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ULACIT TIMES Friday, April 27 2012


foundation is, for the physical inequality that nature may be established among men, an equality that is moral and legitimate, for the men, which may be unequal in strength with intelligence, become equal by convention and legal right "(Rousseau, 1762, chapter 9).

First of all we will define disability according to the World Health Organization as: "is any restriction or impairment of the ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for humans. Disability is characterized by excesses or deficiencies in the performance of a normal routine activity, which can be temporary or permanent, reversible or arise as a direct result of the deficiency or as an individual's own response, particularly the psychological, physical, sensory or other". According to Rousseau, the legality of functional diversity. " instead of destroying natural inequality, the

The construction of the ethics of diversity, should be conducted in an open and collaborative way, maintaining a constant effort to include new foundations and ideas that have the same goal: a society in which all human diversity were welcome, and equality guaranteed for everyone. "People with functional diversity, are essential and necessary as an active humanity in social processes, are independent, belong to the human species, require support like all people" (Ulate, 2012)

Most people with disabilities, according to Law 7600 should have equal opportunities. In our country we have implemented substantial changes, but still lacking. The people with disabilities are born with a disability or become disabled by an accident. Educating the general public about the rights of people with disabilities has been a process that has not yet materialized, there are still buildings that lack the necessary resources such as ramps, special toilets, elevators and others, although Law 7600 requires. The buses are being enabled, but not all of them have the requirements for equal treatment, many times people with disabilities regarding mobility problems (moving in wheelchairs) have to wait hours to travel on a bus that has ramp, added to this is the rudeness of the driver who must be trained in caring for this population.

In regards to education, new educational programs, "Education without exclusion" have allowed children with functional diversity,

students of the School of Special Education Fernando Centeno Guell integrated into regular schools, giving them the opportunity to interact and socialize with other children, adapting the school special educational needs. Regarding health services, the National Children's Hospital is the most appropriate health institution to provide individual attention, due to the number of medical specialties they offer. In relation to oral health, few dentists who want to treat this type of patients, because they take special care and patience to deal with, but still are human beings who need our help.

Depending on the functional diversity the person has, the family support will be needed in a greater or lesser degree. Many people believe that people with disabilities are a weight for society, and sometimes we as society prefer to deny or neglect them because of their limitations. By Luis Carlos Rem贸n


The term Netiquette (Red label) refers to a set of rules for good behavior on the Internet. There are rules for various Internet services (discussion lists, IRC, FTP, etc.).. The following are some of the rules to apply to e-mail: 1) Clear identification of the sender and receiver In a home or office, you may find that several people use the same computer and the same mail account. Therefore: - We should write the name of the person to whom the mail. - We must also sign it. It is nice to receive a mail that says only "the shipment was released yesterday."

I receive many emails in my work such a week. As they have neither the sender or recipient, will be thrown away because they do not know who they come from or who should I give him up. 2) Privacy The mail is not as private as it seems. We must be careful what you write. Other people can read it. 3) On the other side there are human beings Do not forget that although we are looking at a monitor, what we are writing you will receive an individual. If we receive an email that we dislike, it is best to wait for the next day to answer it and not write something after we repent. 4) Chains Do not forward any chain of solidarity. Most are false. If you want to work with people in need, we suggest that you contact with serious institutions that can channel your concern. Surely find a way to help with this list of institutions. 5) Virus Alerts Do not forward any virus alert. Most are false. You can stay updated on

new viruses by subscribing to our newsletter Virus Attack or consult our brief overview of most widespread virus. 6) unsolicited advertising messages (spam) Never send unsolicited advertising messages. If you want to promote your business or your website, got the lawful directions, for example, placing a form on your page or creating a newsletter. It is far more valuable to have an opt in list (ie, people who voluntarily signed up) of 500 or 1,000 addresses that addresses one million people who are not interested in our business. Therefore, to preserve the privacy of everyone on the network, never buy or sell e-mail.

8) Subject or Subject Do not send a message with no subject line. In the Subject or Subject, briefly and clearly described the content of the mail. 9) What are you talking about? Do not answer an email saying just "OK" or "I do not." Explain concisely what you mean.

7) Do not answer any unsolicited message Do not answer any unsolicited message or even with the word REMOVE or Unsubscribe as we respond by saying that our address is valid. Spammers use this technique to confirm the addresses with which, rather than stop receiving messages, we began to receive more.

12) Send a message to a group Using the "BCC" or "BCC" to write the address where you want to send an email to several people. In this way prevents all known addresses of the rest of the list.

10) Do not include the entire original message in response Do not include in the response to a message, all the original mail. I deleted everything that is not used, leaving only what is necessary to give context to your response. 11) Forward messages If you receive a mail and resend sure you want to delete all addresses that appear in the message.

13) Do not use ALL CAPS Do not write the entire message in capital letters. It is tiring to read and involves be shouting.

By Dayan Ruiz

compulsive behavior and losing interest in other activities, enter a vicious circle that make you lose everything, your family, your friends. They become obsessive, showing great nervousness and anxiety, since the only thing that reassures them is the realization of addictive behavior.

Addiction is a somewhat an impulsive behavior to run contrary to the will of him who runs, it can cause psychological and physical dependence. Addictions are diseases that affect the quality of life for people who suffer as their families. There are both chemical addictions, vegetables, as well as certain activities and even relationships. Alcohol, nicotine or other drugs, Gambling, Food, shopping, cell phone use, sex or sexual activity, work, Internet. Addictions begin with a pleasant and pleasurable behavior ends up being addictive, it causes an upset abandon. The addict suffers a psychological dependence to that behavior, coming to have a

Addicts often leave their everyday lives and neglect their personal problems, get upset if you do not perform the behavior, are not aware of their problem, sometimes experience feelings of guilt and lie to hide their addiction. Gradually neglect their personal hygiene, are isolated from the people and go into depression.

Stress is a natural response of the body when not enough rest or no change in style may be caused by problems at home, school or work, and produces nervousness. To avoid that kind of stress is good to do recreational activities like dancing, singing, swimming, running so you can relax and not be so tense. We need to live happy and peaceful, with people we want and making our goals. Any excess is bad must be a balance within all the stuff you do every day. To overcome the addiction requires the support of loved ones must be recognized that there is a problem. Depending on the type of addiction, so will the treatment and duration. Experts recommend that the sick person recognize their addiction, accept it and get the help you need, undergoing a rehabilitation program with the appropriate specialists. By Luis Carlos Remón

When talking about addictions the first thing we should do is to find out, what they are. An addiction is a dependency on a substance or

activity despite the bad consequences that this behavior will bring you. The top most common addictions are alcohol, smoking, drugs, internet, gambling, food, sex, video games, shopping and work.

People become addicts because of many reasons: stress, loneliness, depression and anxiety. The problem is that they cannot find a better way to deal with these problems, and they decide to turn to an addiction. They feel like all their problems evaporate into thin air, and because they like this feeling they get hooked and it's very difficult to get them out of that habit.

To overcome an addiction many recommend group therapy, to do physical activities like a sport to be surrounded by people who know about your problem and that want to help you by keeping you out of those habits. Always remember you have the power to overcome this with the help of your friend’s family, but most of all you have to believe in yourself. By Roberto Paz

According to what the speaker said “an addiction it is something you need, that is your body sends messages to your brain and tells you that you need that something�. I think that and addiction is something you get obsessed with, something you do all the time because you think it is a necessity. In the field trip we spoke about modern addictions, their causes, consequences, the most modern addictions are watching T.V., smoking, alcohol, gambling, internet and texting on cell phones there are more like teeth whitening, love and traveling. In my opinion we have to be more open about these addictions because many of us a family member or close friend may suffer from one of them. We also spoke about how addictions can affect us emotionally, mentally, socially and psychologically. Addicts tent to have mood changes especially when they cannot do or obtain what they want. In many occasions our body suffers the consequences because we get sick or suffer depression.

The most important thing is we must do before we can admit that we have an addiction to scan ourselves and detect if we have a problem. After that we should admit our addiction In order to find someone that help us to overcome this problem because if we do not admit that we have an addiction we are never going to find a solution and at the end we are going to be unhappy , frustrated and overwhelmed. I learn a lot of things about addictions like how they can cause a disease and how we can keep away from that addictions, I think we have to be more careful with the things that we do and be attentive with all the people around us and most important be happy with ourselves.

By Dayan Ruiz

Technologies OPP AND LABVIEW Object-oriented rogramming (OOP) is a type of programming in which programmers define not only the data type of a data structure, but also the types of operations that can be applied to the data structure. In this way, the data structure becomes an object that includes data and functions. In addition, programmers can create relationships between one object and another. One of the principal advantages of OOP techniques over procedural programming techniques is that they enable programmers to create modules that do not need to be changed when a new type of object is added. A programmer can simply create a new object that inherits many of its features from existing objects. This makes objectoriented programs easier to modify. To perform OOP, you need an object-oriented programming language, some of the languages are:

Java, Phyton, C++, Pascal among others.

LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a programming environment that can help you build your own program faster and easier. This software provides engineers and scientists with the tools needed to create measurement and control systems. Labview accelerate the productivity through its unique graphical programming environment, so as National Instruments says “you can get more done in less time�. OOP has demonstrated its superiority over procedural programming as an architecture choice in several programming

languages. It encourages cleaner interfaces between sections of the code, it is easier to debug, and it scales better for large programming teams. LabVIEW wanted this power to be accessible by customers. By Roberto Paz

habits we could have problems in our life. These seven habits show to us how to follow the correct steps when we are in a specific situation, trying to solve the problems with leadership and other soft skills that we need to improve with habits. I've read others articles where habits aren´t important and knowledge is more important.

Nowadays when you are searching for a job, a relationship, or while you are studying, we need to have some "special features" Maybe we could have a lot of knowledge in some specific area, however if we don´t improve our

The fourth habit is the most interesting for me because I like the comparison between win and lose; the article present six interesting philosophies of human interaction; for example, the idea is always to win but as a mutual benefit. However but it is more common to see win and lose. I think that in order to improve this habit we need to push away our competitiveness and try to seek benefits for both sides. Working in groups always is better than try to doing it only for your benefit.

The fifth habit emphasizes that it is very important to listen to others, not only with our ears, but with your eyes and heart. If we

exemplify that principle I could say that to the profession, I must listen to my patients not only to know why they want to be check, either by pain or for an esthetic reason, but also offer advice if they need it. When managing an office in the administrative area, try to fortify and improve the strengths (location, economic sector in which it is addressed,) and cut of the weaknesses (weather damaged materials) to avoid economic losses.

Life is a challenge; we must be prepared to accept, if we define our goals and make the first short-term goals, as these are going to lead to the long-term goal. We should And never forget that we also need to take care of, doing physical activity, eating healthy, having an active mind

By Luis Carlos Rem贸n

POLITICS The conflict between Tibet and China

Tibet was a country the size of Western Europe when it was “invaded” in 1950. Many lives have been lost and Tibetans in Tibet do not enjoy basic human rights. People who are not from this part of the world would say that it’s an international conflict because it’s between countries, while some would say that it’s an internal conflict because it deals with the affairs of territories in one country. This means that there are several angles of the story. Some books and articles say that Tibet was invaded by China while other reports show that

Tibet was uprising against its national government, which is China. Some references show that Tibet has been living and standing on its own, although it doesn’t clearly state that it was acknowledged as an independent state or nation. There are also history books that say that China has never relinquished its hold on Tibet, since Tibet has always been a territory of China. Conflict between Tibet and China actually started and became an international issue when the Chinese civil war ended and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded. In 1949, Chinese say that they never “invaded” Tibet, because “invasion” means that a country is overpowering another country, while the Chinese was only implementing and introducing the new Chinese government to all its people and territories, which includes Tibet.

The conflict between Tibet and China came about because

Tibetans refuse to accept such government, as they believed that they already have their own under Lamaism. However, the Tibetan sovereignty and constitution have always been unclear, and the Chinese maintained that in their history of the past centuries, Tibet has always been a territory of China, and that it must be returned to them in terms of acknowledging it.

This conflict wouldn’t have escalated if both accepted the terms of the treaty, which they discussed in the 1950s, that document stated that: their social, religious, and political structure of Tibet wouldn’t be changed. This was violated, and the Chinese somehow didn’t keep the end of their bargain in making Tibet as an autonomous region. Soon enough the problem has deeply rooted, Chinese occupation has resulted in the deaths of at least hundreds of thousands of Tibetans, the destruction of over 6,000 monasteries, nunneries and temples, and the imprisonment and torture of thousands of Tibetans.

Tibetans feared that this ongoing threat to their environment, religion, culture, and people would eventually bury and erase the Tibetan history and heritage. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama continues to hope and believe that peace and non-violence is the only course of action to oppose and end this conflict between Tibet and China. Tibetans have fled their homeland and found refuge in other neighboring countries. All these are still happening, even today, as a result of this ongoing conflict.

Most people end their thinking with this: Terrry Espeland(2008) Though the Chinese government is easing their restrictions, and making some effort to appease the Tibetans, the whole world is still silently watching them, knowing that this conflict will never cease until the Dalai Lama and the rest of the exiled Tibetans can go back to their homeland.

By Roberto Paz

Culture Lotus Feet

For a thousand years, between the X and XX centuries, Chinese women were subject of a painful practice known as "lotus feet" or deformed feet. The feet of the Chinese women are folded and bounded so tight they could not develop normally. It was on a bandage for a period of six months to two years, since they were girls, about the time they were 6 years old or younger. The objective of breaking the bones and cause deformation of the tissues to reduce the size of the feet, reaching an average 10 to 15 cm. But for this process, they have to feel an intensive pain until the nerve dies, so it no longer feels any pain. The interesting thing about Chinese women, they do not take any medication for the infection that the

process of lotus feet can cause, what they did was to soak the feet, with a mixture of herbs and animal blood to remove any skin infections, then the mother will break the four smaller toes against the heel to trap them, then tape them with silk or cotton. This ritual was repeated every other day with clean bandages and for ten years.

In Chinese culture the "lotus feet" was considered the most erotic part of the body that is why Chinese women did this painful and traumatic act. It was also a motherdaughter tradition, but was banned in 1911, led by foreign influence in the nineteenth century. Due of this act, it was observed that most elderly Chinese women are disabled; unfortunately society in China caused this problem, wanting to enhance what they considered

beautiful. The tradition caused them a lot of healthy problems to these women. Many people do crazy things to be accepted in the society, they literally mutilate themselves, to be the stereotype of feminine beauty in China. That is why people do imaginable things to be accepted in this society, to be beautiful, accepted in a group; damaging their health in the short or long term. By Luis Carlos Rem贸n The female giraffe, a standing tradition of the Kayan tribe

childhood since the children are five years old and not all women of the tribe are the ones who get to be a giraffe woman, only those who are born on Wednesdays on the tribe, from early age start to put around their neck rings made of brass wire. This unique necklace consists of a copper coil, decorated with bright objects, which is cleaned twice a day to prevent the metal neck injuries and prevent mold it. This necklace is a symbol of wealth and the longer the necklace the wealthier the family is. It is believed that women who take more hoops are the most beautiful; it is also a symbol of respect and loyalty to women for the men. This rings are incorporated as the years passed and sometimes they die by neck was broken because the neck muscles do not support the weight of the head.

These women are called female giraffe neck or Padaung, they are from Kayan ethnic and they are proud of their culture, the twelve Kayan villages are located in Northern Thailand in Kayan state.

I am do not agree with this tradition because it is something that can cause a lot of deformations to the neck and once those woman put this rings on her neck they cannot take it off. It is better not to follow this tradition.

These women put rings around their neck, these rings are placed from

By Dayan Ruiz

Life Strategies of success There are so many ways to be a successful person, in my personal opinion you need a lot of thing to get success and all it is in your mind and your heart. You have to be positive person to get what you want in life, because if you always say things like “I cannot make it” so that is what will happen. I really liked the seven habits of highly effective people because they showed a lot of ways to be happy in life, getting what you want, and like I said before you only need a positive attitude to achieve your goals I life, you do not need one book, or one person to tell you that you need to do something good with your life, in many cases it depends on the person because there are people who need a motivation to do things, so in that cases the seven habits would help a lot and if the person follow these rules it is going to be a successful person. I liked a lot of habits that the article mentioned, one of them was that we are responsible for our own life, our

behavior is a function of our decisions, not our conditions, and for me we have to think carefully before to make a decision because all the things that happened to us would be the results of our decisions. Finally the most important habit for me was “seek fits to understandthen to be understood”, because if you do not understand what others think you are never going to be understood; in many cases you have to put yourself in others shoes to feel just the way they and their emotions are. At the end only you have the decision to be or not a successful person, it is only in your mind and your heart.

By Dayan Ruiz

A Reflection

In every class you take there’s always something new you can learn. Sometimes people think they know it all, and that they don’t make any mistakes. English is a language that nowadays you must know, is not even an option to learn it, it’s a tool you will need in order to grow your business, or in order to find better jobs and achieve more bigger things in your life. No matter where you are in the world you will communicate if you know this language.

I just to think I spoke English pretty well, but the reality is that I needed a lot of practice with the endings of the words. Languages like any new thing you do needs practice, and that’s why I’m so happy with this class, because it gave me the opportunity to practice my English. Another great thing about the class was the topics, because I never got bored about what we were discussing, and that is a big plus.

Remember, not because we are in the last level of English in the university means we are done with the language. Now is our duty to keep practicing, to use the tools we were giving and achieve new things. We are surrounded we like it or not by English, even more here in Costa Rica where there’s so many people from other countries, and companies from abroad that invest here. By Roberto Paz

To The Reader You will find news about everything, from the latest in technology to what’s happening in the world. We always take into account culture and some tips about what’s good to improve your life. Our public is you! Whoever wants to read we can assure will find information of your interest. ULACIT TIMES will come out every Friday so we will expecting you.


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