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‘Gain an understanding of design, resoning and application of analogue & digital representation’


‘Understand how different types port initiation of design ideas, als and technical descriptions enabling To develop an ability for critical analysis and

of prepresentation can suppromotion of design propostheir construction or realisation interpretation of design representation’

Mind Map

Inspiration Discover, Analyze, Rearrange

Abstract forms Patterns & Forms

Copied or Restructured

Nature & Originality Visual appeal Chemical reactions Functions & Priority

Ultimate Purpose

Tension & Force

Detail & Preciseness Adabtability



Inspiration begins from nature. The intricate details that lie hidden in minute forms hold the key to successful execution of many useful properties. The processes that take place to form these nano structures is the most intriguing factor; neither can it be deduced nor can it be predicted.

Design work flow


The process of ideation involves both cognitive and expressive interpretations. This helps to identify the underlying design principles, caliberate a prototype and illustrate . Vast amount of digging and exploring is the key to a successful outcome. These techniques ensure that multiple pathways would lead to a better understanding of what forms I can work with and why. The question why is as important as the end result.

Explore different ideas in order to find specific/ target keys that is inspirational

Understanding to how these processes work and why they are of value

Grasping the favourite concepts and their effect on nature, identify key steps that makes the object why it is

Choosing an idea to refine even more, start to build prototypes in order to understand perceptions and forms

State of mind should be filled with different concepts of patterns and ready to choose

Refine the ideas and find suitable and sufficient answers to why the patterns are the way they are

Processes & Nature

Nature is filled with awe and inspiration. THe self organizing skill of the remarkable system inspires me to fully indulge in the information provided by nature. These traits can be seen as adaptability skills in order to ensure that the species survival is carried on. There are two types of natural processes.


The context of Biomimicry is to extract information from natural designs and implementing them to solve human challenges. Biomimicry is a leading field that demonstrates nature at its finest work.

Natural forms

Nature provides us with various complex designs that hides constructive meanings. These ideas are sometimes taken by architects or designers to design bjects and structures.

IDEATION Based on Natural Forms Ideation is unique to the person who seeks it. Nature is filled with complex and extraordinary systems. The following ideas are chosen samples of wondorous patterns that appear continuosly. Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses

Fungis, Bacterias & Viruses are nano micro-organisms that have astonishing forms. Usually, Bacteria and Fungi are found in colonies rather than the Virus who tend to maneuver on their own. When colonies are zoomed in, it’s like stepping into another reality. These organisms work in various ways, reproduces asexually and sexually and when met with a neighbouring colony they tend to be non hostile or hostile depending on the type they run into. The shapes, patterns and colors of these colonies is simply breath taking.

Human Brain

The Human brain is a miraculous organ. The organ stores the information percieved by the person along with all the actions and systematic information to function in daily life. All these actions and remembrance are made by tiny neurons firing up when needed. Under a MRI machine, the magic is unvieled. Emotions, feelings and other activities are seen patterning in different forms depending on the strongness or problematic areas.

Spider Web

The Spider-web concept is one of nature’s wonder. The special silk that spiders produce and weave them in the direction facing South only adds to the mystery of this spectecular phenomenon. Simple yet complex, Simple yet complex, the silk woven by the spider is stronger than steel and lighter than fibre. Humans’ are yet to recreate this special strand of amino acids.

IDEATION Based on Biomimicry

Lotus Leaf

The Lotus leaf is a very good example of a self cleaning system. It is free of contaminants by possessing small bumps on the surface as a coating that enables water to slide past it while carrying any dirt that lies on top of the leaf. This idea has been applied by the Wilhelm Barthlott in an exterior paint that has the same effect as the lotus leaf.

Box Fish

The Box- fish Also known as ostracion cubicus has the ability to swim very fast despite its box shape and size. By taking its low co-efficient of drag and rigid exo skeleton, Mercedes Benz engineers came up with a concept for their new car with the same shape like structure as the box fish that proved to have one of the lowest co-efficient of drag ever tested.

Peacock Feather

Surprisingly, the Peacock feather has only one pigment (brown) but manages to bring out exotic colors. This effect is brought on by capturing light within its layering of keratin proteins combined with melanin background that causes the light to bounce off and ‘producing’ the color. A Japanese company got inspired by this trait and created a reusable display sign that alters through contact with UV light.


Aspergillus is a mold speces found in various places around the world. It was named after holy water sprinkler due to the similar shapy by Biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Some species of Aspergillus is imported for medical and commercial purposes. Some of the asperlligus species are pathogens causing infection to people and animals. Microbial fermentations use a species of aspergillus to make alcoholic beverages like Japanese sake. A type of the species, Aspergillus niger is used for the production of native and foreign enzymes, including glucose oxidase and lysozome. A very excellent visual representation of Aspergillus.

Culture Growth

The following graph shows the correlation of three different species A. Fumigatus, A. Flavus and A. Niger. They all seem to have a higher gernination rate from the beginning. Below the graphs show the growth rate of the three different species in two different temperature conditions.

The growth traits of Aspergillus was observed to have Thermotolerence which means they are able to thrive at less than or equal to 37 degrees celsius. Their germination & growth efficiency seems to peak at this temperature. They also have the ability to sense and utilize nutrients from various sources. This is known as Nutritional versatility. The form of growth adopted by these organisms is known as Radial Growth. This form of growth begins from the centre and expands radially while forming colonies.

Spores (Conidia)

The following graph shows the correlation of the three species and their germination rates at varying temperatue ranges. The survival of these organisms depend on the effective germination at their body temperatures.

These spores (conidia) floats in air and colonize organic matter. They also infects hosts when they land.


THe Hyphae is the key feature in development of the 3 dimensional structure of fungal bio films. The Hyphae display an array of matrix bound like structure. These structures carry the Conidia and helps in dispersing them. The growth of these hyphae are spectacular. The following video shows the growth of the hyphae. h t t p : / / v i m e o . c o m / 7 4 7 4 3 2 7

Growth Sectors found in Aspergillus

Polarity Establishment Polarity establishment deals with functional specificity. It depends on precise control of asymmetric distribution of molecules.

Apical Branching The emminent beginning of a branch from the hyphal tip is known as apical branching. This form of branching is assumed to prevail in conditions that compromise organization of hyphal tips.

Hyphal Morphogenesis

Lateral Branching

Hyphal Morphogenesis involve establishment and maintenance of polarity axis as well as cell division via the deposition of septa. In simple terms, this event determines the way the growth of the hyphae moves.

The dominant type of branching depicted by aspergillus is known as lateral branching. This type of branching begins from the root.

Architectural Design Inspirations Hyphae Lamp Hyphae Lamp is a design based on vein formation of leaves by designer Nervous System. This densely interconnected structure is based on the simulation of the fluid movement structure used by the plant for food proField of Light ‘Field of Light’ in the gardens of Holburne Museum by Bruce Munro is a good example of inspiration of the mycellium structural form of Aspergillus. This beautiful structure illuminates the gardens and has a magical quality associated with it.

Enoki Eco City ‘Enoki Eco City’ is a sustainable model designed for Rome by OFL architectures. This design explores furutre urban possibilities and is regarded as a self sufficient structure.

Patterning Style A A focus on the growth pattern of the colony leads to understanding more about this fungi. From a single spore, the growth is found to expand radially in lateral and apical form. This trype of branching growth is also found in trees.

When the growth reaches a steady increase When the growth begins and increases in speed rate When the growth reaches begins to decline/ target colony size

My Visualization of the colony Growth

The following figure illustrates a time-lapse drawing of the colony growth. The ‘Outburst’ movement indicates the colony extending its reach to maximize their colony by reaching nutrients in the surrounding.

Patterning Style B The focus on energy released during the growth of the Hyphae shows the genetic expansion of the elements within the organism. The mitotic divisions explains the pathway the cell growth take and how frequent this form continues.

The energy itself is intense and the continuos growth of this organism by mitotic division indicates the fast-paced growth.

My visualization of Energy Dissipation during Hyphal growth

The following diagram shows the energy dissipation during hyphal growth formation. The extension of the hyphae is given by the mitotic division of cells and the shape is given by the genetic make-up of the organism. The final design depicts the energy wave form of the whole process.

Patterning Style C The focus is on the Conidio sphores. Under a microsope, the spores display amazing contours on its surface. Its like looking at an overlapped atom with rough edges. These minute component has the ability to infect a person or to spread their genetics to other places. In such compact form, it does achieve its primary purpose. One can only look at it with awe and inspiration.

The Conidiospores are linked to each other when in a cluster. They are held together by gelatinizing coating which makes up a sticky surface.

My Visualization of Conidio Spore contours

The following diagram shows the spores and their structural make-up. The Spores are sperated into micro elements to show the contours. The final design shows the contours being reconnected together to form one spore. By doing this, my achievement is to illustrate the various different contours in a spore.

Analyzing the Final Form

Taking the three different ideas into account, i came up with an incorporated version. The making of the final form begins with the representation of the round colony that leads to the energy dissipating form (shown by the extending arm like structures) and finally resulting in a contoured structure. While i was making this sketch, simplicity was a factor i was constantly considering.

Model Process& Digitization

This chapter focuses on the processes involved to reach the finalised model. With multiple challenges and drawbacks, the process formation of the model is recorded and displayed in a consecutive manner.

Readings and Lectures According to Scheurer and Stehling, the definition of abstraction is a model of reality that is somewhat distorted. This enables people to comprehend a complex structure in simpler terms and to manage it easily. Because these abstractions illustrate various shapes, different types are materials become appropriate to make it. Then comes the method of Reduction, which makes the model into a more optimal transportable form. Normalisation is the way in which all the anomalies are eliminated within a model. This means, the inconsistencies of the model are dealt with to find a solution. The list goes on and on with different types of enhancing systems to make the final productive. What’s important here is the quality of the end result. A design can be computerize and enhanced to form various patterns. Three synchronized motions of elements form designs. They are the architectural formation, material formation and structural performance. When models are computerized, the behavior of the shapes is seen rather than the material. Because the shapes are so volatile, the architectural process is challenged when it comes to making the design model on the computer. The computerized version shows the spatial articulation and structural system of the mode. It is easier to bring changes to the model when they are computerized. The complex structures then can be unfolded to see the complex system in planar view.

Summary of Natural Process The focus on the growth, contours and energy dissipation of Aspergillus led me to come up with a very condensed form. This form exhibits a strong sense of structural balances between the proportions of its body. The form itself looks promising in the sense that i can easily manipulate the structure to bring forth more features into it. THis would ultimately enhance the whole model and thereby adding a greater factor to it. The stronger the resemblance, the better the idea comes out.

Finished Clay Model

The model from sketches were made with plasticine to give it a fluid and smooth finish. The contours on the model represents the contours of the pollen surface. With a bulgy head and a short stem, the structure relates to the hyphae growth. The type of growth portrayed by this model is apical branching. The scale of the model is 1:5 cm.

Modelling by tracing sectional slices

Modelling by tracing profile curves and generating contours

DIgitization The process of digitizing took place in two different methods; modelling geometry by tracing sectional slices & modelling geometry by tracing profile curves and generating contours. Both methods were tested because the sectional slice method failed to give me a desired outcome of my original clay model. Tracing profile curves gave me a more exact and refined structure to manipulate further.

Digitizing: Modelling geometry by tracing sectional slices

The model is then cut into 5mm thick pieces to make ready for digitization process.The model seems to be in an odd shape that vaguely resemblance my original clay model. Also, there were many measurement challenges i faced when i digitized using this method. That probably is the reason behind the odd shape.

Digitizing: Modelling by tracing profile curves and generating contours

By using the tracing profile curves, i got a very promising result. The geometry curves of the end result illuminated my clay model contours. Also, the curves gave an organic touch to the model thereby relating to my original summary of the natural process.

Pattern Development (2D & 3D styles)

Pattern Development

Pyramid pattern using 15 UV points

Box Pattern using 10 UV points

Pyramid pattern using 10 UV points, 3D pattern

Box Pattern using 30 UV points

There were a few number of patterning styles I could work out from RHino software. It also has a custom made pattern function. From what I have noticed, the patterns change form with the number of UV points associated with the model. I experimented with almost all the patterns to see which one suites the model best.

Patterning continued

Triangle pattern using 15 UV points

Wedge pattern using 15 UV points

Wave patterns using 30 UV points

Triangle pattern using 2D & 3D mode

Failed Model

This is a model prototype i was working on which did not go well. This model could not be unrolled, neither is it feasible to be made from cardboard. Here, i have modeled by manually lofting the curves in a different position to give a whirl wind structure. The structure came out pretty well. After that, I added a 2D pattern so that it filled the gaps between the curves to give a complex look to the structure. By doing all this, I actually lost my original context of the model.

Final Model

Inner layer

Rib structure

Outer layer

The final model is the deliberation of numerous patterns that i experimented. I decided to make a 3D model because the strong structure resembled my original context of the model. The model is divided into three seperate pieces. The inner layer, Rib structure and the outer layer. The outer layer is the replicate design of the inner layer but scaled to a larger size. The ribs connect the inner layer to the outer layer thereby making the whole model firmer and stronger. Also, I did an offset using curve attracters to create the holes in a nonuniformed way on the box pattern. This is is make sure that light travels out during the lighting process.

Perpective view of the complete model

Angle views of the final model

Front VIew

Left View

Bottom view

Right View

Unrolling Process


The unrolling process enables me to take the model out piece by piece to make it ready for the laser cutting process. As I have three different layers, I slected each layer seperately for the unrolling process. The overall process took me about 15 minutes because the model unrolled quite easily without any major dysfunctions. There were bits and pieces I had to remove to make it adjustable. Taking strip by strip was the easiest method to unroll for my model. By taking vertical strips, there were multiple overlays of teh pieces which proved to be diffuclt to adjust.

Allignment process

The following are the unrolled pieces set into sheets of 60x90cm. These are the final cut pieces ready for the fablab cutting process. Some pieces had to removed from the original strip due to the natural curvature of the piece not being able to connect with the relative piece. These pieces are meant to be glued later during the pasting process.



I first strated to make the inner layer. I chose white color for inner layer because light would travel much easier with a white base. This proved to be very efficient. I used clips to hold the glued pieces together until it dries. Piecing together was much more difficult than i anticipated due to the curves of the on the model. THese curves got in my way a number of times when i pieced them together.

Inner layer

Inner Layer with RIb structure

Outer Layer

The outer layer was quite difficult to glue on because of the tight structure. The ribs had to be held together tightly to close the structure. The masking tape used is to make sure the glued pieces would stick together until it dries. The clips at the top is for the same function.

Final Model

Readings & Lectures Gershenfeld describes the process of fabrication by using various manual tools and comparing them to the mechineries used for cutting like laser. According to him the widely used material is vinyl. The cheaper the cutting process the more manual work is included. He then goes onto to explain how a laser cutter works with the precision burning method and mediums used by different lasers. THe higher the power of the laser tool, it used for fabrication process rather than designing. It would be hard to see the light produced by laser of this kind and can only be detected when it hits a surface and creates a light and then burns through the object. Laser can be dangerous if the person does not know the amount of power to be used for certain materials.It can also lead to fire accidents. ANother type fo machine used for cutting is known as NC mills which uses metal heads in a rotatory style. This method is classified under subtractive fabrication. An example of additve fabrication would be the use of clay and sculptures. One of the simplest and easiest method used around world is called equality fabrication which is niether additive or subtractive. An example is the vaccum forming which heats up the sheet and then uses vaccum to form the desired shape. Then there is the 3D printing which is also called rapid prototype machines which creates 3D objects as a result. According to Macfarlane, the digital form of an idea has a connection to the original idea and helps in the fabrication process. The fabrication process enhances the forms. The iea is tested and then and developed in a sequential manner. Also, in terms of the digitizing something, a specific language arises. This language helps to identify the ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ forms. He also goes on to describe that architecture is something between making a house and its final form. A final form is achieved through an event and may or may not be permanant given the sustainability of material and time.

Lantern idea  

Lantern making process

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