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5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010

The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave Modulated by Gamma Ray (γ ) for Detecting Victims Through Carbon-14 (C − 14) from inside as Navigational Aids in Evacuation of Disaster Victims Ikhwansyah Isranuri and Umar Sidik Research Center for Noise/Vibration Control, University of Sumatera Utara Jl. Tri Dharma, Gedung Magister Teknik Mesin, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: isranuri@yahoo.com – umar.sidik@engineer.com

Abstract - In the principle that evacuation of inhabitant is an inhabitant transference from dangerous area like tsunami disaster, flood, conflagration and landslide to safety zone of the disaster. The result of the evacuation of inhabitant will be optimal if be done by evacuation functionary that have good physical and mental along with modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental can be obtained from earthling, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation can be obtained from development of science and technology in science institution at Indonesia and other land. Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control or can also be called as N/VCRC has a topic of research that relate to equipments of evacuation, that is “The utilization of ultrasonic wave modulated by gamma ray

(

(γ )

for detecting victims through carbon-14

)

C − 14 from inside as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims”. The ultilization of ultrasonic wave has restrictiveness to the material, that is ultrasonic wave will be rebound if hit material based on its specific acoustic impedance. The restrictiveness of ultrasonic wave can be optimal if the ultrasonic wave has an ability to penetrate the solid substance, so it can be used for closed like subterranean and fallen buildings. The ability of ultrasonic wave to penetrate the solid substance can be obtained by modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray. The modulation and demodulation of ultrasonic and gamma ray will produce a wave which still have ultrasonic characteristic and eve have characteristic of gamma ray. The ultrasonic characteristic of modulated wave will interact with carbon-14 contained inside of human.

(C − 14)

I. THE PROBLEM BACKGROUND

In the principle that evacuation o inhabitant is an inhabitant transference from dangerous area like tsunami disaster, flood, on lagration and landslide to safety one of the disaster. The result of the evacuation of inhabitant will be optimal if be done by evacuation functionary that have good physical and mental along with modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary with good physical and mental will be have view and attitude base upon standard of fieldwork, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation will help the evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation will

help the evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation more directed more directed and maximal. The evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation commonly form a optimum system of evacuation. The optimum system of evacuation is very needed by each of countries in the world for reducing the impacts of disaster happening on human of the country and even more for countries in which have high intensity of disaster. Indonesia is now one of the biggest population in the world. Indonesia is located between the two continents, that are Asian continent and Australia continent along with two oceans, that are Indies ocean and Pacific ocean. The national territory of Indonesia is usually very susceptible for disaster, like eruption of Kelud volcano in East Java at 1966 that caused death by of humans or eruption of Merapi volcano in Middle Java at 1994 that caused death by 57 of humans along with tsunami disaster in Aceh that caused death by 210.000 of humans. The total of amount for deaths which had happened can be minimized by made a success of optimum system of evacuation. The optimum system of evacuation will have transferred humans from dangerous area to safety zone of the disaster. In the principle that implement of optimally evacuation can be obtained by evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental and supported by the modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental can be obtained from earthling, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation can be obtained from development of science and technology in science institution at Indonesia and other land. The development of science and technology in science institution can be implemented if supported by governments and peoples of the world, that are moral and material support. The result of development of science and technology in science institution will be optimal if be done commonly by technological transfer inter-science institution. To implement the development of science and technology inter-science institution is needed a cooperation in science and technology, either a bilateral cooperation or multilateral cooperation.

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5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010

Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control is a science institution in University of Sumatera Utara (USU) that keep doing research on noise and vibration field that are infrasonic, audiosonic and ultrasonic for advance in technology and prosperity of peoples. Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control or can also be called as N/VCRC has a topic of research that relate to equipments of evacuation, that is “The utilization of ultrasonic wave modulated by gamma ray γ for detecting victims

( )

(

)

through carbon-14 C − 14 from inside as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims” like seen figure 1 in this below. The utilization of ultrasonic wave has been done for along time ago, that are like a sonar which can measures the deepness of sea based on reflection-factor from mechanical wave or an ultrasonography which can diagnosed inside of object structure based on picture element in dimension by ultrasonic wave. The utilization of ultrasonic wave has restrictiveness to the material, that is ultrasonic wave will be rebounded if hit a material based on its specific acoustic impedance. The restrictiveness of ultrasonic wave can be optimal if the ultrasonic wave has an ability to penetrate the solid substance like seen in figure 1 this below, so it can be used for closed are like subterranean and fallen buildings. The ability of ultrasonic wave to penetrate the solid substance can be obtained by modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray. The ultrasonic characteristic of modulated wave will interact with carbon-14 C − 14 contained inside of human. To implement the modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray will be needed a electronics system which able to convert gamma ray to be a carriers wave and ultrasonic wave to be an information wave then made them one to be a modulated wave which still have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic.

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and Galton whistles, or electrical methods like magnetostriction and crystal transducer. The electrical methods are most commonly simple methods used to obtain high frequency ultrasonic wave. The magnetostriction is used to obtain ultrasonic wave by approximately 30 kHz, whereas crystal transducer is used to obtain ultrasonic wave above 30 kHz until 15 MHz, but the crystal transducer can be configured commonly with microcontroller to obtain ultrasonic wave above 15 MHz until 10 GHz, if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray so it will produce a wave which have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic like seen figure 2 in this below.

)

Fig. 1. Sketch diagram of victims detector.

In the principle the ultrasonic wave is a mechanical wave which have frequency above of human hearing threshold, that is 20,000 Hz. The ultrasonic wave can be obtained by either mechanical methods, like tunning forks

Fig. 2. Processing of modulation for the ultrasonic wave and gamma ray.

In principle the ultrasonic wave is a mechanical wave which have frequency above of human hearing threshold, that is 20,000 Hz. The ultrasonic wave can be obtained by either mechanical methods, like tunning forks and Galton whistles, or electrical methods like magnetostriction and crystal transducer. The electrical methods are most commonly simple methods used to obtain high frequency ultrasonic wave. The magnetostriction is used to obtain ultrasonic wave by approximately 30 kHz, whereas crystal transducer is used to obtain ultrasonic wave above 30 kHz until 15 MHz, but the crystal transducer can be configured commonly with microcontroller to obtain ultrasonic wave above 15 MHz until 10 GHz, if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray so it will produce a wave which have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic like seen figure 3 in this below. The gamma ray is a form of energy from electromagnetic radiation which produced by radio activity or nuclear process and other sub-atomic like crushing of electron-positron. The gamma ray contains foton with frequency above 1,019 Hz and the gamma ray is neither electron or neutron, so it an not be simply stopped by paper or air and solid substance. The gamma ray will deliver ultrasonic wave with certain frequency to go through subterranean and fallen buildings, so the ultrasonic wave can hit the carbon-14 C − 14 which contained inside of human. The ultrasonic wave with certain frequency which have been hitted the carbon-14 C − 14 will rebound to source based on its angle of deviation. The ultrasonic which have been rebounded can

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5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010

be processed to be an information about existence of victims in subterranean and fallen buildings like seen figure 3 in this below.

5) To implement assembly language programming on system of evacuation for disaster. 6) To implement ultrasonic wave and gamma ray γ on system of evacuation for disaster.

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V. THE RESULT EXPECTED

The victims detector which can be used as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims. VI. THE RESEARCH BENEFIT

There are some benefits of research as the following: 1) To help evacuation functionary and other to evacuating by more directed and effectively. 2) To eliminate the disaster victims that be death cause of can not be detected subterranean and fallen buildings. VII. THE PROPOSAL OF PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

Fig. 3. Processing of information from the ultrasonic wave rebounded by carbon-14

(C − 14) .

II. THE PROBLEM FORMULATION

There are some methods that can be implemented to obtain ultrasonic wave for detecting victims based upon carbon-14 C − 14 parameter which contained inside of human. The methods are mechanical methods and electrical methods. The crystal method is one of electrical method which can be used to obtain ultrasonic wave. The ultrasonic wave with certain frequency produced by the crystal methods can penetrate solid substance until hit carbon-14 C − 14 inside of human if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray and form a victims detector as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims yet, how shall a system of victims detector that most appropriate to be implemented as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims?

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III. THE LIMIT OF PROBLEM

To make victims detector as navigational aids evacuation of disaster victims. IV. THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

There are some objectives of research as the following: 1) Obtaining a victims detector by using ultrasonic wave that be modulated with gamma ray γ . 2) To implement one of electrical methods to obtain ultrasonic wave, that is crystal transducer methods configured by microcontroller system. 3) To implement carbon-14 C − 14 as a parameter for victims detector. 4) To implement Human Computer Interaction (HCI) on system of evacuation for disaster.

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In the principle this research can be effectively implemented if be commonly done by technological transfer inter-science institution. The technological transfer can be implemented if researchers are given opportunity to do research in science institution which have the ultrasonic and gamma ray testing along with carbon-14 C − 14 testing instrument.

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VIII. THE EQUIPMENT NEEDED

There are some equipments needed in this research as the following: 1) A set of ultrasonic testing instrument. 2) A set of gamma ray testing instrument. C − 14 testing 3) A set of carbon-14 instrument. 4) A set of microcontroller instrument. 5) A set of digital electronics instrument.

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IX. THE METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION

The implementation of research contains 5 (five) stages, that are: 1) Literature study the literature study is be done to obtain references that support designing and implementation. The references can be obtained by 3 (three) of source, that are: a. Source of libraries. The literature study by source of libraries cover books and journals finding. b. Source of internet. The literature study by source of internet over articles and e-books finding. c. Source of industries. The literature study by source of industry cover informations finding in industries that relevant to ultrasonic wave, gamma ray γ and

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carbon-14 2) Designing

(C − 14) . 115


5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010

The designing will be done after the literature study. The designing will be done by 2 (two) stage, that are: a. To compile an algorithm. The first stage of designing is compiling an algorithm, that is systematically procedure finding to do research. b. Simulation. The second stage of designing is simulation, that is dynamical state examination by using artificial model likes of truthfully state. 3) Implementation Implementation will be done to know about the achievement of designing. 4) Testing The testing will be done to know about the achievement of designing and implementation. The testing will be done by 3 (three) ways, that are: a. Functional testing. The functional testing will be done to know about the working of victims detector. The functional testing covers testing of victims detector ability to transmit the modulated wave to the human and acceptability of the modulated wave to be processed. b. Victims detector accuracy testing. The testing will be done to know about the accuracy of victims detector to produce, to transmit and process the modulated wave to be an information about existence of victims in subterranean and fallen buildings. c. Reliability testing. The reliability testing will be done to know about the endurance of victims detector to its function after be used on different disaster. 5) Analysis The analysis will be done to know the characteristic of victims detector which contain of quantitatively analysis and qualitatively analysis

Fig. 4. Radioactive properties of

carbon − 4 .

The mass of C − 14 is 14.003241 amu . The carbon dioxide will be absorbed into body and all in universe. The human will absorb C − 14 from food which derived from plants. Gamma Ray Gamma radiation like figure in this below, also known as gamma rays is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency (very short wavelength). They are produced by sub-atomic particle interactions such as electron-positron annihilation, neutral pion decay, radioactive deay, fusion, fission or inverse Compton scattering in astrophysical process. Gamma rays typically have frequencies above

1019 Hz, and therefore have energies above 100 keV and wavelength less than 10 picometers, often smaller than an atom.

X. THEORY

Carbon-14

Carbon − 14 or C − 14 (radiocarbon) like seen in figure this below is a radioactive carbon isotope with a nucleus which contained six of protons and eight of neutron. There are three of carbon isotope which naturally happening, that are 99% of C − 12 , 1% of C − 13 and in a small amount of C − 14 at atmosphere. Half-life of C − 14 is 5,730 ± 40 years. The C − 14 will be loss through beta decay.

Fig. 5. Radiation of alpha, beta and gamma.

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5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 X. ANALYSIS

Analysis for modulation and demodulation are be done by using Fourier series. The Fourier series equation is:

The gamma radiation will interact with proton to bring out the ultrasonic wave for detect c − 4 like seen this below.

T

ao =

2 f (t ) dt T ∫0 T

2 2nπt a n = ∫ f (t ) cos dt T 0 T T

bn =

2 2nπt f (t ) sin dt ∫ T0 T

f (t ) =

~ a0 sin 2nπt   cos 2nπt + ∑  an + bn  2 n =1  T T 

Which the equaivalent of the wave is like seen in figure this below.

Fig. 6. Modulated wave from detector.

The gamma radiation will let drive the figure this below.

β−

like seen

Fig. 8. The gamma ray interaction.

Fig. 7. Gamma ray radiation which bring out the ultrasonic wave.

REFERENCES [1] K. Milton, “Handbook For Electronics Engineering Technicians,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1984. [2] C. Benson, “Ultrasonics,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1960. [3] M. Warren, “Physical Acoustic,” Academic Press, Inc. London, 1964. [4] B.L Theraja, “Basic Electronis,” S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD. New Delhi, 2008. [5] J. Urick Robert, “Principles of Underwater Sound,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1983. [6] D. Rossing Thomas, “The Science of Sound,” Addison Wesley Company, Inc. United State of America, 1983. [7] T. Roger, “Digital Electronics: Principles & Application,” McGrawHill. United State of America, 2008. [8] G. Iwan, “Buku Pintar: Seri Senior,” Pustaka Warga Negara. Jakarta, 2006. [9] H. David, “Fisika: Edisi ke-3 Jilid I,” Erlangga. Jakarta, 1985. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray.html [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_particle.html .

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The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave Modulated by Gamma-Ray for Detecting Victims through Carbon-14