ukrainian defense review
Current state and prospects of the UkrainianIndian defense cooperation
â„–4 [ October â€“ December 2013 ]
EXACTLY ON TARGET UAG-40 grenade launcher: lighter
weight & high efficiency
New technologies inside Ukrainian bulletproof vest
Ukrainian Digital Beamforming Array Radar New possibilities for the air control
Ukraine is able to create indigenous gyro stabilized guidance platform
[ table of contents ] navigation
34 GLOBAL POSITIONING
GNSS receiver devices developed by Ukrainian State Enterprise Orizon-Navigation are distinguishable by capability to accept GNSS signals from multiple systems – U.S.’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and, eventually, EU’s GALLILEO and PRC’s COMPASS. Today company is developing unique satellite navigation equipment and has a range of technology innovation projects aimed at the future
10 UKRAINIAN-POLISH DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL TANDEM: TODAY AND TOMORROW
38 WITHOUT A MISS
State-owned design Bureau «Luch» of Kiev offers ample opportunities for industrial partnership
Military-technical cooperation between Ukraine and Poland is showing good momentum this year. Observers point to increased mutual interest from the defense industrial communities of the two countries in pushing ahead with mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields
24 Valeriy Kovalenko, «UKRAINE IS ABLE TO CREATE INDIGENOUS GYRO STABILIZED GUIDANCE PLATFORM» Interview with Chief Development Officer, Chief Designer at Izym Apparatus Factory
14 INDIAN VECTOR
It is not a secret that India, as well as China and Thailand, is a one of the main partner for Ukraine in the Asian defense market. Defense Express proposes to consider the main aspects of the current state and prospects of the Ukrainian-Indian military-technical cooperation.
30 Digital Beamforming (DBF) Array Radar – Technology of the Future
18 OleG Slinko «THE UAG-40 GRENADE LAUNCHER IS LIGHTER WEIGHT WHILST BEING MORE EFFECTIVE THAN FOREIGN COMPETITORS»
Interview with CEO at “KB Precision Mechanisms” Design Company
UKRAINIAN defense REVIEW
The “R&D and Pro duction Association ‘Arsenal’” Corpo ration has developed a digital beamfor ming (DBF) array technology that has no equivalents on the post-Soviet expanse and is designed for use in creating a wide range of current-generation radar systems.
Arms Export and Defense Industrial Complex of Ukraine
Serhiy ZGURETS – Head & Editor-in-Chief Defense Express Media & Consulting Company, email@example.com, Valerii RIABYKH – Director of Development Defense Express Media & Consulting Company, firstname.lastname@example.org, Volodymyr KOPCHAK – Deputy Director – Editor of «Arms export and defense industry of Ukraine» Magazine, email@example.com, Аnton MIKHNENKO – Deputy Director – Editor of «Ukrainian Defense Review» Magazine, firstname.lastname@example.org, Mykhailo SAMUS – The Head of Defense Express Media & Consulting Company European Bureau (Prague, Czech Republic), Dmitry BOGDANOV, Olga NABOCHENKO – expert-observer, Mark KANARSKY – Art Director, Andriy KRAMAR – Commercial Director, Sergey POPSUEVICH – Photographer, Janna DYOMINA – Translator
42 YURIY STORONSKY: «OUR PRODUCTS ARE DESIGNED TO SECURE CIVILIAN LIVES AND SOLDIERS» Interview with CEO, Chief Designer, NPP «Sparing-Vist Center» individual protection
46 SAVING LIVES...
Ukrainian R&D and Production Enterprise “Temp3000”, stepping up with the time, is actively introducing into practice the latest approaches and manufacturing techniques for personal body armor technologies. It has already released a complete range of bullet-resistant vests and ballistic helmets that are conforming to international standards. sea technologies
50 FLOATING COMPOSITE DRYDOCKS FROM UKRAINE: SIMPLE ANSWER TO DIFFICULT QUESTION About State Plant «Pallada» achievements on international market
Our Address 10 Illinska Str, off.5, Kyiv, Ukraine, 04070 Phone: +38 (044) 425-42-10, +38 (044) 425-16-22 email@example.com
In cooperation with: Center for Army Conversion & Disarmament Studies Founder & Director – Valentyn BADRAK
reforms and trends
Restructuring is Underway
State Concern (SC) Ukroboron prom is implementing a restruc turing plan introducing the di visional structure whereby the Concern’s R&D and production companies will be split into divi sions according to products and services, as recommended by McKinsey – a reputable consult ing firm, Ukroboronprom said in a press-release on 9 October 2013. The divisionalization plan envisages that the affiliated companies of the Concern would be grouped into vertically integrated R&D and production holding companies (divisions) according to industry categories as follows: aircraft building and repairs; the manufacture of armored military equipment, motor vehicles, engineer and specialpurpose equipment; shipbuilding and marine equipment; precision-guided weapons and ammunition; radar systems, radio communication systems and air defense systems. Management of the divisions would be carried out giving due consideration to the planned introduction of integrated closed-loop production cycles encompassing research and development, prototyping and series production, upgrading, maintenance and repair, warranty and postwarranty servicing. The divisions will be led by expert practitioners with extensive experience in the development and setting up production of weapons and military equipment in the aforementioned industry sectors.
2 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
New prospects for Ukrainian armed forces President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanu kovych, by his decree # 479/2013 is sued on 2 September 2013, approved and enacted the State Program on the Ukrainian Armed Forces Reform and Development in the period till 2017.
The Program sets out specific timeframes, quantitative and qualitative parameters of the Ukrainian Armed Forces and, most importantly, provides for financial resources to support Program implementation, Minister of Defense, Pavlo Lebedev has said.
The total budget of the Program is set at UAH 131.7 billion ($16.4 bn). Of this amount, about UAH 12bn ($2.05bn) would be spent on combat training programs (an increase to 11% from 6% of the previous Program funds), UAH 24.7bn ($3.08bn) on technical modernization programs (an increase from 10 to 21%) and Hr 90bn ($11.2bn) on personnel (a decline from 83 % to 68 %). The Program envisages a total reduction in the strength of the Ukrainian Armed Forces to 122,000, including about 70,000 personnel of combat formations and units, and 50,000 personnel of logistical and service support units.
Ukraine and China Agree on Cooperation for the Third Countries Deputy Director General of SC Ukroborobprom Maksym Hlushchenko met and talked with President of Aviation Industrial Corporation of China (AVIC) Lin Zuo Ming on the sidelines of aircraft exhibition and show Aviation Expo/China-2013 in Beijing, Ukroboronprom said in a press statement released on 25 September 2013. During the meeting, the two discussed ways to diversify cooperation between AVIC and affiliated companies of
Ukroboronprom. They furthermore identified a number of promising joint projects for the future and agreed to step up joint work under bilateral projects that are already ongoing. The parties identified principles for bilateral engagement regarding possible collaboration in the production of products for promotion in third-country markets. An understanding was reached to sign a framework agreement outlining future areas of cooperation. A draft of the framework agree-
ment will be submitted in the near future by Ukraine to the Chinese party for consideration and possible approval. Also, during Aviation Expo/ China-2013, the united Pavilion of affiliated companies of Ukroboronprom Concern hosted a meeting between officials of the State Concern and a deputy CEO at China Taly Aviation Technologies Corp, who discussed Ukrainian aeronautical exports to China and subsequent in-service support of the equipment on site.
Ukraine and Poland discussing defense-industrial cooperation Potential cooperation ar eas and ways to improve and intensify industri al and technological co operation in the defense industry were discussed during second interna tional conference of the Ukrainian-Polish Forum on Cooperation in the Defense Industry, which took place in Kiev on November 14-15, according to a November 19 report by a Defense Express correspondent.
The conference was jointly organized by the Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski Polish Industrial Lobby, Euro-Atlantic Society, Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Ukraine and Polish Defense Ministry on the Polish side, and the SC Ukroboronprom and Ukrainian Defense Ministry on the Ukrainian side. The first similar forum was held in Warsaw in May 2013. Addressing the status of relations between Ukraine and the Republic of Poland, the Polish team leader, Major General Leszek Cwojdzinski, chief of the Inspectorate for Innovative Defense
Technology Implementation at the Ministry of National Defense, said that “Ukraine is a loyal and worthy partner to Poland”. L. Cwojdzinski said he observed growing cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the defense and military technology areas during 2013. Ihor Odnoralov, acting chief of the Arms Development and Procurement Department at Ukraine’s Ministry of Defense, echoed, saying that defense ministers of the two countries have held three working meetings this year alone. He believes that bilateral defense-industrial cooperation could encompass promising areas such as joint upgrading of weapons and military equipment used by armed forces of North African/Sahel states and the Middle East. At the same time, Leszek Cwojdzinski said that future cooperative programs could address modernization of Polish Air Force’s MiG-29 fighter aircraft by Ukrainian factories as well as Ukraine’s engagement in developing new derivative versions of Polish Sokol-series multipurpose helicopters (W-3PL
Gluszec and W-3PL/N-ІF). Vitali Maistrenko, deputy Director General of SC Ukroboronprom spoke to address Ukraine’s defense industry capabilities. “Cooperation between Ukraine and Poland is of great value to both countries. The more so as we [in Ukraine] already have successful experience working with Polish businesses. Now the key challenge to us is to find out ways to implement our joint projects,” he said. The program of the conference included familiarization visits by Polish business representatives to selected defense-related companies in Ukraine. In particular, the Polish team paid a visit to Design and Development Bureau Luch in Kiev to become acquainted with the range of high-tech product types being developed and manufactured by this Ukrainian company. These included anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) systems Skif and Korsar, helicopter-borne ATGM system Baryer-V as well as anti-tank and anti-aircraft guided missiles that are in service in Ukraine’s Armed Forces and are
well selling in the international market for weapons and military equipment. On the sidelines of the Ukrainian-Polish forum, negotiations were held between representatives of the Polish Industrial Lobby and an executive official of the Ukrainian Defense Ministry’s Department on the Disposal of Rocket Fuel Components, Missiles and Munitions. Following the negotiations, it was announced that a separate panel would be set up to deal with weapons disposal issues. A representative of the Polish side said that expert team of a Polish firm possessing missile and ammunition disposal technology might visit Kiev in a two weeks’ time to hold negotiations with representatives of Ukraine’s Defense Ministry. Marek Lukaniuk, a defense industry expert from the Polish Industrial Lobby said he believes that the ammunition disposal project could very soon become a good example of a joint initiative to be successfully implemented by Ukraine and Poland.
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 3
air / space
Ukraine will complete the con struction and begin the tri als of the new An-178 aircraft in 2014, Ukrainian Industrial Policy Minister, Mykhailo Korolenko told Kommersant-Ukraine newspaper. “We are planning to finish
An-70 Aircraft Testing will finish in February 2014 Prime Ministers Mykola Azarov of Ukraine and Dmitriy Medvedev of the Russian Federation,
during the tenth session of the Ukraine-Russia interstate commission’s sub-commission on economic cooperation affairs, have reached an understanding that joint testing and evaluation program on the An-70 military transport aircraft should be completed by 1 February 2014 and a decision on bringing the aircraft
into production should be made following the test and evaluation outcome, a source in Ukraine’s negotiating team announced to the press. This was reported by RIA-Novosti on 15 October 2013, citing its own sources. “Joint flight tests of the An-70 should be completed by 1 February 2014 and, following the results of these tests, a decision will be made on launching this aircraft into production,” the source said. The source in the Ukrainian team
additionally reported that Azarov and Medvedev agreed that completion date of the An-70 joint testing and evaluation program should be documented in the Protocol of the tenth session of the Ukrainian-Russian interstate commission’s sub-commission on economic cooperation affairs. “It is for the first time that a date for making a crucial decision on the future of this UkrainianRussian project has been officially set,” the source said.
An-124 Ruslan to be Back in Production Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev hopes that Russia and Ukraine will resume production of the An-124 Ruslan transport aircraft as soon as in the nearest future, RBC-Ukraine reported on 15 October 2013, citing Medvedev as saying. “We are almost done creating a joint venture to build An-124 aircraft. I hope we will launch production in the nearest future,”
Medvedev told a joint press conference with his Ukrainian counterpart Mykola Azarov, summing up the outcome of the
4 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
An-178 Airplane to Enter Testing Phase Next Year
tenth session of the UkrainianRussian interstate commission’s sub-commission on economic cooperation affairs.
the construction and proceed to testing of the new An-178 in 2014,” he said. “Antonov State Enterprise has near-term plans that include completion of work to update the An-124 Ruslan transport aircraft and implement it to the production stage. In 2014, we are planning to complete the construction and launch testing and evaluation of the new An-178 aircraft. A restructuring of the company will be carried out and the Antonov Holding will be set up to ensure successful completion of these projects,” Korolenko said.
Ukraine to Provide Protection System for Poland’s projected SW-5 Helicopter
The planned SW-5 attack helicopter being developed by Poland’s PZL Swidnik will be equipped with latest-generation Adros optical-electronic jamming system developed by Ukrainian firm Adron, Ukraine Industrial website reported on 17 October 2013. The future helicopter will be able to carry 3.2-t payloads and will feature a fuselage of composite material, a rear ramp and retractable landing gear, according to PZL Swidnik.
An-158 completes testing in Ecuador
Antonov Aircraft Service Center will be set up in Malta
Malta has proposed that Ukraine set up a servicing center for Antonovseries airplanes and related engines in that country, Vitaly Lukianenko, press officer for Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov reported on 4 September 2013. “During negotiations, Malta’s Prime Minister suggested that Ukraine establish a servicing center for Antonov-series aircraft, aeroengines and helicopters [in Malta],” Lukianenko told the press, commenting on the outcomes of 4 September meeting between M. Azarov and his Maltese counterpart, Joseph Muskat in Kiev. He said such a center could be useful and logistically feasible in Malta, given that over two thousand Ukrainian-built aircraft and engines are currently in operation in Northern Africa.
Ukraine, Thailand Considering Joint UAV Development Project Executive managers of air craft building compa nies affiliated with SC Ukroboronprom met and talked with top officials of Thai Aviation Industries (TAI) on the sidelines of Defense & Security 2013 Expo in Bangkok, Ukroboronprom re ported in a press statement issued on 11 November 2013. The meeting addressed bilateral cooperation in maintenance of the L-39 combat capable trainer aircraft that are in service in the Royal Air Force of Thailand. A. Dashyvets, CEO and chief designer at an experimental gener-
al-purpose aircraft design company said that a meeting with official representatives of the Thai Ministry of Defense was held on the sidelines of the exhibition to discuss a potential joint project developing a mini unmanned aerial vehicle (M-UAV), with production to be set up at Ukrainian aircraft factories. The Ukrainian display at Defense & Security 2013 Expo was the venue for a meeting with the commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Air Force, Prajin Jantong, which addressed potential cooperation in aircraft upgrade and overhaul projects.
Antonov An-158 air plane (production num ber 201-03) owned by Cubana de Aviacion air line has gone on a tour of countries in Latin America, SE Antonov re ported in a press state ment released on 19 November 2013. During this overseas tour, Antonov and its Russian partner, Ilyushin Finance Co. leasing company, are conducting high-altitude airfield deployment capability testing of the airplane, as required by its potential customers in this region of
the world,” Antonov said in the statement. An Antonov’s test pilot crew performed a range of ground tests of the airplane at Latacunga airport in Ecuador, which is located at 2,800 meters above sea level. Afterwards, the An-158 flew to Bolivia where it is undergoing flying and ground tests at an airfield located at 4,000+ meters above sea level. “This tour is a crucial element in promoting the An-148/158 families of airplanes in the Latin American market”, the press statement says.
Ukraine will Upgrade Cuban AN-2 Fleet Ukraine’s SE Antonov of Kiev and PJSC Motor Sich of Zaporizhzhia signed an industrial partner ship deal with the Cuban Airlines Corporation re garding an upgrade of the latter’s fleet of Antonov An-2 aircraft, Antonov announced on 4 September 2013. The Cuban Airlines Corpora tion is going to set up industrial facilities for upgrading its 140-aircraft fleet of An-2s to An-2-100 configuration equipped with Motor Sich MS-14 engine. Under a separate deal, SE Antonov will supply Cuba with required assemblies and components, which it will subcontract from manufacturing companies in Ukraine. The upgrade package includes new engines and related components to
be supplied by Motor Sich, and AV-17 propeller systems to be provided by Russian OJSC “Aerosila”. “If necessary, Antonov will provide training for pilot crews and technicians, in addition to technical oversight of the An-2100 aircraft to be operated in the Republic of Cuba”, Antonov said in a press statement. Earlier in 2013, Antonov built the first An-158 regional jet airliners in a 99-seat configuration, under a 2011 deal with Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC), a Russian company that supplies the aircraft to Cubana de Aviacion Airline on leasing terms. Three aircraft have already been delivered to the Cuban Customer, with one more scheduled for delivery by the end of this year and three more scheduled to be delivered in 2014.
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 5
Successful start of Oplot MBT’s production for Thailand The first two pro duction-standard Oplot main battle tanks (MBTs), which have been built by Malyshev tank fac tory of Kharkiv under
a contract from Thailand, have successfully passed running and firing trials at a proving range in the vicinity of Chuhuiv, Kharkiv
Region, Ukroboronprom’s press service reported citing CEO Serhiy Gromov. At the initial stage of running and firing trials, the tanks demonstrated their capability to run at different speeds while maintaining maneuverability. During live firing tests, both of the tanks performed firing from their 125-mm can-
nons, 7.62-mm coaxial machine guns and 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine guns. All of the designated targets were successfully engaged and destroyed. “Overall, the tests performed on the MBT Oplot tanks validated the qualitative parameters and performance capabilities designated to this combat vehi-
cle by its designers,” Gromov said, and added that testing of three more vehicles from the initial production run would begin any time soon. “Work on the contract with the Thai Customer proceeds as scheduled, and the first five vehicles will be delivered to the Customer within the agreed time frame,” he said.
AvtoKrAZ has supplied a Number of Vehicles for Export PJSC AvtoKrAZ, complying with Tender terms and con dition, has delivered a major quantity of KrAZ automo biles to the Royal Thai Army, the Company told Defense Express on 15 October 2013. These were all-terrain sixwheelers, each equipped with 330hp YaMZ-238-DE2-33 (Euro3) motor (manufactured by Russia’s Yaroslavl Motor Works), 9JS150TA-B transmission gearbox, MFZ-430 clutch and a right hand drive steering system. As required
6 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
by the Customer, the vehicles have been delivered equipped with air conditioners and carrying Swedish-supplied hydraulically controlled hoist system “Sepson”. The vehicles underwent a predelivery inspection held by Royal Thai Army officers. The inspection addressed completeness of equipment set, compliance with Contract specifications, as well as driving tests and trails on a KrAZ testing site. The inspecting officers noted high quality, rapidity and promptitude
with which the Contractor manufactured the vehicles. Following the inspection, the Thai team signed a relevant deed certifying that the vehicles have been manufactured in compliance with applicable terms and conditions of the Contract, which allowed KrAZ to begin shipping the vehicles to the Customer’s country. The contract award to Kremenchuk Automotive Plant was preceded by stringent comparative tests over a
The CEO of Ukroboron prom furthermore said that Ukraine seeks to step up cooperation in military technology with Thailand. Thailand agreed to buy 49 Oplot MBTs in a $200mn deal finalized in September 2011. Malyshev tank factory started production under the contract in the spring of 2012.
protracted period, where KrAZ participated along with other manufacturers of similar vehicles. The vehicles competed in extremely difficult road, climatic and environmental conditions typical of that country. The Ukrainian truck achieved flawless victories in hard competitive struggle, continuously keeping ahead of its rivals and demonstrating the best results in trial. This was a crucial factor in selecting KrAZ as Contract winner.
Ukrainian Shipbuilding Industry expends the markets
Officials of ST Ukrspecexport held a number of meetings while at «Naval & Defence 2013» International Naval and Defense Industry Exhibition in Busan, Korea, the Company said in a press statement released on October 22. In particular, negotiations were held with representatives of the Royal Cambodian Navy (RCN). The negotiations discussed dif ferent aspects of increasing co operation in military technology between Ukraine and Cambodia, as well possible Ukrainian export of river and sea-going vessels to that country. The Ukrainian side came out with an initiative regarding a demon stration in Cambodia of products by Ukrainian defense industry companies, including those affili ated with SC Ukroboronprom. The Ukrainian side said it would be happy to receive a RCN delega tion in Ukraine. Negotiations with representatives of the Royal Thai Navy (RTN) ad dressed matters relating to deep ening bilateral military and techni cal cooperation between the two countries. Members of the Thai team expressed interest in products by Ukrainian shipbuilding industry companies such as Morye Shipyard of Feodosia and R&D Center for Shipbuilding of Mykolayiv. Negotiations with official rep resentatives of Daewoo Shipbuilding &Marine Engineering Co. Ltd addressed potentialities for the Company’s technologi cal and production cooperation with affiliated companies of State Concern Ukroboronprom, includ ing Zorya-Mashproekt. 8 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Ukroboronprom delivers Armored Boats to African Customer SC Ukroboronprom has delivered the first two Konan-750BR light armored boats to a customer from an undisclosed African country; Interfax reported citing a press officer at the State Concern. The light armored boat Konan-750BR has been developed and built by State-run firm “Skloplastyk” in Feodosia, under a contract from an African country, which details have not been disclosed yet. The Konan-750BR light armored boat has a hull made of composite materials. Having 7.5 meters in length and 2.7 meters in width, the boat benefits from all-round armor protection that withstands impacts of 7.62-mm bullets fired from 10 meters.
The Konkan-750BR compares favorably with similar boats available in the export market, particularly in terms of armor protection, sea-going performance, speed (max. 40 knots) and fuel consumption (40 liters per hour – several times less than the amount of fuel consumed by foreign-designed counterparts). The boat is unsinkable due to the presence of floatation inserts of foamed polyurethane. The boat carries a 12.7-mm machine gun and features a current-generation navigation system. The Konan-750BR is being considered for export to several other potential customers, according to Ukroboronprom.
Ukrainian Navy Hopes to Commission the Lead Ship of the Corvette-class by 2017 The Ukrainian Naval Force is planning to add to its fleet the lead ship of the Corvette-class (Project 58250) by 2017, Interfax reported citing Defense Minister Pavlo Lebedev. “Construction of the [Ukrainian Navy’s] Corvette-class (Project 58250) ships is included in the national defenseoriented shipbuilding program, which was approved and enacted by a Cabinet of Ministers’ resolution back in November
2011. Lebedev said that this program provides for funds for the construction of four Corvette-class ships in the period from 2011 through 2021. “The Corvette-class ship First-of-Class is currently under construction. The current Comprehensive State Program on the Ukrainian Armed Forces Reform and Development envisages that the lead ship will enter service [in the Ukrainian Navy] by 2017,” the Ukrainian Defense Minister said.
[ partnership ]
Military-technical coop eration between Ukraine and Poland is showing good momentum this year. Observers point to increased mutual inter est from the defense in dustrial communities of the two countries in pushing ahead with mu tually beneficial coopera tion in various fields. Valerii Riabykh
The successes of today
It should be noted that the interest in cooperation did not appear out of nowhere. Ukrainian arms dealers have been closely working with businesses and organizations in the Republic of Poland in the militarytechnical field during a long enough time period. Over the past few years, the Ukrainian export of goods and services for military and special purposes to Poland covered areas such as aircraft, armored military equipment as well as the development of precision-guided weapons. At this point, examples of successful cooperation between Ukrainian and Polish arms makers are aplenty. Particularly Antonov, the flagship company of Ukraine’s aeronautical industry, has a long and fruitful experience of cooperation with the Republic of Poland. For example, the oldest of Antonov family of aircraft –
It was back in 1978 when PZL Mielec launch ed production of an Antonov-designed aircraft – the An-28. Afterwards, during the 1990s, Poland was building these aircraft on its own, under local designation M28. On a parallel track, the aircraft in its multirole version M28 “Bryza” had been manufactured to meet the requirements of the Polish Air Force, and also supplied for export, particularly to Venezuela. Incidentally, Antonov assisted in adaptating new Pratt & Whitney engines replacing Russian TMD850s, whereupon cooperation on An-28/M28 was terminated. But there are reasons to expect that it will be resumed, since it can be of interest to both sides. This example well illustrates the fundamental historical ground of technological cooperation that roots out from the experience with operating Soviet-vintage weapons and military equipment types. Other examples illustrate that, today, there are new factors driving militarytechnical cooperation between our two countries, particulary with respect to new technological developments by Ukrainian and Polish arms makers, not excluding their potential use in the development of products for the benefit of third countries. For example, “NII Kvant” Scientific Research Institute deliv-
UKRAINIAN-POLISH DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL TANDEM: TODAY AND TOMORROW
10 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
the An-2 – was produced in Poland during a long production run. Not long ago, president and chief designer at Antonov, Dmytro Kiva was presented with Poland’s National Award of “Merit for the MachineBuilding Industry”, in a ceremony celebrating the 10,000th aircraft manufacture.
ered an electronic-optical control system for the naval gun AK-630 “Sarmat” on a landing ship built by Gdynia Naval Shipyard for the Yemenese Navy. Private sector enterprise “R&D and Production Firm ‘Adron’” as well has good experience of cooperation with Poland. Adron’s cooperation with Polish partners dates back to 2006 when the idea originated to employ “Adros” KT-01AV systems in the upgrade of W-3 family of helicopters produced by Poland’s PZL Świdnik. Helicopters equipped with the Ukrainian systems are currently in extensive use by the Polish Armed Forces during both in- and out-of-area operations.
Outlook for the future
Along with interest by Ukrai nian arms makers in the promising Polish defense market, there is an interest from Polish businesses to diversify mutually beneficial cooperation with defense industry enterprises in Ukraine. In particular, there is an interest shown by Poland in acquiring components and replacement parts for Soviet-built aircraft as well as in carrying out cooperative research and development on precision-guided weapons, radar technologies and protection equipment for armored military vehicles. According to the News & Consulting Company «DEFENSE EXPRESS», Ukraine and Poland could closely cooperate in the areas as follows (among others): • further cooperation in repairs and maintenance of aircraft and aeronautical equipment;
Polish Mi-17-1V helicopter with optical-electronic jamming systems from Ukrainian company Adron
• development and production of multi-role radar systems; • development and production of armored military equipment and related maintenance and repair capabilities; • supply by Ukraine of engines and transmissions for armored military vehicles; • cooperation in armored military equipment repairs and upgrades; • supply of Polish Armed Forces with active protection systems and explosive reactive armor systems for armored military vehicles; • cooperation in the manufacture of stationary and floating composite docks. Particularly in the aeronautical sector, mutually beneficial areas of cooperation could include major overhaul/upgrading of Mi-8 helicopters, drawing Polish businesses into the upgrade of Mi-2 helicopters, as well as employing the experience
gained by Polish defense industry enterprises in development and production of Sokol-series helicopters. According to Defense Express analysts, Ukraine could have a great interest in cooperation with Polish aeronautical industry companies in the development and production of a new helicopter to meet the requirements of Ukraine and other countries. That effort could benefit extensively from the expertise gathered by Polish companies with the development and manufacture of the PZL W-3 “Sokol” helicopter. This would give second lease of life to the “Sokol” helicopter (which has earned itself an excellent reputation among operators from around the globe), whilst giving a real meaning to defenseindustrial cooperation between Ukraine and Poland and bringing mutual benefit to both partners. This cooperative project could bring together Polish com-
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 11
[ partnership ]
panies PZLŚwidnik SA (part of AgustaWestland Group), WSK «PZL-Rzeszow SA» and Ukrainian companies Aircraft Repair Plant AVIAKON of Konotop, Aeronautical Company of Sevastopol and private JSC “Motor Sich”. Significant accomplishments achieved by the two countries in the building of armored military equipment could contribute to bilateral technological enrichment. In this particular case, areas of cooperation could include co-development and co-production of new armored military equipment types and related maintenance/repair equipment, as well as the provision of Polish armored military vehicle factories with Ukrainian-built 6TD-series engines, transmissions, reactive armor systems “Nizh” and active protection systems “Zaslon”. Much promise could be held in cooperative projects on upgrad-
12 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Polish platform Anders with active protection system from Ukrainian company Microtec ing the T-72 and PT-91 tanks by installing 6TD engines, replacing transmissions and adding “Nizh” or “Zaslon” protection systems, as well as updating BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles by integrating a weapons station (“Grim”, “Shkval” or “Parus), 400 hp engine 3TD and protection systems “Nizh” or “Zaslon”. Partners in this project could include Huta Stalowa Wola, Bumar Łabedy and Wojskowe Zakłady Mechaniczne SA [military equipment repair company] on the Polish side, and Morozov Design and Development Bureau for Machine-Building of Kharkiv and Engine Design and Development Bureau of Kharkiv on the Ukrainian side. Further to this, great promise is offered by cooperation between Polish and Ukrainian designers and manufacturers of missiles and gun-launched rocket projectiles, ammunition, elec-
tronic equipment and ships. Analysts at «Defense Express» and the Center for Army, Conversion and Disarmament Studies believe that the setting up of Ukraine’s national exhibition at the 22nd Defense Industrial Fair MSPO-2014, which is scheduled to take place in Poland’s Kielce in early September 2014, would act as a powerful catalyst for the development of mutually beneficial defense-industrial cooperation between Ukraine and the Republic of Poland. During this event, Ukrainian defense industry companies could demonstrate all the competitive advantages of their products, hoping, then, for a major adjustment of the Polish Ministry of National Defense’ plans regarding technical modernization of the Republic of Poland Armed Forces, particularly in favor of the Ukrainian proposals that offer the optimum between cost and effectiveness. For their part, Polish arms makers could demonstrate their capabilities in more detail during the “Weapons and Security 2014” exhibition in Kiev on September 2428, 2014. Incidentally, Poland was the first foreign country to mount a major national display at the exhibition “Weapons and Security2013”, which featured products by several companies from among members of the Polish Chamber of Defense Industry Producers. The News & Consulting Company DEFENSE EXPRESS, along with the lead non-governmental organization “Center for Army, Conversion and Disarmament Studies”, recognizing the promise and benefits of Ukrainian-Polish defense-industrial cooperation, particularly for Ukraine, have already launched intensive efforts to create the necessary conditions for this to happen. At his point, DEFENSE EXPRESS, with active support from the Embassy of Poland in Ukraine, and acting in conjunction
with the Polish publishing group ALTAIR and specialized publication RAPORT WTO, is working on a special issue of the magazine, which will be released carrying the slogan “Ukraine and Poland: Partners in the Defense Sector”. This issue will provide Polish and Ukrainian companies interested in enhanced mutually beneficial cooperation an opportunity to present themselves and their proposals. For now, several Ukrainian defense industry companies expressed willingness to publish their proposals regarding further cooperation with Polish counterparts. These particularly include State Concern “Ukroboronprom”, Malyshev [Tank Factory], Izyum Apparatus Factory, “NII Kvant”
Scientific-Research Institute, Design and Development Bureau “Luch” of Kiev, Machine-Building Factory “FED” of Kharkiv, State Enterprise “Antonov”, Base Center for Critical Technologies (BCCT) “Microtech», JSC “Motor Sich”, Holding Company “Ukrspetstekhnika” and R&D and Production Firm “Adron”. Expectations regarding sustainable development of bilateral military-technical cooperation between Ukraine and the Republic of Poland are reinforced further by the outputs of the Second International Conference “Ukrainian-Polish Forum on Defense-Industrial Cooperation” that took place in Kiev on November 13-15. During the event, defense indus-
Polish company “Mista” began licensed production of Ukrainian military ACV “Dozor-B” with the wheel formula 4x4, entitled “Ocilla”
try officials of the two countries discussed ways to intensifying and diversifying bilateral military-technical cooperation and identified areas of focus in such cooperation. These are: cooperation in helicopter repairs and upgrades; cooperative upgrade of Soviet-built fixed-wing aircraft; co-development of air defense capabilities; co-development of new and upgrade of existing types of armored military equipment; demilitarization of surplus weapons and ammunition. As seen from the above, there are plenty of ways to enhanced cooperation. Just one small thing is all that is needed: the want and the will to develop them further. UDR
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 13
[ cooperation ]
INDIAN Serhiy ZGHURETS,
specially for UDR
14 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
OR T C E V , is a one of the ll as China and Thailand we as ia, Ind t tha ret e-time CEO of the It is not a sec Asian defense market. On the in ne rai Uk for er main partn jective to the Company rov, set an ambitious ob ma Sh y ler easy Va », ort exp SE «Ukrspec . This objective was not the Indian marketplace in well ce as sen , pre tan d kis an Pa h exp to wit staff ry cooperation lita mi of ion dit t. tra rke the ma the Indian to achieve, given t Ukrainian presence on ins aga n tio te rac sta t nte ren cou cur ects of the as Russia’s covert to consider the main asp technical cooperation. Defense Express proposes rylita mi ian nd rainian-I and prospects of the Uk
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 15
[ cooperation ]
oday official Delhi focuses on the process of national armed forces modernization as an integral part of the formation of the national security policy. Almost in every segment of weapons and military equipments, India has a long-term national development program. In the medium term country will continue to be the one of the world leaders in the sphere of funding for the weapons development and procurement. Indian government is extremely pragmatically in this issue. Along with multi-billion procurement of new weapons India does not abandon a weapon that has been in operation for many years. Country’s leader tries to find ways to life extension and modernization weapons, and choose the most cost-effective variants. Ukrainian – Indian cooperation mainly based on this sphere of military-technical cooperation. Even with double effort, Ukraine could hardly go further than equipping Russian helicopters with motors, aircraft with airto-air missiles and warships with gas turbine engines. The ice was broken in 2009. Of course, credit for
16 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
this goes not only to Government authorized arms dealers, although the biggest contract ever was secured just because of them. For example, in 2003, ANTK Antonov (now – SE «Antonov»), in conjunction with Kiev’s «Aviant» aircraft building factory, «Progress» Design Bureau of Zaporizhzhia and OJSC «Motor Sich», developed three upgrade packages for the An32 air-plane, particularly with an eye to attracting the interest of the Indian military. The USD 400 million deal, which provided for lifeextension and re-equipment of 105 An-32 military transport aircraft in the Indian Air Force fleet, was signed between the Indian Ministry of Defense and the SE Spetstechnoexport in July 2009. Under the terms of the deal, 40 aircraft will undergo repairs and life-updates in Ukraine, while upgrades for the reminder 65 aircraft will be carried out at BDR 1 aviation plant of Indian Air Force in Kanpur (northern India). Ukrainian portion of the deal will be performed by SC Antonov and Civil Aircraft Maintenance Facility # 410 (both based in Kiev). The year 2010 saw the start of practical implementation phase of that contract. The planes have operated in India for 25 years, despite being originally purchased for only 15 years of
Indian military personnel during the transfer of batch of AN-32 to India Air Force after repairs at the Civil Aircraft Maintenance Facility #410
service life. They were used as cargo planes to make deliveries to airfields high in the mountains and operated at over fifty degrees Centigrade. The Indian Air Force command estimated it would be better to accept Ukraine’s proposal to extend this aircraft’s service life for 15 years rather than to start a new production line for this kind of mission. This An-32 model was originally designed, as commissioned by the Indian government, for flying missions at high temperatures and landing on high altitude (up to 4,500 meters above sea-level) airfields. At present, over 350 An-32 planes are being effectively exploited by India, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, and the CIS and African countries. «The initial cost of the contract between Ukraine and the Indian Air Force is USD 397.7 million, but this contract will evolve. Another USD 110 million is already being added for the manufacture of 100 Motor Sich engines, and another addition of this kind is being considered. Moreover, a total of 350 An-32s were manufactured, so this contract for the upgrading of 105 Indian aircraft can serve as a basis for the modernization of other aircraft», said at one time Facility № 410’s Director General Serhii Podreza. He stressed that this is a unique facility, the only one equipped to repair AN-24, AN-26, AN-30, and AN-32 models. The modernized planes provide better crew conditions, upgraded aircraft protection systems, reinforced wing mounting, higher maximum payload level, and a number of state-of-the-art onboard control systems. Moreover, the AN-32’s on-board systems will be mainly European and American supplied. The upgrade package includes the installation of up-to-date equipment of the domestic and foreign manufacture to ensure higher level of flying
safety. This includes mid-air collision warning system, ground proximity warning system, satellite navigation system, distance measuring equipment, upgraded radio altimeters, new radar with two multifunctional indicators, new oxygen system and improved seats for crew members. The upgraded An-32 will be able to perform landings on ICAO II and III-category runways. As a total, 25 positions of new equipment will be installed. It should be said that this deal is implemented by Ukraine without rough edges. In August 2013 Civil Aircraft Maintenance Facility #410 transferred India next, sixth, batch light transport An32, consisting of five machines. «25 planes An-32 from the 40 that should be upgraded in Ukraine, have been modernized and delivered to the customer, five more are in the process of technical acceptance and will be sent to India in the near future. The seventh batch of An-32 should be transferred to the India at end of the year. The eighth batch arrived for the modernization in Kiev in the middle of July 2013 and will be transfer to the customer at the beginning of 2014,» – said the source of Interfax-Ukraine Agency on September 1, 2013 . It is significant that IndoUkrainian cooperation in military technology is gradually expanding. Particularly during AeroIndia-2011 International Exhibition, the Organization of Defense Research and Development of India and Spetstechnoexport of Ukraine were discussing the potentialities for technology transfers and co-development and co-production of military technologies. The negotiations particularly resulted in the signing of a contract for supply of two-stroke engines for modernization of India’s fleet of BMP-2 armored fighting vehicles. Experts estimate the Indian market for Ukrainian-built diesel engines
for tanks and lightweight armored military vehicles at 1,500 units. Another area of bilateral cooperation concerns helicopter topic. At Aero India 2011 exhibition, Ukraine and India reached an agreement on repair and upgrade an additional number of Indian Air Force’s Mi-25/35 helicopters as well as to provide repairs for units of the «Kopyo-M» air-borne radar system installed on MiG21 combat aircraft. Following the agreements reached by arms dealers, Konotop’s Aviakon expanded its presence on the market for repair of the helicopters Mi-17, Mi24, Mi-35 and particularly the Indian segment of that market. In 2012, the Indian armed forces expressed interest in upgrading their fleet of MI family helicopters by equipping them with the ATGM system «Baryer-B» instead of the ATGM system «Shtorm», as well as installing Motor-Sich high-performance engines with unique altitude performance capabilities. This possibility was discussed by a Ukrainian expert team and the chief of transport and helicopter operations at Indian Air Force headquarters in New Delhi during the 7 th International Land & Naval Defense Systems Exhibition Defexpo 2012. Furthermore, in the spring 2012 the Indian Defense Ministry signed a contract with SJSHC “Artem” for supplying R-27-class airlaunched missiles. The value of the deal is about $ 246 million. In Au-
The seventh batch of An-32 should be transferred to the India at end of the year. The eighth batch arrived for the modernization in Kiev in the middle of July 2013 and will be transfer to the customer at the beginning of 2014
R-27- class air-launched missiles produced by the SJSHC «Artem» in Kiev
gust 2013 General Director of SC “Ukroboronprom» Sergey Gromov said: «The first of missiles sent to the client. Next batch – in a process of preparing. Generally, two thirds of them are already assembled.” Experts estimate that Ukraine also can supply for Indian armed forces passive radar systems, helicopter and turboprop aircraft electronic-optical protection systems against infrared threats, parts and assemblies for future Indian airplanes and helicopters, engine transmission units for armored military vehicles, tankfired guided munitions and antitank guided missile weapons for installation on tanks and APCs. A separate area of cooperation concerns gas turbine for ships produced by “Zorya-Mashproek”. Today, India is still only looks closely at cooperation with Ukrai ne in the issue of shipbuilding. Recently the Indian delegation acquainted with the capabilities of the Chernomorsky shipyard. It is one more important moment. If we talk about aviation segment we should noted that the process of An-32 modernization can be a springboard for expansion of the Ukrainian-Indian military-technical cooperation. For example, India is interested in “Antonov’s” military transport aircraft An-178. Ukraine has offered India project of ramp An-178 as a medium military transport aircraft within the Indian national program MTA. In addition, in February 2013 media became aware that “Antonov” plans to take part in the Indian tender on maritime patrol aircraft. The company will suggest own maritime patrol aircraft An-148-300MP for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard. India plans to procure six maritime patrol aircraft within the framework of MRMR (Medium Range Maritime Reconnaissance) program. But that’s another story which UDR trying to tell in the next issue of the magazine… UDR Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 17
[ new weapons ]
OleG SLINKO: «THE UAG-40 GRENADE LAUNCHER IS LIGHTER WEIGHT WHILST BEING MORE EFFECTIVE THAN FOREIGN COMPETITORS»
espite the current difficulties faced by the defense-industrial complex in Ukraine, domestic enterprises still manage to produce new models of weapons and military equipment, which rival, and in some respects are even superior to international counterparts. Most successful and promising designs in recent years include general-purpose automatic UAG-40 grenade launcher, which was developed by Zavod Leninska Kuznia. Defense Express offers to the attention of its readers an interview with the designer of the UAG-40 grenade launcher, Oleh Slinko, CEO at “KB Precision Mechanisms” Design Company.
18 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Oleh Oleksandrovych, three years have passed since the UAG-40 ma de its public debut in 2010. What is the current status of this project?
– In 2012, the UAG-40 made its international debut at an exhibition in India. In February 2013, we participated as exhibitors in IDEX-2013 arms show. Following this inaugural international demonstration, several renowned foreign publications were full of praise about our development, noting excellent performances of the new item, which to some extent has fueled interest in us. A number of important and very productive meetings took place during and after the IDEX-2013 exhibition. The UAG– 40 generated interest on the part of members and top-rank officers of the armed forces and Army
staffs from countries in South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Based on the results of those meetings, plans were outlined regarding [our] participation in several contract competitions in countries where our products face competition from counterparts such as the U.S. General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products’ MK-19, Turkish MKEK AGL (Automatic Grenade Launcher), as well as the South Korean AGL Hanwa and Chinese grenade launchers.
Of course, the key feature of your launcher is its low weight. By what means did you achieve this? And what other distinguishing features does the UAG– 40 boast?
– Indeed, the UAG– 40 is much lighter weight than same-generation counterparts. The UAG-40 weighs 17kg (including tripod – 33 kilograms) and is able to launch its grenade out to 2,200 meters. This was made possible through the use of new currentgeneration technology and materials. We also produce a variant designed specifically for special operations units. This weighs 15 kg, with a high content of titanium. More, the muzzle recoil compensator is designed such that – exploiting powder gases – to reduce recoil momentum, reduce upward barrel jump and reduce soil injection effects under the barrel. Another advantage is that it uses friction-damped cantilever springs located in the receiver walls to help reduce rearward bolt travel velocity. The UAG– 40 provides high accuracy of fire due, inter alia, to a unitized design of the barrel and progressivetwist rifling, with the pitch commencing at 1 turn in 8 calibres at the breechend, through 1 turn in 16 at mid-barrel to 1 turn in 24 at the muzzle. This “know-how” solution proved to be effective, and our grenade launcher was the first to have it applied. The weapon is fired using either a pair of handgrips at the rear of the weapon, or a single handgrip and extended shoulder-rest. The grips can be installed in a vertical or horizontal position depending on operator preferences. The dual-mode Grenade release button, which is on the righthand grip, supports single-shot and burst modes of firing. The Grenade release button and the bolt are both outfitted with safety locks to preclude any uncontrolled discharge as a result of the weapon being dropped or fell down, or subject to vibration, jolting or shock impacts from any direction. For reliability and operator comfort, both of the safety locks share a common control handle. One more advantage is that the grenade launcher is compatible with any of NATO standard rounds of ammunition in 40 mm caliber, made in the U.S.A., SAR, France or Bulgaria.
This is what makes the UAG40 truly versatile. Grenade
ket for weapons in the 40 mm caliber. With this in mind, we and KB Luch intend to focus precisely on grenades of these types. A little bit of patience is required. I hope that right next year it will be possible to speak that Ukraine has an indigenous, fully functional 40 mm ammunition round, and that the whole [UAG-40] system is completed.
The 40 mm caliber is NATO’s launcher is compatistandard caliber. It is not ble with any of common in Ukraine, be NATO standard cause its military relies rounds of on the existing invento ammunition ry of 30mm AGS-17 launch in 40 mm ers. With the UAG-40 en caliber tering service, there will be an acute requirement for 40mm ammunition. How Who else in Ukraine attempted this challenge is being handled now? – Indeed, ammunition is the tightest to make a 40 mm grenade? bottleneck. Basically, it is ammunition that makes any weapon marketable. We are now engaged with “KB Luch” Design Bureau to create a 40 mm grenade. Now the situation is as follows: An inert training grenade has been created and test fired, but the situation is more complicated as regards the ball grenade. It is known that hollow charge, fragmentation and high explosive dual purpose grenades are most demanded ammunition types on the global mar-
– As far as I know, no one. This is an initiative of ours and KB Luch. You have to understand that this is about a huge amount of work that includes design and development, low-rate initial production, testing and subsequent refining of the design, certification for service entry, pre-production works and setting up series production. For example, a seemingly simple component such as connector requires a considerable amount of effort
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 19
[ new weapons ] to make. With our cooperative partners, we already have it done – picked up the appropriate metal and adapted it to the capabilities of our metallurgists. This is not an easy challenge to handle, but it is one that simply needs funding and consistent effort.
in Ukraine. This requirement is absolutely reasonable. Then we demonstrate two grenades – one ‘ours’ and the other made by an international manufacturer. The important thing is that both are suitable for use with the UAG-40 grenade launcher.
What about the lifetime of the barrel?
What is the price of your product?
– [The barrel will last] 7,000 to 10,000 rounds. In the UAG-40, purpose made covering is applied to the barrel. In most of counterpart launcher types, including foreign designed, nickelchromium is used to make the barrel more durable and corrosion-resistant. We did not go that way. Our barrel undergoes special chemical and thermal treatment in a gas environment. This makes manufacturing process considerably far cheaper whilst improving corrosion resistance of the barrel by a factor of two. Over that time, we have shot over 5,000 rounds of ammo out the barrel, which is all sufficient for having it certified in the West.
– For export customers, the price tag will not differ too much from that of the existing international counterparts. Here, it should be noted that export pricing policy decision are up to the State Company “Ukrspecexport”. However, our key advantage is that, with technical/tactical performances almost identical [with those of international counterparts], our design offers a substantial weight saving, and can fire all of the exiting high velocity grenade rounds in the 40 mm NATO standard caliber. This is beneficial in many respects. For example, when using the grenade launcher for international peacekeeping missions, there is the ability to use ammunition stocks of the deployed peacekeeping force. This reduces logistic footprint, eliminating the need to deliver the ammunition from Ukraine. In addition, thanks to lighter weight, the UAG-40 crew is reduced from three to two personnel (one for carrying the 13-14-kg tripod, and the other the 15-17-kg grenade launcher), enabling a save of human and financial resources.
How much interest is there in your product on the part of the Ukrainian consumer? – The interest is there indeed. Professionals are saying that the item is excellent, but for our military, the number-one issue is the availability of domestic capabilities to series produce compatible grenades here
Which of the equipment types can be used as host platforms for the UAG-40 ? – The grenade launcher is optimized for use on all kinds of military vehicles, including the BTR-3 and BTR-4 armored personnel carriers. Work has recently been completed for the integration of the grenade launcher onto the “Kozak” armored fighting vehicle and the BRDM reconnaissance and observation vehicle. Plans for the near future include adapting the launcher for installation on the BTR-4, which will require a certain rearrangement of the vehicle’s interior.
What is your Company doing now with respect to the grenade launcher? – At this point, Zavod Leninska Kuznya, supported by our Design Company, has manufactured the initial preproduction quantity of UAG– 40 grenade launchers. There is already one contract signed with a customer from an African country, work on which has got underway. Furthermore, the Company now deals with integrating the launcher with an optical sight system. We are faced with a situation where a number of customers urgently insist that the organic iron sight on the UAG-40 be complemented with an optical sight. A substantial amount of work has been done to resolve the engineering and technical issues related to the installation of optics. In the upshot, after testing a number of compatible optical sights available on the global market, we picked the PAG17, which we are now adjusting for integration with the UAG-40. During this adaptation effort, we had to work out from scratch the firing table at ranges from 100 to 2,000 meters. Finally, we are working on a possibility to use an optoelectronic sighting and fire control system on the UAG40. Hopefully, it will not be too long before our Company and Zavod Leninska Kuznya jointly produce and demonstrate a new-type automatic grenade launcher system, the UAG-40. UDR
Interviewed by Anton Mikhnenko 20 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
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Hermetic packages, connectors and battery covers for the protection of sensitive electronics
UAG-40 AUTOMATIC GRENADE
Automatic belt-fed grenade launcher UAG-40 was developed by CEO at “KB Precision Mechanisms” in cooperation with Zavod Leninska Kuznya, Kiev and State Design Bureau “Luch”, Kiev
he 40mm automatic belt-fed UAG-40 grenade launcher is a suitable weapon for engaging, at day or night, enemy personnel as well as hostile firing positions, equipment and transports exposed in unshielded or poorly shielded locations – in open entrenchments, surface depressions, ravines or on the back hillsides. It is able to engage its targets as far as 2,200 meters away. The UAG-40 made its public debut at the Defense Industry Forum in Kiev in August 2010.
Compatible types of ammunition rounds
Muzzle recoil compensator reduces recoil momentum and improves accuracy of fire
Development of the ammunition round for the UAG-40 is being dealt with by State Design Bureau “Luch”, Kiev. It will also be able to fire grenade rounds supplied by General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products, USA, and other ammo makers
High-explosive dual-purpose (HEDP) round Is able to pierce through 80mm-thick rolled homogenous armor protection of combat vehicles, inflicting personnel casualties by blast wave and explosion fragments and debris in the area of impact
Anti-personnel canister round NATO’s standards regarding 40mm grenade rounds set kill radius at 9 meters and wound radius at 15 meters.
M430 High-Explosive Dual-Purpose (HEDP) round in cross-section 1 – cap; 2 – projectile body; 3 – rotating band; 4 – cartridge case; 5 – low pressure chamber; 6 – high pressure chamber; 7 – primer, 8 – liner; 9 – high to low pressure vent; 10 – propelling charge; 11 – shaped charge; 12 – blasting primer; 13 – ignition fuze. 22 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
is of a relatively non-sophisticated design
doubles as carrying handle
The grenade launcher is fired using:
either a pair of handgrips at the rear of the weapon, or a single handgrip and extended shoulder-rest
240 400 960
The grenade launcher:
m/s – muzzle velocity mm – barrel length mm – max length
Grenades are belt-fed from M-16-type steel belts
кг – full combat weight (tripod mount included)
кг – weight without grenades
can be mounted on self-propelled platforms such as lightly armored combat vehicles «Kozak» or «Dozor» is carried by two personnel, one carrying the tripod mount and the other the launcher system and ammunition allowance
AMMUNITION ALLOWANCE Single-shot and burst modes of firing are possible
400 2200 1500
rpm rate of fire
The grenade launcher is suitable weapon for engaging enemy personnel in shelters or ground accidents; with the grenade air bursting above its target
m– maximum range m – maximum effective range against pinpoint targets
m – most probable impact radius
15м Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 23
[ capabilities ]
Chief Development Officer, Chief Designer at Izym Apparatus Factory
UKRAINE IS ABLE TO CREATE INDIGENOUS GYRO STABILIZED GUIDANCE PLATFORM
tate-owned “Izyum Apparatus Factory” (SE IAF) is the flag ship enterprise of the Ukrainian defense industry’s optoelectronics sector. Defense Express did not miss the op portunity to have a meaningful con versation with Valery Kovalenko, Chief Development Officer and Chief Designer ay SE IAF. That Company has managed to preserve and ex pand further its closed-loop pro duction cycle for optoelectronic sys tems whilst being closely engaged in several domestic as well as interna 24 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
tional projects. About this and more you will read in the interview below. Valery Volodymyrovych, among other Ukrainian actors exhib iting separately at this fair, the SE IAF’s Stand is most substan tive. Would you tell briefly about the Company as a whole and the range of products it offers both to international customers and the Ukrainian Armed Forces? Our Company has a long and very rich history. It was back in 1923 when
it manufactured its first commercial optical glass. The SE IAF was set up as Optics Factory that manufactured nothing but optical glasses. Afterwards, it outgrew into an optoelectronic apparatus factory in 1940. The Izym Apparatus Factory is the only enterprise in Ukraine to manufacture optical glasses. Nowadays, the Factory is one of top-rank international suppliers of colored and colorless optical glasses. The Factory has technology and equipment for the production of unique brands of optical glasses. For now, we have developed production know-how for more than 240 brands of optical glass that are used by consumers on all continents of the globe. In addition to optical glasses, the Factory produces precision optical, optomechanical and optoelectronic instruments. Our optoelectronic apparatus engineering business, which we preserved and are expanding in every way, is focused on missile guidance systems and relevant components for anti-tank missile (ATM) systems; sea-based surveillance systems, fire control sighting equipment, driver’s night vision devices for armored combat vehicles of all types, anti-aircraft sights, as well as a complete range of observation instruments for armored combat vehicles, missile defense systems, target detection systems and missile guidance units. For now, Moscow has departed from the use of some of our systems that were targeted specifically at the Russian market. Those include the Item 3Ts85 “Kortik” – part of the “Kashtan” system that previously equipped some of heavily armed naval vessels. At the same time, we have preserved our principal areas of expertise, which we are improving and upgrading to modern standards, supplying products, both to export customers and own Ministry of Defense. It is crucial that our Factory maintains a full, closed-loop manufacturing cycle. We all do ourselves – melt optical glass, treat it and fabricate optoelectronic instruments.
Missile laser-guidance facility (LGF) has been integrated with a Chinese “ball” (gyro stabilized guidance platform)
More compact, less expensive, more effective
Now let us run through your product range. As we under stood, anti-tank missile systems are in a league of their own…
This is true. First of all, we should mention cooperation with the Russian Federation on the “Metis” antitank missile (ATM) system. We have contracts signed with the Russians, who are actively and successfully supplying those systems for export. An international export contract for another, considerably large number has been signed recently. We must not let down our partners. “Metis” systems enjoy a demand in the international market, this is thanks to the range extension upgrades carried out by our Company, among other things. Particularly, the system has obtained a high precision capability and range of fire extended to 2,000 meters from 1,200 meters. The system’s missile and equipment module are, as before, Russia’s responsibility, whilst we provide the 9S816M guidance unit, including a sighting facility and target coordinate extraction and transmission unit. The “Metis”
system is in service with the Russian Armed Forces.
Is missile guidance by laser beam riding? No, it is still by wire. Key benefits here include cost effectiveness and high precision of guidance. A missile guided by few command links is very cheap whilst being sufficiently accurate. We also produce the 9SH119M1 unit for the “Konkurs” antitank missile system, which is similar to that used for the “Metis”, but is designed for ranges of up to 4,000 meters. True enough, it is not in such demand [as the “Metis”], being supplied in small quantities. As regards the “Metis”, even 20 years ago, it was thought that nobody will buy it any longer, but, as we see today, it continues to be in demand.
Does the work proceed regarding the new indigenous ATM system “Korsar”? We have developed a new guidance unit specifically for the “Kosar”. The design and development phase has been effectively over so we proceeded to the prototyping phase. So far, as you may know, the “Korsar” features a Belarusian counterpart. Our device is less bulky and 2.5 kg lighter weight, which is significant for an ATM system in this particular category. There is no television channel; we use instead a regular sighting channel. By request from KB “Luch”, we have also developed a very compact device for a grenade launcher, which integrates a laser rangefinder (compact and weighing a meager 100g) de-
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 25
[ capabilities ] signed for ranges of up to two kilometers, as well as a projection-type system for injecting service data into the sighting channel. The system for a grenade launcher uses techniques such as calculation of target velocity, calculation of the predicted point of impact, and the displaying of laying marks on the sight channel’s screen.
Are the “Metis” and “Korsar” competing with each other in the market? Technically, they are competitors, although they have notable differences from one another. The “Korsar” uses laser beam riding instead of wire
link, and furthermore it was originally designed to be shoulder-fired. I think that a number of upgrades need to be introduced into the “Korsar”’s design to make it more ergonomic for use precisely when shoulder fired. There is also need to “ruggerdize” the design of the weapon guidance unit etc. Moreover, the “Korsar” is relatively inexpensive to buy and, hopefully, will gain its own niche market. Of the products demonstrated at this exhibition I would also single out missile guidance units of various configurations. In particular, the PN-K device is designed to provide the guidance for missiles fired from 100mm gum tubes. Previously, this function was assigned to the 9Sh135 “Kastet” system that weighed 35 kg (plus about 150 kilograms of batteries) and was three times as bulky. Now we have a device weighing a mere 8 kg and a far more compact battery. We have passed all the tests with this device.
Is this the product for export? Are there any acquisitions on the part of the domestic defense department? At this point, it is targeted exclusively at the export market. We have one more item –
The PNB device is used on light armored vehicles. In this case, some alignment is needed, but this is internal only. With the “alignment” mode on, we get a sight alignment mark, with which the sighting mark is aligned. The whole process takes about ten seconds
26 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
the PNT – which is optimized for use with the Luch “Skif” ATM system and already has entered series production. We equipped it with the Hawk thermal imaging system in a reduced-size configuration with a 150 mm focus. It is standard top mounted; we made relevant upgrades to the attachment hardware to enable it to accommodate the Hawk, although any other thermal imager supporting the needed range requirements would do.
However, the items are delivered for export equipped with the Belorussian device ... Indeed, one time a quantity was exported featuring a Belorussian counterpart unit. But I think that [the SE IAF’s] unit is superior in terms of performance capabilities (accuracy and others). When using the Belorussian device, you need to do alignments in preparation for each firing session, which takes a considerable amount of time. But our device comes with guarantee that set sighting marks will remain stable during ten years of operation! In case of an error, you just need to use console panel to align the sighting mark (if it failed) seen on the display unit with the mark being projected onto the television facility. This is a signifi-
ing on the Mi-8 in Algeria is more suitable to us?
cant competitive advantage, which is of crucial importance where our PNB device is used on a light armored vehicle. In this case, some alignment is also needed, but this is internal only (you need not to go out anywhere or do some specific body movements). That is, with the “alignment” mode on, we get a sight alignment mark, with which the sighting mark is aligned. The whole process takes about ten seconds.
Now what regards the use of thermal imager on a light armored vehicle… Are your sighting systems suitable for this or some others need to be used? We have the 9Sh350I1 systing system. This is an electronic unit with wide/narrow television fields of view, a laser range finder plus a thermal imager. Importantly, any imager – French, Chinese or the herein mentioned Selex Galileo Hawk – can be installed, as structurally they all fit there.
Now let’s transition to helicop ters. We cannot but ask you about your engagement with the Britons regarding upgrade of the Mi-8 helicopter for Algeria, particularly with respect to in tegration of your laser-guidance facility into the Titan 410 gyro stabilized platform… Not only the Titan 410, or rather not only and not just, because we have not seen the 410 in a ‘materialized form’ yet. They have a production-standard system, the so called “ball”, the Titan 385. It is precisely the latter for which our ATGM laserguidance facility is optimized. It is also optimized for the Titan 410, as well as for the Chinese “ball” (LGF).
The same laser guidance facil ity is used for upgrading the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense’s Mi-24 helicopters, isn’t it?
Missile guidance device 9S816M for the upgraded Russian ATM system “Metis”
Yes, it is. Under that program, it is called LKK-V. As you may know, the upgrade is being carried out in cooperation with Sagem of France. We upgraded our laser facility to the HOSP410L1 configuration in France. At this point, we have had it tested in France. In a short time, the French partner will deliver it to Ukraine for further trials on the Mi-24.
Sometimes it is heard that your equipment is too big for accommodation on the French “ball”, that it lacks stabilization and energy… This is not true. Our facility weighs 4.5 kg, which meets the ceiling set by the operational requirements document. It does not lack anything, which was proven during trials in France. I expect that the initial unit of the system will arrive in Ukraine right this year. As regards the contract, there is some protraction, indeed. We delivered three equipment sets to France.
Don’t you think that the variant of the “ball” (be it the Titan 385 or Titan 410) that underwent test
We are the wrong men to answer this question. The Anglo-Italian counterpart offers excellent performances in stabilization terms, in particular as regards the “410”, but , again, on paper only so far. We and KB Luch are ready to integrate our facility into any of the options under consideration. The design of the SE IAF’s device has been upgraded for integration with the Titan 385. The upgraded version is 20 mm shorter than the LKK-V so it fits well into it. One time we had a joint project with the SAR which we did for Azerbaijan. Those helicopters are already flying and firing missiles. When those from Azerbaijan are asking questions like “why your module is so big”, I reply that the “ball” was the responsibility of the South African partner. This is a matter of design, this is it.
Is Ukraine capable of creating a “ball” of its own?
Are there capabilities in Ukraine to create an indigenous thermal imager and range finder, and to create a fully indigenous gyro stabilized platform?
Yes, there are. We several times approached senior executive officers at SE Ukrspecexport with this proposal. Range finders can well be made here in Ukraine. A thermal imager will inevitably have to be bought [from an international supplier], there is no shame in this. It can be purchased either ready-made or assembled under an international license; our international partners are willing to supply us with prefabricated integrated circuits, receivers etc. Our Company and Cherkassy’s Fotoprybor were already approached with such proposals. But this will not be economical-
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 27
[ capabilities ] ly feasible unless the market is big enough to handle that.
Upgrading of our Mi-24s (30 helicopters at the minimum) is proceeding too slowly. Can it be that the “ball” will be there right before completion of the joint project with the French partner? To have a “ball” of our own we need money to design and develop it. For now, we, at the expense of SE IAF, have draw up design documents on the so called “ball” for integration on armored combat vehicles. Now we have to prove its performance with regard to stabilization. Once the whole amount of work on stabilization has been completed, it will be safe to proceed to a helicopter’s “ball” having laser guidance facility and all of the other accessories, but this requires a substantial amount of money in funding [which we cannot afford].
Tens of millions, hundreds of millions of dollars? What’s the order of magnitude? We calculate that this will be in the region of 970,000 euros.
This is a negligible amount if you consider the entire cost of the contract… Unfortunately, that cost is unsustainable to the SE IAF’s current assets. Production unit of Ukrainian version of the “ball” with a foreign supplied thermal imager would 100 percent be less expensive to buy than any of international counterparts.
Could a system of this kind be integrated, say, on an unmanned aerial platform with an assault capability? Indeed it could, and we are working on this already. Today, a family of “balls” needs to be developed, because there is no point in developing
28 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
The missile guidance device PN-K has passed all the trials; it is designed to provide the guidance for missiles fired from 100mm gum tubes
one “ball” “fitting all sizes”. Different configurations will be there for different missions and different platforms. For an UAV, for example, only one television facility, a laser rangefinder and a thermal imager would suffice. This is one configuration. Assault-type systems will not do without a laser-guidance facility and, possibly, a frequency rangefinder illuminator. This is a different configuration and so on.
ser missile guidance facility, television facility and thermal imager – would be more suitable for naval applications. Again, you can bet on it that Ukraine will have to create an integrated “ball”, because any other option will turn out to be too bulky, considering the presence of spacedapart units, plus the challenge of having the thermal imager interfaced with all the facilities (misalignments occur at different temperatures, which is absolutely intolerable where firing to a sevenkilometer range is concerned). It is only an integrated single unit with which mechanical and temperature
What would you single out among your designs for naval purposes? First, these include a guidance unit and a sighting system for integration with the shipboard Luch missile/gun weapons station. The latter uses our devices PN-VK and PN-AK. The former has a narrowfield-of-view television facility and a laser guidance facility for a 7.5km-range missile. The latter, the PN-AK device, which is part of a short-range antiaircraft missile system, features two television facilities for narrow and wide fields of view. Those two are current-generation devices developed by the SE IAF for naval applications. Although, it is my belief that an allin-one “ball” option integrating all capabilities – laser rangefinder, la-
Upgrades have been made on night-vision facilities for the TKN-1SM, TPN-1M, TKN-3VМ (seen in this picture) and TVNE-4BM devices by way of integrating image converters of Generation 2+
stability can be ensured, which is a challenging task to accomplish. Mechanical and temperature stability is key advantage that makes our device compare favorably with competitors such as Belorussian counterpart for the “Skif” system, which initially was notorious for persistent misalignment between the rangefinder and television facility due to temperature effects.
them back to owners, which will be far less expensive than purchasing new devices.
[The Ukrainian military] is facing the need for upgrading Shilka systems…
What are other novel designs by your Company which are worth mention? All the novelties concern tank applications. As of today, we have upgraded night-vision facilities for the TKN-1SM, TPN-1M and TVNE-4BM devices by way of integrating image converters of Generation 2+. The upgrade allows for installation of 3rd or 4th Generation image convertors depending on each customer’s needs and budget. More, we have upgraded tank driver’s device TVN-5M by adding image converter of Generation 2+. The TVN-5M is a configuration of the TVN-5 baseline device, upgraded with new options added and optical resolution and quality of image significantly improved. The upgraded device has four times longer night vi-
The TVN-5M is a configuration of the TVN-5 baseline device, upgraded with new options added and optical resolution and quality of image significantly improved
sion range than the baseline design, and it has had its range extended to up to 600 meters from 160 meters in the baseline configuration. We forwarded our proposed upgrade package to the domestic defense department. We are talking about an upgrade that will be financially affordable to our military. We take existing devices, upgrade them by adding new options and return
We know about that. A company in Balakleya intends to do the upgrade. Unfortunately, nobody approached us with proposals regarding an upgrade of equipment within our area of expertise. However, during years prior to the collapse of the USSR, we mass manufactured a device for the Shilka, so we are no strangers to this theme. We could improve its performance capabilities as the upgraded system may require. At one time we were working on a R&D project that included the use of germanium optical components in a target coordinate extractor. Prototypes were made and passed trials, but the project was terminated midway when the Soviet Union broke apart. No new proposals on this theme were coming forward ever since. UDR
Interviewed by Serhiy ZGHURETS, Volodymyr KOPCHAK
SE IAF optoelectronic apparatus engineering business is focused on missile guidance systems and relevant components for anti-tank missile systems; sea-based surveillance systems, fire control sighting equipment, driver’s night vision devices for armored combat vehicles, anti-aircraft sights, as well as a complete range of observation instruments for armored combat vehicles, missile defense systems, target detection systems and missile guidance units Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 29
[ trends ]
Digital Beamforming (DBF) Array Radar-Technology of the Future
Anton Mikhnenko , Dmytro Bogdanov
Ukrainian accomplishments in the development of future radar technologies 30 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Not so long ago, the “R&D and Production Association ‘Arsenal’” Corporation, who is intensively engaged in the new technology development and insertion domain, has de veloped a digital beamform ing (DBF) array technology that has no equivalents on the post-Soviet expanse and is de signed for use in creating a wide range of current-genera tion radar systems. Ukrainian Defense Review decided to in form its readers about the progress achieved by domestic companies in the development of DBF array tech nologies that are becoming increas ingly popular with every passing day.
What’s it all about?
To begin with it should be noted that conventional antenna radar system generates one single beam which scans space by means of mechanical rotation of the antenna reflector or the horn in azimuth and elevation. In a phased array antenna, multiple simultaneous beams can be formed. But it is impossible to implement for a number of technical reasons. In practice, a single beam, again, is formed, which scans the space electrically, but not mechanically. What makes the DBF array technology different from other antenna array technologies is the imple-
mentation of spatial multi-channel capability that allows for simultaneous scanning of an entire segment of space, for example, of 30x60 degrees. That is, the radar receiver receives and processes signals from the whole area of the space being scanned simultaneously. In addition, the DBF array technology allows it to maximize the efficiency of spatial-temporal processing of radar signals in digital form. Another feature of conventional radar technologies is that frequency converted signal is immediately transmitted to an analogto-digital converter. Processing of the signal further proceeds in a digital form and requires no further signal amplification. More, such signal processing method does not contribute to distortion of signals reflected from the target, which commonly occurs with manifold amplification of signals at multiple amplifier stages. The radar system operates in conjunction with inertial/GPS system. Target markers – white for stationary targets and red for moving targets -– are overlaid with digital map of the area under survey. If for any reason there is an input error of position coordinates provided by satellite navigation system, “intelligent” radar, using its own target markers, will be able to detect the inconsistency and determine its own position location, which is important for platforms such as a ship or mobile air defense radar system. One more important property of a DBF array system is its reliability. Suffice it to mention that a failure of up to several tens of percent of the antenna curtain elements will not lead to disruption of task performance and, due to high degree
of structural components’ harmonization and the availability of an internal control system, maintenance and repair will be by far easier to carry out. In general, universality of the DBF array technology allows for creating various application radar systems that will be able to scan a given sector of airspace or surface (ground or water); almost immediately detect moving targets in intense clutter environments; accurately determine angular coordinates, distance and range rate of the target detected; automatically perform tracking of each of the detected targets; perform target trajectory generation and provide output data to authorized consumers – all this at one and the same time.
In step with the times
The relevance and promise of Ukrainian developments in the DBF array technology area being dealt with by the R&D Center for Electronic Systems (R&D CES) and “Skynet” Ltd (parts of the “Arsenal” Corporation), their advanced level of development compared with the designs by top-ranked international suppliers can be seen from a comparative evaluation of known contracts. As an evidence of superiority of Ukrainian developments, we would just note one fact. Proven first-line suppliers of radar technologies in the U.S., such as Raytheon and General Dynamics, in 2007 were awarded U.S. Navy contracts to initiate the development of a DBF array technology. In September 2007, Raytheon was awarded a $14.951mn con-
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 31
[ trends ] tract for an X-band digital radar (Digital Array Radar X-Band subarray) technology demonstrator. General Dynamics, for its part, was awarded a similar contract worth $9.734 million. Under the terms of the contracts, the research phase should be completed in 2014. Although our developers never dreamed of the amounts of funding like those mentioned herein, they are openly demonstrating their designs to potential customers. For now, “Arsenal” corporation has already created a number of technology demonstrators and prototypes of multi-purpose radar systems. Proofof-concept tests have been successfully carried out to prove in practice conceptual principles of multichannel signal analysis concept and prove the effectiveness of the proposed DBF array technology for a 128-channel Lband radar, 64-channel X-band radar, a 16-channel Ku-band radar and a 16-channel L-band radar. In terms of technical performances and capabilities, these radar designs are far superior over existing systems. For example, during field tests of 64-channel DBF array radar system, where surface, ground and air objects were used as radar targets, the system successfully provided continues surveillance and tracking of almost all the surface targets within its scan width (sea buoys, moving and anchored boats, sailing and motor yachts, ships and medium to large displacement vessels). Aerial targets as well were automatically locked on and tracked with success. The results of the tests were subsequently used as basis for the development of DBF array radar designs for a variety of applications, which did not differ from one another, other than in configuration of the array, com-
32 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
For example, a 16-channel DBF array radar is able to almost immediately detect all the targets moving within that sector and automatically perform tracking of each of the detected targets. The radar is designed primarily for upgrades of air defense systems such as the Shilka self-propelled antiaircraft gun, Strela10 air defense missile system and Tunguska antiaircraft missile and gun system.
ponents of RF equipment and transmitting power, depending on the range and selected operating frequency range. Capabilities of DBF array radar systems were demonstrated to senior executives and expert members of the State Space Agency, Ministry of Defense, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, many other organizations, agencies and services. At this point, Ukrainian DBF array technology has generated interest on the part of international partners and potential customers. During a demonstration at Orshanets Training Center for Border Guard operational level staff,
a sample of DBF array radar and its capabilities were demonstrated to the President of Ukraine. It may be argued that, due to R&D effort carried out by “Skynet” Ltd, there is a realistic possibility of creating advanced DBF-array-technology-based multi-purpose radar designs, and, if necessary, upgrading existing inventories in the interests of different customers. For instance, in Ukraine, there is an urgent need for replacement or extensive modernization of a number of armament assets used for homeland defense purposes. Relevant configurations of DBF array radars
assist in refining trajectories of already known objects. Depending on the distance of space debris, today we are talking about objects with radar cross sections of up to 0.1 sq. m. Successful completion of this large-scale, costly project will address a major challenge of international proportions – it opens new dimensions for Ukraine’s international cooperation in the space sector. This is not only about tracking newly deployed and operational satellites, but also tracking a huge amount of satellite debris that are in Earth orbit and have the potential to damage or destroy operational satellites. The planned space surveillance DBF array radar will provide the ability to calculate the orbits of uncontrolled man-made space junk with high accuracy, triggering a warning if there is dangerous proximity of the orbits and providing an accurate assessment of the likelihood of a collision. Previously, these challenges could not be handled other than through the use of purposebuilt components of antimissile assault weapons systems. However, those did not have suitable capabilities; particularly they had a limited cone in which they could scan the sky.
In the end, it is safe to say that, in the field of DBF array development, Ukrainian engineers have superiority over their foreign counterparts. Corporation “Arsenal” successfully develops new technologies, caries out development and upgrade of armaments, military equipment and systems for military and dual-use purposes with the use of leading edge technologies. Testing and evaluation of DBF array samples proved their effectiveness, versatility of design and operational
Table 1 Test proven performance capabilities of a 64-channel DBF array radar Defense Express
could be successfully employed in the capacity of multifunctional radars for purposes such as space surveillance; target detection; the provision of target cueing and fire control support for mobile command centers of units and subunits of Air Defense, Missile and Artillery Forces, coastal missile batteries etc. Ukrainian border guards as well showed interest in the use of DBF array radar technology, not just on boats or coast guard ships, but also potential use on Ostriv Zmiinyy (or Serpent Island) and Cape Tarkhankut for guarding exclusive economic zone of Ukraine. R&D CES and “Skynet” Ltd, with support from NDI Kvant Scientific Research Institute, have asserted their right to participate in the Ukrainian Navy’s Corvette program. In addition to military applications, DBF array radars can find applications in civilian operations. Particularly they can be used as weather radars, airport surveillance radars for flight safety as well as aircraft landing radars, whilst providing by far higher reliability than conventional array radars. An important achievement was the fact that Arsenal won a State Space Agency of Ukraine’s contract to develop a prototype next-generation space surveillance radar based on the DBF array technology. Possible options being considered as platforms for future radar systems include mobile platforms that previously accommodated outdated “Orion» and “ADU-1000” systems located near the city of Evpatoria, Crimean Peninsula. Antenna-receiver component of the future radar suite will consist of 1024 radar receiver channels and have a 16x18m array antenna. The radar suite as a whole will support the detection of new objects in space and
Detection ranges for: Vessels
Motor boats, yachts Boats
15-20 km 10-12 km
up to 15 km
Scan sectors: In azimuth
Coordinate measurement errors: Azimuth
Dimensions of receiving antenna: 0.45x0.5 meters Transmitting power: Pulse
Coverage sector scan time: 0.6 s Power consumption
Suffice it to mention that a failure of up to several tens of percent of the antenna curtain elements will not lead to disruption of task performance and, due to high degree of structural components’ harmonization and the availability of an internal control system, maintenance and repair will be by far easier to carry out.
algorithms, and the possibility of applications in a broad range of science and technology areas. Today, however, maintaining superiority in the field of science and technology is an extremely difficult challenge to handle. It is only those countries where domestic companies are enjoying favorable environments for full implementation of their technological superiority, which will be able to “remain in the mainstream” of technological advances, hence further economic development, and it is those countries which impose on the rest of the world convenient-to-them and self-advantageous rules of international economic cooperation. UDR Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 33
[ navigation ] Anton Mikhnenko, UDR
State Enterprise “OrizonNavigation” is undeniably the leading-edge supplier of sat ellite navigation equipment in Ukraine. Navigation equip ment developed by OrizonNavigation is distinguishable by offering Multi System Capability – the ability to support multi ple Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, thus con tributing to enhanced capabili ties of both the soldier and mili tary equipment in the field.
POSITIONING Ukraine is developing unique satellite navigation equipment and has a range of technology innovation projects aimed at the future
34 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
he core element of GPS navigation device of any kind is GNSS signal receiver (GPS receiver, GLONASS receiver or hybrid GPS/ GLONASS receiver) – a chip set or a circuit board tasked to decode a signal received from a global navigation satellite system and to transform it into the carrier’s position location coordinates in a certain user readable format. GNSS receiver devices developed by Orizon-Navigation are distinguishable by capability to accept GNSS signals from multiple systems -- U.S.’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and, eventually, EU’s GALLILEO and PRC’s COMPASS, as well as their related augmentation systems – the EU’s EGNOS, U.S. WAAS and Japan’s MSAS. The multi-frequency GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO capability would allow for more sustained and more accurate navigation measurement data to be produced due to a greater number of satellite navigation sources available at a given time. This also improves GNSS signal availability in difficult environments such as urban, mountainous or well wooded terrains. The design provides high resistance to noise and jamming interferences. Orizon-Navigation is the sole company in Ukraine to design, develop and manufacture GPS/ GLONASS GNSS signal receiver equipment for different applications – aircraft, seaborne and ground-based platforms, purposebuilt military equipment and railway vehicles – and severe operational environments. The Company operates a closed-loop production cycle, developing by itself schematic bloc diagrams and layout geometry of chip
components. The components are then custom-made by companies in the U.S., Germany and the U.K. and integrated by the Company itself at its facilities in Ukraine. Orizon-Navigation has developed and brought into production over five dozen equipment designs for navigation satellite system users. Orizon-Navigation has developed the SN-3301 equipment suit which provides integrated capabilities for real-time position location, flight planning and piloting an aircraft in manual/automatic flight control modes. The SN-3301 is used on some of the Antonovseries aircraft such as the An-3, An-38, An-74, An-140, An-124 and An-225. Developed under a contract from State-owned Company MiGRemont of Zaporizhzhia, the SN-3307 equipment suit can be seen installed on Su-25, Su-27 and MiG-25 combat aircraft as well as helicopters. For application on new and upgraded fixedwing aircraft, Orizon-Navigation developed multifunctional onboard piloting equipment suite -- the SN-3311 satellite navigation suite that provides capabilities similar to those of the Flight Management System (FMS). The Company’s range of most recent innovative products includes the SN-4314 pilot display unit that allows for several standard aircraft log books to be displayed on an LCD color graphic screen. Another one is the SN4307 multifunctional display unit
that is meant for use during largescale major retrofit of the Sukhoi and MiG families of aircraft. The SN-4307 provides a number of benefits, the main being that it has the capability to display the whole set of relevant navigation data at once. The pilot has the ability to shift between the pre-installed log books as necessary. The SN-4307 is suitable for use in upgrading the Mi-2 and Mi-8 helicopters. Further to this, the Company offers a range of products for ground vehicle applications. Particularly it developed the SN-3210 “Bazalt-K” device for use on vehicles and operations control centers. During several recent years, the devices, with minor modifications, have been supplied to Morozov Design Bureau and Malyshev Tank Factory in Kharkiv for installation onto vehicles built under export contracts. A great achievement by Orizon-Navigation in recent years was the development of a combat soldier’s personal navigation system known as “Bazalt-M” or SN3003M. It showed itself to be effective when used both on mobile platforms or as part of Soldier’s individual equipment kit, and it is planned to be employed by Orizon-Navigation as base-line design in developing a cell-phonesized portable GPS receiver. For naval platforms, GNSS receiving equipment suits SN3101-02 and SN-3101-03 have been developed.
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 35
[ navigation ] The Company has an extensive customer base: Aircraft equipment is supplied under a contract for upgrading India’s An-32 airplanes; the onboard satellite navigation system SN-3307 is included in Soviet-vintage Su and MiG-series aircraft upgrade packages being implemented in countries of the former Soviet Union as well as countries in Asia and Africa; vehicle-mounted satellite navigation systems are being supplied for equipping the BTR-4E APCs contracted by Iraq; GLONASS/GPS-aided position location sensors are part of a navigation equipment suite mounted on the Oplot MBTs being built for the export to Thailand. Vice-Chief Designer at Orizon-Navigation, A. Vodianykh, speaking at international conference “Future directions in land armaments development” on September 26, 2013, said that his Company is currently working on projects in several promising areas. These include the development of an R-Theta navigation system designed for spatial orientation angle measurement of moving and stationary objects. At this point, a prototype of the system has been constructed and pretested. During the tests, the system’s three-antenna interferometer with a 1.5m baseline showed accuracy of orientation angle measurement of 8 minutes for heading, and 16 minutes for each of roll and pitch. Work is also underway for development of a multifunctional command/control/ISR system with a set of capabilities as follows: determining position location coordinates of ground
36 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
targets and large-caliber ammunition impact points; measuring target distances; navigation by cardinal directions; determining target direction; conducting visual reconnaissance; provision of situational awareness and target selection support; vertical and horizontal angle measurements; photo/video image registration; recording of audio commentaries; wireless data feeding to command centers. Under a project commissioned by Ukrainian Armed Forces’ Airborne Troops, a navigation information system for special operations support is being developed with capabilities as follows: routing planning; provision of navigation support during paradrop operations; provision of navigation information support in areas of landing; en-route navigation etc. This system is planned to be developed by way of upgrading the SN-3210 “Bazalt-K” navigation equipment suite to a configuration with performance capabilities conforming to
C2 (control and command) system requirements. According to A. Vodianykh, the Company proposes that autonomous operational capability of positioning and navigation support systems be improved by means of further developing systems which will use a combination of sensors based on different physical and integration principles in order to produce a system supporting navigation and positioning functionalities. One more area of focus which Orizon-Navigation regards to be highly promising is the development of a navigation local area network (NavLAN) to be deployed on Earth surface or in near-Earth space rather than in outer space, considering that few countries can afford building and maintaining a global positioning system of their own. Vodyanykh believes that this could be achieved by building a standalone system with a highly accurate position location capability. Such system could rely on a constellation of so called “pseudo satellites” (PS) associated with conventional means of surveying, which will be networked and provide navigation support for ground and airborne vehicles. This option could be implemented in locations where conventional GNSS assets are difficult to use due to jamming interferences, in enclosed spaces or high-latitude areas. High power output of such transmitting devices makes them extremely resistant to hostile jamming. A system of that kind would provide a high accuracy of position location (with an error budget not exceeding 10 cm). Finally, and most importantly, a system implemented based on multiple “pseudo satellites” becomes an economically unfeasible target for enemy attacks.
Prototype R-Theta navigation system designed for spatial orientation angle measurement of moving and stationary objects.
The range of equipment types currently being developed by Orizon-Navigation, combined with its existing R&D and production capacity are sufficient to talk about a possibility of developing an integrated wearable equipment
kit for “Future Ukrainian Soldier”. At least the navigation component of the equipment kit could be fully implemented with products of the domestic design and manufacture. It matters most that OrizonNavigation is fundamental-
ly changing its approaches to the development of navigational aids. Now it is not just about production of standalone receivers but about the integration of the entire set of devices into network centric battlespace C4I architecture – a challenge which is handleable even today. Dismounted warriors of all force levels – from regular soldier to commander of a brigade-level unit – could be provided with personal GPS devices with capabilities for obtaining carrier’s position location, displaying blue-force and red-force location maps, terrain maps of battlefield areas, minefield maps etc. As a result, enhanced, near-real time situational awareness will be delivered to commanders of all echelons, enabling missions to be accomplished in new, more effective and efficient ways. Hopefully, co-operation with other Ukrainian companies will produce new solutions which will demonstrate full capabilities of domestic technologies. UDR
GNSS receiver devices developed by Orizon-Navigation are distinguishable by capability to accept GNSS signals from multiple systems – U.S.’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and, eventually, EU’s GALLILEO and PRC’s COMPASS, as well as their related augmentation systems – the EU’s EGNOS, U.S. WAAS and Japan’s MSAS. The multi-frequency GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO capability would allow for more sustained and more accurate navigation measurement data to be produced due to a greater number of satellite navigation sources available at a given time. Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 37
[ arsenal ]
WITHOUT A MISS
State-owned Design Bureau «Luch» of Kiev offers ample opportunities for industrial partnership
recision-guided weapons is a key element in creating new and improving existing systems and weapons suites used by combat units of modern armed forces. State-owned Company “State Design Bureau ‘Luch’ of Kiev” has in its possession all the necessary R&D, technological and manufacturing capacities for the development and mass production of precisionguided weapons systems and suites. Today, Luch provides Ukrainian Armed Forces with a comprehensive set of anti-tank guided weapons (ATGW) systems for short, medium and long-range engagements, and is actively marketing them for export. For improv-
38 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
ing the hitting power of armored combat vehicles and enabling the use from aerial and naval platforms, Ukrainian arms engineers developed a family of guided rocket weapons in 152, 130, 125, 120, 105, 100 and 90 mm calibers. The guided rocket is a modular technology that allows for proven design solutions to be incorporated in innovative weapons types with advanced performance capabilities. All the rockets are armed with a tandem shaped-charge warhead permitting firstround hit of targets protected with hybrid, rolled homogenous or spaced armor, including ERA protection. Guided by a laser beam and representing a relatively new type of precision-guided weapons for land war-
fare, the rockets can be launched either from ready-to-fire launch canisters or the bore of a gun. When used as part of weapons systems on tanks, armored personnel carriers or gun mounts, the rockets are adaptable to existing rounds racks, barreled systems, sighting and fire control systems, launch systems and other attributes typical of armored combat vehicles and artillery equipment. Efforts to develop and manufacture ATGW weapons and guided rockets have led to the establishment in Ukraine of new industrial partnership links within a R&D and production cluster of nearly 30 companies from the ammunition, precision me-
chanics and electronics sectors of the defense industry. The weapons are 90% domestically produced. Meanwhile, the Ukrainian party is seeking to diversify its international cooperation under global projects. Examples are new ATGW rockets Falarick 90, Falarick 105 and Falarick 120 (in 90mm, 105mm and 120m calibers, respectively), which are designed to launch from guns by Belgium’s CMI Defence (part of the CMI (Cockerill Maintenance & Ingenierie) international group). Particularly the Gun Launched Anti Tank Guided Missile (GLATGM) Falarick 105 is configured for launch from the Cockerill CT-CV 105HP gun turret. The Cockerill 105 mm high pressure gun provides a wide choice of ammunition to suit the tactical situation; it fires all standard 105mm ammunition types in addition to the Falarick 105 GLATGM (ready-to-fire weight – 25.2 kg; the tandem shaped charge warhead provides armor piercing capability of 550mm of RHA behind ERA). The 120mm high pressure Cockerill gun provides excellent lethality against a wide range of targets. The gun can fire all of the 120-mm smooth-bore NATO standard types of ammunition, as well as the Falarick 120 armor piercing projectile which is fired from the bore of the gun to defeat heavy armored vehiOleg Korostelev, General Designer and Director General of the SKDB «Luch»
cles at ranges of up to five kilometers. Elevating to +42°, this weapon delivers exceptional engagement capability in complex terrain, an indirect-fire HE capability to 10km range, and the the use of the Falarick 120 GLATGM permits heavy armor to be enagaged at extended ranges. As a matter of fact, the Falarick 120 projectile currently being promoted on the export market is a spin-off version of the Luch 120mm ATGW missile “Konus” (ready-to-fire weight – 22.3 kg, armor piercing capability – 700mm of RHA behind ERA). Both weapons are combat used employing a common high performance, digital, fully-stabilised, day/night weapon control system. Turret weight is kept low through the use of a bustle-mounted autoloader, which permits the turret crew to be reduced to two (commander and gunner). Due to the availability of current-generation target acquisition and tracking capabilities, targets can be effectively engaged both in favorable and difficult weather conditions. The stabilized gun, combined with a PCbased day/night fire control system delivers a high first-round hit probability on both stationary and vehicle targets. The CT-CV turret mated with Ukrainian-supplied gun-launched anti-tank guided missile rounds is compatible with lightly armored vehicle chassis of all types. It is being offered to manufacturers of armored military vehicles seeking to improve firepower capability of their vehicles. One such is the Rosomak ar-
mored personnel carrier – a Polish variant of the Finnish-designed Patria APC being license-built by WZM S.A. (Wojskowe Zaklady Mechaniczne). As is well known, by 2019, the Polish Army is about to take delivery of 307 Rosomak APCs to be supplied by WZM S.A. under a contract from Poland’s National Defense Ministry. The Rosomak family of APCs includes the Wilk (or “wolf”) – a fire support vehicle that is configured to accommodate either a 105mm gun or a 120mm gun on a CMI Defense’s CT-CV turret. At Kielce 2013 defense industry fair in Poland, the Wilk APC was displayed integrated with a CT-CV turret configured for the Falarick 105 round. Luch is also seeking to employ its precision-guided rounds in a Polish self-propelled mortar project. The Ukrainian company designed and developed a new 120mm semi-active laser-beam guided 16.8kg mortar projectile. This is armed with a shaped charge warhead offering 0.75-0.8 first-round hit capability against a comprehensive set of targets at launch distances of up to eight kilometers. With an additional rocket motor in place, effective engagement range can be extended to 12 kilometers. Huta Stalowa Wola (HSW) of Poland is reported to be working on the development and production of a 120mm mortar turret to be known as “Rak”. The mortar turret will be distinguishable by the presence of mechanized rounds racks and an autoloader, and will be able to deliver 10 to 12 rounds per minute, according to the Designer. The turret can be elevated from -3 degrees to +85 degrees and traversed through +360 degrees. The Rak turret armed with a 120mm mortar system is compatible with armor protected chassis (including the Rosomak APC), both wheeled or tracked, providing shoot-and-scoot capability and allowing targets to be defeated with minimum time and ammunition budgets or – if armed with Ukrainian mortar projectiles -- even with first-round hit probability. The Ukrainian-Polish alliance, cemented by the use of innovative approaches and current-generation Luch technologies, will yield highly capable, multifunctional weapons systems conforming to the operational requirements of today and tomorrow. UDR Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 39
ANTI�TANK GUIDED �ATG� MISSILES AND GUIDED MISSILE ROUNDS
State-owned Design and Development Bureau “Luch” of Kiev has developed a family of precision-guided weapons. The missiles are designed for attacks against stationary and armored vehicle targets protected with current-generation hybrid armor or explosive reactive armor systems
BARYER V | EXTENDED RANGE ATG MISSILE AND LAUNCHER OPTIMIZED FOR USE FROM AERIAL PLATFORMS
BARYER | VEHICLE-CARRIED LOG-RANGE ATG MISSILE SYSTEM 15,7 kg
1091 mm 130 mm
923mm 120 mm
1136 mm 100 mm
1000 mm 107mm
KOMBAT | GUIDED MISSILE ROUND
KONUS | GUIDED MISSILE ROUND
FALARICK 105 | 105 MM GUIDED MISSILE ROUND
STUGNA | GUIDED MISSILE ROUND
FALARICK 90 | 90 MM GUIDED MISSILE ROUND 90 mm
KORSAR | MAN-PORTABLE ATG MISSILE AND LAUNCHER
40 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
Type of carrier platform Missile mass
Missile length Missile diameter
Armed with tandem shaped charge warheads and guided by semi-active laser homing, the ATG Luch missiles feature a construction of modular architecture, reflecting the latest trends in the development of ammunition. For the production of ATG missiles, Luch has set up a cluster of domestic companies from the ammunition, precision mechanics and electronics sectors.
1609 mm 130 mm
� km � km �,� km Armor penetration capability
For target acquisition and aiming, optical and IR sighting devices are used to enable 24-h operation in all weathers. Once the target is designated and locked on, it is tracked automatically without further operator’s intervention. Luch missiles carry tandem shaped charge warheads capable of defeating ERA protection of current-generation tanks.
Upon impact, high explosive content of the warhead detonates, producing a molted metal jet stream that travels at speeds up to 15 km/s, burning through the target tank’s armor. The jet then pierces inside the vehicle, killing the crew, damaging equipment, and detonating fuel and ordnance payloads.
550 mm 550 mm
550 mm Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 41
[ devices ]
Our products are designed to secure civilian lives and soldiers YURIY Storonsky
CEO, Chief Designer, R&D and Production company «SPARING-VIST CENTER»
42 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
ccidents at nuclear power plants in Chernobyl and Fukusima showed that the world can never be safe from major disasters that leave their footprint not only in people’s minds, but also health of many generations to come. With this challenge in mind, radiation safety issues are becoming more relevant than ever before. Defense Express recommends to your attention an interview with Yuriy Storonsky, PhD, the CEO and Chief Designer at “Sparing-Vist Center”, a privatetlyowned R&D and Production company in Lviv, Western Ukraine.
This private company is one of Ukraine’s proven first line suppliers of radiological monitoring equipment (in addition to a few companies from the apparatus engineering domain). Sparing-Vist Center supplies its products to civilian and military customers in Ukraine and elsewhere.
– What are major areas of speciali zation of your Company? – During more than two decades now, our Company has been designing, developing and manufacturing radiological monitoring equipment that is now marketed under the ECOTEST
trademark. What drew us into this business was the radiological contamination situation worldwide. Accidents in Japan and other countries have shown that, at this point, special attention needs to be addressed to the issues of environmental control and anti-radiation protection for individuals. For this reason, we have developed more than three dozen devices and radiological monitoring systems that have been qualified for incorporation into the State Register of measuring equipment in Ukraine and similar registries in other countries.
– What achievements and what prod ucts does your Company boast first? – Our products are well known to consumers worldwide. We are working intensively to expand our market reach further still, and continue to participate in exhibitions and various forums. Given the urgency of the challenge, we aim to create at least one or two new products every year. A lot of people are interested in new devices that are compact without compromising versatility. We well know that among people concerned about their safety there are VIP’s who would prefer having a personal radiation measuring and warning device of their own. For now, there is a series of appliances that we created precisely for the purpose of individual use.
– Are you considering an option of integrating your products with cur rent-generation means of commu nication that are now widely used in everyday life? – We all see how rapidly production and sales of various smartphones based on the Android platform or the Apple operating system are growing now. A similar device is carried in the pocket of every other individual today, opening up broad opportunities in terms of access to different information types. Stepping up to date, we, like many other companies, have got engaged in developing our own gadget for smartphones. As a result, we have created a compact device called “Gamma Sapiens” –
i.e. “Gamma smart” – that uses “Bluetooth” technology for wireless communication with a smartphone. All measurements occur with this device. Within ten meters range, it can transmit all received data to a smartphone. However, while a radiation measuring and warning device is somewhat limited in its functionality, the “Gamma Sapiens” integrated with a smartphone provides broad opportunities for visualization of obtained data and reporting it to the user. For example, you can see in color the status of radiological environment around you, where each color corresponds to a certain level of contamination. In addition, for the convenience of the user, there are four different modes provided for displaying output data of radiation measurement. The availability of a GPS-navigator in smartphone enables the user, who is out in the country, on vacation or on business matters, to fix his (or her) position and radiation level of the environment,
The device, encased in a fully dustproof and watertight housing, is easy-to-operate and reliable. The MKS-U has been introduced into service with the Ukrainian Armed Forces and is now being supplied to regular army units to eventually replace all of the technically obsolescent dose rate meters DP-5 currently in use. MKS-U devices were used by the Ukrainian Armed Forces’ 19th Detached Radiation/Chemi cal/Biological Protection Battalion that served on UN-sponsored peace support missions in Kuwait and Iraq. The new radiation measuring and warning device is compliant with NATO standards, which was proven during testing carried out in Poland by local experts. The MKS-U provides a wide measuring range, and can operate from a battery as well as a solar generator or vehicle battery.
record and add output data to a database, photograph the landscape or even make an audio comment.
– Basically, it provides opportunities to disseminate that data throughout the globe within a short time ... – Yes, indeed. In foreseeable future, we expect that individuals will be able to share that kind of data and get timely information on radiation levels in any part of the world where communication via mobile phone is possible. It is not unlikely that even a special online resource will be set up to enable owners of our gadgets to get access to information on radiation levels at different points of the globe using resources such as Google Maps, for example.
– Is there any feedback from con sumers regarding the design and the use of “Gamma Sapiens”? Do you feel that you are proceeding in the right direction, and that the pricing policy that you pursue is consistent with the situation on the Ukrainian and global markets? – The feedback is mostly “good” or “excellent.” Just the other day we received a feedback from one Kievan, who was not too lazy to write a whole page about his experience using our product. But it is necessary to emphasize that the product is brand new, which we announced for release in the fall of last year. We are currently looking at the dynamics of interest in the product using “Google Play”, a resource where our software is available for download online for free so far. At this point, we have thousands of downloads by Smartphone owners.
– Is there national monitoring system for radiation environment existing in Ukraine? – As far as I know, the government has set the task of establishing national radiological monitoring system known as “ASKRO”. I think our “Gamma Sapiens” is appropriate candidate for becoming an element of the ASKRO system. Development of the [ASKRO] program is just at the initial phase, and
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 43
[ devices ]
Compact device “Gamma Sapiens” – i.e. “Gamma smart” uses “Bluetooth” technology for wireless communication with a smartphone
we are a party to discussion of the program. Hopefully, we as well will be taking part in the practical implementation phase. For now, we have all the elements necessary for building this system. However, as ten different agencies are involved, speedy implementation will be quite a challenge given the difficulties of interagency coordination. It should be noted that we have established good relations with the Ukrainian nuclear power industry. Specifically for that industry we have developed a proprietary intelligent detector, which was selected to be template for the ASKRO detector. It has been in use for about ten years now and proved itself efficient. Our detector units are exported to France, Canada and South Korea who use them as patterns in creating own monitoring systems for radiation environment.
primarily in food. This will be especially relevant for countries and regions with contaminated areas as a result of different nuclear accidents. As seen from accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima, radioactive isotopes of cesium can be found within dozens or even hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter of the radiation explosion. This isotope is extremely volatile, easily getting into food and accumulating in the human body, which potentially can lead to various diseases over time. Therefore, levels of radioactive cesium need to effectively monitored to prevent it from entering human body, especially in children.
– What is the complexity of technical solutions needed for handling this challenge? – A regular radiation meter is useless for measuring harmful levels of radioactive cesium in foodstuffs. In this particular case, a spectrometric approach would work. Japanese customers requested us to create a compact low-cost device that would allow for time effective detection of radioactive cesium contamination of food. We have made such a device and called it “FoodTester-G”. While on numerous visits to Japan, we saw that country shaping a national program aimed to have at-risk populations be engaged in decontamination efforts. We know that in Japan there is a severe shortage of land areas. People
– Given the ecological situation in Ukraine, your Company goes further with its design and development projects. The new devices that you created began to be used for moni toring not only radiation levels, but other human health threatening fac tors, including radioisotopes. Would you tell a little more about it ... – Developments in Japan in 2011 forced us to change approach and enter some areas which were new to us to a degree, but have relation to engineering of radiological monitoring apparatus. One such area is monitoring low-level contents of harmful radioactive isotopes of cesium,
44 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Encased in a water/dust-proof highly rugger dized housing, the DKG-21M is designed for use by military forces, emergency and civil defense services – under extreme conditions of severe temperature changes and high concentrations of dust in the air
have to go back to their homes on lands which were affected by the disaster at Fukushima. In order to enable them to live there, they need to have the means for detecting and measuring radioactive soil contamination. We have improved our “FoodTester-G”, adding capabilities to detect radionuclide contents not only in food but in soils as well. This enables you to determine whether the soil is safe for non-commercial food growing.
– But this is no less relevant for Ukraine, isn’t it?
aGent-R is suitable for integration with a battlefield soldier survival package
– Yes, indeed. Prior to delivering “FoodTester-G” to Japan, we tested it here in Ukraine in the exclusion area around Chernobyl. It was found that this equipment is also useful for our country. Today in Ukraine, there are villages within a 50-100-kilometer radius from Chernobyl, where populations do not buy anything but, instead, consume what they cultivate on the soils they have. However, we conducted a study to find out that Becquerel levels of radiation in food are times above permissible limits, which is fairly a lot.
Ministry of Defense of Ukraine has known us for long. But what pushed up interest in our products was the beginning of the Iraq campaign and subsequent deployment of a Ukrainian peacekeeping force there. The Ukrainian battalion was fully stocked with “TERRA” and MKS-U devices supplied by “Sparing-Vist Center” Ukraine is now witnessing a surge in private home construction. People buy land plots, then measure radiation level to make sure the property is safe for living. Afterwards, they proceed to checking building materials etc. But this may not be enough. A “FoodTester-G”-type device allows you to assess whether your garden, vegetable or flower beds are safe to use. You just put it on the ground and assess the results of measuring outcomes....
– What is the cost of your new device? – A «Gamma Sapiens»-type item carries a price-tag of about $200, while “FoodTester-G” is by an order of magnitude more expensive to buy. The difference in prices is due to the fact that the latter incorporates high technology, including a highly sensitive scintillation detector, which requires a relatively long production cycle to manufacture.
– Which components do you use in your devices? – Let’s just say that it is no secret that Ukrainian microelectronics is no longer there. So, unfortunately, most of electronic components that we use are imported from Europe, America, Taiwan etc., yet some components are bought from Ukrainian suppliers. Particularly, Institute of Single Crystals, Kharkiv, manufactures its own detectors which we use in sophisticated, highly sensitive devices.
– Which of TM “ECOTEST” devices are in military use? – Ministry of Defense of Ukraine has known us for long. But what pushed up interest in our products was the beginning of the Iraq campaign and subsequent deployment of a Ukrainian
The DRG-T is designed to be installed onto purpose-built vehicles for continuous monitoring and measuring exposure dose rate of gamma and X-ray radiation. If dangerously high levels of radiation are detected, the device gives audio and visual alarm and generates commands to start the actuators of protection equipment. The device is designed for integration onto special-purpose vehicles, particularly those used by military NBC units.
peacekeeping force there. The Ukrainian battalion was fully stocked with “TERRA” and MKS-U devices supplied by “Sparing-Vist Center”. The very first year of their intense operation in severe desert environments proved extremely high technical performances and durability of our instruments, none of which had failed. In the period from 2004 until to date, we have offered and supplied five equipment types for different purposes to Ukraine’s defense department. Those included radiological detection instruments, personal radiation meters etc. Under the “Corvette” program, we have been assigned the task of developing a ship-wide multi-level radiological monitoring system. Specifically for naval use, we have developed a modified version of our personal radiation meter, which is resistant to the effects of sea water and salt fog.
By request from Morozov Design Bureau, Kharkiv, we created a radiological detection system for integration onto the BTR– 4E armored personnel carrier. It must be noted for that matter that the vehicles being exported to Iraq are all equipped with such systems already. Now there is the question of the export of our devices to the defense department of Thailand. It is expected that our products would be included into next packages of armored equipment to be exported to that country. However, the military theme does not end there for us, but, instead, it is expanding. For many years we have been engaged in the NBC protection domain. In collaboration with NVP “Kitva”, who at one time upgraded the tankmounted radiation and chemical detection and identification system GEO -27 to the PRHR-M standard, we have developed a more current-generation version, which we designated as PRHRME. It is an effectively new device consisting of only two units. We have completely replaced all the “stuffing” and electronic components, integrated modern digital data processing solutions and added new functional capabilities. Another area of concern is the upgrade of Ukraine’s NBC reconnaissance vehicles. Here, we are closely working with German firm Bruker – an international leader in creating vehicles in this particular category. It highly commended our designs and decided to consolidate our efforts in order to jointly create a product that could shut down the NBC protection issue for the Ukrainian military inasmuch as it concerns the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents. UDR
Interviewed by Serhiy ZGHURETS, Defense Express Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 45
[ individual protection ]
46 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
SAVING LIVES Anton Mikhnenko UDR
In an age of dynamic, rapid progress in the development of sci ence, new technology has a heavy impact on the quality of prod ucts being crafted both for military and civilian markets. This is particularly true for products such as personal protective gear. First-line supplier of personal body armor equipment in Ukraine, R&D and Production Enterprise“Temp-3000”, step ping up with the time, is actively introducing into practice the latest approaches and manufacturing techniques for personal body armor technologies. It has already released a complete range of bullet-resistant vests and ballistic helmets that are conforming to international standards.
About latest trends
Technology assessment over recent years suggests that progress in the development of personal protective equipment has made a huge leap forward. Body armor vests are currently categorized into six different classes of protection based on
the level of threats being countered -– bullets, fragments or grenades. User-specific vests have been created for military personnel, police and private civilian users. Ballistic vests are divided into categories depending on attributes such as the probability of success (or statistical confidence), level of protection, materials used, size and load weight.
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 47
[ individual protection ] Modern bullet-resistant vests are a dramatic departure from previous designs. Currently most common types of body armor consist of spinal and heart/sternum sections that are attached to each other by shoulder and side straps for optimal distribution of armor load weight and making the vest conform closely to the wearer’s body shape. Most of modern armor vests have a modular design. They are differentiated not only in protection level standards and the area of ballistic coverage but also in the design of the carrier. The carrier may include pockets for a bullet-resistant collar, groin plate and side plates. Also included may be ballistic shoulder protection armor components and shock absorbing pads. Ballistic plates are still a central component of any military body armor. Today manufacturers make a wide use of ceramics, ultra-high-molecular-weight (UHMW) polyethylene, metal (steel or titanium) as well as other materials in various combinations. Textile-metal, metal-ceramic, and other ceramic/organic/plastic and composite materials gave a new lease of life to the development of personal protective gear and are already used extensively throughout the world.
Ukraine tries to keep pace with global trends. It was back in the late 1990s when domestic manufacturer of personal protective equipment – Temp-3000 – began setting up production of personal protective systems such as body armor vests, firemen’s clothing, ballistic helmets and specialist protective clothing for explosive ordnance disposal personnel, and today it is actively introducing new processes and technologies into products.
48 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
“Korsar-M” bullet-resistant vest provides an overall ballistic coverage of 80.0 sq dm
Nowadays the Company’s competencies and expertise are well known to the Ukrainian security sector community. Temp3000 has a domestic customer base that includes Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Internal Affairs, other security sector agencies and manned guarding services. Moreover, the Сompany has experience in developing equipment tailored to specific customer needs of different ministries and organizations. Dramatic changes have taken place at the Company ever since. Now Temp-3000 manufactures ceramics by itself, carries out molding and vitrification treatment, and produces carrier material. While the Company initially focused on the use of steel plates and ceramics in the production of personal protective gear, nowadays it more concentrates on the introduction of new technology and materials. Old materials basically have exhausted themselves in terms of weight performance. Temp-3000 is experimenting extensively with metalceramics, ceramics and a material such as polyethylene. Thus, for instance, the Com-
pany has developed two new ballistic helmet models – the “Kaska2M” and “Kaska-2MA” – which both use UHMW polyethylene as the main helmet shell material. The two are differentiated from each other by way of external ear protection. The basic design of the “Kaska-2M” and “Kaska-2MA” helmets was patterned on the ECH (Enhanced Combat Helmet), ACH (Advanced Combat Helmet) and Ops-core FAST Carbon Helmet by Emerson. A range of innovative solutions have been implemented in the two helmet designs to make the Ukrainian products more “westernized”. The helmets have adjustable strap harness system. The harness consists of four straps, a chin cup and a fastener, and is fully adjustable for the wearer’s head size using a nut adjuster in the lower back helmet. Internal shell is layered with two soft damping moisture-retentive pads providing additional comfort and security of wear. In both models, the helmet shell has a four-layer design. The cover layer is a textured mineral filler-polymer anti-termal/IR coating. The second is molded ballistic heat-tolerant composite. The third is UHMW polyethylene ballistic-resistant layer offering protection from shrapnel and fragments at V50-750 m/s. The fourth and last layer is impactproof acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. The helmet is lightweight without compromising protection level. For example, the “Kaska 2M”, weighing 1.25±0.1kg, withstands impacts by 7.62mm TT pistol rounds. The design of the new helmet models allows for the addition of night-vision equipment and other accessories a dismounted soldier requires in the field. For increased ignition resistance, the UHMW polyethylene layer is covered with a para-Ar-
amid-base material reinforced with Kevlar fibers -– a technology which was adopted from designs by German, U.S. and French counterparts. One more achievement by Temp-300 which is worth mention is an upgraded configuration of the “Korsar-M” military ballistic vest, which was originally designed to requirements of Ukraine’s Security Service and Ministry of Defense and was combat tested by Ukrainian soldiers during international peacekeeping operations. The upgraded “Korsar-M” is a substantial improvement over the baseline design in terms of the protective ballistic material and the overall principle of building the personal protective package. The upgraded “Korsar-M” uses ballistic plates made of UHMW polyethylene and metal-ceramics. Using this type of hybrid armor protection allows for optimizing the vital weight-to-protection trade off. A UHMW polyethylene ballistic plate provides Type III armor protection level (as defined by National State Standards (NSS or GOST)) of Ukraine and Russia), meaning it withstands impact by a 5.45mm AK-74 rifle’s ball round fired from 10 meters. Metal-ceramic plates are available with Type IV (Ukraine’s GOST) or Type V (Russia’s GOST) protection levels at 2.8±0.2kg, and Type ІІІ (Ukraine’s GOST) or Type ІІІ (Russia’s GOST) protection levels at 2.2±0.2kg. The Type II (Ukraine) or Type +III-A NIJ (U.S.) “Korsar-M” upgarde, with protective ballistic package made of a UHMW polyethylene-base material and offering an overall ballistic coverage of 55-60 sq. dm., weighs 5.3kg±0.2kg and provides protection from TTtype pistol rounds. With extra ballistic protection added (metal-ceramic, UHMW polyethylene
Design of the “Kaska 2M” ballistic helmet was patterned on the ECH (Enhanced Combat Helmet), ACH (Advanced Combat Helmet) and Ops-core FAST Carbon Helmet by Emerson.
or ceramic ballistic plates) as required by Customer to Type VI (Ukraine) or Type IV NIJ (U.S.), the overall weight of the vest may increase to 9-10 kg instead of 12.5 kg in the baseline configuration. With this extra protection in place, the vest will provide resistance to SVD sniper rifle rounds or 7.62x51mm M61-AP ammunition. One more significant advantage aimed to benefit the Customer is that enhanced protection package and accessories -– extra ballistic plates, ballistic collar, groin plates, side plates or shoulder plates -– can be added to the previously procured baseline fit when the Customer finds it appropriate or affordable. Further to this, the end ballistic package can be configured to specific user requirements. For example, Type II heart/sternum protection can be used with Type III spinal protection in one and the same vest. The “Korsar M-3” vest, which has gained recognition among the Ukrainian security sector community and was used by Ukrainian Army units during peacekeeping operations in Iraq, Sierra-Leone and the Balkans, has had its load weight reduced by a few kilograms to 9 kg. As a result, while previously Ukrainian vests were heavier than US-made counterparts whilst providing a greater area under protection and offering relatively high resistance to the ef-
fects of highly lethal weapons, then today the Ukrainian vest is safe to compete with international counterparts in weight performance as well. While potential customers in Ukraine are expressing interest in buying ballistic vests of indigenous make, the financial situation currently experienced by security sector agencies, including the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Internal Affairs, has effectively brought the domestic market to a standstill – special-operations forces are stocked to the full, while the Ministry of Defense cannot afford money for this. So Temp-3000 is seeking opportunities to bring its products to markets in Asia, Africa and countries of the former Soviet Union. Thus, earlier in 2013 the Company won a Kazakh National Guards’ contract competition to supply a number of new-type ballistic vests and helmets. In this competition, the Ukrainian company faced rivalry with Russian counterparts who were surprised to see that Ukraine has been able to accept and absorb new technology and craft a high quality product.
In general we can conclude that both international and domestic developers of body armor and other elements of soldier systems place a premium on improving armor protection levels and enhancing ergonomic performance, operational properties, aesthetic and other characteristics of new designs. Ukrainian actors in this market segment keep pace with their counterparts in the West, offering consumers products that meet international standards and are able to compete with products by the established international brandname companies. UDR Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013 / 49
[ sea technologies ]
50 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013
FLOATING COMPOSITE DRYDOCKS FROM UKRAINE: SIMPLE ANSWER TO DIFFICULT QUESTION Dmytro Bogdanov, exclusively for UDR
Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER 2013 / 51
[ sea technologies ] To maintain ships for various purposes in a proper operating condition and to ensure that warships and submarines are readily available at all times, a well-developed ship-repair in frastructure is needed. Ship repair process has its specific nature which distinguishes it from the shipbuilding process. While shipbuilding companies tend to use stationary docks for building their ships, a ra tional organization of the ship repair process requires the em ployment of floating drydock structures. In Ukraine, there is a company – State Plant “Pallada” of Kherson – which creates docks that have no equivalents in the internation al practice of dock-building.
Accomplishments of today
With the introduction of steel-hull ships in naval fleets, the use of steel drydocks became a frequent practice. However, Ukrainian engineers from the Central Design Bureau “Izumrud” and State Plant “Pallada” of Kherson went further and launched a new floating dock construction process using heavy marine reinforced concrete (RC). Beginning in the late 1950s, construction of allRC drydock structures in the Soviet Union gave way to structures of so-called “composite construction”. In Ukraine, construction of composite type drydocks is speciality of State Plant “Pallada” of Kherson. In 2011, State Plant “Pallada” of Kherson became part of State Concern “Ukroboronprom”. Pallada is lead manufacturer of floating drydocks in Ukraine. Overall, floating repair docks make a substantial percentage of the
52 / Ukrainian DEFENSE REVIEW / OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2013
Recovered from the Barents Sea bottom, Russian nuclear submarine “Kursk” is seen here in a floating drydock manufactured by “Pallada” Plant
product types being manufactured and successfully exported by Ukraine. Floating composite type RC docks built by State Plant “Pallada” of Kherson are operated with success in countries with different climatic conditions. The Company has among its customers countries with traditionally strong, well-developed shipbuilding and shipping industries such as Russia, Japan, South Korea, Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Algeria and Croatia. During its years of existence, SP “Pallada” of Kherson has built over four dozen drydocks, which are still in operation in almost all regions of the globe. Pallada’s drydocks were used in an operation to recover the sunken Russian nuclear submarine “Kursk”, and they are currently employed in the removal of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear-powered icebreakers and submarines of Russia and France. In addition to floating drydocks of composite construction, Pallada is building conventional docks of steel. In 2005, SP “Pal-
lada”, with the KB “Izumrud”’s input, developed a new drydock (Project 1760KR) with 8500-t lifting capacity. This is a highly efficient drydock, with an expanded technological capability range and all costs kept to a minimum. The Project 1760KR drydock fully conforms to all applicable requirements and the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping’s Rules and Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Sea-going Vessels as well as Rules and Regulations for the Construction of Sea-Going Ship Hulls and Structures of Reinforced Concrete. The Project 1760KR drydock offers an extended internal clear between towers, allowing docking of almost all ships with docking weights of up to 8,500 tons. The drydock is designed with a lifespin of fifty years. In 2006, the lead drydock of Project 1760KR type was delivered to the Customer and has been successfully operated in Qatar (Port of Doha). In 2010, SP “Palada” and Central Design Bureau “Izumrud” jointly developed a new drydock
construction process allowing for a 10-15% reduction in the construction cost and time budgets. A new metalworking line was launched, permitting cutting time to be reduced by 3-5 times. The introduction of a new process for in-water vertical/horizontal gluing of precast modules in the construction of high-capacity docks gave Pallada the capability to build floating drydocks with lifting capacities of up to 50,000 tons. In this case, integration works for floating drydocks with lifting capacities in excess of 30,000 tons, using modules prefabricated by Pallada, can be performed in waters of the Customer’s country. In 2012, Pallada was contracted by a Kazakh customer to build a composite 8,500-t floating drydock for operation in the Caspian Sea. The drydock will be constructed from two halves, which will be towed through the Volga-Don Canal to the Caspian Sea and glued together in water without the help of caissons. The drydock is scheduled to be ready for operation in the third quarter of 2014.
The benefits and opportunities
Composite type drydocks have a number of advantages over conventional steel docks in terms of operation and maintenance. A floating composite type drydock consists of a reinforced concrete pontoon and steel towers. The use of heavy shipbuilding concretes based on sulphate resisting Portland cement makes underwater part of the drydock extremely resistant to corrosion. The bottom, external sides, berth-deck and bulkheads of such a dock are well protected from the corrosive effects of salt water. This eliminates the necessity of putting the drydock out of service when underwater maintenance works are needed (docks of steel require regular dry-docking for painting), resulting in benefits such as reduced maintenance cost and lowered cost of ship repair at the dock. Despite having its steel structures protected from rust and corrosion, steel docks quick-
MSC Mirella in a floating Project 1760KR dry-dock in Croatia, 2012 (Photo courtesy of Victor Lenac).
ly corrode in water. For this reason, to ensure that a steel dock serves its full life, engineers have to provide for a compensation for corrosion by increasing the thickness of steel elements in addition to their effective thickness. As a result, effective thickness of steel elements increases by an average 30 to 50%, leading to excessive consumption of steel in structural members and also excessive labor consumption. To slow down corrosion in docks of metal, its steel members are covered with protective coatings. During service life of a floating drydock of steel, maintenance works should be performed on its submerged structures at some regular intervals of time, requiring dry-docking of the dock itself or some of its individual parts, which causes considerable difficulties. During the period when a steel dock is undergoing maintenance, its intended use becomes impossible in part or in full. The advantage offered by Ukrainian engineers of composite drydocks is that reinforced concrete, of which part of the drydock’s pontoon is made, works well in compression, while its work in tension is ensured by reinforcing steel, which is shielded from corrosion by a protective layer of concrete. So, less rolled steel is consumed than in the case with a dock of steel. In addition, reinforcing steel bars are cheaper to buy than profiled bars or flat steel. Because concrete is not corroded in seawater, the composite drydocks’ pontoon does not require to be dry-docked or painted. Steel towers of the drydock, if necessary, can be painted and maintained without the need to put the dock out of service, which brings significant economic benefits to owners throughout the long life of the structure. In a composite type
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[ sea technologies ]
drydock, elements of its reinforced concrete pontoon can be of considerable thickness, thus contributing greatly to its performance potential. Such a drydock can hold ships that lost their longitudinal strength or, for example, it can be used for cutting a ship into pieces without worrying about the dock being got damaged by shock loading, or a vessel can be placed on the dock slipway at any place without any damage risk for the dock or the vessel. The unique process developed by Ukrainian engineers for integrating a floating drydock from precast modules while the dock is in water, which does not require the use of caissons, makes it possible to build structures of almost any size meeting specific customer requirements and the requirements of all Registries of Shipping. Such docks have strength characteristics that enable transportation to anywhere in the world. Among the
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contracts recently completed by SP “Pallada”, there are composite drydocks with lifting capacities ranging from 8,500 to 25,000 tons – enough for accommodating, for example, Panamax-size ships that can have 245.5 meters in length and up to 43.7 meters in width. Moreover, mobility and sustainability are what distinguishes composite type drydocks favorably from graving docks or syncrolifts. In contrast to coastal hydraulic structures, they are wholly at the disposal of the owner, are out а reach of local authorities and can be quickly relocated to the right place. At their own time, Soviet Union’s Naval Forces were purchasing unique dockyards which Western media dubbed “the miracle of the twentieth century”. The covered dockyard “Sever” (or “North”) was intended for maintenance and repair of Soviet submarines in the Far North environments. At thirty-degree frost, the dock, protected from the el-
Pallada is currently building a composite type 8,500-t floating drydock for operation in the Caspian Sea. The dock will be constructed from two halves, which will be towed through the Volga-Don Canal to the Caspian Sea and glued together in water without the help of caissons. The dock is scheduled to be ready for operation in the third quarter of 2014.
ements by a roof and doors, created its own microclimate with temperatures of plus 15 ... 18° C. Covered dockyards allow ships to be maintained and repaired regardless of the ambient temperature or humidity of the outside environment, or weather conditions in their base locations. Docks of this type can also be useful in very hot and humid climates. Selecting between a “conventional” dock of steel – which is more commonly used but requires a greater amount of maintenance and substantial investment during its lifecycle – and a composite type drydock which offers an array of clear advantageous in many aspects – is a question to be answered by potential customers for products by CDB “Izumrud” and SP “Pallada”. Ukrainian dock-builders and those foreign companies that have many years of successful experience operating these products are sure they know the correct answer to this key question. UDR