Brendan's beliefs and actions,over 160 ties for local induatrie*to achieve self-sufficiency in people dem~nstrgtedoutside drug manufacture. Exitting Glen h r m priçoon Saturlicenoing agreements are under day 31st July. Members of review, and 'home produce* the BUAV, Animal Aid, the will take precedence over the Animal Liberation Front and imports of multinational the Northern, Western and firnu. Andy Chetley Eastern Animal Liberation


SWEDEN: Wind power is


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equipment manufacturers recently nut the Miikter of N -i i-G.Atllng. to proposals for a compreheadve look at wind power. They plan t o rtudy the technical and economic prerequidte* for three to five more wind power plants. Swedish IntematiOnal'Prw



FIJI: The National Youth Council recently warned against the introduction of 'inappropriate' technology on the idand which is destroying Fiji's culture and natural environment. Ammement centres they say are congested slum joints where the young become petty thieves, while outride bulldozen me wrecking the forest! and creating floods. BRAZIL: If the 'Flan for the Year 200'recently conduded by ELECTROBAS, the Brazilian National Electric Power Trust, is put into

practice the power generated will be superflous to the nation's neda say critics. Realising this the Trust has tponed plans for eight hydro-electric plants, in four different states, but goes on further Itai u, the world's largest hydro-electric atation, is unaltered though once operative from 1983 it will ovr~upplyat lçuone state. Sao Paulo. The lame . state; curiously, which will get extra energy from one of the eight new nuclear plants planned. Soft Energy News


JAPAN: The Tokyo headquartan of Ohbayothi-Gumi an irchitoctwaUongineering firm, to probably the world's molt energy efficient building. The glass-fronted tower, with an annual energy c o ~ u m p t i o nof 98 megacalories per square metre uses 60 per cent less energy than a conventional building of


League* converged t o form a forceful yet peaceful protest. The ikmoiutration later moved towardsLeicester University where according to the local press rat* had been rescued by the ALF from the miseries of the psychology laboratory the night before. We have also heard from the same source that instruments used in experiments which would cause suffering to the animal*

The report WM sulutaniated, when the dçnoaçtr ton emenred from the lab with the only animal* left to liberate - two mice. BUAV similar size. Computerregulated, the con~ervation system of 98 devices includes a 'greenhouse effect' double akin on the south ride of the building water saving flush 1-, and underground heat storage. ALASKA: Atlantic Richfield Corporation (ARCO) is planning to build an air base on an Alaakan island that Congren designated as wilderness in 1970. St Matthew's Idand, a haven for artic foxes, sea birds and sea lions, will be acquired by the Alaskan firm Cook Inlet Region Inc. and leased to the oil company. ARCO is preparing the way for the Interior Department's 1984 lease of oil and g u resources in the Navarin Basin, and plans to build two 6,500 foot runways, a roadway, warehousn and a harbour. Not Man Apart UNDERCURRENTS 55/56

A R Y ARE flowweB inhand for dividp ¥conomispoil* of ing ~ i the the-Antarctic.A recent meetW Ot t~i ~ ~wrty D<rtrça4*<lçÈrio

nation*which an already active in Antarctic icience @&which Wt to bafto iBdu*tri*l activity thwÃhu Ñ the mlimal* eztnction which vffl nuke mod o tho right nolç about viroiimiltd protection but deliver preciou* little.

nology to overcome iceberg! and other h.The impact of the aovironment could be Off lMk*, over the came great damage without any spectacular dwell blowout*. And on land, even a mall mineral operation causing dwt-laden air and hence darkened ice liable to melting, would have huge effecte. Despite thfa there 1a long queue wai$ng tu the Antarctic'sreftouroes and so the Treaty powera will be soon devising a political system for dividing the foodie*. At the moment the USA



counttie* including Japan ' Ituç*ianà There are xlio pmblenu and Ruuia. Solid minerals for the British;u one Foreign are nuiftoous but their extraction 1hunwred bv the Offic*offldri "We

tlon polldw. They advocate a planned and integrated ~ w ~ b y u s b u e d national communication mator. --m the govern~ t h o H m I 0 Meanwhile ~ ~ ment's commitment @& Infrr-r. Thà Hour Offic* ocean w&d need novel tech- 1 Mwtio h e i r u t a t o M t a l n t l u ~ public accountability I* being I the Infotech $round'of public nrric* In a report to the trol all trunk road* in it* IÑtautthçfaiewrioDi called Cab& SytUmt area. . I n t o t o e h c o m ~ Cabinet ~ the Information Technology The Committee want* to *gÈ by tho Depltment of Advisory Panel propon* the push through a ten year tnduftry. government lice- new tyamads and public traiuport The Hunt Inquiry into package but &a ducked the Cab& Expansion and Broad- torn* without the preunt PUNISHMENT FOR h e of pauenger*' turn. Stating Policy initiated by the d c t i o n * on programming. Londoner* for h a h g dared Clearly the Committee Home Office, invited mbmif- Cable operators and proto vote for better public atrongly objected to t h e w lion* from the public, but so grtfmme provider*, such as trançpor1the Home of attending to the votw' tar, of the eighty n i b m i u i o ~ Vifionbire and Rediffusion, Common*' Select Committee wiahe* over new and &pro*odd Mt up a MU'fMutetory received moat hare come on -ort't recipe Isa body toovn~thçgiowt ved road* rinc* it propow* from the induitrial sector. of the UK infotech industry. traiuport in the capital. a Èerie of major nç road*. DM Inquiry WM nt up to The main rdle of cable* All tramport function* m o t of which wlb M th* codder an aspandon of under the Commltttfe'k~d- Wet London Relief Read, cable (ytenuconçi*tçwith would b e t h e delivery of Infoimation Èyrten to the ance would be removed from have been opby tha wider public intenct. horn*,and the joining of the GLC and trunk roads reddent* in the put. The Home Office hu would be controlled by a new More worrying M the h d y been criticiwd for It* blldU0Na and homa by high Metropolitan Transport Committee's complete lack approach. The Confereoc* of capacity date link* a boom Authority. of justification for the ?om)* Bodalut Economirt*.b their to the eouumer electronic* and office technology i n d u The MTA would be they promote. It hu left robmiÑion Re trie*. They tail to mention different from the GLC in unanswered many queitioo* rq# R e m h t i o n m pub* tatwMrti. three major way*. Pint, it raised by organisation*such trbitary, incoherent, Mid would cover a bigger area, as the London Amenity back-door nature of the Source:~Communicatb~ steetchii from Tilbury to Nick Ltltei Home Offke'a communiaGroun, Am*. Slough, and Crawley to Welwyn -roughly the old ubringinUn*withft* , Agency," run* their radio London P er Transport general military ezpnulon of plug of ifacty ~ c o n d a . 1947. area ebo-n the Rngan government. To AFTER MORE THAN Second,it would not be The burin- b (elective facilitate recruitment the CIA and candidatM need at leut directly elected but made up dec*dà of dçdte the CIA ha* broadcart a nationwide an undergraduate degree. A* of repruentatives of local WBO WP-. YQU authoritie* with a majority the ad itatw, @'Qualifkation* would liketo ahape a world appointed by the Governan high, but so an the Director, William Cmy, to come,wad yoiu r ~ u m to b reward* and benefit*." men$ - who would control it. And. third, it would con- hucharacteriMd the build-up the Central Intelligence hopleiDNeuiiSer*





Johi the CIA


THE DECADE LONG fight to save the whales has at last paid off. At this year's conference in Brighton t h Ã

International Whaling Commission voted for a total ban on commercial whaling in three years time. Success for the congervationists came in part from the inafitoe of nations present which tipped the balance favourably in the 3-1majority votes needed for important decisions. An intensely political preliminary scientific meeting wax followed by Borne surprising decisions in the f d vote; Spain voted for the ban, and another whaling nation, Chile, abstained. The hottest piece of scandal was that involving the Japanese caught trying to


r----- I h -

buy off the Seychelles -who proposed the total ban -and previously offering similar deals to Jamaica and Brazil. While the problem now is how to make the ban effective, the breathing space won killed by Norwegian fish&by the conservationists hag men -should be protected enabled them t o turn to the by IWC. plight of the smaller ceteceam. The LiverpoolPCAP also raises the quesbaled action group PCAP tion of captive orcas, report(Protection and Confervaing that within the first three ' tion of Animals and Plantlife) years of confinement 37% believes the oreas - which are die, and most are inadequatcaught by the Japanese and ely homed.

Speciex of WBd Faun*and Flora (CITES)mart in Botswana. The decision on the status of the harp and hooded seals Will be probably the most controversial item on their agenda. The seals' category whether that of Appendix 11 which requires traded species to be monitored, or of Appendix 1 which completely protects species could have a big impact on

THE NEXT FEW montlu will offer good opportunitieÃto end the Canadian/Norwegian hunt for hup and hooded wdf. But the most prornidng chance to win protection for thew threatened apeciea wffl occur in the wring of 1983 when the 73 donatory rtates of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered A Greenpeace crew member 1tom Rainbow Wam'or and baby seal carcass.

Greenpeace has begun a campaign for two areas currently on exhibition at Clacton Pier. The group wants the council to dose down this circus, and return the whales to their natural environment. 9 John May

imports, the ACA suggested Appendix particularly to the keenest 11 for both harp and hooded traders the UK and West seals, clearly contradicting Germany. the report endorsed by ACA's bosses - the NCC. The DOE Conservancy Council, is now in the invidious commissioned by the European Commission, produced a position of proposing to recommend Appendix 11 for report recommending a ban both species, under advice on import* of hooded seal from the ACA, and receiving products and an Appendix 1 a request from the EC to listing for this species. The EC subsequently advised EEC propose Appendix 1 for nations, party to the Treaty, hooded seals,on advice to propose the same, (and from the NCC. also list harp seals as AppenIn view of the critical dix 11). threat that faces the hooded Now however the home of seal, as well as the overwhelthese proposals is in terrible ming public support for a disarray. The UK Department ban on both species' products of the Environment recently this is a bad time for the DOE, asked the Advisory Commit- the NCC and the ACA t o be tee on Animals (ACA). an contradicting each other. appointed group within the They must enact the ban NCC, for its advice on the before it is too late. CITES proposals. Incredibly Mark' Glover neal

GA v S..

(henpeace i# involved In a legal battle with the UK Atomic Energy Authority which won a British court injunction to redtrain the group from interfering with the annual dump of radioactive waste at sea.

GP Netherlands, whose members are crew in the protest ship Sirius denied the jurisdiction of British courts over a Dutch-based group in international waters. On August loth,after GP demonstrated against the Gem's Atlantic dump of 2,700tonnes of waste, the UKAEA sought judgement from Holland to enforce the


.-¥ British injunction. But the Dutch court refused to act immediately. If eventually GP loses, the costs will be heavy. Crews must pay fines of £20,00 for every day of action; a ruling which would affect all participating countries. But it is unlikely GP will bow to restrictions. Whie the UK,responsible for 90% of oceanic dumping is considering ordering a new 4000 tonne dumping vessel, global opposition grows. Greenpeace anticipates that many countries attending the next London Dumping Convention will try to prohibit all ocean disposal of nudear wastes. UNDERCURRENTS 55/56






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-I MR DAVID MELLOR, Energy Under-Secretary, was






l~en-bies am ' - a I policy to draw u s i n g~, seen braving a furiom bevy of hiatus of energy i-cBOurces." Alternative Energy Believers Undaunted FOE'S Czech the other day in the Home of Conroy asked if the re&& Lord*. He'd offered a laconic . survey of the renewable* by -a for the Go~~mment'sthe Energy Technology Suprecent damcmtion of the port Unit (the Goveniment's AT hideout Harwell) was renewable enemy programme: "We have to be to be published. An innocuselective," he said. No doubt but MeUor lao&tx1 the AEBa at the Parlmeeting looked only momen- going to w b W -. tartly acupperod by thil headmarteriy tactic for he added:



r e rides the waves IRELAND CAN GET four h e n as mu& electricity from the waveà as she needs to meet-even her peak demand and thte could be landed cost-effectivdy a c c d b g to a gurvey made on behalf of fhe Naticmal Board for Science and Technology in Dublin, and the Electricity SupplyBoard.

Thereport.-thetint to quantify h h b d ' s wave power resource - was commissioned from Dr Denis MoUison, the Reader in Statistics at the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Dr MoUison states that the average power available is about 26,gigawatts, which is 10 times the peak demand. He recommends using Salter Ducks which are, he says, "probably the mart productive and t& cheapest" devices He suggests that Ireland should seek to exploit, for the moment, one-sixteenth of the best sites, thus providing herself with a quarter of her average demand from the waves. He calculates that Ireland could receive this amount of electricity from a &ring of Salter Ducks only 10 kilometres (six miles) long. Ireland has some of the most energetic seas on her SEPTEMBER '82

Atlantic seiboard but her south and 4coasts (however rough they may seem to ferryboat passengers) do not have the high wens which produce power. England, on the other hand, has altemative rupplies in the Western Approaches and the North Sea. So the intelligent arrangement would be for Britain and Ireland to engage in power-sharing. The British Government has been tinkering with a pla, to offer electricity to Ireland via a cable from South Walei However if the Irilh Govemment r e c o g n h the ugnificance of Dr Molliin's report Ireland will be able to offer electricity to Britain. Indeed the country could possibly become the powerhouse of Europe, supplying electricity by cable through the B r i t i i grid to France and the Conti, nent. David Ros.

4MW Hamilton Standud unit-hanowbeenexacted inWyomingintheUS&,to be followed mon by a giant MW rated raffi. Back in the UK thingi me mmewhat Idams, a n d o n a m m l h u A a . BBt at U NEI's 56KW ' mill ià now operational on the Falt Ide*, uid down in Exeter windt0ch.b 40 matre (Uttneter ÇOK ifticil ¥xlturbine b 'Jdm& ready tor ¥tartinup. Thfa will be Britain% largeat ~ ~ ~ m 8 c h I n e s ' What next? Machines in Ithe 10-100KW range have Iobviom application* in agri<cultural sceas, and there%no Iihortage of Innovative deflgni Yet the capital to traiuforoi Iprototype* - p r o d d l Ilow c& unit* is lust not forthcoming Meanwhile with the 13MW Orkney mill scheduled for Iconstruction. the 'official* 1mainlylarge kale wind Iprogramme-tohavejust 1tbout survived the British ' s dash exercise Im ,on AT. But mumbles of disIcontentaw being emitted 1followingthe acceptance of AWED%recommendation that off-shore wind research Ibe down-rated or even Iabandoned. Given the CEGB't aoeument that this iresource could supply the equivalent of 150 million 1ton* of coal per annum imore than we actually get 1from coal at present -the (overnment looks as if it Firmly intends to turn it* lack on a sustainable energy future . . in preference of murse to the tried and trusa d nuclear industry. Dave Elliot

.. .




DIE in west Germany are going from

~ &zg'i22 KeUy dbplaced the Liberals a# third party ill Hamburg's elections, and Chancellor Schmidt, now with an additional political rival hm called for a special cabinet debate on environmental policy.

The growing influence of the Greens will be further enhanced with the first meeting in Brussels on Sepotember ~ . 18th between the European Green and Radical parties and some twertty other socialist, nationalist and environmental groups.

IN THE MIDST of the political cynicism of the establishment, and the promise of the ecological movement, there is currently one quiet, but succewful revolution ploughing away in West Germany. In ui effort to keep down the prices of home-grown food some farmers haw formed cooperatives with wholesalers. The next step the co-opssay, is to create producerconturner groups which entirely bypass normal economic channels and meet the community's needs first. o ~ o details r of the Brussels 'Green' meeting- and free insight Into organic co-ops telephone Roland Clarke (International Liaison Secretary for the Ecology Party). 07916 78258


Exeter's 40K vertical axis

VHAT THE FALKLAND stands need nuxt is bees, iccordiig to organic farming pecialist Lawrence Hills of the Henry Doubleday Research Association particularly flightless ones that won't get blown away by the fierce gales. It seeing that the islands have become BO barren that they can not only support one sheep on every five acres. Fertilisers don't work there, nothing rote naturally and helpful plants can't spread b&use there are no oollinatom (bees,, Of course agkculturalists now have to contend with a fresh problem - mines.

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HE LAST few months have been encouraging ones for animal libentionists. The long-sought-afterwhaling moratorium was finally achieved though Japanese objections an certain at some stage in the future. The European Parliament passed (by 160 votes t o 10)a resolution calling for a ban on the imports of skins and other products from young hooded and harp ' seals and on all products from other species Of seal whose stocks are depleted, threatened or endangered. Badger gassing has, once again, been halted due -it is claimed -to a Porton Down report that suggested cyanide caused badgers a lingering, agonising death. The Min of Ag are now working on painless poisons and/or live trapping. One wonders why it took them so lone. Then in Peru.the lone-simmerine- argument over the c u l l i of vicuna-: a move supported by the World Wildlife Fund has been settled by the Peruvian parliament. The cull has been disbanded and theVienna are safe for the moment. In none of these cases is this the end of the saga. The central problems remain unanswered and unresolved.





~ y e r a me alpporting ~n extendve trial of techniques tor testing the safety ofchemicals without using animals. The m a three-year trial, 6becoo&cted q

at the Institute of Genetics at NOW THAT the scientific profession are beginning to accept, in principle at least, that alternatives t o the use of animals in experimentation ore both necessary and practiCable, the rate of new discoveries is increasing. (It should be noted that the economic climate is working in the anti-vivisectionists' favour. Animals are expensive items.) At Hemot-Watt University, for instance, they have found that anticonvulsant drugs, designed to treat epilepsy, can be screened on enzymes in the roots of moong bean plants. This will not only save the lives of many laboratory animals directly, but will also focus attention on the use of plant preparations for testing and screening other drugs. Another development, reported in the British Medical Journal, details how sperm may provide another alternative. Experiments at But's Hospital in London have shown that sperm becomes immobilised when incubated with a drug, the degree of immobilisation providing a measure of the drug's anaesthetic properties. The drugs in this case were five different beta-blockers, used for heart conditions. Then five chemical and cosmetic companies - Hoescht UK, Pflzer, SEPTEMBER 'R?

to the eyes of ObInts and other animals cleaners, shampoos and

two lab chimpwho have been taught t o talk using sign language, have laid they want to retire from their work and do not want to submit to experiments in search of a hepatitis vaccine. The chimps, who have a vocabulary of more than 100 signs, "want out", the paper claims. The Humane Society of the US want to send an independent b m s o r to New York to ask them what they redly want. Now that's a breakthrough. NO SOONER have the anglers begun to come under fire from the anti-bloodsports lobby and by coaservationists (witness the rash of articles on swan deaths caused when the birds swallow lead weights and otter fishing tackle), than news comes of a deeper development. Or Horace Dobbs, described by The

servationist", is leading a battle within the ranks of the British Subaqua Club against spear fishing. It seems that the Club - the most respected organization of its kind in the world - withdrew financial support from an official spear fishing team and there is now a battle to get the grant restored. The issue has caused a deep rift in the fraternity, a dash of attitudes between the biggame hunting mentality and Dobbs' conservationist outlook. The undersea world has certainly changed since Cousteau and Bans Haas first donned aqualungs.


ANOTHER person to add to the growinglist of those who h a 9 not delivered the Bmnowski Memorial Lecture is Peter Singer, the Melbourne philosophy professor who penned the bwic book of the movement, Animal Libemtion (still out of print to my knowledge. Postcards of protest to Granada Publishing). Singer is awarded the distinction of having been sure of giving the lecture this year if the BBC had not discontinued the series. All is not lost though. BBC Science Features are planning a programme on his views to be screened before the end of the year. Also The Animal's Film is due for screening on the first week of t r m m h i o n on Channel Four. As I said at the beginning, these last few months have been encouraging ones. John May 11

NATTA NEWS >WELCOME to a new Undmwrent* feature. This to the flrtt of a regular ,, column on the AT scene. But of it* Function is to act as an extension of the NATTA network, teaching a wider kudience. Fedfree to me It as a noticeboard. Info on AT andenergy related ivents is welcome,'m'arerequesta/offem of skffli. Ideas and publication*.

>WAT~A to new to you. It's the

Network for Alternative Technology and Technology Awwunent. The nation*!network keep* in touch thro* Its office at the Open Univwdty and a bl-monthly newdetter. The only local . group meeting at present k LONDON ' NATTA based here at' derkenwell.

inergy independent of the UKAEA. l'he Agency would expand the work of ETSU the Energy Technology Support Unit, currently it Harwell. ETSU Itself :omen in formme haish criticism. One wearcher b quoted is saying he didn't know what ETSVdid, but It was :ertalnly not asupport unit. It seemed, laid another, to be "dedgaed to delay md demonfin" rather than support research teami.'Furthermore the various bering committees' activities were so a otecun that many reseuchen "do not knowwhich way they're being rteeyed".,


NATTA meinbenhip cod* &pa for individual* and £26p for fautltutioni and includes the newsletter and a technical advice service. LONDON NATTA has been meeting Mgulady since Janimy and b .shortly to become a charity. One of Its alms to to open a shopfront energy advice and information centre, probably at the Polytechnic of the South Bank. It to illb involved in a survey of AT In the GLC boroughs. >A NEW sort of c o b will be available later thk year for local environmental, energy and tenant group! in London. Groups can design It to sult their own needs. It can be of any length and to be held locally. Based on a panel of speakers, the central theme to safe energy. Topics to be covered range from energy and conservation to alternative sources of energy. THE scheme has the backing of the City Ut and if It proves succeuful the spoken' panel will be enlarged. Speak-. e n wijshing to join the panel, and group! iniereited In the course, ihould contact - McCarthy on 01-674 3309.Dorothy >GOVERNMENT disinterest in renewable* and safe energy Is highlighted in Eclipse of the Sun (£1.9 from FOE at their new HQ 377, City Rd, London EClV lNA, 01-837 0731) written by Czech Conmy, Mike Flood and David Gordon (of PARUGAES). It to heavily critical of the ACORD recommendatiom and calls for a considerably expanded R&D budget for renewable* -to at least 10%of the government's total inergy research budget. [Talso calls for a Renewable Energy agency to be set up by the Dept. of 12

safe energy. For tima and date* of the course check Undercumntt or the listings magazine!nearer the time. >THE 6th annual NATTA conference take* place this year in Werton Super Mare on Sat Oct 2nd and Sun Oct 3rd. The venue is the Bimbeck pier and the theme to tidal energy.

THE Saturday union will focus on the Sevan Tidal Barrage with contributions from local, environmental and community groups. A 1turnout by local residents to expected, and topic* covered will include a history of tidal schemes, the engineering and technical upects of the Sevm bump, other Udal scheme*, the eavironmental/iociil Implications and a worhhop. fi6 on the door, 60p to unwaged.Thenwillbeasocialinthe evening.

THE Sunday session will ftxnu on NATTAt other work, Induding among other thing*, the Women and Technology Group, Sun Day 1983, pubUc attitude! y d AT, local NATTA group, etc. £on the door. Further detail* on how to get there, where to stay,etc are available from NATTA at the OU. VATTA Newktter No 19 will include all up-to-date information on the profirunme. >THE WomenandTwhnology Network held ,oneday ""Women and Technology" meeting at the London regional OU centre on 19th June. The group evolved from list yer'i NATTA conference with the alms of getting women Uwftil Show to a lOxA8 involved In AT and to develop a more >THE Sot KMterdbp-, Jiowing that conTOdon poritlve attitude towards thenew pf military industry to domestic use Is technologies, particularly electronics. also tells the story Discussion covered such areas as ~ ~ ~ l bThe l e &play . pf worker* who come up with altereducation, medical technology, design, rtive production plans which would nuclear power and working with mate jobs, retain skills and fulfil many technology. ~fthe needs of society including those with special needs. The 10-pael set THE afternoon was given over to :oets £from CAITS, North East worbhopi on computers, bicycle*. London Polytechnic, Longbridge Rd, electronics and carpentry and ended Bagenham, Emex. with a "where next?" session. For more about the network and its activities >NEXT year, starting In January, contact Chris tho ma^ or Carol Barac, LONDON NATTA Is taking over the C/O NATTA, OU, Milton Keyne*. unning of the six-week safe energy :oune at the City Ut. List time Roger Simon Mays itevens of Islington FOEbrought along Conucu: ill excellent DIY solar collector and LONDON NATTA 27 Clerkenwflll C l m , iext y o u we are hoping for more of the London, EC1 OAT. 01-253 7303. lame any often? We are also looking NATTA NETWORK ATG. Faculty of !or speakers on the community action rechnoloay, Open ~niverÈltywilton Hall, Milton Keynw, Buck*. md local initiative aspects of AT and






THIS IS our first issue incorporating the Iatà great BEAST magazine. From now an at feast o m irÈ/q feature an S I Sm will be devoted to que&ions of "animaf~-@his'!This is undoubtedly an area of increqiq# concern to tkp9nvkonmental mo wrnent. W e hope to continue the high staficfafdof articles in the old Beast John May,.who edited it, \wH bo ' . keeping up with the latest developments. 2 You've probably noticed the price of tfys is@%Is Z&. The increase has barn forced on us by the usualst0ty o f rising ." prices and mounting losses. As the pries of Undercurrents actually went down last year means we s more than we did two y W ago (and are still many of our fellow publications) bumper, double issue, with more reason for this Is that having gone we're in the middle of a subscriptionyap when renewing subs. To get througfi It quicker w a i p ~ h a d t o combine issues 55/56. However, b'll be back fb 4 month schedule from now on (wlth a gap la January/. . In our efforts to out the mag on sounder tinancifl footing we're offering new subscrtbfrs a choiceof free books (see back cover), obtained at a ~ ~ W M T O U S t from their publishers. plea& take advan&?!6f ~ emazinf&ffers If more people subscribe, we'll W b l g @^ftOT^metÃpages, 69 better dssi&, fund Investigativep h k , and,@kh@peya small amount to our at present unpalistaft. Tobe fair to old wbscribers, you can sxtsnd your sub for a yaw and be eligible for a free book, for a IlmJtqi period until the end of Sepftmber only. 56 persuade your friends, cats, dogs end aoldflsh t o subscribe,. It might be w,iWfÈt at this moment to mention that we ç an *'opena ~ n y g u h wso send in hformation and Maw, and come sf- to our editorial nwethgs on Wednesdaysat 7.00 In the office in Cferkarmsll. We're ospeclally looking for p w p h who might nil advertising (for money/) and with subediting and production exf~rlence. But anyone Interested in Undercurrents is welcome.





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THE HOME FRONT Ij vwoftwtowtoMttrnMlMriMHn


International Voluntary Service is looking for

SWAZILAND BUILDING INSTRUCTORS t o train unemployed youth. Two experienced builders are required with skills in carpentry an advantage.

and MOTOR MECHANICS INSTRUCTOR with skills in motor mechanics and motor body repairs. Previous teaching expçrjenoin all theabove posti an advantage. SMALL-SCALE WATER SUPPLY TECHNICIAN to work with local communlttes Installing and Improving domestic water supply. Knowledge of basic building and plumbing required.

BOTSWANA HORTICULTURALIST with experience of work wlth community and of irrigationfor extension work wlth small I small-scale and commercial growers and communal scheme*. Knowledge of agrlculturb and forestry an advantage.

Also vacancies in Mozambique, requiringqualifications and at least 2 years' work experience. All above on volunteer terms.


Write foedetails including a short C.V. and 1.a.9. to: IVS, OS82,63 Regent Road, Leicaster LEI 6YL.


like a# those uphillbike rides, how about an electric bike? fk WtoIKhange in the law,glectric bikes are likely to b a n increasingly familiarsight from this Maxe! Warke reports. ."

m, 4

the motor &I be prevented from starting the bike, tatting in only when a certein speed &reached,or the motor can be activatedonly whĂ&#x192;§the rider pedalf as the regnhtiolu now specify. The choice really depends on what $he purpose of the motor is; either to assist with starting and hill climbing, or to power the bike at cruising speed with 8WtWg and hill climbing done

It I

mechanically simple, don't pollute or make a noise. They'tetbo pretty rare on the roads, because until now they counted as mope<&.Consequently they had to be taxed, insured, etc. As a result cyclists canvinea child. pulling a traileror battling &t the wind, thd old and infirm, have had to struggle on wahlql. But after years at pressure from cofflDanies like Raleieh this is to be



Electrically AdstedPedalcydes Reeulationg 1982. electric bikes can be usedonthe 1. Unladen exceed 40kg f a a'bike or 50kg for a


honepower. 3. Braking conforms to lau use 6 i f the relevant 1981 British 4. The motor is only activated .when the rider oedais. 5. power does not exceed 200W tor 0 bike, 250W for a take. ' 6. Speed is limited to 15mph. 7. The motor to only activated when a switch is pressed continuously. IItUlticipatiortofthechangesinthe law,~rganisrt'io~~ like Raleigh, Luqs and the Transport Road Research Laboratory have been working hard 'to perfect the technology.The basic component parts are motor, batteries, transmissionandcontrols. . Motors and batteries are generally 12 or 24V. About 100W plus is needed for level ground, and allowing for tarnsmission losses and some hill climbing, 150 to 350W motors should suffice, eear into the hub; a sophisticated development which is still fairly hushalthough load or passenger carrying tricyclesmight need a little more power. huah. I # '. Motors used in prototypes vary from Anofher, adopted ve Technology Group at Uni* for one of bikes, is to take the motor drive via the pedalchindrive(effltac.Alternativelv.


by8handlebarlever,andthkakocuts In the power. Such an -merit power logs apd wears the tobolton.Asimilar drive l y been tried by Jack Olding of BG Cycles. Taking the drive via the existing chain and gears can give the motor the benefit of a variable gear ratio, which should help avoid high starting cunrents.

axleanduseasecondchfttetobringthe power forward to the pedal crank #pindle. Wmtewr t n m m @ h ym opt for, ensure that the motor can be disengaged for pedalling hone in the event of a Hat battery. Batteries need to give 15to 30 miles ofrange, and be as lightasporaible. So capacity should be about 15amp-hours and typical weight 9kg.For safety, batteriesshould be spill proof. Car batteries are often suggested but could prove expensive, became they need

I 14


country. The UK distributors of the Pedal Power motor unit do supply an American made battery to go with it, but it is fairly expensive. As electric assisted bikes become more common other batteries should appear on the market. One problem is where to mount the battery, at 9kg it need* to be as low down as possible, but one will be limited to a rear carrier or crossbar slung position. Battery charging is straightforward, using an ordinary , trickle chanter it takes a few how. Controls can be as simple as an on-off switch, but need to be heavy duty to take the large currents. A current overload cut out or switching born a chain tensloner or a stepped control system can get round the problem. Regenerative braking is often suggested, however the gains in range are usually only around 10% depending on how many stops are made. Moreover, a more 80~bistht0dcentred system (thyristor or chopper type) would be required. Electronic chopper

controls would be cheaper than equivalent variable gear drives. So much for thetechnical side. What's it like to ride an electric bike and who would use it? Having been pmpelted 6 miles through a strike bound London by battery power on one of the Alternative Technology Group's electric tricycles (modified Ken Rogers trikes), I recommend it. The trike is fitted with a 350W (0.5hp) Pedal Power motor plus car type battery, as illustrated, which is sufficient to move it at 15mph on the level and at 4mph up a 1in 10 gradient. It is quite heavy with its kid and


shopping e g body For teç purposes Ilet the motor do all the rtlrtbu!and most of the hill

ride,ço(hatoatactuallenloyt watching the urban landscape pW. Continuous freewheeling can make your we1 and t 26mph. half of all joumeya nude are 6 miles or leu, The A m Be p o & l w - ~ totlBM were intended for local shopping type jounieyif a women with amall chflten; bowewr mÈn other applications caa be envluged, but the regulations should ÈUo 0.5 to lhp r machines. Two win obviously be in demand for the elderly, the infirm, the longer distance commuter and the lazy rider. Disklane report selling a Pedal Power unit to a man with a heart

condition. As yet Disktene of Bushey, Herb, are tee only retailers and they well 0.5,1, and 1.5 hp models of the Pedal Power unit described above. The other suppliers are all waiting for the new regulations to come into effect this autumn, many of their models are ready to go. There is a Japanese model of course; the hub motor type manufactured by a British consortium;and, quite likely/there will be several independants such as Jack Olding of BG Bikes. If you do put an electric bike on the road before the new regulations come


into effect remember you should be registered, taxed, insured etc. That doesn't seem to have bothered the 400 buyers of Pedal Powerunits bough! Lastly, the cost. At £20a unit, it's not as cheap as one would like, but competition may bring this down a bit. At least there an so few moving puts th&t thà thinff should last. but beware the semi-devbped model*. 600 mpg equivalent, st ufe speeds, in silence, with no fumes,for a few pence worth of charge (no comfort to the Electricity Board here). Something good seems to have happened in technology at last! Refmmnaa Bicydhg Sehnm, Whitt, F R and D G Wilaon 174). M I T Preu. An Electrisally Assispd, PaM Powered Vehicle for Milton Keynes, by Godfrey Boy le & Andrew Brown, AlW, Open Unhereity. % . ,,, Electric Motmvycling: 77)eStp vf &Art, Motor Cycle Sport, May )981. ' Electric Bike may haw a healthy future, Michael Strutt, Financial Times 112 5 2 . N m d for a short disunm Urban Vehicle & Evaluationof two Promtvoes. -. M Nahvi. Middbnx Poly, May 1981. High Torque at low speed on a plats with Pancake Motor, f i l e Engineer, 28.76.



Raleigh Cycle Co.Ltd, ~ottingham,England NG7 200. Andrew Hague Cycle Engineering, Kipling Grow, Leicester, England. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crawthoma, Barks. Ministry of Transport, 2 Marsham St, London SWlP 3EB. Tel : Public Enquiries 01-212 4693. Disklane, 14 6ushey Hell Rd, Hem. Tel: Watford 35806. BG Cycles, Bath Road, Melksham, Wilts. Tel: Melksham 702613.

ACID RAIN has always been associated with Scandinavia and West Germany. But, as John May reports, evidence i s mounting up that Acid Rain is falling in the UK as well.


HE TERM acid rain was first coined by Briton Tobert Angus Smith in his book of 1872 entitled Air and Rain - The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology. It seems ironically appropriate that, more than a century later, Britain should suddenly discover itself to be a victim of this environmental malady. A secret government report, leaked to The Observer, combined measurements from 37 sites throughout the British Isles to confirm the fact that the rainfall over much of the country is highly acidic. Only Wales and the northwest tip of Scotland are totally unaffected. Highest readings come from Southern England, where acidity was measured as being over twice the lowest levels causing damage in Scandinavia about 30 times the acidity of normal rain. This came out just before the latest international acid rain conference in Stockholm, at which Britain and the US were in the dock for being the main polluters who have failed to cut their sulphur emissions. The New Scientist reporter Fred Pearce claims that civil servants are now convinced that acid rain poses a real threat to forests and woodlands throughout Britain. It has been revealed that attempts by the Forestry Commission to plant new forests in the Pennines have failed due to the effects of sulphur dioxide. One result of this brouhaha has been that the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, the main research centre for acid rain in the UK, have had their Ă&#x201A;ÂŁ120,00grant reinstated. The Stockholm Conference was, once again, long on talk and short on action. The experts' report reached "no firm conclusions" and it merely noted that "clear goals have to be established". Both Britain and the US stressed the uncertainties in the scientific data and declined to make any definite commitments to curbing their pollution. West Germany on the other hand, promised to reduce its sulphur emissions by 50% by 1985, a lead that other industrial nations should be pressed to follow. The research by Professor Ulrich, a West German biochemist, on

the effect of a i d rain on the Black Forest, has not only thrown a frightener through the political establishment in his own country, but has also firmly established the fact that add rain affects terrestrial as well as aquatic life. For the record, the conference also revealed that farms and cities in Asia and Latin America are facing acid rain problems, and that extensive acid rain pollution has been discovered well inside the Arctic Circle. Few places on the earth's surface are unaffected, it seems.

However this is still a short-term if cost-effective measure. Pressure is building up within the US for a massive liming programme, but ecologists remain concerned that this could mere11 take pressure off the polluters -which is perhaps why the plan is backed by the electrical industry. Others feel stronger measures are called for. Greenpeace activists have once again taken the lead by occupying three giant smokestacks to protest against acid rain and to draw attention to the Clean Air Act, established in

1970, which is currently due for reThe biggest sulphur polluter of all was not at Stockholm. Russia is respon- authorisation. Pressure is on to weaken , sible for the acid rain plaguing Sweden, the legislation from a powerful industry lobby. and East Germany for the damage to At Clifty Creek Power Plant, Swedish and German lakes. This merely Madison, Indiana, two climbers scaled adds further evidence to the claims the 684-foot stack and were fined $100 made in Boris Komarov's book, The each when they reached the ground. Destruction of Nature In The Soviet The plant is the fifth largest emitter of Union. For example: "Forestry experts have sulphur dioxide in the US. At the Southern Electric Company sounded the alarm -the taiga around Bratsk, to say nothing of the green area; smokestack in Conesville, Ohio, another within the town limits, is rapidly wither pair spent three sub-zero nights up the 805-foot chimney under the banner ing. One hundred per cent of the SPEAK NOW OR FOREVER HOLD seedlings are dying." The pattern is YOUR BREATH. They were fined $250 repeated endlessly. each and imprisoned for three days. So what can be done? Mention was At the Magma Copper Company at made last issue about the Swedish liming experiments, designed to neutral- San Manuel, Arizona, the Greenpeacers were not arrested and the company did ise the acidity of damaged lakes. The not press charges. They spent 2% days latest reports on this technique are wearing respirators while up the 550favourable. Fish have returned and are foot smelter stack which pumps out 900 reproducing, plankton have increased, and there is increased decomposition of tons of sulphur dioxide a day, thanks to organic matter. In certain lakes it seems an exemption from the Clean Air Act. More actions are expected. that one application will last for 5-10 John May years. UNDERCURRENTS 55/56


WHAT is a job? Is their life without jobs? Do jobs, per se, exploit? Or is the individual without one exploited?Andrew Tyter puts a spanner in the works.


LTHOUGH the old churchfostered work ethic is dead, the air surrounding the work topic is once re scorched with religiosity. Work is no longer that neutral thing . if recent decades; that act of frequently pim necessity performed to earn money md buy time away {tom work. Today it las all the old soulful, social ramificitions. Work is goqd for you. Or even work, and make thy nation great gain, even in the teeth of competition tom the emerging nations. In fact there is a great deal of ¥onfusionThe unions, for instance, are argely hooked by the old industrial age mnditioning. They tell us we have The flight t o work. They pay for young coppers and their older brothers and iistersto march on London while hultaneously organising bitter little jogfights on behalf of the membership uhose object is a bigger slice of what's ¥ailethe shrinking national cake. One p u p gets the cherry. The other gets mmbs in the bed. Or, in union parlance, ip your differentials, mate. Another New Work sect is Tory Monetarism ('I'M). Under TM,unemploynent is regretted but viewed as a logical ¥onsequencof the old sloth and Outtony. TM is about to demonstrate hat through the wisdom of free-rein narket forces we can win back markets



lost to the Japanese and Germans. But we must put our backs into it, love the new technology, The Alternative Economic Strategy is Labour's own immaculate conkivance. AES will provide full employment by the end of the fimt five year leg& lative term. The cogs of industry will get a kick start by a State with the correct priorities. Industry - in AES diagrams is a flagging motor car with a large hill called economic growth to climb. AES will fin file tank with oil (our crude wealth) from the North Sea. Whatever else is needed gets invented on Royal Mint printing presses or via the inspirations of British genius. This time it won't be like the last time. Ecology is another New Work sect often called soft or green o r escapist by hard rankers of the political orthodoxy. The Ecology Party themselves say there can be no boom without slump. They sap we must steady ourselves to the new reality of shrinking, more expensive resouMeanwhile we must create jobs that fit humans, not machines or the idle spasms of capitalist! The idea that this disunited kinfidom can kick start through the old doctrine of growth economics, say Ecos, is a pa&wMy savage lie since growth inevitably equals inteEnationa1tension, inflation and a tendency to both


centralise and further e a t the machine The Ecology Party perspective is an attractive one in that it has regard not only for the rank and file but forthe environment in which they live. But and what a big but - there is now a well founded suspicion among green people themselves that the parade is rapidly passing them by as hordes of disgruntled 'alternativists', who should ' lightly be theirs, get snatched up by New Labour. Wends of the Earth B i i h a m have spelt out their objections to the Ecology Party in the draft of a new paper on employment: 'Being realistic' they say, 'such measures can only be achieved on the bads of radical economic, social and political change of the magnitude proposed by the AES. In order to make the transition to an economy which is socially and environmentally sound, legislation controlling the environment, forcing planning agreements, redistributing the wealth which controls Britain and such like will have to he implemented' But. in the next bite, FOEalso take a lump out of the AES - accusing it of being rough o n the environment and failing to grasp the delicate, almost religious nuances of the New Work debate. This is the uncomfortable breach: AES with its hack-old but 'realistic' programme for social transformation and the green theorists of the Ecology Party whose world many of us would usher in tomorrow if oniy weould find the right button. The Ecos lean on a comprehensive thesis of industrial and agricultural change that involves a national minimum income scheme, l o d job creation centres and local banks (toppedup Initially by Central Government) to fund those jobs. ~riendsof thi Earth, meanwhile, ate engaged in actual groundwork, the point of which is to prove the formula that environmental concern equals jobs. In this respect FOEis substantially closer t o the Ecology Plirty than it is to the AES. Both see a break from the old automation mentality. Both reject the right to perform ponderous, repetitive tasks that quicken the death of the spirit and frequently result in an object that is useless or dangerous. The difference is EPs aloofness versus FOE'S willingness to ride the backs of dubious friends and even enemies. In their ground experiments, groups like FOE Bristol and FOE Birmingham have leaned heavily on a network of 17

&btvI FOlQ nu@busloen b a ncydbtt c-puy-r that employ* nine ad& and up to 24

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coined in relation to wfldlite, only to --

tiwere b a n in captivity. PotenWy then, relntroducing zoo-bredtiger*into . the wild could greatly Improve the Siberian deer's chance of survival. It seems so shple. That is why so many zoo* claim to be doing their bit for coniemtion. In truth, very few are doing anything. Why should they? The first demand on them has always been to satisfy our senses of curiosity, fear and wonderment. When the Zoological Society of London was established in 1826, its objects were ' I . the advancement of zoology and animal physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the animal kingdom". With its cothmitment to curious subjects i t is not MBpridng that London Zoo adopted the stampcollection principle, keeping one or two animate of as many species is possible. It is a practice that has been widespread ever since. One hundred and fifty years ago, it did not much matter, either, what kind of cage your beast was in. It was so new and rare for mart people to see large wild animals at dose quarters that guestions of whether the creatures were happy with their lot must have been relatively, if not absolutely, unimpon tank Q-ueltylaws were not to be matted for another sixty years, and the

~ t a n a ~ r paintin%. Now that slavery, child labour and vote for women are no longer great moral issues in the UK, wildlife can get a look-in.We are concerned not only for the physical well-being of zoo



London 'Tfnsoortpester 1928

inmates --. also for their mental health and file satisfaction of their behavioural requirements. n ~ ~ Studies of wild animals, books and television programmes about them have improved our appreciation of how wild animals live. So when we visit a zoo now we can ask,-does this creature have what it needa? But,for all our enlighten ment, a good zoo is a rare thing. It is now obvious that, although somi animals do need large areas to live in, the quality of the space is more important. Otters and hippos must be able to swim, crested porcupines and badgers need earth in which to burrow, bats need room to fly and perches to ding to, and so on. All this is only common sense, but examples are rife in British zoos of animals that are prevented from behaving naturally by a thoughtless lack of adequate accommodation and facilities. Interaction with others of the same species is no less important - especially if the beasts are going to breed! Herd animals are not gregarious by coincidence but because that is the way they have evolved In many cases they will not breed without the stimulation of numbers. Flamingos are a good example of this. What's more, those species to whom a solitary life is natural, often react badly when kept in groups. Throw into this the necessity of a specific balance in each group between males and 21

extnpolatlon, mort zoo*(hould not ezltL Of about 160 zooi in the UK,the numba Oat employ full-time ducstiomi<t*ff cm be counted on one'i Oases. Pahap* three than u many give guided toua to Mhool putin,and dightly mare fioduce 'educational material'. The material, however, nriw enormoudy in It* quality from informative pamphlets to sheet! of quatlom. ~ o rzoo t visitor me none of thb anyway. Walking atound the collectioa, the moot information they will pick up is in the guide book and on the cage lab&& most cues theme are of little exiit m y visitan %"either *donot or do not r e d guide boob and so can only gain from the quality of the display of a species. This k another reason why Itte lo lniportmt toatirfy the & I d s needs. The eduattomi d u e of uebg an elephant chained to the spot, a gorilla


femalaB, and the need to Introduce most male and female lolltaris@to each other only at breeding times, and It must be den that manninganimals b not jurt Plain (ailing. If you get it wrong,the mult Is wudy stereotyped, neurotic or tnutrated animals. They may biMo breed, wound themselves, or low condition, perhaps dying Ãa c o m e n e e . The number of bald-fronted purote, and monkeys that bite their own limb bean witness to this. To the modern thinker on wildlife, they gymboike what is morally unpalatable about mort zoo. And thediNUtaipMiwistoçuI Intelligence, the more we aniline It I* Ubly to ufter u we do. Stoce we generally do not enjoy being incuoeratod. the mac intoUlmt a ipedef ti. the mow W,ç m b r i n g by kiep&g It WUW. Iqiwtton Iib~xtMittouhlehthb Is Valid. I slmpaat that for mod inimali,u thek biological l'equlnmentsan be utiided In a zoo, and that they m not phyifcally ~ u u l t e dthen , they an not suffering. Evolution can have equipped , few speda with the hindrance of original thought; in the wild, animal8 have enough on their plate with toying to avoid pndaton, catch or find food, and proaeate.


3 .


RTHELESS some speciespresent upereble difflcultiea. Elephants a big problem. Adult miles become extremely aggrefdveat times, and their dze, weight and skength makes It difficult to contain them. That to why adult m a i l are rarely kept, which explain* why zoo-Urthi of elephants an exceedingly rue. One common barrier wed to mpanto elephants front the public is the moat, but the tales of elephant! blllnglnto these, sometimesbreakinglimto, m widespread. At a sympoitum on management of elephanb in April 1982,


laabareCM*,oragibbonwithno branch to awing on b negligible. Zoo* with good eduationd facilities do exlat but they are few: thow it Pdgnton and Edinburgh are example*. Z~~wiaanyniMurchfwdlttlwataU ¥r a g r ~deal t MUOMT. London Zoo undoubtedly hi the bit tadlitim in the UK;them are pwbaUy no &hen that could tartify tlwk existonc* on the b i b of their MMwch.Thte IMva only


~tb often à § ~ utek t ~II breeding of animd* in zoo* I* good, and that

~ofendanfnedipedib etpectelly food became It help meet the demand from zoo* f a thm animate. Yet the aigumeot Is circular; if zoo* did not create the problem, they would not need to çohIt If a spedei b threatened by zoo trade, the sensible solution to the t h r d would aeem to be -



extinct~nthe~d,thatedrttazoiM. fuu h i d ' s dMt sarhrta only by ^lrtuçofifni~UTçdinaChine


diftrokittedthere. Jutpriortothit


2iK)0 two-thirds of our piceilt tfopici mirillliaTB(UÇM>Mwd.&ls1*

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idtulf)9wabeBfn=*çw ¥dfoiBdei--n~ mYt&m&mdslmmheen~bY

areicotectM). OHMlifttnowoureighthundred tigun. Ifthe p0pUltipn toteeregionof milst8iQOrmaUin4 ' zo<M(mtUth*Midofttecçnfry.Aà f a why? For t*trodttcthH to tir


wildat~>m~~futuxedate?'~Çfld you -5'

be a n g .

WDd h a b W are wry npidly disappearing and murive amounts of

money ieneeded to preserve teem. £2million would go ao awfully long way. If med to establifh a rewire It would protect not only tifen but *lw> theauimninuDlitl ad aÈçturttat Â¥huthe t# faalbitt. In ooniemtion n w t t b & à ‘ à ‘ ~ v e Â¥pamoney an ~ w n t a t wild f arm8 waft breedfaii Â¥ilnult coo*. Furthermore,tf effort<lç not go SEPTEMBER '82


marly by breeding i Tht isW f i d d It must kaeo them well, IMIB from them, tÑc iuibout them and be iBrolved in my nkinat cfwmmtion pnanmme. OthÇnrii there's no wtificatioo for their existence.

world. SO- ¥miol add, thirdly,Out tbeMtfinatehwtftWrtÇt~ottot

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phutfnp A d 4 mtoWTftf w m found nur6y.

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~~ftbeJM&h&totMnlcaI Indushy,b Way X W . He complained that &he h b h y w n belng4blaek@ed'over245'E"Ifwe~wayaa 245T~~mwtU~goonmtd ~ ~ ~ ~ r t h e n ~ W o 8 r e ~ i n a p 0 ~ Stmggb fort k~~f~ hld&ry

ELY the detailed

aecordht! to Companies HOUR%slums w i t h h b ~ s o m e l m ~ i n

which we^^^ to he/'Quite. JuaUth b k

mae~~whichitLsmre~ta meal. In paming it &I WOW mentbnbg that the h U r h d Island Company which ownsoverhalfthelendinthoseb~ we espended Uva and money to keep by fom, ina dnddiary of Codite. mere rn a number of possible whyw we can not at least get the UDE of 24STsuspeaded in Great Britain.

The joint AgmhnlcaI/NatIonal Farmen' Union lobby b immensely powerful. Wny aumnt Cabinet mem-


b e m a m ~ ~ n u k h m L s ~ o f ~ p n u n , a ~ i i m w w ,until recently, 2 4 S T k d weedkilleu. On the day our book was puhbhed It announced &t Itad 4 to kuufacture 2 4 5 T b d herblcides. m e Ministry of Agriculture



ban exists.




THE North Sea is severely polluted; a waste dump for the industrial countries of Western Europe. Brian Price, Friends Of The EaRh's pollution consultant assesses the damage.


permita 87 out of the 96 h u e d for indwlrisl wa- and 84 of tbe 86 for sewage sludge but not ~ c m i w l l yfor the most harmful waste& Greenpeace has been puUcularly c o n m e d with acld wa- emanating the dyestuffs and titanium dioxide pigment induntrlea of the Netherlandsl Belgium and Weat Germany. The dumping of these wantea, p&kularly h m the pigment industry, i~ beliewd to have seriously harmed fish in the German Bight, giving them m m and wnrty gmwths on their skin and increasing the frequency of other fish disewea German fishermen claim that they have to thmw back much of the& catches since the 5 h are unflt for human comumption; Britkh fhhermen have suffered acid b u m &om h d l l n g neb used near the dumping grounds. & well as the obvious shorbterm effecb dewrlbed above, there are duo feua about the lonpterm b a r d s . When titanlum W e wastea are dbcharged into the sea, & s o l d metal s n b turn into an ~ l u b l 'red e mud' which changes the c o b w of the sea over a wide area. The red mud suffocates m a h e life but, more invidiously, can buildupinft3hgibwhereitbbe~ved to impair the animabl w-ordlnatbn and prevent them from ~wimmingproperly. l b l c h e w y r n ~ a r e a h opresentin them wwtea ahd a e d e can,of w u m l be accumulnted by m e orgmbm. Greenpeace Iflmt taqet among the d d e waste dumpen WM the We& Geman chemkal giant Bayer A/G. b m 1069 on&# Bay= dumped over half a mlllbn tom@of acld rn-I a year in the North Seal ma of it wmlng h m tbeh d y e h f h plant at Luverkumn on the R h b . In 1960 a Dueh envhnmentd group took the company to cout, -&ming that the waste contained suWncea the dumping of which Is phibIted by the Oslo Convention on marine pollutbn. At the name time, Greenpeace blockaded the hvo wane18 umd for the dum~infio ~ m t i o nand s prevented them &oii&vhg port. The court mled in favour of Bayer. Neverthelem the Dutch government which was responsible f a henthe dumping since the wa&+ wru loaded in a Dutch port announced that no further permib would be Issued to Bayer after 1982. Later in 1980 Greenpeace and other groups mounted a second blockade, and in F e h m y 1981 the Dutch bran& ran


OR A GROp o f B m d s likelhe United Kingdom, the temptation to

mercury into the North Sea each year.

AU of these toxic metals can caw

reaching the sea are non-pedtent, and are diaclmged at such a rate as to be well fluted or rapidly broken down by natural processes, this Is not particularly worrying. But when persistent mterlals 8ucb m heavy metals are dumped, or

ln mcb luge q u a W b 8 t h t they damage marlne Me, then there am grounds for ae~rlqww n m . group ~n~ The prerecently publbhed a report, m e Pollution of the North Sea, whichl for the p u r p o of ~ the report, includea the Irish Sea and Englbh Channel. The report m b dlaquktiug readingl dfscrlblng i~ it doea the wide variety and enormous quantities of chemical8 and 0 t h pollutants dumped. OU polutbn in the North Sea is a p-ly, ihe oil and-g&riga opeding there are onlv minor mwcm. O m 70% of the ou r e a d n g the ma b land runoff, d y englnedl &warded by moblist63 into Eewem. Overall, rivera are the most important m u m of pollutants. Rivera like the Rhine, the Tees, the Seine and the Meraey carry chemicalsof bewildering complexity, to my nothhg of m&ve loads of raw or partially-treated sewage. "I'he Rhine alone carries 2,200 t o m of lead, 430 tomma o f m n t c , 200 tomen of cadmium and 24 h m e s of SEPTEMBER '82

Tmcea of plutonium h m theae t 6 ~kblbh!le& d 6 k h b b t h l l # b out the whole North Sea.


M'ROLLING THE WA8I'ES bich get into the sea via riven i8 @cult so many murces in many muntrles are involved but not impossible -The Thanes Watex Authority, for instance, hu mercury reaching the Thamea eatu8ry in mwage sludge by controlbg Mctly the discharge of thb metal into sewem. However because it Is e m to &al with wastea dumped directly Ma the ma, Greenpeace ha8 focumed ita attention on the 8pecial ship8 wbIch dump chemical wa&es. In 1980, the dumping of 67 million tonne8 of waste wru a u h x k e d (although not all was dumped). Thb induded 9.4 million tonnea of i n d u M ~~. waste and 15 W n tomes of sewage sludge; the remainder was rubble and dm&@. Britain granted the mod --







m d -Mae t&@ end. oi the 19% At the oqment the d u o member


~oweveia n~&ed&etof the t i t d u m dbxide amhas been an statedmeMnghrdm&ed upmuge iu public a-naaof, and and mstill maet. Howemr kurces' concoin abut NOMISea pohtbn.

oEIcM age-6 which ha16anmtenanad thb pohtbn mnPrk!@

~ ~ ~ c l a i m e d t l u t i t d m t ~ t e d t lnemd8of e ~ ~ m m t for ib tihnium dkuide


h m Gmnpeace w l k h

mccudk~Uy peramled the US Envbn-,


MALE VALUES am to a great extent responsible for the mess the world's in. Para Kelly, chairperson of the German green party, looks at the links between ecology and feminism.


IL men have increasingly d i u ~ ~ . = ~their a d own oppression in Western Europe, in the USA, in Australia and elsewhere, they have also learned t o organise themselves aqd speak out against the oppression of others. mere has been much consciousness raising. Political issues have become personal - and personal h u e s political. I have marched alongside thew brave women in Sydney, Hiroshima and Wyhl and sat with them in a tent on a windy Irish day at Camsore Point. I have spoken to them at the UN Plaza during the Diwmment March and in over 50 German towns and villages during my campaign trail for the European Elections, 1 I ha& hope for the world a l t h o q it is 10 minutes befom h o m & y because women all over the w d d am rising up, infusing the anti-n-, peace and alternative movements with a vitality and creativity never seen before, Women stand up in courtrooms and explain the diiferences between natural and artifician radiation; they stand up at demonstratims and non-violent occupations of nudear sites because they am the genuine ombudsmen of children t o come; they, like Lk Helen Coldicott, a chiidren's doctor from Australia, f d y believe that each of us must accept total responsibility for the earth's survival. What we have dimcovered so far from "mutually assured destruction" (MAD)due to the arms race to the fact that the incidence of congenital diseases and malignancies will increase in direct ratio to the radioactive contaminants polluting our planet, makes clear that commercial and military technologies pose unaccepfable threats to health and life. World expenditure on the arms race is over $1000 million per day. There an no bring-and-buy sales or lotteries held to raise money for tanks and destroyers but there ~IZcountless children condemned to illiteracy, diwase, starvation and death by the massive diversion of resources (material and human) b~the arms race. The cost of just one tank would supply equipment for 520 classroom.


Women who have opposed the military base enlargement in Larzac, women who do not buy toy guns at ChrMms, women who are in solidaria with their sons who ate war resisters an who resist the movement t o try t o dm1 women (as is the case in Germany) know that the accumulation of weapor today constitute much more a thmat than a protection. T h m have been ove a thousand nuclear explosions o n the surface of the earth (tih end of 1980) and ii is estimated that the number of sol^ in the world today is twice the number of hehers, doctors and n m

And so thepeacefil nuclear reactor (which Australia defeated, yet which other countries blindly go on buildiig and exporting to sunny poor Third World nations even though it doesn't supply the clean, cheap, limitless enem it was once expected to; is the instrument for universal proliferation of nuclear arms. In 20 years 100 counties will probably possess the raw materials and the know how to produce nuclear bombs. Furthermore, it is all conditioning for a police state with centralised energ syskms and increasing mechanisation, all led by the silicon chip - which some Japanese manufacturers claim to make So well that circuits only fail 30 times i one billion hours of operation. People will not only become unemployed, but superfluous. Even in 1970 in a report t( the World Bank, R McNamara spoke of Such persons as "marginal men" (sic). m e same huge corporations that make people marginal and that make aircmft, control our,oil, cod and gas, run our transportation, also grow our food. These corporations and multinationals can sell, make and break governments, can decide whether or not a non-nuclear nation like Ireland will have to go nuclear. And the same big companies now even begin to dominate solar industry in the West. ~ i &a% attempting to r e ~ t h c $0 5 ~ technology -and only move R ~ ti01 d to the Third and *ourth,wMds w E n they need c m labour. We are ofkn told, especially in the atomic age, that the experts, that the big firms in charge of nudearising and militarising, do not know ?ow to deal with the problems that now threaten worldwide disaster -!'that all the facts am not in," that more research must be done and more reports written. This ha become an excuse for endlessly putting off action. We already know enough to be& to deal, as George Wald states, with all our major problems: nuclear war, overpopulation, pollution, hunger, the desolation of the planet, the inequality among peoples. The present crisii is a crisis, not of information, but of policy. We cannot cope with all the problems that threate us, while maximising profits. And societies that insist above all else on maximising profits for the few thereby threaten disaster for all. As things stand now, the people, especially women and chiidren of the Third World are to perish first. They


Woman must lead the efforts for peace awareness, becaw only she, 1 feel, can go back to her womb, her intuition, her roots, her natural rhythm her inner search for harmony and pea0 Men, or most of them anyway, are continually bound to their phallocratic power struggle, to the exploitation of nature and to ego t i p s about militaw power and so-called security. For only a minbte fraction of h u m hiitmy, has humankind attempted to control arms - and then only spa% medically. This timidity is over - for the earth has no emergency exit. As Professor Feld of Pugwasb emphasises: 'The current and anticipated rates of ac~wulationof matarials capable of being made into nuclear weapons throughpmefil nuclear f d o n energy programmes in addition to military programmes -is such that by the end of this century, enough weapons material will be available to guarantee the elimination of the human species.''




- have¥Iw8dybegunto¥tuv;dtbtt mked of them to to quietly. The (turn

plight of women In the ThM World I* one that mom me, to& me deeply,

and malnutrition.Ikiv tw&third*of the 800 million BHtmtta in the world inwoom.. Mtn In the lUnIWoild i~ 1-2 late the d&, to work for cih tor lour of the many Weitem compwii** who have moved thdr production. Altnnatively they an joinlnith* nirdWodd umlM, (uppufd


dltlonÃan not Â¥nforced WooenIn8I~,tatbKMtof Inland,lcd u v iof dMpmtton, of humiliation. B*tt*Mdwomen and

Inftctod by a type of toauitle- eicapino which could dl t&e* h-dianc and n c r ~ t owoman'^ rob u tbt iymbol the Bittord: m i g h r g o t ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ andwmnt l k a wof mate cultun. AI an ud otfan lbuoiBMHtiM dll* to the femlnlit and (eolodit o n a nt 'l,we don't want an Mologlcal loctety where u r n build the windndlblidwournilltntlyItetn,bate withOMDMU)andFmchmad*(un*and brad and ma40 rum." tank*. Of come,handwomn N@ u d Ttrwonnnleftbehhdonthetend, h-bdud brad an quaDy vital umaBy Infllndatul and ct o i uucw iM of Altenuttm (bodflr and rxiuly muttetW ¥ not -ot tftiwoiMtbtn0 doçnRidlniofndM. thinmuitbe

&dMn tat0 f8thmla HoBMt

?P' .



nation* amudto I thtlrtÑtha * P muanotonhrtohold on to U have, hut IN


ma*culinem i l d cf Mu 'natehwuid Indin Oudhl). an women f@t for e q d i t a h with mm,tbe dm@?to that om dmy they may boaom four* nrralf,build dÑt tocbnololy,and JoinQe front mikiln Un)Ño war. So conditioned by mqb i d mueullae Vllw W M U M U ~ in,that we hen ma& Qe odrtdà of Imitating and emubritog u r n at the tort of our own

they to-p ¥vnythtathey rtin can. Loo at the unnlum m i n i In Namibia, look at what f, the Buiopoma an dote8 to the soul and culture of the Abortginà in AHtnHa-, look at the pUght of the NanJo bifluu in N America dying from

And e m u the gnat tunlna occur, goto and 0 t h agdcultunl produce to rotting away In EEC illon or b fed to cattt* and hop to tupdy the rapidly


C o w to term mtth and nbUnf to

InciMitag demand for beef and pork

In affluent eountriu. The people of thli world 10iuffaringmu& come t@er to Uk* control of their UVW, to writ political power ftom ttrli preunt muted who pudlillg towndi


dahudoa Hit*bdiothepteatooflwomm


tojolaalreadythçMilitçawhoha ilcn up who 1mhelped dup* ?1 d o g l e d (evolution u a way and nuuuto overthrow all the aodal and



crueWwrt of our dumbpnnnt u women, both colhoitMty,slid indtvhlWay. mini IMMMthà mild of maliwlutilttoctowto~thatldo

-olopr,they~~,MunAowto thrirattoiwtto&Mthinidn*from

tlruaooo*clou,loIttooohçKhth with and bavemt out to dooint*, control and c<xiquçntqn and the coint~. Tb* dMtnforptfmrhmtoft

idnttflc mMKh and tewlopmnt b


weredevoted tonuclear en-



Nuclur Powtr. The M m g i m hit kind command, the /notfur joint, W P ~ K M ltn ,chiidwi til #ttfntlw imnd, then wch obfditnt mow.

peddling ecological band-aids,and they would no longer be "last hired and flat <W (and retunwd to the t h wid¥Wb?dtYwrd h O W the caie in ' Europe), but they would pa&pab Inaillocialpiocssrn. One of my greatest hope* is that me1 wold twwrOr dfeetive and n u ' turing role8 with children and other people Ustoricalty denied to them. and which has lenmged the gentle humane side of males and shaped the male pe~onailty@to that hyperI aggiesfiveneu and antagonistic combativenen. A richer patternof btent&hip could abo develop in an ecological society, difftuing the often owexdurive n*tun of thftnudea thatmake*twomairiedadulti Iobpecioulnuitunaof






PÇMMÈIintlmcy~vr¥Ufttt Aedççool*no longer beat on

cwnw^M.tIr MBth,aoloafltr W on hcringtl^lugwttidd*bducUutdthi

laxurt nuu ndteak*, could bring

about mom time for contemplation, for cwtk$Q!, for afflnnition of othem and of ~ ~ ' t w l f f o r w b l c b t b ebnotim* n in the hereaad now. Ihe Ideology which 1pUti private monllty &om public burinà litrying to burden the private Mctor with ofl criil*and deficit* In conturner ipendlfig. 1dÂ¥wottw and dçnounoà them u But dwgw IncoiuumçriÃat hour wham during pro-abortion demoncm only bo tofcuilun, dace ecologic*! immorality belong* to the pittern of ~$&ont;#~I them are lnvei&ntlon* productionand *octalÇxiri9teUçR ~tillgoingontodteooverwh*trwBydid n&&lg tQ,intogntathe htnaia lodohwpentoKueaSUkwood. is withintbiyçftrnTo ink ladlTldittI WOBMU rnuitJoMÂ¥1thÂ¥tun In coniumen to tighten thek bdtt d o ~ n t .ph*lÈtat the bloçpt>wà 1pÑHa up, In dmundhg what b thç to~nÂ¥ootoifaalloetetytirreWul clultom the 8yite4 and hw only m l ~ e ~ o n t h e ~ a 3 . andtbrirchildnn'i.Only If wbMtato Forexunoto, any Â¥octetwhich aukà the hcUvidualworker totally dependent on thà pdvt* aar for tonportatlonI*notwitou*,wlwnItfluthi voxtattoetaagkUioxhezpttomiof petrol coluumptb dncà t h m to no iltonutive me& Citim action group* ham had t o createÂ¥Umrtlv by their own n t h n the eneigiel belonging to t>otià While being banned Md WOBUH andma. Akhoudi feminine blwmd md o%wlunWd by g0v.m. imata.i r O w e n movement thwughotf -48 chlb@ng the old orthoIçMmdteÈ4ÇMndçntuponth d& of dMtniction and women and couoloul,humanitymowlIntoanea keeptef, abIld-* food pcoounmont nuntogether an creating new ofptriuchy,ln whichftenqgallnealteniativw for the future. tnd i~~pçnitlo (hould b çh4n> wttb ft* attachment to the e m -it th* b e t m nrn i n ~ ~ a n d cÂ¥b a n htt*KÇl ~on'tml-our Nowmbu icue, which will predomltumt principle. With thil e4nngl bemidtmancommaMl. cum lBaI&w mtewuta, One wxiul pfoup would no longer be fMtunm InlMvtewwith Pttn Krtlvmih* mtlm u ChdfNnon of thà Q t m QrÑ alienation,dominatbn, poÑMionand çxcluç)y n~ooriblefor certain type* pÇrty.W wl)l b*lookhu*tÇHlnnlitlU th* miattonihip with irturo wu broken of workUk*hourlwPta~ Womenin 0)*&,now#mnmtfwthird Thtu, In ordu to (toplivingonftut lugatpity In & m y . an Â¥oologlofl'(odrt would no lonvr the enth, In older to cmito technology bo p m r d Into being wlf-help acologl8tn


THE SIZEWELL B PWR public enquiry is scheduled to start next January. Dave Elliott takes a look at the anti-nuclear movement's strategy.

Sizing up ,.-------'I



t all really depends on your aims. If

'all' you want is t o 'stop nukes' then life is comparatively (!) simple. Your problems are the KEBG (oops sorry CEBG) - which has spent more on producing its case for the PWk than was spent last year on all the UK's renewable energy R&D - the UKAEA - whose nuke R&D budget rose to Ă&#x201A;ÂŁ22 million this year - and the Tory Government, who see nukes as The Final Solution t o rid them of the dread NUM and provide Plutonium for Our American Allies. Plenty of room there for healthy paranoia. And, no question, the nukes have to be fought, as if, as the saying goes, there was no tomorrow. Because it could be true. But what if your aims are wider? Survival is an important instinct hence the success of the New CND, which can mobilize 250,000 people on the basis (mostly) of that very rational motional commitment. But is it mough? Obviously there is no point in talking ibout the future unless there is a future, but we need more than just negative defensive strategies: "us versus their futufe" must be transcended and %placedby "their future versus our future". We need to assert a positive, attractive, alternative future t o that iffered by the warmongers, monoaolists, multi-nationals and technocrats. 3f course the 'alternative' movement ias been doing that - on the fringes 'or years. But now is the time t o put )ur ideas on the agenda for a wider iudience: we have to show that there is in alternative. This needn't be as difficult as it .ounds: we don't have t o d o everything it once. The situation we find ourselves n, is in fact in many ways ideal. Many )eople are utterly disenchanted with the tatus quo - of mass unemployment, vonomic recession, threats of nuclear war and all the other delights of !apitalist (and state capitalist) society. True there's been a swing to the right -reinforced by the Falklands crisis. But n some ways that just shows how lesperate people are for an alternative. t may be a close run thing, but the

opportunity exists for a radical rethink that moves in asoc@lly progressive, rather than politically reactionary, direction. Leninists would have us believe that it will the The Central Committee who spearhead this process. I'd prefer t o think that it can grow out of grass rootscampaigns and initiatives, cohering into a progressive movement. And that's where nukes come in. Oni of the key elements in the radical politics that have emerged since the 60s has been the focus on technology. Until then technology was seen as a beneficient progressive force - capable of taking 'us' to the stars. All technology was good. Since then the question of What sort of technology has been much more t o the fore. You don't have t o have a fully fledged ecological consciousness t o understand what is wrong with the sort of technology that is being promoted at present. You just have t o see whose interest it serves. The antinuclear movement worldwide is as muck anti-capitalist, anti-multinational corporations, anti-centralist government as it is 'ecological' in the pure sense. Or a t least some bitsofit are. Which brings one (I hope) t o the question of strategy. Some years back, radical scientists in groups like SERA recognisedthatequestion of 'What sort of technology should b e developed'7w%ioing t o be a key issue for the industrial and social future -in terms of job security, employment and the labour process itself - including health and safety. They, not unnaturally, saw the Trade Unions as likely to play a key role in bringing technology under some form of social control. Hence the amphasis -in SERA etc -on raising consciousness about energy policy within the unions. Not just t o 'stop wkes', but rather t o build confidence ind experience within the grass roots rf the labour movement in relation t o .ethnological issues in general. The Lucas Aerospace Plan obviously repreiented the 'high point' of this approach. Here was a group of workers who were bt the same time devastatively critical of ,he status quo and also able t o propose msitive alternatives. This approach has .ince been extended in the form of the

movement for 'Popular Planning for Social Needs' which transcends specific industries and is laying the basis for a genuinely democratic form of decentralised planning by grass roots industrial and community groups. Obviously there is a long way t o go but at least we have made a start. But where d o nukes fit in? Well, one model is that fear of nukes has mobilized people into political action. That's'clearly true in the broadei environmental movement, but I doubt whether that has been the prime motivator for trade union entry into the debate on the future of technology in general or even on energy policyin particular. Safety is obviously a vital issue -but employment is perhaps even more relevant. The unions are waking up t o the fact that it matters - for their members - which technologies are developed, where the investment goes and who controls these decisions, i.e. they are raising broad political issues. Of course not all trade union groups will be of the same level. Some will be propelled into the nuclear debate by fears on safety or security questions. It is for this reason amongst others that the Anti-nuclear campaign - the organisation set up t o try to co-ordinate antinuclear activities - has decided t o focus on building an anti-PWR campaign especially within the unions. The ANC has consolidated SERA'S work in this regard - with dramatic results, as witness the way successful Trade Union anti-PWR conference they organised in April in Ipswich, t o be followed by a similar one in July. The price they have paid, however, is to have focussed opposition on just the PWR. This makes a lot of sense tactically. Most unions and the Laabour Party are already anti-PWR (even if pro-AGR) so you can assemble a powerful (if limited) coalition. It remains t o be seen whether this limitation is worthwhile it's the age old political problem of trading off short term and long term goals, means and ends. ANC seem t o believe that the way forward is t o consolidate an anti-PWR movement within the unions and elsewhere. This has all the obvious attractions of a UNDERCURRENTS 55/56

its best to play safeand try t o consolidate a 'simple' anti-PWR base. On the other hand it would seem more challengingto try t o move the fight on to include the alternatives. In a way that's just what groups like SERA and NATTA have been trying t o do over the past few years - tryiing t o open up .new vistas, pioneering new arguments, moving the debate on. Actually I would have thought that there was room for -and a need for both approaches. Obviously it makes little sense to fantasize about 'altemalives' if the status quo is unchgllengalde and unchallenged. But equally it is not sufficient just to oppose the status quo. After all one way to mobilize people into political action is to demonstrate not just that they should f e u and oppose nukes, but also that then are better, more attractive, alternatives. Many people worried about nuke* still believe there is "no alternative' and so accept them, albeit grudgingly. We have to dispel that fatalism. Dave Elllot



'single issue' campaign and one that in fact opens up, at least potentially, many wider political issues. Just like CND. The only problem is that it might degenerate into just a 'single-iissue' campaign increasingly focussed on the technicalities of the PWR issue - rather than opening out t o wider issues. One way t o avoid this is t o maintain a healthy pluralism in the anti-Sizewen campaign. Let ANC consolidate the Trade Union case and dig in on the PWR, while other groups open up other issues - most obviously on the advantages (e.g. in terms of employment and security) of alternative energy options. But, of course, this is where we come up against the strategic problem of how to deal with the Inquiry. One thing is clear - it should not be seen as the major focus. If anyone does submit evidence, then that should be only part of a wider process of political action. In terms of the case for 'alternatives' it is probably just as important t o help to create and demonstrate practical local projects and initiatives as it is to produce the definitive alternative energy scenario study for submission to the Inquiry. Fortunately both approaches are being pursued although whether anything will be submitted formally depends now on the KEGB's response t o the objectors demands for funds to suppoe-their research. . .We might end up witnessing a public inquiry with no public! If the expected impasse occurs, then there will be many who say, well now we have t o prepare for direct action. In which case it will be good that ANC and the rest have attempted to consolidate a broad opposition: direct action will not then be so easy to writeoff as adventurism by ecoloonies. But I would hope that the movement




doesn't get bogged down in just an 'anti' Sizewell direct action campaign. Indeed I'd hone that effort could be diverted t o adirectaction altemttoes campaign. Surely that would be likely to be just as effective in raising consciousness? Obviously we need t o 'attack the centres of power' but, equally, we must remember our own energy policy rhetoric and 'not put all our eggs in the (anti) nuclear basket' . To be clear, that doesn't mean I think we should abandon the antinuclear cause. Not in the least. Nor does it mean that we should embrace 'alternatives' in a woolly way. We desperately need convincing, wenworked out alternative energy strategies and a pro-AT campaign t o back it up. To my mind that could help compliment and develop the antinuclear position - opening up a new positive direction for political agitation and social creativity. What that would raise is the much more interesting question of what sort of alternatives we want. Can we just rely on coal and energy conservation or will we need to develop the renewable sources quickly? Which? On what scale? Under whose control? If the last decade of our energy politics was dominated by nuclear power thenext ought t o be focussed on the alternatives. There are however real practical conflicts and tactical problems. ANC for example tend to see any talk of alternatives as diversionary in the sense of being irrelevant to the current antiPWR focus. Some of the other antinuclear groups dislike what they see as ANC's over-bearingapproach - they would like more ftexibility/lessconviction that there is only one set of viable transitional demands. Only time will tell who was right. It may be that -


Contact! Friend* of the Earth: now at 377 City Road. London EC1V 1NA (01-837 0731) I focussina on safetv issues. ANC ( A & - ~ u d o r Cimp~ign):PO Box 216 Sheffield S1 1BD ere attempting to contolidate the anti-PWR carnoah. th& hive produced l&flett, &,kc&& etc. and are dittributina Colin Swwt't oinptibt on 'The Cost of Nuclear Power' (Ă&#x201A;ÂŁ1. SERA (&bIbf ~ n v i r o n m e n t d-R Allocution): 9 Pobnd Street. London W1. ii focunim on am~lovmentand almrnmiwt. ' S i i & m ~ ~ o - o r d i ~ & n 'it: a loom knit gmup with reprenntttivt from moat of the local and national anti-nuke organteationt, including the E"t Anglian Alliance Against Nuclear Power, ANC, SERA, CND,TCPA, atc Contact via EAAANP, 1 Fell Road, Birdbrock Halatead, Essax C 0 9 4BG. CPRE (Council for the Protection of Run) Englmdt: 4 Hoban Place. London SW1 1235 5969) Though not a tpwifially antinuclear group, they are oppoiing Sizewell on the grounds that it will lead to many other stations being sited in remote rural mu. At pracent most of the group* have agreed to stand by a boycott of the Inauiw u n b r the CEGB or the ~ o w m m e nprividu fund* for t objdcton. There it alto a mom to hive the Inauirv (tan date out back - t o dive l objecton the full 6 months, w ~ i f rLewwn promited, to look at the wluminout evktonci orodumd bv the CEGB. N11. atc. WITM of which it atill not available. There are aIw suggestions that the Inquiry should be m o d from Snape to Ipswich, which is far more accessible assuming anyone does submit evidence The 'March furs Safe Future' from London to S i n w I I , mm on 6th &pmnbu and eulmintn In a 'Pun Emm FiiV M Brick Kiln Firm W-ttoton. Suffolk, on 17-10th

.. .

Needles and T

RADITIONALchine& acupuncture Is some 5,000 years old, but has only a few books on it extant. The most famous of these Is the Ne C ng,or Yellow Emperor's Guide to Internal Medicine, which has been conservatively dated as some 2,000 years old. It showed that acupuncture diagnosis and treatment was already a highly developed technique, even then. Acupuncture developed in a time when our view of ourselves and nature was fundamentally different. People saw themselves as integrated with, rather than separate from nature. Around the same time the Greeks were the only comparable civilisation to the Chinese, and it was their philosophy that moulded a lot of Western thinking for many years. In 500 BC a Greek philosopher called Empedocles said: 'All matter consists of four elements Fire, Earth,Air, and Water', and all observations about nature, including our role within it, were made born this perspective. At some later stage the qualities hot and cold, and wet and dry, were abo incorporated. The Nd Ching states that 'All matter consists of five elements Fire, Earth, Metal, Water, and Wood' and two qualities: Yin, and Yang.





The state of health of a person was seen t o depend on the b&ce between the four or five elements, and the different qualities. Perfect balance ensured good health as seen in nature; illness was simply due t o an imbalance. But things didn't remain that simple, because scientific thought was not only passive, observation, it was also active, experimentatton. Until t h e l f i h century observation predominated. But with the invention of new technology and equipment in the West, experimentation soon became all the rage. People in the West began to think that science wo* experimentation. The theory of the elements was relegated to quackery and magic. The Chinese howeverwntinued with their scientific method of observation and evolved traditional chinese medicine, and within that, the practice of acupuncture. Nowadays traditional acupuncture h weU established in this country, with three main organisationsoffering profeidonal training of three yean or more1.Furthermore, Parliament recently produced legislation governing the practice of acupuncture, and a common 'Code of Practice' has been * agreed. Also, articles in the media haw generated considerable interest from members of the public about acupunctare, and a large number of patients are already convinced of its benefit. Some actively use it as their sole means of therapy. Others use Western medicine in conjunction, and benefit from both. The growing presence of this therapy means more awareness amongst doctors, and some use it in their p r a c t i . There are basically twelve energy pathways or "meridians" in acupuncture which are identified with the five elements (or energy states). Each single meridian also corresponds with one of the vital oleans. the heart and lungs. for example; and has a pulse associated'with it which tells the practitioner the condition within that meridian. Some meridians have too much energy, others too little, and by inserting fine acupuncture needles into the points which lie along the meridians, a proper balance and flow of energy can be re-established. Since traditional acupuncture believes that any symptom is due to this imbalance, the treatment is directed towards reestablishing the balance rather than palliating the symptom. A f a i y typical example of treatment



is the case of Mr B who came for several different physical complaints including backache, and sciatica in one leg. The two-hour initial diagnosis determined his major imbalance, which in this case was in the wood element, corresponding to the liver and gall bladder meridians. Regular treatment is aimed at relieving the imbalance, rather than palliating the symptom directly. (Acupuncture can be used allopathically, but in this case the cause of the complaint is treated). After seven treatments, the pain in his leg was gone, and after 15 sessions Mr B was marvelling about his 'ne-f back'. He felt many other changes in himself, and decided to continue treatment, coming back every 6 to 6 weeks for ~reventativetreatments.

S T U F F apparently a v e r y e something, has been wanderaround a f i - f l o o r balcony in the harbour area of Huntingdon Beach in California. And whatever it might be, it is leaving a huge turd behind, described by condominium resident Holly Craig as "what you might expect from an elephant". So far, neither the police, the Humane Society of Huntiidon Beach, nor the county Health Department, have solved the riddle of the Craig family's late-night, unseen and unheard balcony viator. Bbt a vet analysed a sample and concluded it was the handiwork of a huge pig. Few agree with him as pigs are scarce in the harbour community, and anyway how could it manage to reach the balcony? And the Craig family at 3258 Sparkler Drive are left wondering what manner of creature it might be that, up until the end of F e b ~ a r ythis year, had visited and left its calling card three times in the previous two months. The previous April, police were


hei ideal in traditional acupuncture i s to return four times a year, when the seasons change, for preventative treatment. Colin lang, LicAc, ATAcE

hunting a "phantom sausage flinger'' after they had received a string of reports about a night-time prowler who crept along back lanes in Devonport in Devon,and lobbed packs of sausages into gardens. Householders in Camperdown Street and neaihy Kemyell Place had been bombarded with packs of the fresh, uncooked sausages. One housewife said: 'The sausages are always pork, about eight in a pack and always from the Coop." A Devonport policeman commented: "We don't think the sausages are stolen, but it is battling. If someone is trying to give them away, why doesn't he deliver them at the front door?" Finally, i curiot&inconsequex%i item with no connection to phantom crappers and sausage-flinge6, headlined Firemen puzzbsd by bkazing mop (WolverhamptonExpress and S-k, 23

March 1981). The previous day, a mop had been found burning in a broomcupboard at the Leasowes Sports Centre in Halesowen. The centre had been locked up owrnight and there was no sign anyone had broken in. There were no electrics or anything around it which could have set it off. Victor Webber, -taker of Leasowes High School, smelled smoke when he arrived in the morning, and called the fine brigade. "The mop hadn't been used for some time" he said. "Heaven knows how it started. It looks like one of those cases of spontaneous combustion." Paul Siewkii Sources: The Register, Santa Ana, California, 26 Feb '82; 0. Minor 14 April '81. Thinks to: Jerome Clark, Steve Moore, Jonathan Mullard.

SHEBA, a feminist publishing Co-op in East London, have been going for two years. Barney Bard'ey, a member of the co-op, explains what keeps them going.


HEBA feminbt publishers is now two years old. We have published twelve books, survived a blaze of adverse publicity which suitounde~ our application for a Greater London Coundl loan iq the autumn of 1981, and now look forward to a hard but exciting future as a small independent publisher of books by, for. and about women. There are four feminist presses in Great Britain: Onlyw~men,Virago, ant tee Women's Preu In London, and Stnmullion In Edinburgh. Some peopli have i i u g ~ t e dthat thew p r o m may duplicate material or claih. Not çoThere b,a wealth of women's thought!, idem& wad*, a huge amount of ffolnfat theory and amiysli, which 11 (Imply wilting to be published and read Four ¥woown' pue* I1 a dwisory niuihW, cornpared with the vut pubUihlÈaçnptrun by

mgo, after reading about one of their book* In a magazine. Since the mlleetive 11 i d and overworked, there WM ilwaya iomethlng for roe to do, and I quickly became involved, particularly In the mall order work. Since Sheba Is an Independent pub Iliher, and rtarted out with practically no capital, w depend to a great extent on women'i iupport, which they have (Iven by ordering and paying for boob In advance of publication, 'nib helped us to pay ow print bilh Initially and to keep the budneu going until returns from #hopMilcame In. It also give ui

great moral support. Women not only sent money, puttln great trust in a new venture, they also ¥enammgea of goodwill, and showed real Interest In what we-were doing. So what sort of book) do we publish Children's books Uke The Great Escape of Doreen Pott* and The Tea Woman Bicycle, which both challenge the prevalent myth in boob for children that exciting and adventurom things can n e w be done by gbb. Cartoon boob Uk* Sowoream,which ibov thai {çmlnl(tÈdolaa Irma ¥¥n of


young wooun. Sheb* putt akong emh the vteual appulof çbook ltà llhutratloni fonnat, and oow. If wonwn an to hav thek own lifntun, then It might u well look good. The thinga ç choow,to pabUih am not ahoy the molt ebvloir or the ma mmmerdal. Sheba U k M to encowge new women wrttm, and to pick gometime 'rilky'subjecti, nuch u the oppreulon of Ruulan women. Ruetioury revltww* could (and did) m this book u a wiponto denouno* tht Soviet lyitem,but a i uw which, u femlnteto concemçwith the poiltlon of women tir world over, we ihould not be staid to confront. m a t thwe are any 'no-go' are* te mnMthIng which I hop* temlnbti nfiui to accept But when Sheba applied for I Ion from the Omtor London Council, thb attitude wu nut by #troll[ Comemtlve oppodtlon. They thought that our frank took ituxuallty (rom a female point of #ow In For Ounslwi w u pornoaxphi%and that one of our poet!' n h n w to nllglon w* bluphemou*. m w word*, itoong, damaging, and Ilbjudged, hwalded a long delay In the loan being granted, and an mti-hmInlat bacUuh In the right wtag prou. In fact

tothladaywebanhidnotonepenny from the OLC (although a u m U put of the loan la now nippowd to be coming)

Nevertheleu w have turvlved, and continue to publish material which we believe I* in aid to the libention of

councillor!, may find iuch freedom of exptexlon offuulve, but that won't keep us dent. We publbh by WDMIUUI, which meuu that all of the collective ban to qrm to our choice of books. Thli am be long-winded, and painful, u we found rçc*ntlwhen agonbing over which Btorlea to Include In our anthology of ihort itorlea by new women writer*. But it b worthwhile for the discuuion of poUtld and d#!tc Inui died by the material iubmlttçto us,



what li puutahed. Since twhw book* hive found their way into Dint, and more an on the way, thif method does loem to work. Offlc*work li ateo ihuçby the eolhcttn, which malm the tehlng p r o c a~ full one, not mnely ¥p*dtl tiatloni and hieruchlçu In itandud apitalilt b u d n m . ~ h i nov doubt that there in a need !of çb* Shebl Hid other woown'i pubtwman doing. The letten from women riders pruw It. It is tbom ¥Urwhich mate a very difficult mtoxpilwworthllltheçweat Bnney Buddey for Sheba JB: W would Uk* Hid A&&*men to Joinwhit It st the manunt m ellwhim eollMtIv*. PIMM oontect the shah ifflo* If you w InfrÑnd Phon*:

11-264 1m,offie* hour&


BRIEFING CONFERENCES  Wet Midlands CND, together wlth Wen Region CND, are hotting a CND Campaign Training Sklib weekend from Sfpfmbw 3-6. Them will e k be a ceilidh, food, a bar and overnight acwmmodation. The çen Is Canon F r o m Court, Canon Frame, nr Ledbury, Hamfordshire. For further detail! telephone Dan Pieach or Pat Wilton on (0272) 613631.  ACommunity HÑH Inw conference, with 60 workshops, will take place in Sheffleld from m m b w 17-19. Topic. ndude mental health, treatnmnt of the elderly and disabled, selfhelp, woman's health, racial Issues, politla of the NUS and hmith, unemploymant and s t m . It wlll provide a china t o learn mom, sham idw and dlicun problems m l f d to community halth. Food, accommodation, cnche i d m t u t a l n r ~ ~wlll i t b* providid, and t h m wlll be practical mnione on yoga, and r e b d o n . Booking f o r m end further Information a n be obtelned from the ConferenceSecretary, Victoria Grandon, 109 Kennlnghall Mount. Norfolk Park, Sheffieid S2 3WA, td. (0742) 77870.

 A conference on Pornogmphy and VIohnc* t o Women Is being held In Oxford from Sçptnmb 26-26. The aim of the conference Is to give women the opportunity to find out what pornography is, to dbcuis all atpects of how It ¥ductour liv, and to organic local and national campelgne/ectlons t o OPOOM pornography. Many workshocr have been suggested, ranging from nxuelity end mçdlI m a g of ~ woman to direct action. The reginration cost vedw from nothing to £6depending on income. For mgiitrationlfurther dotdlls write to the Women's Contra, 4% Burlebh St, Cannbridoe. A Womn and Computing national conference to taking plece In London from October 16-17. It Is open to all women end wlll provide a framework within which woman a n discowr and dbcun the Implication* of computer technology for their live*. There will be technical workshop and wider d b c u ~ b n groups at w l w s iewls of involwmant In both computing end thà SEPTEMBER '82

women's movement, Including workihops for 'compile W i n ners'. For detaib, end m SAE t o Rosemary Wickhem, 49 Crofters Mead, Croydon,SurrevCR04HT.


The autumn Mttion of counei end wmlnan at BÑeh wood Collagm itartt in September. Some cover training for dewlop mant worken, wmeare about DEMONSTRATIONS training for co-operativw, end mme are general court*-. The f l m From SçpfmbÃ6 1 7 there is a Much for lM e Futum ones are: from London to Sizewell, in Sipfmba 11-13 How to Start protest against the propond PWR a Co-operative. there. The march hope* to bring Saplambar 24-26 Dnlgn Guide together the lssuu of peace, for Archtecti Cwperative*. nuciaor power and nuclear ~ m b a27-30 r Balc Develop-pone, end wme form of direct ment WorkT Skills. actlon is also pimned. The rout* OctobT 6 Converting MSC It approximately 60 mile, but Scheme! Into Co-operative*. individuek need not walk the October 8-10 Worker Co-ops whole way. AI participant8 a e & Trade Unlona: A Joint aked to contribute towards the Appro~h7 cost of the march (food, accorn0-r 19-20 Lml IUUW. modetion, etc), sponurshlp f o r m FÑ rango from f1 2 4 0 . ~ go to Furthar dnaib a n be obtained era available m y e x c a to your fevoucite c a m (Undwfrom BÑchwoo College, Elmte currents?). Further d f l l i era (JIM, Roundhay, Lads LS8 evaileble from tb mach omen2LQ. taI. (0632) 720206. innon (044086) 440. Tha Nunon ere running a 0 number of munei In the neer future. Those of I n t e n t to Undercurmntt reader* Include: ~ f p f m b w24-26 How to Start & Run e Small Farm. Oeubw 1-3 Edible Wild Food*. Octobw 8-10 How to Start & Run e Small Farm. ootobw 14/16-17 and Spin0 UppwttoyfaidPewC*mf ning & Natural Dyeing. intend to (top up their protet Course mtm are 430x33 for a malmt theextofolon of the USAF weekend course, E92for a nuclear b a r wlth a dernonstratlon weak's course. For more informon WinlMr 25. The march will etlon contact The Nurtons Field uÑmbi at 1lam In Bkater and Centre, Tintern, nr Chepttow, march to the M M end of Camp G w m NP6 7NX, tel. (02918) Rd, Upper Heyford. More detail* 253. of thedemonstration ere available from Stne on (0869)40321. FUN information on the history of the You may read thb in time  ampand if struggle against to go to the Roughem T r n Fair eviction kobo available from In Suffolk from Sçpt>rnb* 3-5. Sylvia on 01-690 7762 ext.5132. The fair if organlied by Gram D à ‘ t s end promima to be wry  Man ootlon Is planned at good,with e mixture of mudc Moliworth Air Bus forthe weekend of Octobw 2-3. The MM m d workshop*. The venue b the Is to demonstrf the podtiw u r n Splnney, Rougham (near Bury St Edmunds). For more details to which the propand crulw missile but could be put, turning phone (0363) 70266. the current dÑtructio end Â¥bu of the land Into cr*tivitv end 0 S M M d is holding its growth. Music, food, crtftt, a. market place, worthlp, at,wood- 3rd anti-nuclear fwtlval from Saptambar 7-12. Saverat work end kit- will, be provided, but ~ a r t i c l ~ nihouldelw la brim evona haw been orgmnlcd. On &pador 7 there will be instkmenm, food, MMfa end e public meeting at AUEW plants. Arrive at the p ~ c camp, e Hww, Furnlvil Qf which with a tent, at 1lam. More Inforwill ifrt at 7.30 Md will mation Is available from MolnInclude-ken Â¥xplelnin worth P à ‘ ~Camp, Brington, nr Huntingdon, Cambi., or by phow the cue mint the S l z w ~ l i PWR. Thin on Sçpumb 11, from (08015) 264.



batween 2-3pm, them will be a die-In at Fargate to draw attention to the hazard* of radiation in the whole nuclmr fuel cycle. Wear a white cowring. Finally on StfptMflbw 12, batween 18pm, there will bee fwtival at Wnton Park to celebrate South Yorkshlra County Councii'n opposition to the Sizewell PWR. Contact Sheffleld ANC for further details.

 The American singer Holly Ncr, mil known for her work in the American puce movement, will be touring England In September. The tour starts In London where she will be playing at Islington Town Hall, Upper St. London N1 on Saptmmba 17 and 18.The l i t e r dÈt will be for women only. The showfrts at 8pm and t l c k f eot £ (£ cleinmnts) end ere eviliible by wst from Web, 374 Grey8 Inn Rd. London WC1 EBB, or to penonel cellen i t Sisterwrite, 190 Upper St. London N1. Details of her other parformencf are also available from Web.

 In Southampton on S à § t a m 18 thore will be a Neturel Living Fmtlnl, running from 10-6.30pm. The featlvel will consbt of ttalls, workshop* end lecturn on topic. such à homeopathy, natural hwlth, selfawarenw, wwtaimlsm, astrology, tarot, the secrets of the pyramid* and martial arts. There will eiw be edbplev of local crafts. It takes place at the Richard Tsunton College, Fifiald Rd, Southampton, Hants. For more d f l b phone 10703) 561696.





Responsibility in Science (BSSRS: have produced a leaflet on the Issue, entitled Flexible Rosterins - t h e Human Cost. It basically concentrates on the problems of shiftwork, and includes studies or flexible rouering from Holland, France, Sweden and Germany. It Is awllable for 5p + large SAE from BSSRS.9 Poland St, London W1.

CAMPAIGNS A new campaigning subgroup o f BSSRS has formed recently. It is the Public Health Group and will deal with enumher of issues, including lead end acid rain poisoning, the dumping of both refuse and toxic wastes, and water pollution. The group can be contacted c/o BSSRS, 9 Poland St, London W1. The Information Centre in Bangor is an off ice set u p t o serve the needs of individuals and groups who are respondingt o the current crisis in society. They have started an alternative communications system which they hope will inform people about subjacb ranging from enti-nuclear activity to wholefoods and alternative medicine, bring together people and ideas, and publicise campaigns and events. The centre itself has office facilities, a library, noticeboard and skills index. It is open from 10-5.30 Monday t o Saturday, at Rainbows, Glenrafon Hill, Banner, Gwnedd. tel. 10248) 55821.

 One of the concrete propomls t o come out of the Green Gathering was the sotting up of a D i r e Action Nmwork t o mobilinpeople for want8 involving NVDA at peace camps and other places. A t the tart there were 26 contacts, but these people are ell mobilislng in their own areas t o add t o the list. For more details of the network and a copy of the list, (end an SAE t o Peter Cadogan, 1 Hampstead Hill Gardens, London NW1.


The Sconish anti-nuciear group SCRAM, whose library was burnt out a few months ego, have moved. They can now be found at 11 Forth Street, Edinburgh, Tel. 031-557 4284.

 Nowthat ~EE,theBulletin for Environmental Education, has become independent from the TCPA, the BEE collective are expandindcreating various sections of the magazine. From the forms they sent us, the new sections seem designed t o publicize the activities/publications/rowt of as many groups as possible. If you ere interested in appearing in BEE, w i l e for form6 to Streetwork, BEE, c/o Undercurrents, 27 Clerkenwell Close, London EC1. who's S t a w Thwn? ~ is a booklet from the Ecology Party which promotea radical lend reform in the Third World. It tells how the production of cash crops by the Third World for the Western countries cannot but lead



t o s t a h i o n of the Third World peasants, and (how how t o change the tviteffl (take back the land). The Brandt report is also heavily criticized. The A4-sizad booklet Is available for 26p +

PEACE GrawihamCommon Women's P m u Camp now haw an office which nopen between 4.30 and 6.30 every owning. Their telephone number b 01-27' 6655. They (tillneed women t o be on the office rota - if interested, phone the office number. FnnHia Against the Bomb have maintained their peace camp at Lfkmhath air bale since the end o f May, as a protest against the concentrated miiHOT1smI n Eat Anglla. So far they have bnr evicted twice, but they ere till datermtmd to stay. They (like all the peeca camps) urgently need funds end building material. I n return, they scathe campas 9 banfor otgbnMng and pertlclpating in nonvtolant action. They can be contacted at FA6 Paaca Camp, USAFIRAF Lakenheath. Brandon Rd, Suffolk, tel. (0638) 716556.



The Cantre for fitÑarc on EuropeanWomen have produced an interesting study on how organisations involving collective self-management, such as co-mratives and collective!, have helped t o create jobs end t o integrate woman into the labour market. The lint pan is about the setting up, structure and viability of co-opt, while the reminder of the report concentrates on c studies of women's co-ops in the UK, Italy and France. It is available from CREW, 22 Rue de Toulouse, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. G l à ‘ o Bookshop C o l k t i w (a voluntary workers co-op) intend t o use the basemant of their bookshop premises as a radicalmourca centre. They hopet o offer space, administrative facilities, typing, printing and meeting space t o radical groups, project! and campaigns which lack access t o such resources. Help is needed t o prepare the bannwm and co-ordinate in effective um. If i n t u i t e d , cell in or write to the GBC. 488 Great Western Road, ~ l a i o w G I 2.


Roving Cab are a new workers co-op who aim t o provide food for community events, festivals, benefits, conferences, etc. Eventually they want t o set up in aremises incorporating a cafe, performance space and workshops, to half of any profits generated ill go towards this aim the other half goes t o the group organising the event. They can be :ontacted at 30 Granville Square, London WC1, tel. 01-278 3857.


Supplement no. 9 of h The Making, the directory of m p e r a t i n projects, is currently ming produced. The directory nntains two types of project intries: non-hierarchical groups of Ior more people, or groups/ ndividuals with a traditionally tructured organisation who can e r n as information gorups. 'eople who can write about their ixperienw in a community1 ;ollectiw/co-operative are also skad t o send in articles or 1,000 w d s . I f your group wants a nention, or wants further informition, contact ITM, 44 Albion toad, Sutton. Surrey.


The train drivers' strike may be over. but the problem o f flexible fostering has not been solved. The Work Hezardsgroup of the British Society for Social



D The address of Woody looks was missing from the WW age in UC54.It is 84 Wohwly Burt. Woodside. Telford, Sabp. UNDERCURRENTS 55/56

REVIEWS CIVILISATION-AT WHAT CqST? Che Survival of Civilbation. Selected papers by John D. iameker, with annotations by 3oneld A. Weaver. $8.00 from iamaker-Weaver publishers, Box 1961, Burlingame, CA 94010. THIS collection of papem was not written toplease anyone", says John %maker In his preface. "It urn written Ă&#x192; a search for truths upon which a mace@ and successfitlworld civflisaiion 'an be based. The broad truth if that uithout radical and immediate reform civilisation will be wrecked by 1990 ~ndextinct by 1996. " It should be obvious to all Underunents readers that we cannot mntlnue to exploit out planet as we lave been doing for the last forty or Ifty yeam, and expect to get away with



iollection of papers should be common erne to even the most obtuse politician. Fhe only thing which Is hard to accept s Hamaker's assertion that we have only I few years left in which to act. Reagan ind Brezhnev will both be long dead b y , he 1990s t o they can't be expected to be bothered, but for the rest of us the

meuage is clear: we no longer here to w e the world for our children, we have to save it for oumAM*. Hamaker concentrate* on three major problems which he say are all Increasing at an accelerating rate towards immediate crises. The moat urgent of these problems Is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which causes severe weather conditions and therefore crop losses. %if creates a world that has virtually no food surplus for customers who can pay, let alone for thou who we hungry and those who are now starving to death." He predicts that we are on the verge of a new ice age;gladatlon start* when the m i n e d In the sol1 are m deoleted that they cannot lupport p h t life, and this la what ta now happening In the temperate zone8 due mainly to the everIncreulng Imbalance of the carbon cycle. The second problem Is the money crids: the inveitment bubble will bunt Bome time this decade, Hamaker uys. We ant continue making money out of nothing simply by Increasing interest rates; In reality the dollar Is fast becoming worthlegs and this will soon become very dear. The third crisis Is 1 that of over-population. The world

limply doem't have enough rwourc& to suooort all it* inhabitant* falthoudi In thincaw, the problem willklve'lt*eU "popuhtion will deerease drastically by 1990 due to famine"). The book Is most disturbing when the authors point out how much we'are already suffering. Most of us may not be starving to death yet, but we're not exactly eating well either. In the first chapter of the book, entitled "Our 100 Percent Junk Food Supply Is Destroying Us", Hamaker writes: "Virtually all of the subsoil and molt of the topsail of the world have been stripped of all but a small quantity of elements. So it if not surprising that the chemical-grown corn (of today) had substantially ten mineral content than the 1963 corn described in the USDA Handbook of the Nutrttional Contents of Food. The minemItsed corn (grown experimentally by Hamaker) wai sub8tantially higher in mineral content than the 1963 corn. Hence, as the elements have been used up in the wit, a poor food supply in 1963 has turned into a 100percentjunk food supply in 1978. " There has been a corresponding increase in d i m , medical costs, crime, alcoholism, and so on. Statistics show how American6 are slowly dying. The US Public Health Service renorta only 3,000,000 people out of the entire population can be considered healthy about 1%percent. 90 percent suffer from constipation. Over 21,000,000 suffer from "mental illness", and over 50,000,000 suffer from heart diseases. 58.6 percent of children cannot pass a minimum fitness test. Every child over the age of four has incipient or severe heart problems, over 7,000,000 children ass mentally retarded, and cancer is the number one cause of disease-related death of children. This is in a country which claims to have the highest standard of living in the world. Hamaker is least persuasive in his chapter on economics. He waxes bitter about the speculators and inheritors of wealth who "increase demand without increasingsupply and therefore inflate prices". Now, you and I know all this to be perfectly true: unions and workers asking for a decent wage don't cause inflation, stockbrokers etc. do. But try telling that to Geoffrey Howe or Ronald Reagan. If the messages in this book are






R to get across, then everyone is going to have to work together and there's no point getting people's backs up with stuff they can dismiss as 'vicious communist polemic'. Hamaker and Weaver aren't economists, anyway, they're scientists, and their facts and figures in most of the book seem to be unassailable. Hamaker says that glaciation can be halted, and famine averted, by the remineralization of the world's land mass within the next halfdecade, and by our abandonment of fossil fuels. He has conducted extensive experiments to show that remineralization does work. What the US Congress must do, he suggests, is to declare 4 worldwide state of emergency and "hammer out the facts and lead the whole world in what must be the ereatest human effort ever undertaken. If we don't reminemltse the soil, nature will and her first act will be to eliminate ulmost all of the life on Earth". This is what Congress can do:







stabilise the dollar and try to save our land mass. What can we do? Well, read this book, buy copies for all our friends and ten them to pass them on, write to our MPs, and make sure the word gets around. We can support the Ecology Party and make it our target mat they win the next General Election. It's a pretty ambitious goal, but this is no time for half-measures. It would be easy to dismiss this book as a bit of paranoid millenarianism. I hope it is, and if the British or American governments would like to refute it, I'd be very interested to see their version of tne [acts. But I suspect they know that a number of crises are on the way -they probably imagine they can fight them off with a few Cruise missiles. We must show them that they can't. We already know Mrs Thatcher's views on the environment; as she told the Scottish Tories at the height of the Falklands "crisis", the environment is "humdrum" and not at all exciting like

(TYPESETTER'S COMMENT:It's good to see someone being passionate but this reviewer has a fantastical idea of how to bring about social* change/It's not a question of how to chance Reaaan or Thatcher's mvchology.beca&e they simply spearhead a particular class interest. WHO'S trying to work with them? No way - we have to take control AWAY from them, so don't bother about writing books for them! Environment is NOT the only important issue in the 1980s - in fact our environmental problems are very much a BY-PRODUCT of other appalling problem?; not that that makes environment unimportant in itself. cheerio & love, soph at B 'n R.)

t o act as intermediaries to ease the difficulties.

Michael Clarke describes the develop ment of Festival Welfare Services and the part it was given to play as an intermediary and advisory body, taking over from the Dept. of Environment's working parties. These had produced 3 reports on different aspects of festivals and had concluded that negotiations and discussions between the authorities, local communities, festival organisers and festival goers were more positive than legislation. The book asks why festivals were not legislated for in a climate when licensing requirements were imposed for most mass activities. It concludes that the outcry of festival goers against legislation was more powerful and had more public sympathy than the demands by those in authority for more control; hence a limited and perhaps temporary victory for liberty. Penny Melloi

Let It Be The Politics of Pop Festivals. Michael Clarke. Junction Books. £5.95

THIS case study of one of the minor civil liberties victories of the 1970s is published just as a new development in the story begins. Legislation now before Parliament (the Local Government [ W c . Prov.] Bill 1982) will allow local iuthorities to require music festivals to be licensed. Clarke describes how this wee avoided during the '70s. His book is mot about festivals, except incidentally, but about the political dynamics of new forms of protest and official reaction to them. He has done considerable research nto the history of festivals, looking first it those in the late '60s and early '70s with their attendant problems which uere mainly due to lack of adequate organisation and facilities. These were lollowed by the first attempts by local ~uthorities(successful in the case of the ble of Wight Council) to introduce tringent licensing controls. The book moves on to look at the ievelopment of free festivals in the mid eventies, and the battle with the police it Windsor in 1974 which led to the Sovemment-sponsoredWatchfield Free ?estival in 1975. The negotiations wtween various Government departnents, local authorities and festival irganisers over Watchfield are described, ogether with the increasing role played ~yvoluntary organisations which tried

a war! It is up to us to persuade her and all her short-sighted cronies and admirers that the environment is the most important issue of the 1980s. It is the only important issue of the 1980s. 1 beg you to read this book now. There may be things we can do, but they're not going to wait. Edward Fento:

NOT STATE-ISTICS Norid View 1982: An Economic and Geopolitical Yearbook. Pluto 're%. £5.95 POLITICAL yearbooks are nothing iew but as the editors of World View 1982 say in their introduction: ''by using an authoritative, factual style they are able to maintain the myth of % reality divided into facts and values. Meanwhile, by what they cover as well as what they leave out, they

present the interests and priorities of the power-that-be." The book is therefore a political yearbook with a left-wing point of view which the editors hope will enable readers to understand and support the forces for 'progressive change'. This term is of course open to many interpretations. The book is divided into five sections. It begins with a chronology of 1981 news and is followed by articles both on 'strategic questions' and areas of tension and debate. Finally there are articles on the major nations and the

main regions of the world. The whole book is worth reading although it is easy to pick andchoose because of the many separate contributions in each section. Good use is made of tables to display statistics, so allowing comparisons between nations and regions. However. all the statistics come from 'authoritative' sources like the UN and World Bank. Consequently the reader can look at the life expectancy of a country, or its infant mortality or illiteracy rate. But these statistics do not say anything about the processes that create them Does the educational system require children to learn in a 'foreign' language, so contributing to the destruction of native languages and cultures? Is the educational system a reproduction of that of the former colonial power? The health statistics tell us little about the actual provision of health care. Is it concentrated in modem westemised hospitals located in the major urban areas or is there a village-based 'barefoot medics' scheme? Answers to these and many other questions would give a glimpse of the reality behind the statistics that are presented to the w d d by the UN and the World Bank. The conhibutom to Worfd View 1982 do in some cases pose sirniliar questions and give statistics where possible, but the lack of coin-



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parable data &om idler countriesmakes of limited due. I would like to see the 1983edition d u d e a section Art points out the problem associated-with wing UN. itatistics, and also a section on 'what s develooment?' Out Ihdudegthe wav theSouth leally and culturally. $d bea section


on how the life style o a N o r & h causes or contributes to the problems facing the people in Africa, &a and

Latin America. Nonetheless, World View 1982 is well worth reading if you can afford to buy it. If you don't have £5.95get your local library to buy a copy. It could open up the eyes of a few people to the reality that lies behind the images &en bv the mass media. John Drane

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k v a tafled,some, like the one on nu* weapon* athehed to the sea-

float.stetes woul Intend to do




' -

Diumimwnt: IWorld


Armaments UK> SIPR1 Yearbook 1 TÈylo and Franc!*. £22.50 A m a m m e w fcn h Control: A CrithatSunwy. Joseph GohiblaV SIPRl.Tayterand Franc is. £18.50

uranium u&&h wa&in short supply at the time. But the FBR would not (despite ito name) produce e n o w extra plutonium test enough for the needso( the military.* Thernwl-tors, although leu efficient interms of converting uranium reserves into ele~tricity~doproduce plutonium efficiently. And they do this at relatively low levels of core inadiatIonwithnatural @um fuel. So the FBR along with the helium-cooled high temperature reactor and heavy water reactor were all pwed ovez &nd we got theMAGNOX çnthentheAGR. But why b o w with electricity production at all? Well it was really only an afterthought: 90%of the -A's work w e on the bomb at this stage. But as Lord CherweU put it at the time 'power production would have a good &fct on public opinion'.


pçges,wfi&lessdAdspacethmyouS believe poolble. This allow* a compnhenaive look at militly spending, tee. ana* tad* and other topic* from


Wwtt', helped mwge the guilt



m g e n u k e b i u m . Y n bomb, laaer enrichment winhim, chemical and biologicalwarfare, the eaviioBnwatalaftermathofthe, Vietnam wars, ami other matteis induding progreat in anns control in apace andelsewhere. The material is all powerful and authoiltatlw; At the very least you should take a look f? you are mildly interested, use the book as a it yop're in deep, in yoylife to get the Yearlwaik annually. ' The Arms Race and Arms Control conMnsasmuchas@e~ * material aa incut people need, % Including a profusion of both f&and numbers. It is part of a more general campaign to get SIPRI better-known. This also included the -cent p i ~ f f release on who sells weapons tq Argentina, picked up by newspapers the worid over. There is noshortage of books saying that nuotear weapons, and weapon* in general, are a badidea. This is the bookif you want the numbers and analysts in detail instead of the rhetoric. Not surprisingly, it is easier rather than harder to read because of the deadpan SIPRI style. Lastly, Agrsemeais for Anns Control, almost 400 pgw of textçnanalysis of attempts to control weaponry. The range of material covered to vast, born the UN charter to the Hague Declaration prohibiting the discharge of projectiles and explosives from balloons, 1907. Some have been useful; some

alternative*, but equally bcauie of the indlMoluble H n b with t&e bomb. Tlltebookprovides ample evidence

FiMding the NuclÑ A r m s ~ m Sheila Dtirie and Rob Edwards*

the surface when, Inthefinal chapter, an attempt ii nude political strategy for nuclear state. But tiffin . ciathat-wewto v fiave Elliott a

Industry read this book,the antl-nudei

power movement (Èn CND might fin theawlma with more recrul W&4ter it's thehistoly o(kvil

i. ' ttomkpowerInBritainortheeiwnt

tiiteWaM6iul plutonium trade thwtfa . W d M c f i b e d , the message is clear: the two technologlet military and &if&&-1~ inseparable. ?&toy need shaped Or growth of civil nuclear power -Indeed It b unlikely to have merged without tee stimulu* of the bomb project. The first 'civilha?m&s -Odder HaU-wa~builtinthà 1950gorimarilv for producingp l ~ t 9 h ntor bombs, indthiswasreflei'todin the d e s h that iras chosen. Initially, when it came to thinking about a ciÇ reactor, the HarweU scientist favoured the Fast Bleeder (FBR),,to economite on



War Lords: CIS ~ e & r ton the UK Arms Industry Ami-Report No.@. a 9 5 . -8

new offering is devoted to the UK

war machine: its long history of favour-

able treatment by successive governmento by far the major military customer and its role È the key



if a relief to have a pamphlet about military matten that to not dominated by the fear of the able military andJogUMcgu~orkthat makes up the present balance of terror. There are *eve@ se&@m, each dealing with o w aspectof a complex picture - military electronics, aerospace, chemical warfare, aims spending, and jobs, the cold war and the military budget. The layout is sometimes more UNDERCURRENTS 55/51

R ei[citing than the text, with photos hose captions hint at stories quite fferent from the ones told. The tides are written by investigative urnalists and tend to be about dividual~and events as much as about ilicy and preparation for war. There ¥ stories about Arnold Weinstock of EC, and James Biyth of the Defence lies Organisation (formerly responsible >r'rationaliion' at Lucas Aerospace a fact that goes unmentioned); as ell as about mole public figures past id present at the Ministry of Defence id Downing Street. The common theme of much of the unphlet is that the warlords (if that is hat we are to call them) have failed ren in their own terms - failedto reduce the goods of file quality and ate time and price specified; failed to wide the employment associated ith high defence spending, and on hich the government's current !onomic strategy relies; failed to cplain and justify publicly what they e doing; failed in fact at all levels wept the generation of profit for the vestors and deadlier and mole 'ficient toys for the armed forces. All tis is justified - if at all - by the quirements of military security and







governments did not feel able to challenge. It is a pattern that becomes famijiar through the report. Despite the pamphlet's strengths, particularly in discussing the economics of the military industry, the report is far from complete. There is little about the UK arms trade, and nothing at all about the Lucas Corporate Plan. Aerospace and Electronics are covered, but not small arms or the heavy industrj of h k s and shipbuilding. This may be due partly t o lack of space - after all the defence of the realm. t h i s a n anti-report on not one but Perhaps the most poignant example dozens of companies, large and small is the history of the UK'S 'Independent and partly to avoiding themes that have Nuclear Deterrent'. A series of secret already been explored in print. Cabinet decisions and misleading public Mote worrying, and perhaps more pronouncements barely keep pace with surprising is the lack of a coherent a seemingly unstoppable industrial alternative to the present system. The research programme that takes us f& nature of the industry is questioned, Blue Steel and Blue Streak in the 1950s, but not its right to exist: the tragedy through Polaris to Chevaline (formerly of war is touched only in photographs Antelope) and ultimately to Trident and passing references. This is investiand Cruise. Confidential top level gative journalispi, rather than political decisions were b l e d on unreliable statement, and It is more successful in estimates of cost, performance and raising new questions than in proposing delivery date, as well as speculation on answers for old ones. With all these Warsaw Pact capability. This led to limitations, then is sufficient that is overruns and confudon, papered over new t a d thought provoking here to by talk of 'defensive requirements' and make it a reasonable buy at 95p. ' n a * ~ securityi thç successive Paul Seed


Pluto4h Press En; The 2,4,5-T Story 2,4,5T Is a common woodklibr in Britainwhich may be eadb bouaht overtho counter. It was a wanon of war In ~ietnam, and the cause of an ecological and human diÑÑtfaftw Â¥xpkmioIn Sevaa6, Italy. in Britain, 2.4.51 haa b à ‘ barnod bv mom than dahtv local abthorttle*,but It*uw isstii legal. Judith Cookand Chris Kaufmantell the story of the deadly weedkiller and of the campaign to banit. They describe the way the polson work*, whit happens to It*victims, how tho National Union of Agricultural Worker* hiartad the public, and how the go6rnmant has avoided t a k i i action. * The author* have both won public recognition fortheir work on exposing the hazards of 2,4,5-1.


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Songs from the Stars Norman Spinrad. Arrow. £1.60

AT A TIME when both fashion and the state authorise predictions only of cataclysm and sudden death, we feel grateful for stories that dare to envisage utopian futures in which spiritual wisdom and funky eco-sense will prevail over militarism and materialism. It would be negative not to. Here's one. Spinpd offers us an Earth where the prevailing forces blow everything up very soon now and, centuries later, the only human survivors will be on the West Coast of America, renamed Aquaria. Their culture seems wistfully antiquated even for California: they rap about their karma and headspace, smoke quantities of 'reef, and boogie everywhere. The exploitative systems and technologies that caused 'the Smash' are stringently prohibited as 'black science'; their primary ethic is the 'white way' of muscle, sun, wind and water, the only principles by which anything may be done. Like most tribal states Aquaria is an authoritarian regime of old men and Masters, but since the law is love, the old men wise and the Masters Perfect, perhaps we won't mind. However, east of Aquaria, beyond the mountains, is a redoubt of black scientists with plans to revive high technology that involve the young and virile Perfect Master Clear Blue Lou and his lover Sunshine Sue. Though compromised, they keep their heads and prove









" " " "hstand the seduction of the science power-trip, and eventually bring it into harmony with the wavelengths of cosmic destiny. Wow. What more could we ask? Songs from the Stars vindicates the counter-culture and promises it power well beyond this temporary phase of technocracy; but the particular alternative society it endorses is the old sixties prototype, in which (we

thought) no effort was needed for survival, organisation and achievement, and a smile was the key t o perfection. Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth, a t least the ones in Mendocino shall. This kind of retrospection must make us suspicious. The other warning signal is in Spinrad's style, which is ugly. Even





~lternativeMedicine A Guide to Natural Therapies Andrew Stanway. Pelican. £2.9 THIS book is a basic what's what guide to the fringe medicine world,written by a doctor turned medical writer/ journalist. As far the descriptions of the various therapies go, it is competent, if somewhat brief. However it wasn't long before I began to wonder just where the writer placed his sympathies, particularly in the rather glib introduction: 'It's not the multinationals' fault that they're immensely rich from the proceeds of expensive and often unneeded and sometimes dangerous drugs' ... However I persevered. The content

was all very readable -interesting examples, high rates of success in treatments etc. Then I came across biofeedback! . . . a technique where the patient learns to control his body through monitoring his responses on an EEG or similar machine. If he (she doesn't seem to enter the text very often) masters control, he's rewarded with 5 second flashes of a playboy pin-up! Oh well . . . most scientists are male I suppose . . . This was soon followed by the piece de resistance in the chapter called 'Healing'. So far there had been fairly liberal referrals to 'holistic' medicine dotted throughout the book. Therefore I was somewhat amazed t o read of the demonstration of healing techniques. Fifty mice were subjected t o 'experimentally' induced wounds on their

discountjmg the Seventies jargon of 'scenarios' and 'interfaces' which he mixes with the 'vibes' and 'mindfucks' of Aquarian dialogue, Spinrad's own narration babbles and bleats.(%ou eyed her narrowly, with a sardonic uneasy awe not entirely untinged with a certain sincerity.') It is the sound of an author writing on automatic, the voice of the hack novelist - and this is not trivial. because hack fiction is commercial, written t o a formula, and therefore conventional, conservative, and a shaky vehicle for any radical message. Songs from the Stars has all the characteristics: the tiny cast of stereotypes, the erasure of all imaginative or naturalistic detail that might impede the action, the plot that moves fast, to avoid its own implications. It is not hypercritical t o complain that Perfect Master Clear Blue Lou continually misuses the term 'karma', nor that Sue, in sexual1y;liberated Aquaria, still expects 'masculine chivalry' and is 'irked' when her 'obvious charms' are ignored. (And where are the female Perfect Masters?) If these things are superficial to Spinrad, then he is no radical. Instead of examining the dangers and abuses of scientific thought, it equates science itself with a mentality of unimaginative greed. The only scientist we really meet is cold, manipulative, bigoted and hysterical - a crude caricature target for the old hippy anti-intellectualism. Prejudices will not build a new world. Songs from the Stars comes on as a vision of enlightenment and endeavour, but is actually narrowminded and lazy: we don't need it. Colin Greenland

backs, in order t o study the effects of 'treatment' from a professional healer. Holistic health?. .. Am I just being naive t o think that 'alternatives' in medicine ought to be about relieving suffering of all living beings? The main benefits I can see in alternative medicine is that knowledge can be brought back into the control of the consumer. It's not enough just to change the witch doctor science into the mystic shaman and just hope (or pray?) that they have your interests at heart. Exercise, healthy food and loving relationships can go a long way t o curing many mental and physical disorders. As for the rest, this book can point out some alternatives but then so can your local wholefood shop. One thing worth noting is that Homoeopathy is the only therapy available under the NHS. Tam Dougan











necessary for progress in this direction. regional marine pollution andelletion And a major shortcoming in a work of the ozone lay-dso rightly draw implicitly attacking global inequalities hope from the awakening of concern (by the use of the term 'Underclass' if worldwide, and quotes examples of nothing else) is a failure to look at the governments adopting environmental overcfass. We are toldthat the avenge policies. But is the concern ebbing? American uses as much timber for his How does the world recession affect paper requirements as a third world environment and poverty? What about Down to Earth. inhabitant for firewood, but no conReagan's and Thatcher's hostility to Erik Eckholm. sequences flow from this. Who an the environmental concerns? These issues Pluto Press. £3.95 overclass? What changes are necessary are ignored. FOR anyone wishing to give a compre- in trading patterns and power over the The mood has changed since 1972. henslve talk on the global environment, world's resources? Then there was hope. even euphoria, The book is also a review of the here is the book. 1n-a mere 209 pages and this was reflected in the publicatiom the range of issues covered is vast developments in the last ten years, of the time. Ten years on, as reflected acid rain, spreading deserts, population, since the Stockholm Conference. The in Down to Earth, the problems seem species loss etc. And for anyone wanting author draws hope - perhaps too much more intractable, the inspiration has a quick introduction to any or all of the from the establishment of UN bodies dissipated. But there is more realism, topics covered, this book is as clear and to tackle environmental issues, such as and, what gives the greatest cause for comprehensive as any available. optimism, a realition of the human But Down to Earth purports to be and social factors in environmental more than this. And one would expect more than a catalogue, however duable, from a work commissioned by the UN Environment Programme, md authored by Erik Eckholm. The book is subtitled Environment and Human Needs and the emphasis throughout is on the human causes md conseauences of environmental destructioi. The author repeats again md again the link between poverty 1 ind degradation; poverty is indeed the umber one environmental problem, forcing people to live in their own ixcrement, t o overgraze pastureland, to iestroy forests, to have large families !tc. The "Global Underclass' (see UC54), ;o whom a whole chapter is devoted, ive on the economic and ecological nargins, at the mercy of environmental In matters of environmental toxlieterioration and economic forces. To cology, absolute proof of a chemical's ;hem the market economy offers no guilt is rarely obtained. Cook and iolutions, as they cannot afford substiKaufman admit that There are no iutes when the resources they depend Portrait of a Poison. probable cases in this country of in become scarce and expensive. Judith Cook and Chris Kaufman. cancers, miscarriages or birth deformExamples abound showing the ities directly attributable to 2,4,5-T! effects of ecological degradation on the Pluto Press. £2.95 poorest, whose soil washes away, whose ALTHOUGH banned for most purposes But the catalogue of circumstantial evidence suggesting that thesubstance in the USA, 2,4,5-T is still on sale to catches of fish decline, or who live in does, indeed, cause these effects is the thick of the pollution without gardeners in Britain and is used widely compelling. Controversy still remains by foresters and fanners to control deriving any benefit from its causes. It as to whether it is 2,4,5-T which causes woody weeds. Cook and Kaufman is always the poor or the poor nations the problem or its contaminant dioxin, discuss both the science of the 2,4,5-T that suffer: the Congo (sic) earns 115 but this is a red herring since dioxin is issue and the somewhat dubious times less from its commercial forestry always present in the herbicide albeit politics behind the Government's reserves than Finland, though their at very low levels. continued approval of the chemical's reserves are of equal size; in Brazil the The 2,4,5-T affair has raised another sale. number of traffic deaths is ten times question mark over the whole process Criticisms are levelled at the official that of the US per vehicle. of pesticide regulation in Britain. Trade Pesticides Advisory Committee, who Eckholm argues convincingly that unions and environmentalists haw long a have consistently given the substance progress in the improvement of the argued for changes and this book sets clean bill of health but the ultimate environment must go hand in hand out a strong case for reform. Anyone decision to allow the continued use of with a reduction of poverty and with looking for a clear and concise guide to 2,4,5-T is a political one. The book social progress. The argument catalogues the obduracy of the Ministry the problem of 2,4,5-T, and a snapshot unfortunately becomes woolly at this of Agriculture in this affair, exemplified of the deficiencies in British agropoint: land reform is needed, but not by the misleading statistics given by the chemicals control, is strongly advised to defined; people must have more say in read Portrait of a Poison. Government on the amounts of their own lives. The book fails to show Brian Price 2,4,5-T used in Britain. the political and social changes




and nuclear extinction. Reviawera who era printed in Undercurrents and other journals for young people get free copies of 'BALANCE THE BALL' from Balance, P-0. Box 9121, S-10272 Stockholm, Sweden.

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C O W forming to run existing THE NURTONS- a beautiful crafts end bookshop In North London..Tor2 environmentallst holiday cantre, approx 2% hours drive from London, fwds you /libertarian new members needed. Plaaw apply to 83 Blackstock' very well on home-grownvegRd, London N4. etarian wholefood meals -and rum a v e r i t y of informal holiday WOMAN (26) needs somewhere to counec Walking Offa's Dyke, iive in Gioucestar from September How to atart end run a smell for oneyear, preferably in m m farm (with Patrick Rivers M unity/collective..Low rent in extutor), Edible Wildfoods, ~ ~ Skills in Garden change for work.. spinning, painting, birdwatching ing, vegetarian cooking, knitting, end wmrk studin. A atamp patchwork, teaching. Intaresled In Is appreciated for details end dates alternative medicine end teaching. The Nunoni, Tintern, Gwent, Writa to: Betty Henderson, 238 NP6 7NA or tel029 18 263. Main St, Eut,-CçldmrWet Lothian STUDY the ffiienceend practice DORSET rural reaettlament initieof Onan,c Crop For tive In mrly ttagu of formation Of *r-Ondenm is looking for members,. m e intend ention is to start s m i i but work WJ'-pt uc' lo Hamilton toward employment end housing Aiford, L h o l n m a L N l 3 SHD. for vlllagecommuni~ wi* common ownarmhip of land end sHELTER/COMMUNITY buildinr.'. Employment mutt MARKET Gardening Co-op be both agricultural and small coming together in Cardiff. The proIf internted or doing something ~ectnwda P-PI~ with dedication, contact: Mick, Winds skills end some capital, who em Esplanade, Cardiff Docks. prepared to forego much. John MEETING andlor Holiday Comben, 3 Greviiie Road, Lonfaciiitlas for groups in rural don, NW6..




COVENTRY Builders Co-operative, a self-managed collective, requires new workers. Building experience essential. For further details write 15 Westminster Rd, Coventry CV1 3GA. or phone (0203) 22023. GRADUATE of Maths and Aerodynamics seeks work from October, preferably in Wind Power, but anything considered. Will go anywhere. Minimal wages OK i f training or experience given. For CV contact F.Siridair, Aero P.G., Imperial College, London SW7. VOLUNTEERS needed t o spend 6 months sharing agricultural work and living skills with homeless young men and women in our therapeutic organic farm cornmunity. Board and lodging, £1 pocket money and 2 free days p.w, holidays, leaving grant. Edinbur* Cyrenians. For further details contact: Joe Moore, Cyrenian Farm, 12 Humbie Holdings, KIRKNEWTON, West Lothian. Tel. 031-333 1392. FULL OR part-time members needed for thriving wholefood co-operative. We have a shop and market stall. Apply in writing: Louth Wholefood Co-op Ltd, 12a Mercer Row, Louth, Lincolnshire.

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You will be concerned that scientists torture todeath thousands of animalsevery day in British laboratories. You will be concernedabout the annual slaughterof baby seals InCanada . You will beconcernedthat wild animalsare still bang tom to pieces bv hounds. YOU will be concernedthat innocentanimals are suffering in factory farm systems. Exploited animals need more than sympathy your concern Is not enough.


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DUE TO SOME strange oversight or printer's error, I haven't made it into this year's WHO'S WHO. Someone who has however, is the new man in the hotseat at the Central ElectricityGenerating Board, WALTER MARSHALL. His hobby, apparently, is the ancient Japanese art of origami. It Is true that the CEGB are happy to literature from anti-nudear activists but don't thin& gets read.$is Waltor turns it all Into pretty paper boltsand darts w h i i @.chucks around the office. The UK Atomic E ~ , ~ A u t h o r i (MÈrthçll ty old hunting around) aren't so irretponiibte. One CampbaU Gray h i d the job of reading UndemnwR. Iaskedhim what it was like. I t w a s the worst job Iever had. ' Don't be put off if you see a V-sign stuck in the window of your favourite restaurant It's not a Harvey Smith style gmtwre to tell riff-raff like you to take your custom elsewhere, i f s from the Vegetarian Society to indicate that you don't have to eat dead animals there. The winner of the first Loony Doomster poetry comoetition i s reader KEITH MOTHERSON. He will be voting SDP because This country needs decentralisation and a Strong Europe', because DAVID OWEN tiaia firm chin', 'bcaum the yobs have taken over the Labour Party' and 'because MICHAEL YOUNG is at the centre of things isn't he?'Sounds orettv convincina. Keith Meanwhile the world's most prolific totter writer, NICK ALBERY, held a workshop on "How to Stop the Bomb', a t the Green Gathering. Some of the suggestions: Change Guy Fawkes Day to Holocaust Day with suitable displays; Send hoax government leaflets asking every family to nominate one person for a piace in a bunker; Join the Young Conservatives and qnvats people as to why nuclear. war isn't so bad really; outrageously btimpish letters to newspapers; put the buttonto start a nudaar war in





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%' I

ff 1 I I

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first. Some of the.suggestions were positivel{sensible like starHng a pace bank and an ¥Mt-Wespinpal Meme (I will be exchanging informationwith the notorious gossipcolumnist of the OMSK HERALD). I f you want the full Ustof ideassendme ansae. The strangest invite I've received is to Fortnum and Masons on September 8. To calibrate 275 years of providi&imple fare for the ma&$, th#well-known wholefood end vegetarian co-op have asked me to lead a "Stuffing your face therapy Workshop'. Iexpect t o see many Undercurrents readers there LOONY DOOMSTER



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- . .

Undercurrents 55/56 September 1982 3 Letters 5 Eddies - News update 11 Beast News - John May 12 NATTA News - Simon Mays 13 Editorial 14 On Yer Electric Bike - Alexei Clarke 16 Acid Rain Forecast - John May 17 Greenwork - John Tyler 19 Forests Axed - Sally Edwards 21 The Trouble With Zoos - Jonathan Barzdo 24 Deadly Dioxin - Judith Cook 27 The North Sea Waste Dump - Brian Price 29 Women and the Future - Petra Kelly 32 Sizing Up Sizewell - Dave Elliott 34 Needles and Pins - Colin Lang 35 Weird Stuff - Paul Sieveking 36 Sweet Words and Sour Cream - Barney Bardsley 37 Briefing 39 Reviews 46 Classified Ads 48 Subscriptions & Froth - Loony Doomster goes ape _________________________________________________________________________

Access’ll do nicely THIS IS our first issue incorporating the late great Beast magazine. From now on at least one major feature an issue will be devoted to questions of “animal rights’ - This is undoubtedly an area of increasing concern to the environ­ mental movement. We hope to continue the high standard of articles in the old Beast. John May, who edited it, will be keeping up with the latest developments. You’ve probably noticed the price of this issue is 75p. The increase has been forced on us by the usual story of rising prices and mounting losses. As the price of Undercurrents actually went down last year - it means we still cost only 5p more than we did two years ago (and are still cheaper than many of our fellow publications). Furthermore, this is a bumper, double issue, with more pages than usual. The main reason for this is that having gone from 6 to 10 issues a year, we’re in the middle of a subscription gap where no-one is renewing subs. To get through it quicker we’ve had to combine issues 55/56. However, we’ll be back to a monthly schedule from now on (with a gap in January). In our efforts to put the mag on a sounder financial footing we’re offering new subscribers a choice of free books (see back cover), obtained at a generous discount from their publishers. Please take advantage of this amazing offer - if more people subscribe, we’ll be able to have more pages, be better designed, fund investigative pieces, and even pay a small amount to our at present unpaid staff. To be fair to old subscribers, you can extend your sub for a year and be eligible for a free book, for a limited period - until the end of September only. So persuade your friends, cats, dogs and goldfish to subscribe . . . It might be appropriate at this moment to mention that we are an “open access” magazine - so send in information and ideas, and come along to our editorial meetings on Wednesdays at 7.00 in the office in Clerkenwell. We’re especially looking for people who might sell advertising (for money!) and with sub-editing and production experience. But anyone interested in Undercurrents is welcome. _________________________________________________________________________

UC55/56 September 1982