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THE ULSTER ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

EDITOR: Duncan  Berryman.   School  of  Geography,  Archaeology  &  Palaeoecology,  Queen's   University  Belfast,  BELFAST,  BT7  1NN   Email:  newsletter.ulsterarcsoc@gmail.com    

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FROM THE  EDITOR     This  summer  has  again  proved  a  busy  time  for  the  UAS  with  a  number  of  field  trips  and   surveys  taking  place.    The  members  have  been  as  actively  involved  as  always.    Many  of   our  members  have  also  been  digging  with  the  National  Trust  at  Downhill,  this  has  been   the  fourth  year  there  and  the  yards  are  now  looking  presentable,  we  also  have  a  much   better  understanding  of  how  the  buildings  functioned.  As  the  summer  ends,  we  now   prepare  to  return  to  our  exciting  programme  of  lectures.      

Many of  you  will  have  heard  recent  reports  of  local  archaeology  in  the  news.    Back  in   July  the  BBC  reported  that  there  are  about  1.2  million  archaeological  artefacts  held  in   storage  units  by  archaeological  consultancies  because  no  one  else  will  house  these   objects.    This  was  debated  in  Stormont  and  all  parties  supported  the  formation  of  a   working  group  to  investigate  a  solution  to  this  problem.    These  artefacts  are  part  of  our   heritage  and  should  be  made  accessible  to  the  public  through  museums  or  exhibitions.     You  may  also  have  seen  the  news  of  the  crannog  excavation  in  Fermanagh,  part  of  a   road  upgrade  scheme.    Very  few  crannogs  have  been  excavated  and  the  levels  of   preservation  are  comparable  to  Deer  Park  Farms,  Antrim  and  Wood  Quay,  Dublin.     There  was  some  concern  on  the  internet  that  this  site  would  not  be  fully  excavated  and   that  some  information  would  be  lost  as  the  contract  was  about  to  run  out  before  the   excavation  had  finished.    But  the  Environment  Minister  stepped  in  to  extend  the   excavation  and  delay  road  construction  in  that  area.    The  excavation  is  run  by  an   experienced  director  and  additional  specialists  have  been  brought  in  to  assist  in  the   recovery  of  preserved  timbers.    NIEA  have  provided  a  special  report  for  the  UAS   Newsletter.      

Archaeology has  also  featured  in  the  national  news  with  the  success  of  DigVentures  and   their  first  season  of  excavation  at  Flag  Fen.    This  project  was  one  of  the  first   archaeological  excavations  to  use  money  donated  by  the  public  and  staffed  by   volunteers.    Some  really  interesting  items  were  uncovered  during  the  excavation  and   the  directors  continually  publicised  the  site's  progress  through  social  media  and  the   Internet.      

I  recently  bought  a  copy  of  Colin  Breen's  excellent  book  on  Dunluce  castle  and  its  town.   This  is  the  culmination  of  a  number  of  years  of  research  into  the  castle  and  excavation   of  the  town  in  the  neighbouring  field.    It  is  well  illustrated  throughout  with  colour   photos  and  plans  from  the  excavations  and  surveys.    Available  from  NIEA  at  only   £11.50.  

Duncan Berryman   Newsletter  Editor  

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ULSTER ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  EVENTS     Lectures     24th  September  –  Prof.  Audrey  Horning  (QUB): A  Tale  of  Five  Sites  -­‐  Deciphering   the  archaeological  histories  of  Goodlands  Co.  Antrim  from  the  neolithic  to  the   18th  century     29th  October  –  Roisin  O’Reilly:  The  Archaeology  of  Witchcraft  and  Superstition  in   Ireland     19th  November  –  Dr  Brian  Williams  (NIEA):  The  Economic  and  Social  Value  of   the  Historic  Environment  in  Northern  Ireland     10th  December  –  Robert  Chapel  (NAC):  Oakgrove  Cemetery  -­‐  A  unique  Middle   Bronze  Age  cemetery  at  Oakgrove  Co.  Londonderry  

DATA PROTECTION    

In this  digital  age,  many  organisations  hold  a  lot  of  information  about  us  and   many  members  will  have  provided  the  Society  with  some  personal  details.    The   Society  only  holds  personal  details  for  mailings  from  the  UAS.    Because  of  this,  we   must  provide  you  with  the  following  statement:     "Under  the  provisions  of  the  Data  Protection  legislation  the  Society  is   obliged  to  inform  you  that  your  details  are  stored  on  our  computer  for   secretarial  purposes  only  and  will  not  passed  on  to  any  third  party  "    

Newsletter Online     You  can  now  view  a  digital  version  of  the  Newsletter,  with  additional  content  and   colour  images.     Go  to  http://issuu.com/ulsterarcsoc  to  view  the  latest  issue  and  the   previous  edition.    We  will  also  be  emailing  out  a  pdf  copy  to  our  members.     Don’t  forget,  you  can  get  the  latest  news  about  the  Society’s  events  and  activities   by  following  us  on  Twitter  and  Facebook   http://tinyurl.com/uastwitter     http://tinyurl.com/uasfacebook      

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SURVEY GROUP    

Our survey   season   continues   to   provide   us   with   a   few   challenges,   but   a   lot   of   enjoyment  as  well!    In  May  we  visited  Rough  Fort  Rath  at  Moneyrannel  in  Limavady.     This   was   one   of   the   first   properties   that   was   presented   to   the   National   Trust   in   Northern   Ireland,   but   dense   foliage   prevented   accurate   survey   until   this   year,   when   much   of   it   had   been   removed.     This   is   a   very   impressive   monument,   with   a   large   surrounding  bank  and  ditch.    Unfortunately,  our  survey  instrument  failed  just  after  we   started,   but   we   were   able   to   get   the   survey   finished   with   hand   tapes   and   a   bit   of   improvisation.     We   later   discovered   that   a   major   electronic   component   in   the   instrument   had   caused   the   problem   and   it   would   be   cheaper   to   purchase   a   new   instrument   than   have   it   repaired!     While   disappointing,   it   must   be   remembered   that   we  have  had  this  instrument  since  the  inception  of  the  survey  group  in  2005  and  it  has   been  in  almost  constant  use  ever  since.    Fortunately,  our  June  survey  was  scheduled  to   take  place  at  the  Bishop’s  Palace,  Downhill,  which  we  had  previously  surveyed  and  the   instrument  would  not  be  required.    Our  task  here  was  to  record  the  many  features  of   the  East  and  West  Yards  that  had  been  uncovered  during  the  recent  excavations,  for   which   we   only   needed   hand   tapes   and   notebooks.     However,   this   time   the   weather   intervened  and  we  had  to  abandon  the  survey  before  we  became  thoroughly  saturated   –   again.     Fortunately,   we   were   able   to   return   in   July   and   were   able   to   complete   our   work  in  more  sympathetic  weather  conditions.         In   early   August,   we   made   our   way   to   Janey’s   house   at   Craigantlet   to   wash   and   catalogue   the   finds   we   had   recovered   at   Ballygarvan   in   April   (see   the   Summer   2012   Newsletter).     This   took   longer   than   we   had   anticipated,   but   many   interesting   finds   were   examined   and   should   add   significantly   to   the   archaeological   knowledge   of   this   site.    We  were  fortunate  to  have  our  President,  Barrie  Hartwell  along,  who  advised  the   group  as  work  progressed.    The  day  was  much  enhanced  by  a  copious  supply  of  buns   and   other   treats,   generously   supplied   by   Janey   and   June.     Many   thanks   to   Janey   for   making  this  such  a  special  day.    An  interim  report  for  the  site  at  Ballygarvan  is  being   posted  on  the  UAS  website.     The   committee   kindly   agreed   to   fund   a   replacement   survey   instrument,   which   has   been   delivered   in   time   for   our   next   scheduled   outing   at   the   end   of   August.     We   hope  to  return  again  to  the  Divis  site,  this  time  to  survey  the  site  of  a  farm  at  Johnson’s   Green,  where  our  new  survey  instrument  will  be  in  action  for  the  first  time.    Thanks   again   to   Mal,   who,   despite   his   very   onerous   work   commitments   continues   to   find   time   to  facilitate  our  survey  activities.    

Harry Welsh   Fieldwork  Co-­ordinator    

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UAS EVENING  TRIP  TO  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SITES  ON  DIVIS    

On 25th  June  a  number  of  members  of  the  Ulster  Archaeology  Society  braved  the  winds   on  Divis  Mountain  for  a  guided  tour  by  Malachy  Conway,  Archaeologist  for  the  National   Trust.     Malachy  described  the  history  of  the  area  and  how  the  National  Trust  acquired  the  land   after  the  Ministry  of  Defence  had  ceased  to  use  it  for  training  purposes.    The  National   Trust  have  set  in  place  a  series  of  measures  to  open  up  the  archaeology  of  the  Belfast   Hills  to  the  public,  namely  through  the  creation  of  new  paths,  which  allow  easier  access   to  various  sites  located  right  on  the  doorstep  of  Belfast.     Our  first  stop  of  the  evening  was  at  a  site  simply  described  as  a  ‘sheep  fold’  on  the   original  Ordnance  Survey  maps,  but  this  was  no  sheep  fold!    On  first  inspection  it   appeared  simply  as  a  circular,  walled  feature.    However,  on  closer  examination  the  wall   had  what  appeared  to  be  cells  built  into  half  the  structure  and  a  small  walled  passage   around  the  other  side.    At  some  point  in  the  past  the  structure  had  been  built  into  a   boundary  wall.    The  best  description  offered  by  one  member  of  the  group  was  of  ‘an   above  ground  souterrain’,  but  it  was  clear  from  the  size  of  the  structure  that  it  would  be   difficult  to  roof  and  lacked  a  defensible  position.    We  then  continued  along  the  newly   laid  out  path  to  another  ‘sheep  fold’  site,  only  this  one  was  on  a  smaller  scale.    Malachy   believes  that  these  features  are  unique  to  Divis  but  if  anyone  comes  across  any  similar   sites  to  get  in  touch  with  him  or  the  National  Trust.     Our  final  stop  of  the  evening  took  us  back  down  along  the  stream  towards  the  road.     Here,  scattered  along  the  stream,  are  the  remains  of  possible  prehistoric  houses,  most   likely  dating  to  the  Bronze  Age.    Malachy  showed  us  the  site  previously  recorded  by  the   UAS  Survey  Group  (the  survey  report  is  available  on  the  society’s  website)  before   taking  us  further  downstream  to  see  the  newly  identified  prehistoric  houses.    It  was   clear  from  our  visit  that  a  systematic  survey  of  the  National  Trust  land  is  required  to   enable  a  wider  understanding  of  the  archaeology  of  the  Belfast  Hills  and  Malachy,  on   concluding  the  tour,  thanked  the  UAS  Survey  Group  for  their  outstanding  work  in   recording  sites  on  National  Trust  property  across  Northern  Ireland.     I  would  just  like  to  take  this  opportunity  to  thank  Malachy  for  taking  time  out  of  his   schedule  to  act  as  our  guide,  his  enthusiasm,  as  ever,  was  infectious  and  despite  the   overcast  conditions,  a  good  time  was  had  by  all.      

Aaron McIntyre  

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UAS EVENING  TRIP  TO  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SITES  ON  DIVIS  

The ‘cashel’  enclosure  

The ‘cell-­‐bay’  enclosure    

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UAS EVENING  TRIP  TO  14CHRONO  CENTRE     On  Monday  6th  August,  a  group  of  Ulster  Archaeological  Society  members  were  given  a   tour  of  the  14CHRONO  centre  in  the  Department  of  Archaeology  and  Palaeoecology,   Queen's  University  Belfast.     We  were  met  in  the  foyer  of  the  Department  by  Paula  Reimer,  who  had  kindly  laid  on   tea  and  coffee  for  us.    We  then  proceeded  to  the  basement  of  the  building,  which  houses   the  Accelerator  Mass  Spectrometer  (AMS)  dating  facility.    Once  in  the  lab,  Ron  Reimer   explained  the  process  for  dating  each  sample.         The  original  carbon  dating  machines  used  at  Queen’s  used  counted  the  radioactive   decays  of  the  carbon-­‐14  atoms  in  the  sample.    This  took  a  very  long  time  to  process  and   required  large  amounts  of  wood  or  bone  to  produce  a  sample.    Thus,  to  establish  a  date   for  the  site,  the  archaeologists  would  have  to  sacrifice  a  whole  bone  or  collect  a  lot  of   charcoal  or  wood.    However,  the  development  of  the  Accelerator  Mass  Spectrometer   has  allowed  much  smaller  pieces  of  wood  and  bone  to  be  processed  and  to  supply   reliable  dates.     The  AMS  machine  housed  in  the  laboratory  at  Queen’s  was  manufactured  by  National   Electrostatics  Corp  in  America,  one  of  only  two  manufacturers.    This  machine  is  one  of  a   relatively  small  number  of  AMS  machines  across  the  world.    The  laboratory  was  set  up   in  2006  and  the  machine  was  installed  in  January  2007,  having  been  purchased  with  a   very  generous  donation  to  the  University.     The  preparation  of  samples  starts  by  turning  the  material  into  pure  carbon  and  placing   it  into  a  sample  holder.    A  number  of  samples  are  then  loaded  into  a  wheel  that  is  placed   into  the  AMS  machine.    Each  sample  is  heated  to  produce  an  ion  beam  that  enters  the   machine.    The  areas  that  the  wheels  are  loaded  into  are  subject  to  very  high  voltages   and  are  surrounded  by  safety  cages.    The  beam  is  then  bent  to  remove  all  the  impurities   and  the  sensors  at  the  end  count  the  individual  atoms  of  carbon-­‐14  and  carbon-­‐13.    The   ration  between  these  two  ions  allows  the  age  to  be  calculated  with  some  conversion.     The  staff  of  14CHRONO  are  currently  involved  in  research  to  refine  the  calibration  of   dates  using  the  calibration  curve.     The  Ulster  Archaeological  Society  would  like  to  thank  Paula  and  Ron  Reimer  for  a  really   interesting  and  informative  tour  of  the  AMS  facility.    Most  of  our  members  will  know   something  about  carbon  dating,  but  not  many  will  have  had  an  opportunity  to  see  the   machine  that  counts  the  atoms.    

Duncan Berryman    

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UAS EVENING  TRIP  TO  14CHRONO  CENTRE    

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MAY LECTURE    

The Society’s  May  lecture  was  given  by  Dr  Colm  Donnolly,  of  Queen's  University   Belfast’s  Centre  for  Archaeological  Fieldwork,  and  was  titled  –  “From  Crossan  to  the   Acre:  a  transatlantic  archaeological  research  programme”.    Colm’s  lecture  presented  the   results,  to  date,  of  a  collaborative  project  between  QUB  and  the  University  of   Massachusetts  in  Lowell.     Colm  began  by  thanking  the  large  number  of  people  who  have  been  involved  in  the   project,  especially  the  parish  of  St  Patrick’s  in  the  Acre.    Although  it  has  been  running   since  2010,  this  project  is  still  in  it’s  infancy  and  there  is  much  to  be  developed.    There   have  been  two  seasons  of  excavation  in  Lowell  and  one  in  Tyrone,  both  areas  were  to   be  revisited  in  the  summer  of  2012.     The  town  of  Lowell  is  north  of  Boston  and  was  the  birthplace  of  America’s  industrial   revolution.    Originally  a  greenfield  site,  a  group  of  Boston  entrepreneurs  diverted  the   Merrimack  and  Concord  rivers  to  power  the  water-­‐wheels  of  new  factories.    In  1822,   Hugh  Cummiskey  hired  workers  to  dig  these  new  canals  and  the  workers  set  up  their   homes  in  the  Acre.    Cummiskey  was  born  in  Ireland  and  was  working  in  Boston  in  the   early  1800s;  his  marriage  papers  say  that  he  came  from  Crossan  in  Co  Tyrone.    He   owned  a  brewery  in  Boston  and  worked  on  the  development  of  new  land  in  Boston  Bay.     He  gained  some  prominence  in  the  running  of  the  town  and  was  made  a  constable.    As   the  settlement  of  Lowell  developed,  Cummiskey  acted  as  a  gang  leader  and  brought   more  labour  from  Crossan  and  Tyrone,  chain  migration  brought  relatives  of  those   already  working  for  Cummiskey  out  to  America.     By  1830,  there  were  400  Irish  living  in  the  Acre  and  the  first  Catholic  church,  St   Patrick’s,  was  constructed  from  timber  in  1831,  it  was  rebuilt  in  1854.    The  early  maps   of  the  area  show  a  house  in  front  of  the  church.    The  excavation  season  of  2010  focused   on  this  area  and  two  trenches  were  opened  in  front  of  the  current  church,  in  the  hope   that  they  would  reveal  the  walls  of  the  building.    Trench  1  had  a  compacted  clay  surface   and  the  trench  for  the  sill  beam  of  a  wall;  trench  2  contained  a  stoney  compact  surface,   possibly  a  yard  surface.    Cartographic  evidence  indicated  that  trench  1  was  inside  the   house  of  Fr  McDermott.    Newspapers  from  the  1830s  show  that  there  was  a  split  in  the   parish  and  Fr  McDermott  set  up  a  separate  church.    But  when  St  Patrick’s  was  trying  to   buy  the  land  in  front  of  the  church  to  allow  it  to  be  rebuilt,  it  was  mistakenly  sold  to  Fr   McDermott,  who  proceeded  to  build  a  house  on  it  and  prevented  the  church  from   expanding.     In  2011,  geophysics  was  carried  out  over  the  area.    Trench  1  was  reopened  and  a  new   trench,  trench  3,  was  placed  to  investigate  an  anomaly  in  the  geophysics  survey.    The   anomaly  was  shown  to  be  a  water  cistern  with  a  hand  cut  granite  lid,  used  for  the   sewers  of  the  city.    Trench  3  also  contained  a  lot  of  artefacts,  including  clay  pipes,   rosary  beads,  iron  nails,  cattle  bones,  oyster  shells  and  clinker.    The  bones  and  oysters   reveal  the  consumption  of  cheap  food  stuffs  and  the  clinker  was  an  inexpensive  fuel.    

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While these  excavations  were  taking  place,  Dr  Eileen  Murphy  and  others  were  carrying  

out a  survey  of  St  Patrick’s  cemetery  in  Lowell.    This  contained  many  slate  headstones   carved  with  fashionable  symbols  of  the  time.    These  headstones  were  produced  by  the   Yankee  stone  cutters  who  were  producing  for  all  parts  of  the  Lowell  community.    Many   of  the  headstones  contained  Irish  and  Catholic  symbols,  indicating  that  the  Irish  were   specifying  the  designs  on  their  monuments.     Also  in  2011,  the  Irish  side  of  the  project  got  underway.    The  farmstead  of  the   Cummiskey  family  in  Crossan  had  been  identified  through  documentary  research.     Griffith’s  Valuation  shows  John  Cummiskey  holding  two  houses,  which  may  have  been   two  separate  farmsteads  that  were  combined.    In  1761,  the  Cummiskeys  were  leased   land  for  31  years,  indicating  that  they  were  Catholics.    At  that  time  Catholics  were  only   allowed  to  lease  land  for  a  limited  period  of  time.    Local  memory  told  that  anyone  who   wanted  to  travel  to  America  to  work  with  Hugh  Cummiskey  had  to  visit  Crossan  to  be   checked  by  the  Cummiskey  family  and  they  may  have  received  financial  assistance   which  they  later  repaid  while  working  in  Lowell.    Work  at  the  first  house  indicated  that   it  may  have  been  a  byre  dwelling  that  was  extended  in  the  nineteenth  century.     However,  virtually  no  artefacts  were  uncovered.    The  2012  season  will  focus  on  the   second  house.     Social  research  into  the  experiences  of  the  Irish  in  Lowell  has  shown  that  there  was   considerable  variation  across  Massachusetts.    The  church  of  St  Patrick’s  was  rebuilt  in   1853-­‐4.    It  was  the  work  of  Patrick  C  Keeley,  reputedly  the  architect  of  600  churches   across  America.    This  rebuilding  coincided  with  a  period  of  hostility  to  immigrants  and   the  politics  of  the  “know  nothings”.    There  was  a  feeling  of  hostility  to  the  Irish  across   Massachusetts,  and  in  Lowell,  the  Irish  community  faced  down  a  number  of  Yankee   mobs.    But  Lowell  was  different  to  many  of  the  other  industrial  towns  of  Massachusetts;   here  the  Irish  had  become  well  integrated  into  the  community  and  a  number  of  the   Irish  had  become  highly  influential  in  the  city.    1833  saw  the  first  St  Patrick’s  Day   celebrations  and  soon  after  it  became  a  regular  festival.    Unlike  other  towns,  the  Irish   had  quickly  settled  and  become  part  of  the  community.    In  later  periods,  other   immigrant  groups  moved  into  the  Acre  and  set  up  their  own  communities,  in  the  same   way  as  the  Irish  had  done  in  the  early  1800s.     To  close,  Colm  reflected  on  the  number  of  people  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic  that  have   become  involved  in  this  project  and  how  it  has  developed  into  a  genuine  partnership   between  all  of  those  involved.    One  of  the  key  aims  now  was  to  reconnect  with  the   Tyrone  diaspora  in  Massachusetts.    

Duncan Berryman    

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INTERIM ACCOUNT  OF  THE  EXCAVATION  OF  A  CRANNOG  AT  DRUMCLAY,   COUNTY  FERMANAGH  

Ongoing  from  June  2012     The  Crannog  at  Drumclay,  excavated  by  Declan  Hurl  on  the  Cherrymount  Enniskillen  link   road  provided  the  first  opportunity  to  excavate  a  crannog  in  Fermanagh  since  Wakeman’s   work  in  the  late  19th  century.    It  was  unfortunately  unavoidable  in  the  road  scheme  and   NIEA  worked  with  Roads  Service  to  establish  the  archaeological  response.    At  first  a  plan   was  devised  to  preserve  the  crannog  in  situ  beneath  a  bridge.    However,  this  proved  too   difficult  and  an  excavation  commenced.    On  review  (a  condition  of  licencing)  by  NIEA   Built  Heritage  at  the  end  of  July,  the  excavation  was  extended  to  account  for  a  greater   depth  and  complexity  of  archaeological  stratigraphy  than  first  anticipated.    Roads  Service   readily  agreed  to  an  alternative  excavation  strategy,  an  increase  in  the  size  of  the   archaeological  team  and  to  the  provision  of  additional  material  resources.    The  project  is   regularly  reviewed  and  monitored  by  the  NIEA,  Amey  Ltd  and  Road  Services.       The  excavation  is  now  being  co-­‐directed  by  Nora  Bermingham,  an  environmental   archaeologist  commissioned  by  the  Department  of  the  Environment.    Caitriona  Moore,  a   wood  specialist  has  also  been  appointed  to  ensure  identification  and  sampling  of   structural  wood  and  wooden  artefacts  as  well  as  their  first  stage  treatment  on  site.     Crannog  deposits  may  originally  have  been  3-­‐4m  deep  with  the  upper  2m  ranging  in  date   from  c.  AD  900  to  AD  1400.    The  lower  2m  remain  to  be  excavated  and  the  current  date   range  may  expand  further.    Evidence  for  houses  with  clay  floors,  hearths  and  post  and   wattle  walls  have  been  recorded.    Finds  so  far  include  much  Ulster  Coarse  Ware  broadly   divided  between  ‘souterrain’  ware  and  ‘everted  rim’  ware,  parts  of  wooden  objects   including,  parts  of  plates,  lids  for  bowls,  rough-­‐outs  for  stave  vessels  and  at  least  one  boat   timber.    Metal  finds  include  the  shaft  of  a  copper  alloy  pin,  an  iron  plough  share,  well-­‐ preserved  in  the  wet  conditions  and  several  fragments  of  whetstones  all  of  which  provide   tangible  evidence  for  the  day  to  day  farming  activity  of  the  occupants.    Remains  of  leather   shoes  and  cloth  have  also  been  recovered  illustrating  the  importance  of  wetland  sites  in   preserving  the  full  spectrum  of  cultural  material.    Environmental  sampling  for  insects,   plant  macrofossils,  wood  and  other  analyses  will  provide  the  kind  of  evidence  recovered   at  Deerpark  Farms  and  will  aid  reconstruction  of  the  crannog’s  environmental  context   and  hopefully  illustrate  the  more  human  details  of  lice  and  other  insects  living   symbiotically  with  the  inhabitants.          

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THE WILLIAM  DUNLOP  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PHOTOGRAPHIC  ARCHIVE    

It doesn’t  take  me  to  tell  the  readers  of  this  Newsletter  that  Billy  Dunlop  was  for  many   years  the  energetic  heart  of  the  UAS.  His  long-­‐term  editorship  of  this  Newsletter,  while   impressive,  was  but  one  of  his  achievements.    He  was  involved  in  just  about  every  aspect   of  UAS  life,  from  committee  work,  to  attending  lectures  and  field-­‐trips  to,  in  2000,  holding   the  position  of  President  of  the  Society.  With  his  passing  in  September  last  year,  I  lost  a   valued  friend  and  a  trusted  mentor.      

In the  time  after  his  death  many  of  us  contacted  the  Dunlop  family  to  offer  condolences  on   their  loss  and  offer  whatever  help  and  assistance  we  could.    I  was  honoured  to  have  been   asked  by  the  family  to  be  among  the  small  group  invited  to  assist  in  the  redistribution  of   Billy's  personal  library.    While  some  books  went  into  my  own  collection,  and  some  went   to  charity  shops,  I  tried  to  ensure  that  as  many  as  possible  went  to  younger   archaeologists.    My  reasoning  was  that  many  of  the  volumes  were  still  good  quality   research  and  reference  resources  and  deserved  to  see  regular  use.    I  also  thought  that   passing  on  these  books  would  help  ensure  Billy's  legacy  with  a  generation  of  graduates   who  hadn't  been  lucky  enough  to  meet  him  in  person.    Having  run  through  all  these   thoughts,  I  simply  settled  on  the  idea  that,  legacy  or  not,  it  would  have  been  what  Billy   would  have  wanted.    We  then  had  to  ask  the  question  'what  is  going  to  happen  to  Billy's   photos?'    Here  was  a  difficult  problem.    Going  back  to  the  mid  1970s,  Billy  had  been  taking   photographs  of  archaeological  sites.    The  primary  difficulty  was  that,  unfortunately,  no   one  in  Billy's  family  has  a  particular  interest  in  archaeology.    While  they  realised  that  Billy   had  put  an  awful  lot  of  time  and  effort  into  creating  and  cataloguing  this  collection,  there   was  no  one  who  wished  to  retain  and  curate  it.    The  way  it  was  put  to  me  was:  if  I  was   interested,  I  was  free  to  take  it  away,  but  otherwise  it  would  be  disposed  of.    Here  was   another  problem  -­‐  as  much  as  I  admired  and  respected  Billy,  he  wasn't  a  great   photographer!    True,  some  of  his  photographs  were  quite  important  in  terms  of  being   informal  records  of  life  on  a  number  of  the  big  research  excavations  of  his  day.    However,   the  vast  majority  were  of  various  excursions,  through  UAS  or  other  bodies,  to  sites  and   monuments.    These  were  simply  'tourist  snaps'  -­‐  for  the  most  part  these  could  be  easily   replicated  today.      

In all  honesty,  I  was  filled  with  angst  about  this  -­‐  I  didn't  want  to  bring  yet  another  box  of   stuff  into  my  home  that  would  sit  in  my  attic  gently  decaying  for  the  next  few  decades.     Similarly,  I  did  not  fancy  the  idea  of  allowing  this  material  to  be  dumped.    Eventually  my   inner  hoarder  won  out  and  I  (very  reluctantly)  agreed  to  take  the  archive  home  to  join  the   other  detritus  I've  picked  up  in  a  life  in  archaeology.    Over  the  next  couple  of  months  I   started  to  go  through  the  various  packets  of  photos  and  examine  some  of  their  contents.      

My first  impression  was  that  the  candid  shots  of  life  on  excavations  were  interesting  and   valuable  as  an  archaeological  resource  in  themselves.    Billy's  photos  gave  a  glimpse  of  all   the  things  that  are  a  normal  part  of  life  for  professional  archaeologists,  but  not  usually   seen  in  the  finished  reports  -­‐  the  team  having  lunch;  someone  setting  up  the  dumpy  level;   people  trowelling  away  in  a  trench;  well-­‐known  and  respected  senior  figures  in  the   profession,  sunburnt  and  in  shorts,  squinting  at  section  faces.    I  immediately  thought  that   these  were  exactly  the  sort  of  image  that  people  would  be  interested  in  seeing  -­‐  part  of  the   history  of  Irish  archaeology.    

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Closer examination  of  what  I  had  initially  dismissed  as  'tourist  snaps'  revealed  that  these,  

too, had  some  measure  of  worth.  Firstly,  many  were  decent  photos  of  interesting  sites.     Billy's  photos  had  other  things  that  made  them  special  -­‐  in  particular,  some  captured   unique  moments  that  are  unlikely  ever  to  be  replicated.    To  give  one  example:  what  are   the  chances  of  getting  Prof.  George  Eogan,  and  Sir  Colin  Renfrew  (the  latter  carrying  a   briefcase)  on  to  Maeve's  Cairn  in  the  Carrowmore  Complex  (http://tinyurl.com/c94ec5p).     No  disrespect  to  any  of  those  named  above,  but  I  reckon  that  it's  a  pretty  unlikely   situation  that  is  unlikely  to  happen  any  time  soon.    In  1982  there  was  an  international   conference  to  discuss  the  results  of  Göran  Burenhult  's  excavations  at  Carrowmore  -­‐  and   Billy  was  there  to  record  it!    It  is  fleeting  moments  like  these  that  Billy  captured  -­‐   wonderful  little  snippets  of  life  ...  of  never-­‐to-­‐be-­‐repeated  scenes  ...  all  otherwise  lost,  had   it  not  been  for  Billy  and  his  camera.    In  other  cases  Billy's  snapshots  -­‐  many  of  which  are   dated  -­‐  may  yet  prove  useful  to  students  and  those  charged  with  the  long-­‐term   management  and  preservation  of  these  sites.    Simply  put,  Billy's  photos  show  the  site  as  it   was  at  a  particular  time  and  in  a  particular  condition.    Analyses  of  these  images,  in   conjunction  with  other  resources,  may  allow  for  fuller  understandings  of  the  vegetational   and  conservation  histories  of  some  sites,  and  assist  in  the  planning  of  future  conservation   works.    

Whatever the  aesthetic/historical/sociological  value  of  these  images  and  their  future   research  potential,  they  were  never  going  to  be  appreciated  by  anyone  if  they  could  not   be  seen.    For  this  reason,  I  put  together  a  website  with  the  rather  grandiose  title  of:  ‘The   William  Dunlop  Archaeological  Photographic  Archive’  (http://tinyurl.com/7mh9dua),   along  with  a  page  on  Facebook  to  promote  it  (http://tinyurl.com/cdgcfwd).    Much  of  my   free  time  in  the  early  part  of  2012  has  been  taken  up  with  scanning,  cropping,  and  general   manipulation  of  the  photos.    To  date,  I’ve  uploaded  over  700  photos,  covering  11  Irish   counties  along  with  dedicated  albums  to  a  further  seven  major  archaeological   excavations.    I  had  no  particular  goal  in  any  of  this,  other  than  to  allow  Billy’s  photos  to  be   seen  by  the  world  –  professional  archaeologist  and  enthusiastic  amateur  alike.    To  date,   the  collections  have  received  tens  of  thousands  of  views  from  all  over  the  world.    I   frequently  receive  emails  from  strangers,  telling  me  how  they  discovered  the  collection   on  the  internet  and  have  been  inspired  by  the  images  to  either  read  about  Irish   archaeology,  or  come  visit  this  island.    Even  more  gratifying  has  been  the  correspondence   I  have  received  from  a  substantial  number  of  Billy’s  friends,  sharing  reminiscences  about   field  trips  and  excavations  long  past.    

I have  often  wondered  if  I  have  done  the  right  thing  –  would  Billy  have  approved  of  my   sharing  his  photographs  in  this  manner?    I  can  only  believe  that  the  effort  he  spent  in   cataloguing  his  collection  suggests  that  he  did  want  it  to  be  seen  by  others.    While  such   ‘social  media’  as  Facebook  may  well  have  been  unfamiliar  to  Billy,  I  am  equally  certain   that  he  would  have  approved  of  the  manner  in  which  his  images  have  sparked  research   and  good-­‐natured  debate.    But  most  of  all,  I  think  he  would  have  approved  of  people  from   diverse  backgrounds  taking  an  interest  in  our  shared  heritage  and  learning  to  value  and   appreciate  it.    Visit  the  archive  at  -­‐  https://sites.google.com/site/dunloparchive/home    

Robert Chapple    

An unedited  version  of  this  is  available  on  Robert’s  blog  -­‐  http://rmchapple.blogspot.co.uk/      

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NIEA LECTURES     Northern  Ireland  Environment  Agency  is  providing  a  series  of  public  lectures  from   1.00pm  to  2.00pm  on  the  first  Friday  of  each  month  of  2012.   The  venue  is  the  Monuments  and  Buildings  Record  public  reading  room  in  Waterman   House,  5-­‐53  Hill  Street,  Belfast  BT1  2LA.  Information:  028  90  543  159  or  email   hmenquiries@doeni.gov.uk.    Admission  is  free.    All  welcome.   Space  is  limited  at  these  talks,  so  please  come  early  to  avoid  disappointment.     21st  September  1.00pm  Malachy  Conway,  The  National  Trust  –  An  Archaeological   Survey  of  Divis  and  the  Black  Mountain     21st  September  6.00pm  Terence  Reeves-­‐Smyth,  NIEA  –  The  Annesley  Inheritance:   Castlewellan,  Mount  Panther  and  Donard  Lodge     5th  October  John  Meneely,  Queen’s  University,  Belfast  -­‐  Mapping,  Monitoring  &   Visualising  our  Built  and  Natural  Heritage  in  3D     2nd  November  Emily  Murray,  Queen’s  University,  Belfast,  Centre  for  Archaeological   Fieldwork  -­‐  Carrickfergus  Castle  Barracks     7th  December  Mark  Monaghan  -­‐  Harland  and  Wolff:  The  drawing  offices.    The  forgotten   artefact  

BOOKS  

IVERNI: A  prehistory  of  Cork   By  Prof.  William  O’Brien,  £35  available  from  www.collinspress.ie.   This  is  a  really  interesting  book  charting  the  prehistory  of  Cork  through  the  monuments   and  artefacts.    It  is  a  large  hard-­‐backed  volume  and  beautifully  illustrated  with  coloured   diagrams  and  photos  throughout.    O’Brien  has  devoted  each  chapter  to  a  different   period  of  Cork’s  prehistory  and  addresses  a  number  of  issues  in  the  subsections  of  the   chapters.    Beginning  with  a  discussion  of  Ice  Age  hunters  and  the  Mesolithic,  we  quickly   move  to  the  Chalcolithic,  Bronze  Age  and  finally  the  Iron  Age.    The  majority  of  the  book   is  devoted  to  the  Bronze  Age,  with  three  chapters  covering  settlement,  economy,   religion,  society  and  warfare.    Extensive  use  is  made  of  excavations,  surveys  and   artefacts  to  explain  the  discussion  in  the  text.    This  is  the  first  comprehensive  account  of   prehistoric  County  Cork.    This  book  is  written  in  a  very  accessible  manner  and  will   interest  the  non-­‐specialist,  but  there  is  also  much  detail  on  the  key  sites  and  artefacts   for  the  professional.    As  professor  at  University  College  Cork,  O’Brien  is  well  placed  to   write  on  the  subject  and  over  the  years  he  has  carried  out  a  number  of  excavations  and   research  projects  studying  the  late  prehistoric  period,  specifically  in  the  Southwest  of   Ireland.    Prof.  O’Brien  spoke  on  this  subject  to  the  Ulster  Archaeological  Society  back  in   2008.    

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BOOKS

Rathlin Island:  An  archaeological  survey  of  a  maritime  landscape   By  Wes  Forsythe,  Rosemary  McConkey.    £30,  available  from  TSO  (www.tsoshop.co.uk)  or   NIEA.    Yet  again  the  staff  of  the  Centre  for  Maritime  Archaeology,  UU  Coleraine  and  NIEA   have  produced  an  excellent  publication,  covering  everything  from  the  natural  history  of   the  island  and  its  archaeology  to  its  industries  and  settlement.    Lavishly  illustrated   throughout,  with  excellent  diagrams  and  colour  photographs,  this  book  is  both   informative  and  attractive.    The  archaeological  survey  is  comprehensive,  covering  all   periods  and  many  different  site  types.    No  discussion  of  Rathlin  would  be  complete   without  consideration  of  the  porcellanite  mine  at  Brockley  and  Bruce’s  Cave  and  Castle.     All  of  these  sites  are  explored  in  some  detail,  including  new  investigations  at  Bruce’s   Castle.         Dunluce  Castle:  History  and  Archaeology   By  Colin  Breen.    See  ad  on  back  page  for  more  details.    Available  from  July.   This  book  promises  to  fill  a  deficit  in  archaeological  knowledge  in  Northern  Ireland;   complimenting  the  work  of  Tom  McNeill  and  Ruairi  O'Baoill  on  Carrickfegus,  we  now   have  a  publication  on  one  of  the  most  iconic  buildings  in  the  country.    With  the   background  of  a  number  of  seasons  of  excavation  at,  and  research  into  the  castle,  Colin   Breen  is  the  best  person  to  write  the  history  of  this  building  and  its  people.     The  Archaeology  of  Slieve  Donard:  A  Cultural  Biography  of  Ulster’s  Highest   Mountain   By  Sam  Moore.    £10,  available  from  NIEA.    This  book  examines  the  monuments  on  the   summit  of  Donard,  through  myths  and  legends  associated  with  the  cairns  and  St  Donard   (a  hermit  disciple  of  Patrick).    The  mountain  was  used  by  pilgrims  as  part  of  a  penitential   journey  during  Lughnasa  up  to  the  19th  century.    By  1826,  the  OS  had  demolished  the   cairns  to  facilitate  the  mapping  of  Ireland  and  during  the  20th  century,  the  Mourne  Wall   was  constructed.    This  book  highlights  the  importance  of  this  mountain  and  how  people   have  interacted  with  it  over  the  centuries.     Bargains  from  Oxbow   Oxbow  Books  have  a  number  of  titles  at  discounted  prices  in  their  latest  bargain   catalogue  that  may  appeal  to  anyone  interested  in  the  archaeology  of  Ulster.   Visit  www.oxbowbooks.com  for  more  information  and  to  order.   Archaeology  of  Late  Celtic  Britain  and  Ireland  -­‐    £12.95   A  View  from  the  West:  The  Neolithic  of  the  Irish  Sea  Zone  -­‐  £9.95   Defining  a  Regional  Neolithic:  Evidence  from  Britain  and  Ireland  -­‐  £9.95   From  Bann  Flakes  to  Bushmills:  Papers  in  Honour  of  Prof.  Peter  Woodman  -­‐    £9.95   Text  and  Gloss:  Studies  in  Insular  Language  and  Literature  -­‐  £9.95   From  Megaliths  to  Metals  -­‐  £15.00    

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UAS Newsletter Autumn 2012  

The quarterly Newsletter of the Ulster Archaeological Society. Highlighting some of the Society's activities over the past few months.

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