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Baking Halal

Dr. Anton Apriyantono

Translated and Edited by Delina Partadiredja

Copyright Š 2010 Dr. Anton Apriyanto All rights reserved. ISBN: ISBN-13:

To all Muslims

Born on 15th October 1959 in Serang, Banten, Anton obtained his bachelors and masters degree from the Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB). He later received his doctorate in food chemistry at Reading University in Britain. He is currently a full-time lecturer of food and nutrient technology at IPB, and a guest lecturer with the National University of Singapore. Although president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono recently obtained his doctorate from IPB. Dr. Anton Apriyanto has graciously let aMuslima print his findings on the website.

Cake Emulsifier and Dough Conditioner it’s Halalness questioned. October 7, 2011 - 2341 ‫ا‬ ‫ اا ااااا‬9 ‫ا‬ ‫ااااا‬ By Dr. Anton Apriyantono

Cake emulsifier is a food additive used for stabilizing and softening cookie dough. Sometimes it is also used to susbtitute the use of eggs. In the market this material is known by trade names such as ovalet, SP, Spontan88, TBM (the type of cake emulsifier in Germany), and many more names. The Halal status of emulsifiers is generally doubtful due to they may be made from plant materials or animal. And if they are from plant substances in many cases the emulsifiers are often mixed with solid fats. In which, unfortunately, many times it is not clear what type of fats used (animal or plant based fats). We should pay careful attention to this and the “halalness” of the product because fats that solidify at room temperature originate from either animal fats OR vegetable fats processes using hydrogenation. This process allows fats to “keep their shape”. Here are some examples of what emulsifiers are used for cakes, breads, creamy fillings, mayonaise, etc.

Therefore, avoid cake emulsifier that does not have the halal certificate. In the market there are cake emulsifiers which have been certified as halal, but they are sometimes named as bakery ingredients and sold under the trade name that does not characterize whether they are cake emulsifiers or not.

In regards to Dough conditioner, it has many functions. Dough conditioner is a great tool for any home baker or commercial baker because this ingredient is so versatile. It’s many use would be to soften the bread dough, developing and preparing the dough, preserving food, etc. This is due to the composition of the conditioner which usually contains a variety of ingredients one of which usually includes L-cysteine, soy flour, ascorbic acid, fat, sugar, preservatives, emulsifiers, and gypsum. The ingredients L-cysteine, fats and emulsifiers, is what make the Dough Conditioner halal status to be doubtful.

Source: Potency of non-halal food products, and issues on genetically modified food, By Anton Apriyantono, translated by Delina

As we go into Ramadan, aMuslima wanted to remind the busy Muslim Woman to make sure all the ingredients used in making those delicious cakes were making are truly halal! Sallam everyone! The days of Ramadan are nearing to an end…. We are almost at the home stretch of the last 10 days of Ramadan! We hope everyone is having a smooth and blessed Ramadan full of qhooshu – Ameen! Not only are we busy making Ibadah (Ameen!) but we womenfolk are also busy preparing traditional cookies and foods either for Iftars or for Eid. Today, Insha Allah, our resident Dr. Anton Apriyantono wants to remind us about the ingredients we use to prepare our food. Most of us know that we must consume halal foods and sometimes we pay attention to only the slaughtered meats. However, it doesn’t stop there. In this era of fast food and beautiful food there is a strong tendency to add ingredients that will enhance the taste and beauty of foods. It’s kind of like giving “plastic-surgery” to the foods we eat today. So, we will be working on short series on foods and ingredients that are not halal and hopefully some great replacements. We welcome your input, ideas and questions! From the desk of Dr. Anton Apriyantono ~

Cream of Tartar By Anton Apriyantono Cream of tartar is a potassium acid salt of tartaric acid and a by-product of winemaking. It is obtained within

the wine barrels and sometimes at the base of bottles of wine. Therefore it is prohibited in Islam. Cream of tartar in fact is only one of the baking ingredients used to make bread, cookies, and cakes. It helps in smoothing and giving more volume when beating egg whites. It is also used to give a creamier texture to candy and frostings. There are various substitutes to cream of tartar, for instance, sodium phosphate or polyphosphate, sodium aluminium

sulphate, etc. You can choose other baking powders that do not consist of cream of tartar, and usually it is written on the package. A suggested alternative would be 3 tbsp lemon juice or 3 tbspn vinegar. Source: Is it halal? Question and answer by Dr Anton Apriyantono, 2006 and Translated and modified by Delina Partadiredja

Is the ingredient Improving Agent halal? September 23, 2011 - 2341 ‫ اااا‬52 ‫ا‬ ‫ااااا‬ By Dr. Anton Apriyantono Improving Agent Improving agents are food additives used in making bread and cakes to develop the dough so that the dough increase its volume, and also when the dough is baked, it can expand further. If the improving agent is mixed into the dough it will form carbon dioxide gas. The gas is then trapped in the gluten (the protein component of wheat flour), the longer time the more gas is produced, so that the dough will expand.The first type of the agent is called baking soda, which contains a chemical called sodium bicarbonate. This material was prepared by chemical synthesis and there is no problem in terms of the halal status. The second type is baking powder, a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with the leavening acid. The leavening acids which could act as a developer are the salt of phosphoric acid, sodium aluminium phosphate, glukono delta lactone and cream of tartar. From all these materials that should not be used is the cream of tartar. Cream of tartar is actually a potassium salt of tartaric acid obtained as a by-product of wine industry (a type of liquor). That is why this material should not be used by Muslims. Unfortunately, cream of tartar is widely used in making cakes, many listed in baking recipes, and even sold in a pure form. Therefore, avoid the use of cream of tartar, replace with another type of improving agents because other materials would serve the same improvement but halal.

Another term of the improving agent is bread improver or a cake improver. In certain markets, certified halal of cake improver and bread improver are already available. Source: Potency of non-halal food products, and issues on genetically modified food. By Anton Apriyantono, translated by Delina Partadiredja

Which Yeasts are Halal September 24, 2011 - 2341 ‫ اااا‬62 ‫ااااا‬ By Dr. Anton Apriyantono Yeast (Gist)

Sallam, for the weekend cooks keep this in mind when In making bread, yeast is required so that the dough can expand. Yeast is usually added after the flour mixed with water and then stirred evenly. After that, the dough left for a few hours. Yeast itself is actually a microorganism, a small living creature, and usually of the type of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is used in making the bread. Under conditions of adequate water and food for the yeast, especially sugar, the yeast will grow by converting sugars into carbon dioxide gas and aromatic compounds. The carbon dioxide gas formed is then retained by the dough so the dough expand. Yeast can be obtained commercially in three forms, namely compressed yeast (yeast liquid with a solid content), active dry yeast (yeast dry form, need to be activated before use), and instant active dry yeast (instant yeast, a dry form which can be used directly without the need to be activated again). Yeast that

is available in supermarket is usually instant active dry yeast (instant yeast), which can be directly used, just put into the dough.

Whatever yeast that we use, it is not only the yeast that we concern its halalness, but also its additives. Several ingredients are intentionally added for particular purposes in the making of yeast, for example, ingredients deliberately added for the purpose of increasing stability during storage as no clumping. Yeast also contain fillers. In addition, yeast also contain ingredient derived from the remaining media (food is required by the yeast at the time of propagation of yeast),. These additives need to be observed for its halal status. In the making of compressed yeast, emulsifier is often added in which its halal status is doubtful. Another additive that may be present in the instant yeast is an anticaking agent. Among the questionable materials of its halal status commonly used as anticaking agents are E542 (edible bone phosphate, derived from animal bones), E570 (acid stearate) and E572 (magnesium stearate).Stearic acid can be derived from plants or from animals. Magnesium stearate is prepared using the basic ingredients of acid stearate. In addition to the gum or dextrin, gelatine is sometimes used as filler material in the instant yeast.

Source: The potency of non halal food products, and issues on genetically modified. By Anton Apriyantono Translated by Delina Partadiredja

Shortening and Leavening Agent August 22, 2011 - 2341 ‫اا‬ ‫اا‬ ‫ ا‬22 ‫ااااا‬ ‫اا‬ By Dr. Anton Apriyantono

Alcohol present in bread made by fermentation using yeast ranged between 0.3% -0.4%, therefore it is, God willing, no problem. However, the problem often occur with additives used on bread making, i.e. shortening and leavening agent. Shortening is a fat blend that has a specific function, especially in softening food products, for example, bread made with shortening will feel softer on the tongue. Shortening can be made from a mixture of different types of fats, i.e. vegetable oils, animal fat (usually lard or beef) and fish oil. Shortening can be made only from plant materials, in this case from vegetable oils, can also be made from a mixture of vegetable oils and animal fats or a mixture of fats that have been mentioned previously.

Given the shortening can be made from animal fats (pork or beef that is not slaughtered according to Islam) then if there is no guarantee of halalness of a food product, the status of the foods that contain shortening is doubtful. Food products containing shortening but have been halal certified are lawful, usually made from vegetable oils only. Leavening agent are substances used to develop the dough (made from the main ingredients containing gluten). Usually an acid compound or its salt will react with sodium bicarbonate (with water) to form carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide is formed and then detained by the protein contained in wheat gluten in the dough so that the dough becomes fluffy. One type of leavening agent is cream of tartar whose content is the salt of tartaric acid, this material is a by-product of wine industry. Therefore, cream of tartar must not be used for bread making. Translated by Delina, Source: Is it Halal? A question and answer, by Anton Apriyantono

Is Kosher the same as Halal? August 23, 2011 - 2341 ‫اا‬ ‫اا‬ ‫ ا‬32 ‫اااا‬ ‫اااا‬ By Dr. Anton Apriyantono

Quran Surah: Al-Maeda 88: Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed on you as food lawful and good, and keep your duty to Allah in whom ye are believers. Quran Surah: Al-Baqara 172: O ye who believe! Eat of the good things where with We have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is (indeed) He whom ye worship. Foods and drinks that are consumed by Jews are called kosher, kasrut, and kasher. According to the Webster World University Dictionary, kosher or kashrut (kasher) food is ceremonially cleaned, conforming to the Jewish dietary law. Food that is not allowed to be consumed, according to this law, is called trefa or trayfah. Based on theTalmud, the Jewish law,

certain animals must be slaughtered and prepared in certain ritually prescribed ways, otherwise their meat becomes trefa, uncleaned and hence unfit for consumption. Besides animal that could not be slaughtered, swine is also haram (not allowed) to be consumed by Jews. It seems similar to the halal-haram rules in Islam. Swine is mentioned in the Al-Quran: Al-Maeda: 3 “Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swine-flesh…. “. Also from the Prophet’s hadith, narrated by Jabir (Allah be well pleased with him), that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Allah does not permit in selling (and buying) wine, dead body of animals, and swine.” One of the companions asked, “O Allah’s messenger, how about the swine’s fat? Swine’s fat can be used for painting a boat, smoothing skin, and can be used as light fuel.” The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) answered, “No, it is still haram. Allah cursed the Jews. Allah did not permit them to eat swine’s fat, but they collected it then sold it, and ate the product.” (Hadith Bukhari, Muslim, and Ashabus Sunan). It is true that there are similarities between kosher and halal. However, some products are contradictive between the Jewish and Islamic concepts. Wine and all other gelatin are kosher according to the Jews. But for Islam, wine is khamr and it is prohibited. Every intoxicant is khamr and khamr is prohibited. Therefore, liquors are prohibited. Allah SWT said, “O ye who believe! Wine and gambling and stone altars and divining arrows are only an abomination, a handiwork of Satan, shun it wherefore, that haply ye may fare well.” (Al-Maeda:90). Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Allah has cursed wine, its drinker, its server, its seller, its buyer, its presser, the one for whom it is pressed, the one who conveys it, and the one to whom it is conveyed” (Hadith Sunan Abu Dawud). He also said, “All liquors are khamr and all khamr are prohibited” (Hadith Muslim from Ibn Umar). The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Liquor that is if much make you intoxicated, then if little also is prohibited” (Hadith Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Daraqutni). Gelatin is kosher, but not all gelatin is halal. Gelatin is usually syubhat (doubted) according to Islam, except gelatin that

is halal certified. Gelatin which is more efficient and economically produced is made of swine’s bone or skin (Encyclopedia of nd Chemical Technology, 2 ed., 1996). On the other hand, meat other than swine is halal based on Islamic law, even though it is not kosher. Jewish law does not allow mentioning God’s name (Jehovah or Yehuvah Elohim) at un-sacred places like at slaughterhouses. Examples of halal animals that are not considered as kosher are animals with split hooves like horses, sea animals which have shells such as shrimp, lobster, crab, etc, wild fowl, fish with no fin or scale. Even meat also becomes not kosher if it is consumed together with cheese or milk. Translated by Delina Source: Is it halal? Question and Answer by Anton Apriyantono, 2006

chapter six text here.

Born on 15th October 1959 in Serang, Banten, Anton obtained his bachelors and masters degree from the Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB). He later received his doctorate in food chemistry at Reading University in Britain. He is currently a full-time lecturer of food and nutrient technology at IPB, and a guest lecturer with the National University of Singapore. Although president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono recently obtained his doctorate from IPB. He was Minister of Agriculture from 2004-2009.

Halal Baking