News and Perspectives for Friends of the Arts
4 A RT S
James Phillips: Music Into Color and Light
P R O G R A M
Paul Reed: Washington Color School Painter
U N I V E R S IT Y
M A RYL A N D
Third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition
U N I V E R S IT Y
C O L L E G E
GREETINGS From the President Dear Art Patrons, On behalf of University of Maryland University College (UMUC) and the more than 80,000 students we serve annually, I want to thank you for your continued support of the arts at UMUC. Those of you who are familiar with UMUC know that we are focused on teaching and learning and on bringing education within reach for everyone in Maryland and around the world. And like all those who truly embrace that mission, we accept a challenging role as custodians of history, of learning, and perhaps even of truth. Education, like art, can bring us face to face with aspects of our shared experience. The Arts Program at UMUC has certainly done this with its exhibitions, including the current Horrors of War. This exhibition, featuring the works of Joseph Sheppard, draws on Sheppardâ€™s considerable skill and artistic imagination to memorialize lives cut short, dreams destroyed, and treasures of culture and community forever lost as a result of the uniquely human institution of war. Another exhibition curated by the Arts Program, the Third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition, brought together the works of 60 regional artists to showcase their artistic talents and experiences. The educational mission of the Arts Program supports the overall mission of the university, thus serving the community in which we live. For this, I thank you and ask that you continue to support the Arts Program with your time, finances, and ideas. Thank you,
Javier Miyares, President University of Maryland University College
From the Chair Dear Patrons,
UMUC ARTS PROGRAM
MISSION STATEMENT With a regional and national focus, the Arts Program is dedicated to the acquisition, preservation, study, exhibition, and interpretation of works of art of the highest quality in a variety of media that represent its constituents and to continuing its historic dedication to Maryland and Asian art.
The Arts Program continues to grow and provide educational exhibitions to UMUC students and staff and the general public. Much of our success is due to your contributions of time, finances, and visits to the Arts Program galleries. It is because of you that we are fulfilling our mission as an educational arts organization in Maryland. Most recently, the Arts Program embarked on a journey to raise $25,000 to match a grant from the Wolfpoff Family Foundation. I am glad to report that your financial support made it possible for us to reach that goal. On behalf of the entire Art Advisory Board and UMUCâ€™s staff, students, and visitors, I thank you! Your donations will help us continue to provide the kinds of art services that many of you have come to enjoy from the Arts Program at UMUC, including exciting art exhibitions for the enlightenment of all. I would also like to thank the Arts Program staff and my fellow board members for all that they do to advance the mission of the Arts Program, as well as the Wolpoff Family Foundation, the Maryland State Arts Council, the Carpenter Foundation, and the many individual donors who have supported the program. I look forward to your continued support of our artistic efforts to make this area of Maryland a better place to live and work and a destination to visit. Thank you!
Anne V. Maher, Esq., Chair, Art Advisory Board University of Maryland University College
Paul Reed: Washington Color School
Painter Who Shaped the Field
James Phillips: Incantations
and the Transmutation of Music Into Color and Light
ON THE COVER
Third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition
In Every Issue James Phillips UMUC is currently displaying an exhibition of James Phillips’s work. Find out more about the artist on p. 4.
GREETINGS FROM THE PRESIDENT AND THE CHAIR 2 COLLECTION SPOTLIGHT 3 DID YOU KNOW? 22 NEWS AND EVENTS 24 BECOME A FRIEND OF THE ARTS AT UMUC
James Phillips, Upbeat (detail) Jitterbug Waltz series, 2012 acrylic on paper
CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: Water Spirits Revisited by James Phillips;
Untitled #15 (diptych) by Washington Color School painter Paul Reed; BMRE reception attendees view John Grunwell’s artwork Entelechy 22.
EDWARD ROSENFELD / BY JON WEST-BEY SPRING 2017 Managing Editor Eric Key Editors Sandy Bernstein Beth Butler Barbara Reed Director, Institutional Marketing Cynthia Friedman Graphic Designer Jennifer Norris Project Manager Laurie Bushkoff Arts Program Staff Tawanna Manago Rene Sanjines Jon West-Bey UMUC Art Advisory Board Javier Miyares, UMUC President Anne V. Maher, Esq., Chair Eva J. Allen, PhD, Honorary Member Myrtis Bedolla, Vice Chair Joan Bevelaqua Schroeder Cherry, EdD I-Ling Chow, Honorary Member Nina C. Dwyer Karin Goldstein, Honorary Member Juanita Boyd Hardy, Honorary Member Sharon Smith Holston, Honorary Member Pamela G. Holt Eric Key Thomas Li, Honorary Member David Maril, Honorary Member Terrie S. Rouse Christopher Shields Barbara Stephanic, PhD, Honorary Member Dianne A. Whitfield-Locke, DDS Sharon Wolpoff Elizabeth Zoltan, PhD
The Arts Program recently received a donation of two artworks by Baltimore, Maryland, painter Edward Rosenfeld from Martha Reese and her son Timothy Reese of Reston, Virginia. According to Martha Reese, the two pieces were given to her after she purchased another piece of artwork at a craft show in the early 1990s.
Rosenfeld, a native of Baltimore, was born in 1906 and died in 1983. He was a graduate
of the Maryland Institute College of Art and is known mostly for painting harbors, figures, and flowers, as well as cityscapes and landscapes. He studied with Waldo Peirce and other wellknown artists of his time. Rosenfeld was known as the “Mayor of Tyson Street” for his work in
University of Maryland University College is a constituent institution of the University System of Maryland. Art@UMUC is published twice a year by UMUC’s Art Advisory Board. Please send comments to firstname.lastname@example.org or mail to Magazine Editor Arts Program University of Maryland University College 3501 University Boulevard East Adelphi, MD 20783-8007 Phone 301-985-7937 • Fax 301-985-7865
helping revitalize his neighborhood as a hub for Baltimore artists.
Rosenfeld’s paintings were exhibited at the Baltimore Museum of Art in 1960. His papers
are housed at the Jewish Museum of Maryland, and two of his works are in the Smithsonian Museum of American Art. UMUC has eight other works by Rosenfeld, obtained between 1982 and 1992, in its collection.
ABOVE: Edward Rosenfeld, Untitled Still Life, 1967, oil on masonite, UMUC Permanent Collection,
Maryland Artist Collection, Gift of Martha and Timothy Reese
2 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS: Cover: John Woo; Inside cover:
Katherine Lambert, Tracey Brown; p. 1 clockwise from top left: John Woo, John Woo, Tracey Brown, John Woo; pp. 2–5 John Woo; p. 6 left to right: John Woo, courtesy of Buda Musique; pp. 7–9 John Woo; p. 10 courtesy of Wadsworth Jarrell; pp. 11–19 John Woo; p. 20 clockwise from top left: John Woo, John Woo, Tracey Brown; p. 21 clockwise from top right: courtesy of Mike McConnell, courtesy of Jun Lee, John Woo; p. 22 clockwise from top right: John Woo, John Woo, Tracey Brown, Tracey Brown, Tracey Brown; p. 23 top to bottom: Jon West-Bey, John Woo, John Woo, courtesy of Mike McConnell
DID YOU KNOW? LITTLE-KNOWN FACTS ABOUT ARTISTS AND ARTWORKS IN THE UMUC PERMANENT COLLECTION
By Eric Key
Did you know . . . the late Ralph Baney served as
March Avery is the daughter of
Al Burts worked as a police
visual artist EJ Montgomery
an art officer in the Ministry of
well-known artists Milton Avery and
officer for the Center for Advanced
worked at the U.S. State
Education and Culture for Trinidad
Sally Michel Avery and is mainly
Study in the Visual Arts at the
Department, where she
and Tobago before earning his
National Gallery of Art and served
coordinated visual art
as a sergeant in the Gulf War?
exhibitions for American
MFA and PhD from University of Maryland, College Park?
embassies around the world?
ARTWORK DETAILS ABOVE (left to right): Ralph Baney, Three Piece Form, 1971, maple,
UMUC Permanent Collection, Doris Patz Collection of Maryland Artists; March Avery, Paris Park II, 1995, watercolor on paper, UMUC Permanent Collection, International Collection; Al Burts, Dignity, 2008, ballpoint pen on board, UMUC Permanent Collection, Maryland Artist Collection; EJ Montgomery, Caribbean Dreams, 2001, mixed media, UMUC Permanent Collection, Maryland Artist Collection
4 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
INCANTATIONS AND THE TRANSMUTATION OF MUSIC INTO COLOR AND LIGHT By Michael D. Harris, PhD
DECIPHERING JAMES PHILLIPS’S WORK to find the
There are also consistent symbolic references to African
elements that fill it reveals layers of significance and virtuosity.
cultural expressions or ideas in Phillips’s work. Phillips was an
Always there is music transformed or transfigured into color and
early innovator in the use of African iconography in painting.
light. Composer and musician T. J. Anderson says, “All black
Many African American artists, perhaps inspired by Alain Locke’s
music is based upon black speech. That’s why the preacher is
1925 challenge for artists to look to their ancestral heritage,2
so important. All of it comes from the church and the bars and all
had reinterpreted mask-like images, not going much beyond
of that, so it is environmental. This is an extension of who we are
the stylistic reconfigurations of the early European modernists
as a people.”1 The voicing and tonalities of music—black music
such as Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, or Henry Moore.
especially—are linked to speech, just as the multiple tonalities
Phillips says, “The African references are in my work because
of the West African Yoruba language translate subtly into the
that is the direct source, that’s the foundation where all of my
phrasings of the talking drum.
images come from.”3
ABOVE: Reincarnation of DC, 2005, acrylic on paper, 29 x 29 inches LEFT: Down Beat, Jitterbug Waltz series, 2012, acrylic on paper, 31 x 22 inches
Phillips’s quiet demeanor hides an incessant curiosity.
He is familiar with Ethiopian jazz horn player Gétatchèw
It’s not so much the color. It’s the value of the color.
Mèkurya as well as with obscure recordings of Eric Dolphy,
Sixty-four colors, possibilities. But then when you start
John Coltrane playing with Thelonious Monk, the free jazz of
breaking them down into various values, you can expand
Don Cherry and Ornette Coleman, Miles Davis playing in
on that. It’s the same thing with the eight-note [or] twelve-
Sweden, and many others. Additionally, Phillips studies Egyp-
note scale system. It’s just a matter of tripling, quadrupling.
tian symbols and iconography and African symbols and masks
I guess the most primary element to all of that would be
from many diverse cultures, and he employs them with full
African drummers. ’Cause they always come back to that
awareness of their original meanings, which he translates into
one beat. I don’t care how far they expand the rhythm . . .
his own creative statements.
Color is one of the elements of his alchemy. He explains:
still they come back on that same beat. And that’s the glue
Phillips doesn’t paint the cliché of highly colored horn
that holds the composition together.
players in some version of impassioned performance. Such imagery actually is less about music than the emotions of spec-
tators at musical events. It interprets the emotional memory of
for reading his work. Since his early work in the Weusi Artist
the experience as a spectator or as an appreciation of a par-
Collective in New York during the late 1960s through his entry
ticular musician but never captures the complex artistry inside
into AfriCOBRA in the mid-1970s, Phillips has animated his
the players—their codes, creative conversations, and improvisa-
work with color and rhythm. The figure, when present, has
tions—and the intricacies of the formal innovations of what we
been abstract and symbolic, often derived and interpreted
call jazz. Phillips transforms the aural into the visual to layer
from graphic traditions of Egypt, West Africa, and Haiti. Vivid
a symbiotic possibility.
colors in combinations and relationships intimating complex jazz
In this explanation, Phillips begins to give us a decoder
chords organized in rhythmic asymmetry have dominated his compositions for the past 50 years.
When AfriCOBRA formed in Chicago in 1968, the group
developed an aesthetic that implied a devotion to the figure with the concept of “awesome imagery.” Phillips contributed significantly to the growth of a more abstract AfriCOBRA imagery in the 1970s. Wadsworth Jarrell, a cofounder of AfriCOBRA, credits Phillips with the “biggest shift” in the group aesthetic.4
With his Nummo series, Phillips tapped into the creation
mythology of the Dogon people of Mali, using imagery bursting with energy and suggestions of primordial, spiritual beings. The
Water Spirits II, 1983, acrylic on canvas, 31 x 24 inches On loan from Adger Cowans
6 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
ABOVE: CD cover for Ethiopiques 14 featuring Gétatchèw Mèkurya LEFT: Water Spirits, 2008, acrylic on paper, 40 x 32 inches
UMUC Arts Program, Maryland Artist Collection
“SOUND IS SOUND. I WORK WITH THE VISUAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SOUND. THE VISUAL COMPONENT TO THAT WOULD BE LIGHT.” —James Phillips
developed an elaborate systemization of their concepts regarding the process of speech and the physical world. They see the physical being or object as the final stage of speech.5 In a related sense, we have heard horn players described as using vocalizations and horn play approximated as scat singing. In Dogon mythology, the Nummo are associated with moisture, which is the life force of the earth, and the word or speech. Divine speech is dynamic and expressive of creative intent. Rituals, signs, and signifiers are used to express an underlying, cosmological discourse through expressive culture. As Geneviève Calame-Griaule writes, “Among the Dogon, symbolic thinking . . . is an integral part of culture. Individuals learn from childhood to view the world through symbolic eyes so as to decipher its message.”6
For the Dogon, levels of knowledge are described in terms
of speech and the word. The first is giri so, or “fore-word.” This is the first layer of explanation, in which mythical personages “are often disguised, their adventures simplified or fantasized,” and it deals with visible things and deeds. The second layer Nummo #6, 1976, acrylic on canvas, 96 x 48 inches On loan from Howard University
is benne so, or “side-word,” which adds deeper explanation of certain rituals and representations. Next is bolo so, or “back-word,” which completes the preceding knowledge and
Nummo were primordial twin figures who were a part of the
“furnishes syntheses applicable to greater parts of the whole on
seeding of the physical, earthly world at creation. These beings
the other hand.” The last stage is the so dayi, or “clear-word,”
are represented symbolically at the top of the kanaga mask so
which presents the very secret parts of the knowledge in its
strongly associated with Dogon masquerade rituals.
The eight-foot paintings Phillips completed in the 1970s
Dogon culture accepts that appreciation of the complex,
were filled with anthropomorphic shapes filled with zigzag
days-long masquerade known as the dama is gradually gained
patterns and bright colors. If one steps back from the paintings,
by those moving through the initiation process and acquiring
it is possible to see large, unearthly figures exuding rhythmic
knowledge. It is performed for all and, like Phillips’s work, there
energy as if their presence was an explosion of electricity and
are colors at the outer word (giri so) level of entertainment. But
primordial fire. The geometric face with red triangular eyes near
the abstract structures of the performance emerge with signifi-
the top of Nummo #6 is more energy bursts than recognizable
cance through each stage of understanding.
human figure. It seems to have a crown of lightning. Phillips has
diverged from earlier Egyptian conventions of depicting deities
value but filled with sharper shapes. The darker, heavier colors
and has used imagery to convey the concept of the figure. He
of earlier works have given way to lighter blues and reds and
seemingly has reinterpreted John Coltrane’s use of multiple sax-
more complex layering and organized forms. The Nummo figure
ophones and drums and layers of sound in his late recordings in
seems to be behind an explosive electrical storm. Phillips’s
an effort to suggest an energetic spiritual being or process.
aesthetic was moving toward the grid organization of the rect-
The Dogon people see material reality as aduno so, the
“word of the world” (or the world as Word), and they have
Phillips’s 1977 version of the Nummo series is lighter in
angular frame but also showing foundations for his early 1980s works based on circular, mandala forms.
Multiple rhythms of varying speeds fill the image space in
Deciphering Phillips’s work as coded, musical expressive
Phillips’s work in the same manner as a West African drum or-
speech reflective of Africa and African diasporic practices might
chestra fills musical space. Sharp-edged zigzags are tempered
be useful. The more a viewer is steeped in cultural and musical
by rounder imagery, and all of the various bursts are rounded.
knowledge, the more that is revealed.
Without the visual conventions of diagonal lines or triangular
compositions (a Western art technique developed in the Re-
naissance) leading the viewer’s eye through a planned tour of
When asked how he puts his rhythmic beat in the work,
Well, I generally like to approach yellow and violet as col-
the painting, the painting leads us into collisions with different
ors that can be warm and cool. I work cool colors against
colored and shaped areas and energies. Everything is right in
warm colors or vice versa. . . . So it gives me a lot of flexi-
the viewer’s face without simple and familiar codes or imagery.
bility, and, believe it or not, I stick very closely to the color
The experience is like a first encounter with bebop and the rac-
wheel. You’ve got your primary colors, and everything else
ing alto sax of Charlie Parker after the comfort of swing bands.
is supposed to evolve from that. That’s the key. I always go back to that. The viewer may not see it that way, but that’s the mechanism that I developed.
The shapes in the work create rhythm. Phillips says, “They
carry a rhythm, because, again, whether it’s on the grid or whether it’s a zigzag line, I’m resolving it down to its smallest component, and I use that to build up the tension in the work.” He doesn’t want it to look too uniform, so he says he will “alternate and reconstruct the system.” He tries to make sure a line that might run through the work doesn’t always “end up on the same beat or the same color, the same note, or the same size.”
Figures become points of departure in the work, perhaps
acting as doorways for viewers to enter the complex compositions. However, Phillips says he is trying to get away from even that recognizable element. “I’m trying to go with a straight motif,” and not incorporate figures. Asked about how viewers might find ways to understand what he is doing in the work without figures and symbols, he says: I find it very hard to believe that someone can’t see the musical references in the work if they are familiar with music. I don’t care what kind of music it is. You can see the rhythm structure in the work. It’s the same kind of notations, only it’s presented depending upon the discipline. The terminology is different, but the same references are there. IN TODAY’S WESTERN SOCIETIES, art becomes a twopart psychological materialization for our contemplation. It is autobiographical evidence of the artist’s virtuosity, history, sensibilities, tendencies, and sense of color—in short, his or her creative voice refined and mastered. The art reveals the artist, in the same way that you can hear Sonny Stitt and know from the way he formulates his sound, regardless of the song, that it is not Coleman Hawkins or Ben Webster or John Coltrane with the reed in his mouth. Miles Davis is never confused with Freddie Hubbard. John Biggers, even in his early work, cannot be confused with Charles White. African Impressions, 1978, acrylic on canvas, 95 x 48 inches On loan from Howard University
8 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
On the other hand, in visual media the artwork confronts the
audience as a virtual Rorschach inkblot test, evoking individual interpretations based on personal perceptions. Artists often
Mystical Unity (triptych), 1972, acrylic on canvas, 96 x 138 inches. On loan from Howard University
benefit from viewer reactions to their work, which expand on
their intentions in creating the object. This transaction and ac-
secular music is an artificial and misguided endeavor. Jazz
tive interaction reflects the call-and-response dynamic of African
and blues, though called the devil’s music, are “just as import-
cultures like the Yoruba. The Yoruba concept of ìlutí, “good
ant as the gospel music, the church music. It’s the same thing.”
hearing,” applies to both sides.8 The viewer hears what the artist
That separation is something, Phillips argues, that we did
is saying most often when the artist has heard how the viewer
feels or lives in the world. Perhaps that is why Phillips says that
what people feel from the work is more important to him than
rooted in the New Negro or Harlem Renaissance period idea
what they know technically.
of using cultural achievement and virtuosity as a palliative to
ease acceptance for blacks into middle-class American life.
Phillips believes that music is an essential aspect of African
diasporic culture: Music made us survive. Through all the horrors of the Middle Passage, through all the horrors of slavery. Through all the different things we had to go through in the ’60s in the civil rights movement, up to the present, and we’re still going through it. I don’t care whether it’s blues, whether it’s called field calls, whether it’s swing music, or whether it’s bebop, hip hop—that beat is still with us. And that beat is still probably the strongest energy in us. And that’s what keeps us connected to Africa.
He also contends that the separation into sacred and
The rupture that Phillips finds so superficial may have been
While conjure and folk religious practices have long been tropes and signs for those black cultural forms rooted in African antecedents, they have also been linked to slavery in the minds of aspirational blacks and observational whites.
Yvonne Chireau writes that despite efforts to eradicate
such slave traditions, “when African Americans moved out of slavery and into the social order that freedom offered, they carried their spiritual traditions with them.” These spiritual traditions “were ultimately present in almost every geographical location in which African Americans settled.”9
The Willie Dixon song “Hoochie Coochie Man,” introduced
by working roots. . . . He is capable of creating magic singing
by Muddy Waters in 1954, clearly refers to the world of conjure
and playing on his guitar.”12
and hoo doo, both extra-Christian practices associated with
African precedents. The lyrics specifically contain familiar refer-
jects of Phillips’s work, often became associated with Eshu, the
ences to the system of conjuring and blues lore: “I got a black
Yoruba trickster deity linked to the crossroads. Yoruba scholar
cat bone / I got a mojo too / I got the Johnny Concheroo.”10
Rowland Abiodun writes that Eshu represents “the force that
Blues singers and blues itself, frequently motifs in and sub-
If one looks more closely, one can find aspects of that Afri-
can belong in two different places without showing any signs of
can spirituality in both the blues and jazz that so inspire Phillips
discomfort,” and he “looks in two opposite directions, embodies
and other artists, despite their designation as secular forms.
two bodies, and inhabits two spaces at the same time.”13 Early
Former AfriCOBRA member and co-founder Wadsworth Jarrell
country blues musicians, as itinerant figures constantly on the
says that a blues singer is “one who understands that the blues
road, elusive, and sources of emotional and social transforma-
is derived from living; if you haven’t lived it, you cannot sing or
tion through performance, have similar qualities.
play it. The blues is a demon, a spiritual epiphany that not only
represents sadness but also represents happiness.”11
it evolved over the years, and it reflects the kind of esoteric
In 1985, Jarrell painted Juju Man From the Delta as a
Phillips has carefully thought through his aesthetic as
understanding that master artists or master jazz musicians take
tribute to Muddy Waters. He used that title because he felt
for granted. Throughout Phillips’s career, he has had a deep
Waters “represents a conjure man who can conjure up magic
emotional relationship with black music that has affected most
with his music and extend it to other areas, like casting spells
of his aesthetic decisions and subject matter.
Wadsworth Jarrell, Juju Man From the Delta, 1985, acrylic on canvas, 68 x 90 inches. Image courtesy of the artist
10 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
“I USE REVERSIBLE FIGURE-GROUND RELATIONSHIP, WHICH OCCURS WHEN THE AMOUNT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ARE SO INTERTWINED THAT IT BECOMES IMPOSSIBLE TO DISTINGUISH ONE FROM ANOTHER— A VERY MUSICAL CONCEPT.” —James Phillips
Phillips says, “To Euro sensitivities, [free jazz] didn’t have
structure. They were playing notes like Jackson Pollock slinging paint.” He adds that Jackson Pollock’s work often was linked to bebop expression, but that “Jackson Pollock didn’t live to hear Ornette [Coleman]. The best he could do was Bessie Smith.”14
Speaking of his own work, Phillips says: In terms of the way I approach it, just like a musician runs scales, I’m running scales with color. . . . Every time I make a change, there’s a value change with color. So it’s not repetition. It’s repetition but it’s not repetition, because it’s rotation and reflection. . . . It’s asymmetrical, but I try to make it look symmetrical.15
In 1980, Phillips received a fellowship from the National
Endowment for the Arts to study in Japan, and he explored
Juju for Michael, 1987–92, acrylic on canvas, 72 x 37½ inches On loan from Michael D. Harris
mandala imagery for a time after that 17-month sojourn. By the late 1980s, however, when his work was featured
version will illustrate the changes. Like a musician, Phillips plays
in the exhibition Black Art, Ancestral Legacy: The African
the same compositions a little differently each time.
Impulse in African-American Art at the Dallas Museum of
Art, he used a grid format as a foundation for a great deal of
to create larger strips. In some ways, this grid plays like narrow
his work, with symbolic imagery to variegate the work and
strips of Ashanti cloth joined to form large pieces of kente cloth.
imbue it with meaning.
The work has three vertical columns that are broken up into
smaller square segments, which are divided by zigzag lines.
Simultaneously, Phillips used asymmetry in color, rhyth-
Clearly the composition uses a grid with squares combined
mic patterns, and color relationships to explore a symbiotic
Three large square areas populate the middle column and are
relationship of imagery to creative jazz expression. At times he
filled with symbols and stylized images. Phillips says, “I like
sought a feeling or sense of the music of Coltrane, Eric Dolphy,
working mainly in threes, and triples; double it up. They kind
McCoy Tyner, and the like, as well as subtle reiterations of the
of dissolve from threes into sixes, nines, and twelves, like that.
kinds of geometry used to organize Egyptian painting and relief
You’ve got at least sixty-four options. And if you throw tone and
sculpture into registers.
shade in there, you triple it.”16
Phillips’s work Juju for Michael, which I own, appears in
Phillips uses the illusion of transparencies throughout the
the book produced for the 1989 Black Art, Ancestral Legacy
work. One example is the Ghanaian circular symbol called gye
exhibition. However, when I loaned the piece to Phillips for the
nyame (fear none but God) at the top of the painting. It can
exhibition, he felt that it needed more work, and he added layers
be seen through the colors and patterns around it in the top
of details to further articulate and complicate the piece. A quick
square, but it is not itself an object. The gye nyame symbol
look at how it was represented in the book and at this final
and the two Egyptian bennu birds surrounding it were painted
Something About Valerie Maynard,1998, acrylic on metal, 32 x 64 x 28½ inches. On loan from Valerie Maynard
into the work because it was designed specifically for me, and
they show the level of intentionality Phillips uses to organize his
and inside the bull at the top of the work. The triple repetition of
imagery. He does not haphazardly derive color relationships and
the heart is symbolic of the Ghanaian symbol for Sankofa: the
themes, and memorial works for departed artists like Jeff Don-
wisdom of learning from the past to build for the future. Also,
aldson, Skunder Boghossian, and John Biggers are constructed
it is a reference to the Haitian deity Erzulie, a spiritual angel or
with very specific imagery and color.
orisha associated with love, and the Yoruba goddess Oshun,
who is linked with love, sweetness, and the river. The symbol
Phillips’s intentional shaping of meaning reaches new levels
As we drill down into the work, we find hearts in the center
of complication in his later work, Prelude to a Kiss. Often in free
appears in Haitian rituals as part of a veve, a ground emblazon
jazz, the musical, rhythmic structures are not obvious, and that
created with cornmeal or some temporary powdered material.
is the case with this work. The title comes from a composition
Surrounding the large heart in the center are two sym-
by Duke Ellington and was conceived as a tribute to Phillips’s
bols from the West African graphic system called nsibidi that
marriage to his wife Shellie in 2000. James and Shellie Phillips
indicate a married couple. The symbols appear throughout the
share the same birthday (April 29) as Duke Ellington, though
work and fill both bulls. At the top, crosses on the dark blue
they were born in different years. As an obvious reference to
background are turned slightly to appear like stars. Just above
Taurus, their astrological sun sign, bulls facing in opposite direc-
the large heart are images of the Dogon Seated Couple, a well-
tions populate the top and bottom of the composition.
known sculptural figure sometimes interpreted as the primordial
couple—the Adam and Eve ancestors of humanity. To either side
Phillips says that bulls, in addition to their astrological
significance, were protectors of Ra and the pharaoh in dynastic
of the couple are the large sculptural faces of an African Kuba
Egypt. A political dialectic is created by the roosters standing
couple facing each other as if preparing to kiss. Hot and cool
on the back of each bull. The rooster is a symbol of revolution—
colors separate the profiles from the background, and different
the fighting cock—and also the Chinese equivalent of Taurus.
nsibidi signs for a couple reside atop the profile faces.
Therefore, the bull is a protector of the status quo while the
rooster is a symbol of revolution.
shows how Phillips takes structures and speeds them up or
12 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Musically, a glance at the patterns grounding the work
Prelude to a Kiss is a wonderful example of James Phillips’s
slows them down, doubling and tripling. Zigzags thin when
moving from the hot Kuba figures to the cool background at the
expression of African diasporic culture and his virtuosity as a
top. Then they are broken into small checkerboard elements in
painter and composer. Phillips is not being idealistic or utopian
certain sections in the center column moving between the two
in his use of African diasporic symbols and imagery. He is being
bulls. Within the recognizable imagery in the center column, we
consistent with the cultural histories that he has inherited. He
find graphic expressions and improvisations riding like solos
says, “One of the reasons I jump around [to different cultures]
atop the complex rhythmic structures. The organic shape of the
is because we don’t know which specific culture we come from.
bark cloth adds to the flow and improvisational musicality of the
So I represent the whole diaspora in my work.”17
composition by eluding the rectangular structure viewers might
expect. The main vertical movement of the imagery is countered
spiritual and social practice to divine speech coming down to
by occasional horizontal pattern flows in the work.
metaphorical expression. He is an aesthetic scientist and a
Phillips artistically walks the circle of speech to music to
mystical adept. The more viewers are informed and prepared, the deeper they can enter the creative alchemy behind his compositions. Michael Harris, PhD, is an associate professor of art history at Emory Univeristy. Article excerpted from the UMUC exhibition catalog James Phillips: Swirling Complexity Into Culture.
Notes T. J. Anderson, taped interview with the author, Atlanta, GA, November 11, 2012. 1
See Alain Locke, “Legacy of the Ancestral Arts,” in The New Negro, ed. Alain Locke (1925; repr., New York: Touchstone, 1999). 2
James Phillips, taped interview with the author, Atlanta, GA, September 20, 2013. Unless noted, subsequent quotes are from this conversation. 3
Wadsworth Jarrell, telephone conversation with the author, June 7, 2013.
Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen, The Pale Fox (Chino Valley, AZ: Continuum Foundation, 1986), 98. 5
Geneviève Calame-Griaule, Words and the Dogon World (Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1986), xvi. 6
Griaule and Dieterlen, The Pale Fox, p. 68. Cited from Michael D. Harris, “Visual Tropes: The Kanaga Mask of the Dogon Peoples of West Africa,” (master’s thesis, Yale University, 1989), 57–58. 7
Ìlutí, according to Rowland Abiodun, “determines whether a work of art ‘is alive’ and ‘responds,’” and this model is a part of the divine call-and-response idea. There is a saying, Ebora tó lutí là n bó, “We worship and celebrate only • • deities who can respond when called upon.” Rowland Abiodun, Yoruba Art and Language: Seeking the African in African Art (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 62. 8
Yvonne Chireau, Black Magic: Religion and the African American Conjuring Tradition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 123. 9
Lyrics by Willie Dixon, “I’m Your Hoochie Coochie Man,” 1954.
Wadsworth Jarrell, e-mail message to author, August 30, 2015.
Jarrell, e-mail message to author, August 30, 2015.
Abiodun, Yoruba Art and Language, 74.
James Phillips, taped conversation with author, Baltimore, MD, September 16, 2016. 14
Prelude to a Kiss, 2014, acrylic on bark cloth, 52 x 22 inches Collection of Dr. Alonzo and Mrs. Susan Williams, Courtesy of Hearne Fine Art, Little Rock, Arkansas
Phillips, taped conversation, September 16, 2016.
Phillips, taped conversation, September 16, 2016.
James Phillips, telephone conversation with the author, October 17, 2016. 17
PAUL REED WASHINGTON COLOR SCHOOL PAINTER WHO SHAPED THE FIELD BY ERIC KEY
Untitled #9 (diptych), 1987, oil pastel on paper, 18 x 12 inches
he Arts Program at UMUC became involved with the
art of Paul Allen Reed in 2010 when we decided to
paintings: his quiet nature, his gracefulness, his love for art, and
curate an exhibition of his works. In preparing the
the pain he endured as a result of burying his two sons. I knew
exhibition, I had the opportunity to visit with Reed in his home
that Reed was already an established artist with an impressive
in Arlington, Virginia. The visit was a momentous meeting for
exhibition history at the time he participated in The Washing-
me because he was the last surviving member of the famed
ton Color Painters, a landmark exhibition organized by Gerald
Washington Color School painters, whom I had admired for
Nordland at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art in 1965.
decades. I knew of the importance of their work and its effect
on the art world, and my goal was to add to the UMUC col-
each painter of the Washington Color School “embraced color
lection at least one work by each of the original painters (the
for its own sake—embodied, optical, flat or velvety, saturated or
other five were Gene Davis, Kenneth Noland, Howard Mehring,
transparent. The discovery of fast-drying acrylic resin paint gave
Thomas Downing, and Morris Louis), beginning with Reed.
them immediate, intense color right out of a tube. Ultimately
Another goal was to present a project that would educate and
these D.C. artists took on a larger, national identity, positioned
expose our constituents to the works of this legendary artist.
within a newly labeled genre called ‘color field.’” In addition,
although the six founding members worked alone, they shared
When I met Reed, his grace and poise belied his age of 91.
During this time, I began to understand the man behind the
Jean Lawlor Cohen of the Washington Post wrote that
He introduced me to his new body of works—smaller in scale
“two breakthrough concepts—soaking plastic paint into raw
and different from his notable shaped, geometrical paintings.
cotton canvas and using hard-edged, geometric forms such as
Yet the new works were just as impressive and reinforced our
stripes, circles, dots, and chevrons to carry high-keyed color.”
determination to mount an exhibition, which we worked on with Reed over the next two years. However, the exhibition was cancelled due to the declining health of his wife, Ester.
16 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
ABOVE: H II (diptych), 1972, acrylic on canvas, 142 x 141 inches
Untitled #5 (diptych), 1989, oil pastel on paper, 9 x 24 inches
ABOVE: Step, 1966, metal, 24 x 13 x 6 inches RIGHT: Emerging XV, 1967, acrylic on canvas, 54 x 30 inches
Upstart XXXIX, 1966, acrylic on canvas, 43 x 23 inches
18 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Reed was dedicated to moving beyond the traditional
four-sided canvas painting to geometrically shaped canvas paintings—a style he has become known for. But the real question for many viewers and admirers of his art is, who was Reed personally? Much information is available about him on the Internet, including his involvement with the Washington Color School and his contribution to the arts community in Washington, D.C. But the personality of the man behind the art remains hidden.
“Let the process get out of the way and the art will flow.” PAUL REED
From my research and my meeting with him, I learned
that Reed was a gentle man who enjoyed his family and art.
paints and cutting canvas was part of the process to create
He grew up in northeast Washington, D.C., and was child-
his geometrical shaped paintings. But as Reed said,
hood friends with Gene Davis. He and Davis started painting
“Let the process get out of the way and the art will flow.”
together, went to museums and galleries together, and got jobs
together, according to an interview conducted by Susan Stam-
as a magazine illustrator and graphic designer in New York in
berg for NPR in 2014. In that interview, Stamberg describes
the 1940s; had a graphic design firm in Washington, D.C.,
Reed’s downstairs studio:
in the 1950s; and was a faculty member at the Corcoran
His basement studio is covered with canvases, rolls of
painted and stained cloth, [and] looks like a fabric store.
Paint dribbles down the side of the old washer and dryer.
Every surface is swamped with artworks or their makings,
jars of crayons, pencils, brushes, paint. Paul Reed uses
unprimed canvases and acrylic paints. You can dilute acryl-
ics with water and bleed luminous color into the canvas.
From this statement and her entire interview, one can sur-
Reed attended San Diego State College in 1936; worked
School of Art (now the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design at the George Washington University). He attributed his art inspiration to Gene Davis and Jacob Kainen, even though his fondness for abstraction developed during the 1940s when he was in New York during the emergence of abstract expressionism. In New York, Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, and others had a lasting impression on him.
Reed’s painting process was much like his personality.
He painted and created just as he enjoyed life and art in color
mise that Reed was a consummate working artist. He was al-
(abstract art). Thanks to his daughter Jean Roberts Reed,
ways experimenting with the paint medium to expand his work.
UMUC is proud to have in its permanent collection a body of
He also understood the medium to get its best result. Mixing
Reed’s works that details five decades of his artistic creation.
Untitled #10 (diptych), oil pastel on paper, 9 x 24 inches
NEWS AND EVENTS
Third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition Members of the UMUC arts community joined the Arts Program on Sunday, September 18, 2016, for the opening reception of the third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition (BMRE). This exhibition showcases a wide variety of art by new and emerging artists from throughout the region (Maryland; Washington, D.C.; and Northern Virginia). The Arts Program was honored to have Vanessa Thaxton-Ward, PhD, director and curator, Hampton University Museum; Nina C. Dwyer, adjunct professor of art, Montgomery College; and Gretchen Schermerhorn, artistic director, Pyramid Atlantic Art Center, serve as guest jurors. They selected the 60 works showcased in this exhibition from more than 350 submissions. The jurors also selected the winners for the BMRE awards, including President’s Best of Show winner Mike McConnell, who will open a solo exhibition, Cutting Into Art, in November as part of his prize.
As with the two previous BMREs, this year’s exhibition was an exciting snapshot of the
region’s diverse artistic landscape. The purpose of the BMRE is to give local artists a chance to have their work reviewed by a distinguished panel of jurors and to present a forum in which these artists can speak to a new audience. This year’s BMRE included work of incredible skill and David Marion’s large-scale sculpture entitled Last Drop won a Juror’s Recognition Award
powerful messages that engaged our students, staff, faculty, and arts community; advanced the careers of local artists; and helped forge larger conversations about art and the world around us. ARTWORK DETAILS ABOVE (left to right): Alice Kresse, Oh Pink Grotesk; Ju Yun, Hidden Beauty Secrets;
Susan Bagshaw, Nude Self Portrait with Birds 2; John Grunwell, Entelechy 22
BMRE participating artists at the opening reception
20 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
NEWS AND EVENTS
2016 BMRE Award Winners THE PURPOSE OF ART IS WASHING THE DUST OF DAILY LIFE OFF OUR SOULS. PABLO PICASSO
1ST PLACE PRESIDENT’S BEST OF SHOW AWARD Mike McConnell Bear Carver (diptych, right panel) 2015, acrylic on panel 48 x 60 inches
ARTS PROGRAM HONORABLE MENTIONS Lindsay McCulloch Summer 2016, oil on panel 24 x 42½ inches Anthony Stellaccio Drifter (Home) 2014, clay and cemetery dirt 9 x 7 x 16 inches (each) Ako Yamro Ballerina 2013, bronze 27 x 13 x 13 inches
JUROR RECOGNITIONS Bernard Brooks The Mango Lady 2013, oil on canvas 36 x 24 inches Steven Dobbin I Repeat Myself 2016, timed, flashing neon sign 38 x 6½ x 4 inches
2ND PLACE JURORS’ CHOICE AWARD
3RD PLACE AWARD OF MERIT
Fabiola Alvarez Yurcisin Homeland Security Advisory System 2013, aluminum, acrylic paint, colored ribbons, and string, size variable
Jun Lee Got My Back 2016, woodcut 40 x 30 inches
David Marion Last Drop 2015, clay, wood, and steel 127 x 53 x 53 inches
NEWS AND EVENTS Donation Highlights
in his career. He is best known for his colorful
UMUC Welcomes a Major Collection of Works from Paul Reed’s Estate
to focus on shape and color. Reed passed away
geometric canvases that allowed the viewer in 2015 at the age of 96. His work is in muse-
UMUC is excited to receive more than 200
ums across the country, including the National
works by renowned artist Paul Reed. Reed is
Gallery of Art, the Phillips Collection, and the
primarily known for his association with the
Smithsonian Museum of American Art (Wash-
Washington Color School, a group of artists
ington, D.C.); the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston,
that included Reed, Morris Louis, Kenneth
Massachusetts); the Art Institute of Chicago
Noland, Gene Davis, Thomas Downing, and
(Illinois); the San Francisco Museum
Howard Mehring. Their work was inspired by
of Modern Art (California); and other distin-
the abstract expressionist movement, and their
materials and painting techniques were empha-
sized as their primary medium for expression.
months processing, cataloging, and document-
Other artists associated with this particular style
ing these works of art. This donation was made
were Sam Gilliam and Alma Thomas, whose
by his daughter Jean Reed and also included
work is represented in UMUC’s collection.
several large, shaped canvas pieces; sculp-
tures; and hundreds of small acrylics on paper
Reed was born in Washington, D.C., and
The UMUC Arts Program spent several
worked as a newspaper graphic designer early
from the Reeves Gallery in Arizona.
joined panelists Michael Harris, PhD, associate
Swirling Complexity Into Culture
and Melanee Harvey, PhD candidate, history
On Saturday, February 4, the Arts Program at
of art and architecture at Boston University,
UMUC welcomed guests for the opening reception of James Phillips: Swirling Complexity Into Culture. Baltimore-based artist James Phillips
Paul Reed, DBU, 2003, acrylic on canvas, 17 x 17 inches
professor of art history at Emory University,
for a conversation about Phillips’s works. They discussed his processes and colorful paintings, in which he incorporates African aesthetics, patterns, and symbols in contemporary compositions. A question-and-answer session with art enthusiasts followed. James Phillips: Swirling Complexity Into Culture will be on display in the lower level of the UMUC Arts Program Gallery through April 16. Cake inspired by Phillips’s artwork (provided by Fancy Cakes by Leslie, Bethesda)
ABOVE: James Phillips’s artwork Contemporary Focus/ Black Lives Matter; BELOW (left to right): panelists
Michael Harris and Melanee Harvey, artist James Phillips, and UMUC Arts Program Director Eric Key
Artist Joseph Sheppard and guest
Horrors of War The UMUC arts community joined Dorothy and Henry Rosenberg Jr. and Patricia and Mike Batza for the opening reception of Joseph Sheppard’s exhibition Horrors of War on Saturday, November 5, 2016. Sheppard, a renowned Baltimore artist, chronicles the annihilation, ruthlessness, and cruelty of the war atrocities of World War II in this exhibition, which first opened in Pietrasanta, Italy, in August 2014, during the 70th anniversary of the Sant’Anna di Stazzema massacre. Horrors of War runs through October 29 in the Dorothy L. and Henry A. Rosenberg Jr. Painting Gallery at the Leroy Merritt Center for the Art of Joseph Sheppard.
22 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
NEWS AND EVENTS Save the Date for Our Next Bus Trip
Upcoming Events ORDER OUT OF CHAOS April 30–July 30, 2017 UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level College Park Marriott Hotel & Conference Center Opening Reception Sunday, May 7, 2017, 3–5 p.m. UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level This exhibition, guest curated by Ruth Channing Middleman, will feature artists who live in Artists’ Housing Incorporated in Baltimore, Maryland. These artists live and work in modular units that contain a small living space and modest working loft. This housing complex has enabled some of the area’s most talented artists to produce works that reflect Baltimore’s many visual scenes.
The UMUC Arts Program and Art Advisory Board will host its annual bus trip to explore the arts on Saturday, June 10, 2017. The trip will include studio visits, artist conversations, and tours of local museums and galleries. This year’s location has not yet been determined but promises to be just as educational and exciting as those visited in previous trips.
In past years, art collectors, patrons,
TWO WINGS OF THE SAME BIRD May 8–July 21, 2017 U.S. District Courthouse, Greenbelt, Maryland Opening Reception Thursday, May 25, 2017, 5–6:30 p.m. Two Wings of the Same Bird features works by Washington, D.C.– based artists Samuel Miranda and Lazaro Batista. Miranda’s art is influenced by his Puerto Rican family history; Batista’s art is reflective of his Cuban heritage. Many of the works in the exhibition are collaborative pieces that explore the commonalities between their cultures.
supporters, and artists have gone with us to the Kentler International Drawing Space (Brooklyn, New York), Hampton University Museum (Virginia), and Newark Museum (New Jersey), and to studio visits with Marietta Hoferer, Ilene Sunshine, and Frederick Eversley in New York; Sonya Clark, Greg Henry, Richard Ward, and Kwebana Ampofo-Anti in Virginia; and Ben Jones and Philemona Williamson in New Jersey.
Join us for a wonderful outing to enjoy the
arts. The trip is open to Friends of the Arts contributors; UMUC faculty, staff, and students; and the general public.
DATE: SATURDAY, JUNE 10, 2017
(INCLUDES MEALS, ENTRANCE FEES, AND BUS TRANSPORTATION)
Details will be available soon at umuc.edu/art. For more information, contact Tawanna Manago at 301-985-7937.
Samuel Miranda Tomeguin Que conoce libertad no acepta jaula
DRAWING ON HUMANITY: THE ART OF CURLEE HOLTON August 13–November 26, 2017 UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level Opening Reception Sunday, August 27, 2017, 3–5 p.m. UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level Curlee Holton is a painter and master printmaker whose works Cycles of Life ask viewers to carefully examine their humanity. People are drawn to Holton’s work because he presents issues of race, spirituality, and social justice in modern American society. His dramatic use of color, symbolism, and figurative representations invite viewers to deal with the complexity of his content.
CUTTING INTO ART: THE ART OF MIKE McCONNELL November 19, 2017–February 18, 2018 UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level Opening Reception Sunday, November 19, 2017, 3–5 p.m. UMUC Arts Program Gallery, Lower Level Mike McConnell is the 2016 President’s Best of Show award Bear Carver winner of the third Biennial Maryland Regional Juried Art Exhibition (BMRE), which entitles him to a one-person exhibition in the off year of the BMRE. This solo exhibition will give viewers a chance to examine McConnell’s technique and the content of his work.
Get the latest updates on the UMUC Arts Program. Visit umuc.edu/art/newsonline
Make an Annual Contribution to the Arts Program Art enthusiasts in the UMUC community help make the university’s visual arts exhibitions, educational lectures, book signings, symposiums, and meet-the-artist receptions possible. Through the Friends of the Arts program, our biggest supporters enjoy a variety of benefits as a thank-you for helping UMUC’s Arts Program become one of the most recognized in Maryland. Simply commit to making an annual contribution at one of the following levels and you can join our growing list of friends.
FRIENDS OF THE ARTS (JULY 1, 2015–JANUARY 15, 2017) Sapphire-Level Friends
Michael J. Batza Jr. Henry A. Rosenberg Jr. Wolpoff Family Foundation
Above benefits, plus autographed poster from the Arts Program collection
Michael Abrams Joan Burke Bevelaqua Jere and Bonnie N. Broh-Kahn Robert L. Caret and Elizabeth Zoltan Gwendolyn B. Clark Leo A. Daly III Nina Dwyer Michèle E. Jacobs and Joseph V. Bowen Jr. Eric Key Anne V. Maher and Peter V.R. Franchot Ragan Royal Christopher A. Shields Stephen Stein Michael S. Tenner
Silver-Level Friend ($250)
Associate ($35) Name recognition in the arts newsletter, invitation to exhibition openings
Friend ($50) Above benefits, plus 10 percent discount on specialty items produced by the Arts Program, 10 percent discount on tickets to nonfundraising events, Arts Program lapel pin
Bronze-Level Friend ($100)
Above benefits, plus name recognition on the donors' wall in the Arts Program Gallery
Gold-Level Friend ($500) Above benefits, plus full-color art catalog from a major UMUC art exhibition
Platinum-Level Friend ($1,000) Above benefits, plus VIP invitation to dinner with the guest artist and the university president, 10 percent discount at The Common (the restaurant at the College Park Marriott Hotel & Conference Center at UMUC)
Citrine-Level Friend ($2,500) Above benefits, plus corporate name and logo listing on UMUC Arts Program webpage, name and logo listing on all printed materials for exhibitions and public relations materials for the season
Sapphire-Level Friend ($5,000) Above benefits, plus a corporate art exhibition by a local artist coordinated by UMUC (Special requirements apply; see umuc.edu/art for details.)
Visit umuc.edu/art and click on “Friends of the Arts Program” or call 301-985-7937. Interested in being added to our e-magazine list? Send your e-mail address to email@example.com. 24 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Lisa Anne Jackson Joan W. Lee
Elmer A. Mendez William T. Mitchell Terrie S. Rouse
James T. Brady Tracey Brown Harriette E. Chiavacci LaTanya Eggleston Blair and Alice Hayes
Michael Abrams James A. Adkins Nicholas H. and Eva J. Allen Kwabena Ampofo-Anti Stephen and Carolyn Aoyama John and Doris Babcock Karin Batten Gwendolyn B. Clark Kevin E. Cole Loring Cornish Sandra Cryder David C. Driskell David R. Durfee Sr. Nina Dwyer Graham Holding Company William A. Harris Winston Kain Harris Curlee Horton Margo Humphrey Sherry Jackson
Theresa M. Lesko Denise Melvin John L. Milton Vannesia D. Morgan-Smith Bettye J. Robertson William C. Robinson Lynn Sylvester Lydia Christina Waddler Joan O. Weiss Denise Welch Lesliee S. Whitfield Starlene Williams Sharon A. Wolpoff
Floyd Coleman Galerie Myrtis Beverly A. Gray Anthony Lee Yoshiko Oishi Weick
Gregory Branch Vrinda D. Buchwald Elizabeth B. Duncan John S. Fortt Sergio N. Fresco James Harrigan Eric C. Helfers Kevin G. Herndon John E. Hodges Philip F. Koch John and Jill A. Lion Flavia M. Moskaitis Charlotte E. Pointer Jacqueline K. Randolph Michael Aaron Richmond Elliott Stubbs Marilyn B. Wassmann Joseph M. Williams
Cynthia F. Johnson Julian S. Jones Eric Key Matthew Klos Philip F. Koch Ulysses Marshall Wanda Spence McDow Anne McLaughlin Trace Miller Tunde Odunlade Kathryn O’Grady Katja Oxman Constance Pitcher Preston W. Sampson Lucy Schoenfeld Joseph Sheppard Stephen Stein Noi Volkov Sharon A. Wolpoff Helen Zughaib
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