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Special Issue of Forum Magazine

1348

Charles University 2018

Celebrating the 670th Anniversary of the Foundation of Charles University


1348–1372 Universitas Pragensis (Studium generale Pragensis) · 1366 Henricus de Etwat de Primislawia · 1367 Henricus de Nanexen alias de Embeck · 1372 Nicolaus Gewiczka seu de Kolberg · 1372–1419 Universitas Scolarium Studii Pragensis · 1373 Thomas de Busilia · 1374 Johannes Westphalis, Johannes Wenceslai de Praga · 1375 Vigtholdus Westphalis de Praga · 1376–1377 Fridmanus de Praga · 1378 Nicolaus de Gubin, Hermannus de Wintersvick, Nicolaus Raconik · 1382 Johannes Wenceslai de Praga · 1383 Blasius Lupus · 1383–1384 Johannes Wenceslai de Praga, Heylmannus de Wormacia, Johannes Papendorp · 1384–1385 Conradus Soltow · 1385 Nicolaus de Gubin · 1386 Nicolaus de Litomysl · 1387 Nicolaus de Gubin · 1388–1389 Johannes Winkleri · 1389 Bartholomeus Torghelowe · 1389–1390 Nicolaus Bochnik · 1391–1392 Henricus de Bremis · 1392 Henricus Reczekow de Rybenicze · 1392–1393 Albertus Engelschalk de Straubinga · 1393 Johannes Eliae · 1393–1394 Elias de Thin · 1394 Henricus de Homberg · 1394 Johannes de Moravia · 1394–1395 Petrus de Redino · 1395–1396 Johannes de Mutha · 1396–1397 Henricus de Perching · 1397 Nicolaus Magni de Jawor · 1397–1398 Stephanus de Colonia seu Colinensis · 1398 Johannes Ottonis de Monsterberg · 1398–1399 Helmoldus de Soltwedel · 1400 Stephanus de Palecz · 1401 Nicolaus Stor de Swydnicz · 1402–1403 Nicolaus de Lutomyssl · 1403 Walterus Harrasser · 1404 Stanislaus de Znoyma · 1404–1405 Johannes de Pustimir · 1405 Christianus de Prachaticz · 1405–1407 Clemens de Mnichovicz · 1407 Andreas de Broda · 1407–1408 Bernhardus de Granovicz · 1408 Clemens de Mnichov · 1408 Zdenko de Labun, Marcus de Grecz · 1408–1409 Henningus de Baltenhagen · 1409 Zdenko de Labun · 1409–1410 Johannes Hus, Johannes Hoffmanus Swidnicensis · 1410 Johannes Andreae · 1410–1411 Jacobus de Sobieslavia, Gregorius de Praga, Johannes de Jessenicz, Gallus de Utery · 1411 Simon de Tisnov · 1412 Marcus de Grecz · 1412–1413 Christianus de Prachaticz · 1413 Michael de Malenicz · 1413–1414 Antonius de Luna · 1414 Gallus de Utery, Briccius de Buda · 1415 Briccius de Buda · 1415–1416 Thomas de Lissa, Simon de Rokiczana · 1416 Jacobus de Sobieslavia · 1416–1417 Johannes Cardinalis · 1418 Zdislaus de Zwirzeticz · 1372–1419 Universitas Iuristarum Studii Pragensis · 1372–1373 Johannes de Pernstein · 1373–1375 Pertholdus de Wehingen · 1375–1376 Johannes de Hohenloch · 1376–1377 Gorlacus Horst de Stargardia · 1377–1378 Johannes Slepekow · 1378–1380 Henricus de Stwolenka · 1380–1381 Nicolaus de Kossczol · 1381–1382 Nicolaus Geunheri de Praga · 1382–1383 Carolus Haguini · 1383–1384 Georgius de Hohenloch · 1384–1385 Nicolaus Geunheri de Praga · 1385–1386 Ulricus Medek de Schellemberg · 1386–1387 Mathias Kule · 1387–1388 Smylo de Wyncow · 1388–1389 Nicolaus Geunheri de Praga · 1389–1390 Jaroslaus de Porzessin · 1390–1391 Nicolaus Erghemes de Livonia · 1391–1392 Cristanus Aroldishusen · 1392–1393 Petrus Cappleri de Sulewicz · 1393–1394 Jodocus Hecht de Rossicz · 1394 Johannes de Brun · 1394–1395 Johannes Czeghenryd de Sundis · 1395–1396 Czenko de Labun · 1396–1397 Lucas Hezler de Legnicz · 1397–1398 Petrus Slewynk · 1398–1400 Nicolaus Geunheri · 1400–1401 Stephanus de Manicz · 1401 Mroczko de Kiszelewo dictus Nagorka · 1401–1402 Nicolaus Geunheri · 1402–1403 Heuke de Konyad · 1403–1404 Nicolaus Geunheri · 1404–1405 Johannes Pauli · 1405–1406 Bernhardus Bulowe de Glyn · 1406–1407 Andreas Gerechini · 1407–1408 Ulricus de Glowaczow · 1408–1410 Ulricus de Strassicz · 1410–1411 Mathias de Trutenow · 1411–1412 Henricus Rolle · 1412–1413 Conradus Wertheim · 1413–1415 Mathias Rost de Praga · 1415–1416 Arnestus de Metelsko · 1416–1418 Ulricus de Strassitz · 1418–1419 Nicolaus Henrici de Praga · 1419–1622 Universitas Scolarium Studii Pragensis · 1420 Martinus Cunssonis de Praga · 1420–1421 Procopius de Plzna · 1425 Petrus de Sepekov · 1425–1426 Johannes Borotin · 1426 Procopius de Plzna · 1434 Christianus de Prachaticz · 1437 Christianus de Prachaticz · 1438–1439 Petrus de Mladoniovicz · 1439–1440 Wenceslaus de Prachaticz · 1440–1441 Augustinus de Glatovia · 1442–1443 Petrus de Grecz · 1443–1444 Procopius de Plzna · 1444 Wenceslaus de Prachaticz · 1445 Johannes de Sobieslavia · 1447–1448 Mauricius de Benessow · 1449–1450 Petrus de Grecz · 1450–1451 Johannes de Czaslaw · 1453–1454 Wenceslaus de Prachaticz · 1455–1456 Martinus de Lancicia · 1456–1457 Stanislaus de Welwar · 1457–1458 Johannes de Jemnicz · 1459–1460 Wenceslaus de Wrben · 1460–1462 Johannes de Praga · 1462–1463 Wenceslaus Coranda de Plzna · 1463–1464 Johannes de Czaslaw · 1464–1465 Paulus de Dobrin · 1466–1467 Wenceslaus de Wrben · 1467–1469 Johannes de Praga · 1470–1471 Wenceslaus Coranda de Plzna · 1471–1472 Jacobus de Patzau · 1474–1475 Johannes de Tabor · 1476–1477 Gregorius Pragensis · 1477–1479 Laurencius de Rokycan · 1480–1481 Wenceslaus de Trzepsko · 1483–1484 Jacobus de Patzau · 1484–1485 Paulus de Zaacz · 1487–1488 Johannes Pragensis · 1492–1493 Paulus de Zaacz · 1494– 1496 Jacobus de Strziebro Strziebrensis · 1496–1497 Paulus de Zaacz · 1498–1499 Martinus de Wlassim · 1499–1500 Wenceslaus de Pacow · 1502–1503 Georgius Kaurzimensis · 1504–1505 Jacobus Pacowiensis · 1505 Wenceslaus de Pacow · 1508–1509 Michael de Straz · 1509–1510 Wenceslaus de Pacow · 1511–1512 Wenceslaus Candidus · 1512–1513 Wenceslaus de Pacow · 1513 Wenceslaus Coranda de Plzna · 1514–1515 Wenceslaus Letomyslius · 1515–1516 Duchco Brodensius · 1516–1517 Wenceslaus Letomyslius · 1517–1519 Laurentius Trebonius · 1519– 1521 Wenceslaus Letomyslius · 1521–1522 Johannes Presticenus · 1522–1523 Wenceslaus Letomyslius · 1524–1525 Johannes Presticenus · 1525– 1526 Thomas Wlassymensis · 1526–1527 Mathias Chorambius · 1527–1528 Thomas Rakonus · 1528–1530 Johannes Presticenus · 1530–1531 Laurentius Trebonius · 1531–1532 Johannes Presticenus de Jaworzicz · 1532–1533 Georgius Piesensis · 1533–1535 Johannes Chocenus · 1535–1536 Georgius Pisensis · 1537–1538 Johannes Hortensius Pragensis · 1538–1539 Martinus Glatovinus Bethlemiticus · 1539–1540 Johannes Hortensius Pragensis · 1540–1541 Georgius Pisensis · 1541–1542 Martinus Glatovinus Bethlemiticus · 1542–1545 Henricus Curius de Helfenberg · 1545–1546 Johannes Hortensius Prahenus · 1546–1548 Gregorius Orinus de Chocemicz · 1548–1551 Johannes Hortensius Prahenus · 1551–1553 Sebastianus Aerichalcus Praesticenus · 1553–1557 Johannes Hortensius Pragenus · 1557–1559 Johannes Colonius · 1559–1561 Mathias Dapsilius Curius ab Hajek · 1561–1562 Georgius Polenta a Sudetis · 1562–1572 Mathias Curius ab Hajek · 1572–1573 Petrus Codicillus de Tulechowa · 1573–1582 Mathias Curius ab Hajek · 1582–1589 Petrus Codicillus de Tulechow · 1589–1591 Marcus Bydzovinus a Florentino · 1591–1593 Trojanus Nigellus de Osskorzina · 1593–1594 Adamus Zaluzanius de Zaluzan · 1594–1597 Marcus Bydžovinus a Florentino · 1597–1599 Trojanus Nigellus de Osskorzina · 1599–1600 Martinus Bachaczii de Naumierzicz · 1600–1602 Johannes Adam Bystrziczenus · 1602–1603 Marcus Bydžovinus a Florentino · 1603–1612 Martinus Bachacius de Naumierzicz · 1612 Johannes Campanus Wodnianus · 1612–1613 Adamus Huber de Risenpach · 1613–1614 Julius Schlick · 1614–1615 Johannes Albrechtus Krzinetius de Ronow · 1615–1616 Johannes Abraham a Gerstorf · 1616–1617 Johannes Christophorus a Fünfkirchen · 1617 Stephanus Strelius de Rencer · 1617–1620 Johannes Jessenius · 1620–1621 Carolus Hilprand de Walterskirchen · 1621 Johannes Campanus Wodnianus · 1621–1622 Nicolaus Troilus Hagiochoranus · 1556–1654 Jesuit Academy · 1556–1558 Ursmarus Goisonius · 1558–1561 Paulus Hoffaeus · 1561–1574 Henricus Blissemius · 1574–1580 Joannes Paulus Campanus · 1582–1589 Alexander Voit · 1589–1590 Joannes Reinelius · 1590–1591 Paulus Neukirchius · 1591–1592 Alexander Voit · 1593–1595 Wenceslaus Sturmius · 1595–1601 Melchiorus Trevinnius · 1601–1606 Jacobus Geranus · 1606–1610 Theophilus Christecus · 1610–1616 Jacobus Geranus · 1622–1623 Valentinus Coronius · 1623–1626 Petr Jimenéz · 1626–1629 Martin Santinus · 1629–1638 Martin Středa · 1638 Jiří Meridíes · 1638–1654 Ferdinand University · 1638–1639 Jiři Meridíes · 1639–1643 Blažej Slanina · 1643–1646 Pavel Anastasius · 1646–1650 Ondřej du Buisson · 1650–1652 Jiří Molitoris · 1652–1654 Jan Molitoris · 1654–1882 Charles-Ferdinand University · 1654 Jan Molitoris · 1655 Jindřich Pipius · 1656 Mikuláš Franchimont z Franckenfeldu · 1657–1659 Ondřej Schambogen · 1660 Kryštof Norbert Knauth z Fahnenschwungu · 1661 Jan z Vrbna · 1662 Jan Marcus Marci z Kronlandu · 1663 Jan z Vrbna · 1664 Kryštof Kyblín z W   affenburku · 1665 Jan Saxius · 1666 Mikuláš Franchimont z Franckenfeldu · 1667 Václav Zimmerman · 1668 Ignác František Tam · 1669 Šimon Schürer · 1670–1671 Jakub Jan Václav Dobřenský de Nigro Ponte · 1672 Daniel Krupský · 1673 Jan Jiří Funck · 1674 Matyáš Tanner · 1675–1676 Jan Jiří Proxa · 1677 Řehoř Král · 1678 Matyáš Alois Malanotte · 1679 Jiří Weis · 1680–1681 Šebestián Kristián Zeidler z Zeidlernu · 1682 Jan Wald · 1683 Jan Jiří Funck · 1684 František z Vrtby · 1685–1686 Jakub Jan Václav


Timeline

1348–1372

Universitas Pragensis studium generale Pragensis

charles IV

1372–1419

1372–1419

Universitas Scolarium Studii Pragensis

Universitas Iuristarum Studii Pragensis

1419–1654

1556–1654

Universitas Scolarium Studii Pragensis (with the single faculty Artium)

Jesuit Academy

1622

The merger of Charles University with the Jesuit Academy

1654

By the Decree of Union, Ferdinand III joins the Carolinum and Clementinum into one institution – Charles-Ferdinand University

Ferdinand III

1882

A decree issued by Emperor Franz Joseph on 28 February divides the Charles-Ferdinand University into two independent institutions with Czech and German as their respective languages of instruction

1882–1920

Franz Joseph

1882–1920

Czech Charles-Ferdinand University

German Charles-Ferdinand University

1920–1945

1920

Charles University

German University in Prague. After the Nazi occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, the German University is incorporated into the Reich.

1998

2016

Charles University in Prague

Charles University

1


History of Charles University

2


History of Charles University

670 Years of Education Throughout centuries, Charles University has kept it’s outstanding position in science and education. Impact of scientific work and the stance of academy representatives has influenced European and world history many times. Centuries-old values have been passed on from one generation to the next, each finding fresh inspiration in them. To this day, the oath sworn to the sceptre in the Carolinum building remains a tradition marking the beginning of a fruitful and successful career.

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History of Charles University

Poor but Happy Days! In the early years of Charles University, students were often as poor as a church mouse and chilled to the bone in winter. Yet they still found pleasure in a glass or two of wine, enjoyed indecent dances, hung out with dubious ladies or duelled in the streets and sometimes ended up in the rector’s jail. Here, we talk to Professor František Šmahel, expert in the history of the Late Middle Ages about the joys and sorrows of student life in the early days of Prague University. text by Lucie Kettnerová

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History of Charles University

What was student life like in the Middle Ages? Was it harder than now, or more fun? Everyday life for medieval university students was described in the ancient Czech satirical poem The Groom and the Scholar. The Groom scolds the scholar (a student in today’s language) for being “a skinny beggar” – to which the scholar swiftly replies that he’s never hungry, and, if lucky, may even end up as a bishop! In reality, poor students were poverty-stricken, frozen to the bone in the winter and often slept rough. Even the wealthier ones weren’t much better off. They attended the same schools, but at least they weren’t so broke.

future classmates, and even professors. The “rookie” celebrations were also a good opportunity for various theatre performances with biblical or ancient themes. Usually these took place before the start of a semester, typically in August and April. Rectors and deans earned considerable profits from the celebrations and they invited, or ordered, the caretakers of Latin schools to bring their pupils to Prague. The initiation rites were often attended by boys of 14 to 16 years, who then continued their high school education for some time to come. What was accommodation like for the stu­ dents? Most new students in pre-Hussite times found accommodation in the houses of their masters (teachers), called bursae. However, the only trace left in the historical records is their names. On the other hand, we know a bit more about charity-based student homes and a few of the dormitories. For example, in August 1379, Vincenc Nydeck of Görlitz left eight talents of Polish currency to buy a house for poor students of the Prague University. After the late 14th century, well-educated Bohemian residents and wealthy Prague citizens demonstrated their national awareness by establishing foundations to support the university bodies for the nation, which then included what is now Slovakia and Hungary. We know these foundations acquired at least three houses over a ten to 15-year period to accommodate teachers and students alike.

Did the students have to pass entrance exams to get into Prague university? Or were there other barriers? A Latin school pupil became a student when he was registered at the university registry office, paid the matriculation fee and made an oath to the rector. There were no admission exams, but a reasonable knowledge of Latin was required. There were several types of medieval students – not just in Prague, but in most of the Central European universities. Those entering the Faculty of Arts were younger than today's students – mostly 16 to 18. While most students were happy enough attending lectures and disputations, bache­lors and masters of arts students struggled to get their university degree. The studies began with a special initiation cel­ ebration, beania. What was it like? The name comes from the French word for a rookie or freshman. New students were put on a wooden goat in order to lose their disorderly or rough behaviour during their university years. The idea comes from a Latin rhyme, which said those who don’t ride a wild goat can never benefit from riding the immortal winged horse Pegasus. We don’t know a lot about this celebration before the Hussite wars in the mid-15th century. But in the period before the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, it seems that the initiation ceremony was one of the most important events for students. Its popularity was boosted by the regular university feasts at which young men had to endure various ordeals for the amusement of

And the meals? If a student was admitted to a college, his meals were provided. Students from wealthy families had to pay full price for everything, while others shared the costs of meals and firewood depending on their means. The college rules sometimes set out in detail that specific meals (meat, peas, etc.) were to be served at specific times. As well as common students, there were also “famuli” at the universities. What was their role? Most students, then called alumni, found accommodation in student colleges and were admitted by professors and directors who oversaw

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History of Charles University

What did the courses look like in the 16th cen­ tury? In general, the education was based on the traditional seven arts, or artes in Latin, which broke down into the trivium (grammar, rhetorics, dialectics) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music). Mathematics and astronomy were given most attention. Astrology was very popular in this period and a big a hit with the royal court. In the first half of the 16th century, exegesis or critical examination of the interpreted readings of ancient authors (especially Vergil and Cicero and later also including Hesiod and Homer) started appearing in the curricula. In the 1570s, about half of the lessons in the weekly timetable still focused on Aristotle’s philosophy. There were usually two lessons in rhetoric, reading of ancient books and anatomy each week. Arithmetic often had to settle for a single lesson, while occasional lessons focused on Roman law. On Saturdays there were disputations, with most attention paid to the formal aspects of a speech. No wonder that the Faculty of Arts became the alma mater of many Latin poets who then entertained the guests of many universities and at other festivals with their poems.

the operational and economic functions of the institution. The house rules of the college were different in their details, but usually focused on shared meals and penalties for various transgressions or bad manners. In particular, the alumni were required not to neglect their lessons and participation in religious procedures was compulsory, including singing during services in specific Churches. A small group of students consisted of the fa­muli, or assistants to the professors, who stayed with their masters in a masters’ college. The fa­muli were supposed to act as models for other students, but this wasn’t always the case. For example, in 1605, all famuli ended up in the rector’s jail as they “defiled the feast day” by their premature departure from the mass. What other transgressions could land the stu­ dents in the university jail? By matriculation, a student received certain special rights – a first step to the privileged priesthood. The rector’s jurisdiction protected students against all secular courts. And even though the rector also had penal authority, his jail was far more acceptable than the city prison. The rector’s court governed the disputes of academics as well as transgressions by undergraduate students. The university codes set fixed pe­­ nalties in the case of proven guilt – financial fines or jail time. The jail was called “the henhouse”, or “the manger”. The latter was an ironic nickname – an imprisoned student had to pay for his meals. Jail sentences were given for repeated moral transgressions or other violations, especially ga­­ mbling. In 1608, several students were put into the henhouse after attacking the janitor of the college with fists and stones. However, the greedy janitor also ended up in the rector’s jail.

At that time, books were very expensive. What materials did the students use, and where did they get them? Long after the invention of printing, poor students had to copy their books and other materials manually. The records of Latin lectures used numerous abbreviations, yet these manuscripts were always full of mistakes and omissions. Most of the books were impossible to acquire but were available in the libraries. And yes, I can imagine your next question. Many of these books were chained to the shelves. It was really necessary. For example, in the 1530s, a certain bachelor kept stealing rare parchment manuscripts from College of King Wenceslas for two years, selling them with his aide at the Jewish market.

Was corporal punishment used at the univer­ sity? There are documents proving that the birch was used at some universities such as Cologne as late as 1522. Yet in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown it was only used at lower types of school. Very rarely, it was used by rectors of the Jesuit Academy which was well known for its severe discipline.

Today, students often travel to study abroad on the Erasmus+ programme. Was it possible to visit another university at this time? Despite significant differences in pronunciation, Latin was a common language and enabled

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History of Charles University

Long after the invention of printing, poor students had to copy their books and other materials manually.

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History of Charles University

students to study at any college or university in the Western Christian world. The “educated pilgrimage” was, however, very expensive even for students from wealthy families. In rare cases, poor students could use scholarships or temporary accommodation in church dormitories. At the turn of the 14th and 15th century, several students and bachelors visited Oxford this way. In the 16th century, about one third of Prague professors had studied abroad. Sometimes rambling students (vagabonds) came to Prague, but they found a less than warm welcome.

places who tried to graduate as soon as possible. Most of them got their bachelor’s degree between their 21st and 22nd birthday. Almost 75% of students and graduates from the humanities chose teaching as their first job while the rest became municipal or other officials. An unusual fact is the low number of people entering the priesthood. However, it’s worth keeping in mind that most of the school officials were ordained sooner or later. Let’s get back to our first question. What were the joys waiting for the students? As in other times, they didn’t only find joy in studying. Their leisure activities are mostly known to us from complaints and lawsuits from unhappy citizens. Transgressions included indecent dances, lechery, quarrels and duels on the street, plundering of fruit orchards at night, masquerades and quarrelling with neighbours. All of this was the result of too much drinking, which was pretty well documented in the Latin university poetry of that time.

Was there a chance for the students to get a job as a university teacher after graduation? A job as a professor at the Prague University wasn’t for anyone. Their exact number was determined by the number of places in the master’s colleges, so a new professor could only be appointed when his predecessor died or left. Out of the assessed set of 66 professors of the Faculty of Arts, 21 started teaching immediately following their graduation and the remaining 45 masters came to the faculty from lower types of school. A total of 21 professors remained on the faculty until their death, while 16 became state officials, 11 cemented their position in the upper citizen class by marriage, three pursued medicine, one returned to a lower type of school, and one became a priest. The remaining professors taught for an average of 13 years. Marriage was the common route to the upper class and 30 professors got married, 11 of them to widows, 23 pursued successful careers due to their marriage and 14 significantly increased their social status this way. What other possibilities were offered by uni­ versity studies? Most graduates, whether bachelors or masters, had no other chance than to accept jobs as caretakers or teachers at municipal schools. More than 20% of future graduates already worked during their studies as school janitors, dormitory economists or servants of the professors. There were probably more cases like this, especially among the bachelors getting ready for masters’ exams. The exception was for students from remote

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History of Charles University

As in other times, students didn’t only find joy in studying. Their leisure activities are mostly known to us from complaints and lawsuits from unhappy citizens.

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History of Charles University

With and Without the Jesuits The first local competition for Prague University arrived in the 16th century in the shape of the Jesuit Academy. We asked Associate Professor Ivana Čornejová, a specialist in Bohemian and Church history in the 16th to 18th centuries and in the history of Czech education, about the development of the two institutions. text by Lucie Kettnerová

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History of Charles University

How was the academic system in the Bohe­ mian Lands affected by the arrival of the Jes­ uits? The Jesuits came to Prague in 1556 on the invitation of Ferdinand I who wanted to support the Catholic faith in the country where more than 80% of the population subscribed to non-Catholic faiths. At this time the recatholization process started, still in its non-violent form, until 1620, and different confessions coexisted. The impact of the Jesuits on the educational system was very important. The Jesuit order was established as a missionary order, which was its first and most important purpose, but also as an educational one. Right from the start, the founder Ignatius Loyola himself recognized the importance of education, especially higher education. He succeeded in his mission. Jesuit schools were very successful and Jesuits even became fashionable and their schools were attended by many young men. An important reason was that the schools were free of charge. In 1562, the first schools were established at St. Clemens’ College in the Clementinum. They covered high school and university education, specifically the Faculty of Arts and Theology. Ten years later, a similar Jesuit university – called “academy” in line with the fashion of the era – was established in Olomouc. So the country suddenly had two more universities in addition to the ancient Prague University.

After the Renew Land Constitution was declared, the only official confession was Catholic so non-Catholic institutions were abolished. All schools were either recatholized or closed down and replaced by new ones. Even the Prague University faced this threat as an institution suspected of heresy, but then an order came from Vienna that the university, still bearing Charles IV’s le­ gacy, must be taken over by the Jesuits. This happened in 1622, and the Jesuits immediately made the Carolinum part of the Clementinum. Thus, the Faculty of Law and Medicine were restored, which practically hadn’t existed in the Carolinum before the Battle of the White Mountain. However, many disputes ensued, especially with Archbishop Harrach who was to become the chancellor of the university. The Jesuits had very different rules for appointing positions at their schools. These disputes became serious, public fights broke out between the students, and the affair was negotiated over not only in Prague and in Vienna but even at the papal court in Rome. It was not resolved until 1654 when the university union was created and Charles-Ferdinand University was established. This name was used until 1918, and formally even until 1920. The university consisted of spiritual Faculties of Arts and Theology based in the Clementinum and secular Faculties of Law and Medicine based in the Ca­rolinum. Even though they were supposed to be equal, the Jesuit faculties were dominant until the mid−18th century, as the powerful order was stable enough and well able to press their suggestions and views. At the same time, they advocated academic autonomy resistant to state intervention.

Did they compete with the Prague University where the studies were not free of change? I believe the fees weren’t the main factor, as most students in that era came from families that could afford it, and gifted but poor students were exempt from the charges, so no-one was excluded. Of course, the schools competed with one another, not for financial reasons but because each wanted to show they were the best. So it was a good form of competition – they tried to excel in the quality of education, and even invited each other for disputations or theatrical performances, which was part of the humanistic tradition both in the Carolinum and the Clementinum.

The Jesuits also brought the mandatory oath of graduates, new professors and newly elected academic notables to the Immaculate Concep­ tion of V   irgin Mary. Was it required as strictly in other countries as well? The oath to the Immaculate Conception was common in many countries, especially in those where the Jesuits controlled the universities. In Central Europe it was present at all universities except Salzburg where the university was Benedictine. The custom came originally from the Iberian Peninsula, and it’s not site-specific in Bohemia at all. In our country, it was established as a rule in

Yet after 1620 this friendly environment changed…

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History of Charles University

1651, before the university union, and lasted until the Josephine reforms. Then it was replaced by sponsio solemnis, or solemn oath, that had been used in modified versions. At the Utraquist University, an oath on the Compacts, a kind of law of the land was used. The oath to the Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary was a bit problematic as not all Catholics recognized her, let alone the Protestants. The Immaculate Conception – that the Virgin Mary was conceived without original sin – became dogma in the mid−19th century, when it was already anachronistic. The Dominicans, who never acknowledged it, couldn’t get any academic degrees at the university, which was a unique feature of the Bohemian university. In Vienna, where the Jesuits worked at the Faculties of Arts and Theology, but not in control of all departments, those monks who didn’t recognize this oath were exempt from it. So this strict rule was somewhat unusual.

houses were replaced by the St. Wenceslas’ Seminar and the Hostel of St. Bartholomew – Jesuit institutions similar to older houses. Secular students could stay there too, for free, either supported by various foundations or other funds. The university even had its own Academic Legion or military unit. When did the students take part in fighting in Prague the most? Academic Legions were quite common in many university cities, as students had received military training since the 16th century and many universities had their own fencing teachers. A cloak and sword were even part of the student uniform. The Academic Legions were established either regularly or ad hoc, when more troops were needed which was quite often. But the army wasn’t like modern armies. The regiments were moved as necessary, and when an attack was imminent, often the university cities lacked proper protection. That’s when the Academic Legion was useful, as well as civic militia. Students had better military training than citizens and they were also young and eager to fight, had fewer family relationships and ­weren’t generally so concerned. So they were much more successful in wars or military conflicts. In 1648 the Academic Legion took part in the defence of the Old Town side of Charles Bridge against Swedish mercenaries, and the Clementinum, the Jesuit Academy, became their rear echelon, to provide meals for students and treat the wounded. On this year, students of all universities in Prague voluntarily joined the Academic Legion for the first time. The legion had its armoury in the Carolinum, and also had its colours, yet it later vanished, nobody knows where. Another important Academic Legion operated in 1741, in the War of the Austrian Succession, when Prague was besieged by French, Bavarian and Silesian troops. Yet the most famous Academic Legion is that of 1848, the biggest ever. It was also the last time armed students officially took part in an independent military or paramilitary unit.

Celibacy for secular teachers was finally abol­ ished at the beginning of the 17th century. Was this for purely practical reasons? Certainly some of the reasons were practical, as teachers with families had to take care of themselves instead of relying on the profits of university assets, which were always pretty low. And when a teacher married a wealthy bride, it meant he could be better off. Why was the system of houses discontinued in Prague in the 17th and 18th centuries? We don’t know exactly. The system of houses has continued in Oxford and Cambridge in England, in France to some extent, and also, for example, in Leuven, Belgium. In Bohemia, the change was probably caused by the fact that the Carolinum, the old Utraquist University, ceased to exist in 1622 and when the secular Faculties of Medicine and Law were restored, they basically started from scratch. The professors who came from abroad lived in apartments or rented premises, and most students also rented premises from the citizens. The university houses with their dormitories, already in bad condition before the Battle of the White Mountain, were then rented as apartments. The university

Were the students paid for their service? They were indeed. The legion was organized as a military body, the units had commanders, and they reported to the commander in chief. All

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History of Charles University

Rector Jan Jesenius was arrested and executed, along with 26 other Bohemian estates leaders, on the Old Town Square in 1621.

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History of Charles University

Uffo Horn, a thirty-one-year-old Prague German writer, urged students to establish their own armed force.

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History of Charles University

What can you tell us about the ban on eco­ nomic activities? The university lost its autonomous rights, and the academic government, the senate, ceased operations. Before that, the senate had been the highest administration body of the whole university, with judicial power. And the senate also managed the assets of the university, including its villages, which generated profits. Until then, the university was a regular feudal institution, but over time this way of funding became anachronistic. However, the university’s property wasn’t confiscated but bought out – the professors were paid by the state. That’s why they were appointed by the monarch, and then by the president. It’s not because the position is so important, as many people may think today. The appointment of professors is still based on the Josephine reforms.

members came from the university. Most students were always from the Faculty of Arts – not the monks but secular students – as this faculty was always the largest. The students of the Faculty of Law followed, and the smallest group consisted of the medical students, who of course, also provided medical help. Were there courses during the war? All education temporarily ceased in the event of any military threat, not only because of the Academic Legion but also for safety reasons. In case of any danger, including plague outbreaks, the schools closed and students had to leave for the countryside. In the 1780s the Josephine reforms largely affected the university – it was nationalized and its economic activities were banned. What were the specific consequences for the school? The words “nationalized” and “banned” look rather dramatic, but this development had been apparent for some time. Long before that, in medieval times, the universities were established within the church. Of course they were independent and tried to resist external pressure from the church and state. From the 17th century the role of the state increased, and in the second half of the 18th century it was enormous and omnipresent. Still, it was rather an attempt at a kind of unification. The nationalization was perceived as a progressive step to unify all these institutions and from that time all the universities in the kingdom developed in the similar way. The Josephine educational reform was immensely important for future development. It was an amazing change – a modernization of the whole system of studies. Under the reign of Maria Theresa, after the Jesuit order had been abolished, almost all teachers at the Faculties of Arts and Theology were replaced. Only a few Jesuits could stay, for example those with outstanding results in mathematics or physics. Other major changes were made at the Faculties of Medicine and Law. The Faculty of Medicine became an important centre of medical education, and the prestige of medicine increased in general.

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History of Charles University

Fall from Grace and Prestige: The Story of Academic Fame, 1802—2018 The university as the central point of intellectual resistance or a driving force for the generational fight for career opportunities and intellectual rights – a discussion that repeats itself throughout history. In an interview with Professor Jiří Pešek, we look at various parallels from the 19th and 20th century to explain how elites usually respond when their power and control is threatened. text by Petra Köpplová

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History of Charles University

How was the development of the university affected by the Napoleonic wars in the early 19th century? Today, we tend to focus on what we destroyed in the 20th century and underestimate the impact of previous wars. However, the hostilities in the early 19th century were catastrophic for both people and property. From state bankruptcies in 1811 to the devastation of Europe during the Napoleonic wars, the destruction is hardly imaginable today and it took the whole continent, including the land we now like to call Czech Republic, many years to recover. The university didn’t escape the upheaval and its recovery took place in the specific situation of a monarchy clearly afraid of more revolutions and the state turned to a totally centralized system. In Prussia, modern universities were established; in Austria, Emperor Francis I and Count Metternich tried to dampen opposition by taking a firm hand and increasing censorship. The Vienna Congress and Carlsbad Decrees (1819) put the university under strict control, with Francis’s idea that schools should primarily educate loyal officials. Though just experiencing industrialization and modernization, Bohemian society had no relevant understanding of what the university could offer. This situation wasn’t specific to our lands – these problems were common in all European countries and the politicians, parliaments and police reacted in a similar way everywhere. The modernization of the universities was a hot issue. In Great Britain, for example, Cambridge took the modern route while Oxford remained true to the traditional, discipline-based religious education of young aristocrats.

officials should leave them alone. In pure spite, they established the Patriotic Museum and funded Bernard Bolzano – the Catholic priest, mathematician and logician known for his anti-militaristic views: thus, they were showing that they were still quite powerful. Such an independent and influential phenomenon has been missing in our society in more recent times. Of course, its absence was most painful before 1989, but it’s still missing these days. The positive influence of liberal aristocrats, in stark contrast to their conservative opponents, was also seen in the big revolution of 1848, the image of which is still often marred by Marxist stereotypes. More than 20 years ago, an excellent book by Ralph Melville explained the fundamental key role of people, such as Count Franz Stadion and the dissatisfied aristocrats, as well as part of the highest-level bureaucracy, in firmly believing that the monarchy should be modernized and based on rational principles. As Melville says, noble aristocratic officials didn’t really join forces with the revolutionaries; they perceived the revolution differently and became its ultimate winners. The cancellation of serfdom enabled them to fund manors, develop agricultural production, and use their finance to establish modern production plants. This aristocratic group was educated, understood the need to reform the state, and was able to communicate with the cream of the society. In addition, they were certain that a modern state needed more than just officials, priests and doctors and that it required many other experts. The prestige of academia, including students, was immense at this time. Even before revolution, in the mid−1840s, the students were well aware that they were the elite; that the university played a key role in the society consisting of different nations. That’s why there were so many historical references to Charles IV at the time and to the importance of the university.

How did the aristocrats influence the National Revival and the level of education in general? In the Czech lands, the impact of aristocracy has always been underrated. In the tough and dark times of Vormärz    (a period in the history of Germany preceding the 1848 March Revolution), the aristocrats were opposed to centralism and the movement of libraries, cultural assets and activities to Vienna. This was a social group with power, prestige and wealth, and the aristocrats believed that the

When the University of Berlin was founded, the indicator of quality changed, and science began to dominate. Upon an initiative by Alexander von Humboldt, Prussia established the secondary school leaving examinations in

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History of Charles University

1834. Was the monarchy keeping up with the times? The basic belief that the state needed top-quality scientists was a cornerstone of Thun’s reform. Count Leo Thun was the political patron of the reform written by Hermann Bonitz and other experts. Once the reform was in place, key researchers were moved from the Prague University, which had been better than the Viennese in se­ veral branches of knowledge even before 1848, to Vienna. Despite the tough regime of Alexander Bach, considerable efforts were made to modernize the university as a result of the high school system reform. To study at a high school, pass a school-leaving exam and then pass at least several semesters at the university was highly valued in both Czech and German society. The high school professorship at the time was socially more important than current university professorship and the senior high school students were up to par with Vormärz (a period in the history of Germany preceding the 1848 March Revolution) students of the Faculty of Arts. A strong, self-confident class of well-educated people was established. For them, it was important to become members of the “elite club” of high school classmates. The fact that someone belonged to the “diploma owners” opened many doors.

Factory tycoons, bankers, incorporated companies all needed someone with a doctoral, or even professor’s degree, in the family or on the board. In the late 19th century, the nation-based society couldn’t achieve political emancipation and enjoy its political rights without this class (or, for example, without the national opera house). Nevertheless, all this is widely ignored today. Even historians often fail to include the cultural and educational issues in their syntheses and overviews and rely on politics, economics and social structures to try to understand changes in the society. In fact, culture and education was its essence at that time. After the division of the university in 1882, Prague became the second most important university city in the Habsburg Empire. In the mid-1880s, the Czech university had 4‚500 students, and the German had 3‚500. For the city and the country of that era, it represented the social elite with a strength that’s hard to imagine these days. The prestige of the professors and their influ­ ence on the society was incomparably higher than today. How big was their power, in fact? In Germany at the end of the 19th century, a professor was equal to a minister in both social status and income. Also in our country, many university professors were also members of the Land Assembly or the Vienna Parliament. These aspects are often ignored today when discussing the university and its internal hierarchy, but it was firmly rooted in the society back then. When a constitution was passed in Austria in 1861, the first generation of Czech politicians consisted of national enthusiasts who thought they could do the role part-time. Soon they found out it was impossible – physicians would lose their clients, for instance. During the 1870s, another group proved more successful – journalists and lawyers, who managed to run big offices without actually having to be on the spot. And, of course, university professors – their lessons were just a small part of their work, and they could delegate other duties to their assistants. The advantage for the university was increased influence over the ministry and the government of the land.

The students demonstrated their loyalty to the university and nation by joining various associ­ ations and student groups. Was their influence really that important? Student associations and groups were established a little later, but in the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century, their role was almost as important as the role of political parties. These were groups of power and young student officials went straight into high politics. The students were naturally interested and involved in politics and culture, and the public expected them to participate in the cultural life, both actively and passively. So they didn’t study just to get a diploma – for at least until the World War I, big careers were at stake! The prestige of academic degrees was seen as an alternative to aristocratic titles and their holders could make a pretty good profit on them.

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History of Charles University

The first female students were only admitted in 1897; in Germany, it was almost ten years later.

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History of Charles University

In the late 19th century, the university was a purely male environment. When did this change? The first female students were only admitted in 1897; in Germany, it was almost ten years later. They were scarce in the beginning, and the cha­ll­ e­nges they faced were large – both Prague universities had their misogynists and anti-Semites. To admit that a woman could be, in a professional sense, better than a man was impossible to accept for some professors. In Berlin, some of them – for example, the superb anatomist Rudolf  Virchow – refused to test the female students. They gave va­rious reasons, yet in principle they were afraid the young ladies would strip them of their privileges of “academic nobility”. Prague was more tolerant towards women in academia; the German university was even more progressive than the Czech one. One of the reasons was that there were more Jewish professors at the German institution. The Jewish girls of this generation, especially from the families of Prague tradesmen or financiers, were extremely clever, purposeful and successful. As early as World War I, some of them even became assistant professors, for example, in the departments of chemistry or physics. Many of them became top experts. Grete Egerer, Gertrud Kornfeld or Julie Moscheles were, however, more famous abroad than in Czechoslovakia between the wars. But when a top expert, such as Alice Hofmann, married, the rules forced her to leave both the university and the branch of science. Then the door to education opened to European women in full, partly because it was necessary to educate more child physicians, gynaecologists and high school teachers. After the war, Faculties of Law also started admitting female students. They included famous people such as Milada Horáková, one of the most successful lawyers of the interwar period, and also a successful politician. Educated women of her kind were great motivators – living proof that women really could achieve a high social status. That’s why Horáková was imprisoned by the Nazis and hated, as a symbol of democratic opposition, by the Communists.

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What were the social changes to the universi­ ties after World War I? After the war, the university admitted many boys of lower social status, often soldiers with field experience of killing, cruelty and suffering. The state tried to stabilize soldiers through scholarships; it was a way to facilitate their return to civil society. Scholarship of some kind was offered throughout Europe, and so was a simplified form of secondary school-leaving exam. Studying became more commonplace, which increased the competition between wealthier men, women, socially impaired and strangers alike. The rough competition within the student community broke out in the first “student unrest” in November in 1929, before the Great Depression began. Students – mostly of the Czech Technical University and the Faculty of Science, Charles University – rallied in the streets of Prague, partly against the government that took no care of them, partly to banish the poor, women and strangers from the university. The German university immediately followed suit, and so did Czech and German universities in Brno. The fascist, asocial, xenophobic and misogynistic approach reflected the fight for a place within the social elite and over who should have the chance to finish their studies. At the universities, the places in clinics, labs and libraries were sparse. In Germany, Jewish men and women were beaten; in Warsaw, the nationalists threw the Jewish female students from the windows. These were the results of the fierce competition across Europe. Everybody knew that important privilege was at stake, and the chances and opportunities available if you successfully graduated. In 1882, the university was divided in to Czech and German parts. What was the result of this diversification? The role of the Czech university for Czech society was incomparably more significant. The German university didn’t have such a powerful background. Yet the researchers in the German part could focus much more intensely on science, with high European standards. However, in the 1930s, state exams and doctoral degrees suddenly lost their value for social


History of Charles University

status and careers – due to the economic crisis. It became difficult to find a qualified job, and then any job. In the years before, whoever passed a secondary school-leaving exam was offered a decent office job. This was no longer the case during the Depression. The universities were no longer safe places, protecting their students against the desperate world. Instead, study simply became an opportunity to postpone the harsh realities of life. At that time, Charles University admitted over 10‚000 students for the first time. In the 1930s, social problems were joined by German, and then Czech anti-Semitism. However, this was a pan-European phenomenon and Bohemia was quite moderate compared to Germany, Austria or Poland. In the 1920s, about a third of the German university students were still Jewish. At the turn of the century, the German Faculty of Law had about 40% Jewish students; the Faculty of Medicine had 30%. This changed around 1930. Jewish professors still remained at the university and became its major gurus, but for the students the situation got worse. The anti-Semites followed the Nazi ideology and took control over the schools quite quickly. Most of the Jewish students were cast out and many, especially the bilingual ones, starting moving to the Czech part in the early 1930s. So, the 1930s saw the academic prestige decline and fall, destroyed by the Great Depression and political events.

a very good level of managing skills in the 19th century. But the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education, created after 1918, became a bureaucratic office with no vision, better at controlling and forbidding than at initiating. The ministry wasn’t capable of resolving the problem of lack of money and left the universities in the cold. The order of the day was to save money, no matter the cost! Did the prestige of academia remain unchanged after WWII, or did the war, with all universities closed, cause irreversible changes? When the Nazi government closed down the universities and forced students into factories, the mentality of the youth changed. For years, they had to live among the people they had never been close to. The result was political radicalization, and deepened understanding of social issues. We now don’t perceive the post-war leftist students as positive figures. But it’s good to understand that when thousands of educated and perceptive young people are forced to live in factories, or worse, concentration camps, it changed their perception of the world, their values and opinions about the worth and possibilities of human beings. Suddenly young people saw a different world. They were radical, nationally and socially, and felt betrayed by the previous system. Were students, therefore, to blame for cont­ ributing to the political coup in 1948? The path to the Communist coup was generally laid by global powers. The fate of Czechoslovakia – controlled by the Red Army – was decided by Stalin in advance. The only question was the extent and consequences of the civic resistance; the results were already set. Those who believe that the situation was in Czech hands have no idea about the power and terrible nature of the Soviet regime, as demonstrated in all conquered countries. It could be much more brutal, more than people from Czechoslovakia could ever imagine. Millions of dead people were unimportant in the Soviet Union. Now we know that during WWII, 40 million citizens of Stalin’s empire died, including about 21 million soldiers. They were forced into minefields, into pointless frontal attacks – the

The national composition of Czechoslovakia after WWI required the bilingual school sys­ tem, which was financially challenging. How did the ministry solve this? Czechoslovakia was the only European country with a fully developed state-governed minority edu­cational system, including the highest level – the German University, two technical colleges and other university-level institutions. However, when the Depression broke out the government started cutting costs dramatically. There was a suggestion to close the Czech university in Brno, and replace it by the united German schools – the government believed that this would help the state financially by reducing the cost of the educational system. It’s a bitter irony: the ministry in Vienna achieved

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History of Charles University

same as Ayatollah Khomeini did decades later in the Iran-Iraq war. Stalin needed to reduce the agricultural lower class. The idea that a small democracy could resist such a regime is beautiful but vain. Take Poland, for example. The cleansing of 1948 was a heavy blow to the students as a group. As for teachers, professors weren’t hit hard; associate and assistant professors were much worse off. The Communist government was quite right to perceive our university as a potential hotbed of intellectual resistance. After 1948, after all the political purges, the university was therefore reduced on purpose, with several faculties being closed. Before February 1948, Charles University had 20‚000 students; in 1956, only 7‚500 remained. It was an attempt to strangle a dangerous institution – the Communist regime repeated what had started after the Napoleonic wars. The Communist Party wanted to curb the danger and fill the university with working class youth. Most of them were “illiterate”, but their ideology was promising. The same as Stalin did in 1929 – in an attempt to replace academic elites, he had 5‚000 factory workers hired by Soviet universities and gave them professorships. The number of students, especially from the working class, tripled in five years. However, it demonstrated that young workers couldn’t manage to learn everything they needed in a few years. But they

still became bosses and there was a lot of confusion when the production or construction failed. So, they started looking for saboteurs and class traitors. And the Communists in Czechoslovakia repeated a similar thing here, which lasted almost until the infamous end of the Five-Year Plan in 1962. Then, they understood that they really needed young educated people – physicians, teachers and experts of all kinds – and the numbers of students gradually grew. The 1960s are perceived as a period of student protests throughout Europe. Is it right that 1968 was the show of a new generation? In 1968, the university had again approximately 20‚000 students, with a majority of female students. However, the selection wasn’t natural. The regime still oppressed many people who weren’t allowed to study. Students who protested in 1968 were for the major part children of Communist elite families, yet they were already unwilling to accept the regime of old, half-educated party morons. The educated class was getting stronger and more confident. When the People’s Militias (Lidové milice) smashed down the student procession in Nerudova Street in 1967, even the party officials protested that someone was beating their kids instead of fixing the dormitories. This second post-February 1948 generation perceived things differently.

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History of Charles University

Important was the generational fight for career opportunities and intellectual rights (“who is that illiterate idiot to tell me not to read or write this or that?”). This generation was then stopped by the “normalization” in the 1970s. Around 650‚000 people – almost the whole of the newly educated people before the “Prague Spring” of 1968 – lost their positions. Only a few people from the “ideologically challenged families” were admitted to study. This period is, however, very difficult to study, as it’s pointless to read the sources superficially. The educated class maintained its solidarity, clans were fighting in the party, and several old university matadors managed to protect their clans and create informal power and defensive structures.

its foundations were laid within the system. This doesn’t affect the importance of students in any way, but it’s good to realize it. There were about 176‚000 students in the whole country in 1989, two thirds in what we now know as Czech Republic. As soon as the new University Code was passed in May 1990 and autonomy was restored, spectacular expansion began. Many people who couldn’t study before came to the universities. Now, the universities and colleges in the Czech Republic have 400‚000 students.

Charles University students started the revolu­ tion in 1989. Where did the dissatisfied groups come from? The 1989 revolution was partly initiated by young people from well-positioned Communist families, and used the infrastructure provided by the regime. Even the local organizations of the Czechoslovak Union of   Youth (Socialistický svaz mládeže) became the centres of righteous rage – they could copy documents, publish maga­ zines and legally create networks of people. The revolt was again generational to some point, and

The architect Jaroslav Fragner was appointed chief project designer for the reconstruction of the Carolinum.

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History of Charles University

Traces of Jaroslav Fragner in the Carolinum In 1945, the architect Jaroslav Fragner, professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, was appointed chief project designer for the reconstruction of the Carolinum, including the adjacent areas and grounds. In the three stages of the project, which took more than 30 years to complete, Fragner, the rejector of compromise and pursuer of perfection, returned air, light and new dynamics to the building using bronze, leather and oak. His project was based on the arrangement of the medieval Carolinum, connected to the educational and operational area, to create the new Carolinum. The reconstruction was finished two years after Fragner’s death in 1967, and there is no doubt that it was the peak of his work and one of the most important works of Czech architecture in the 20th century.

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History of Charles University

25


Facts and Figures

Alumni of Charles University in numbers  = 100 students

2000

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2001

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2002

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2003



2004



2005

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2006



2007



2008



2009



2010



2011



2012



2013



2014



2015



2016



1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Incoming Students from Partner Countries in Programme Erasmus+

QS World University Rankings 2018 Geography 71 Philosophy 81

Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017 Economics/Business 95

Best Global Universities 2017 Mathematics 71 Physics 48 Plant and Animal Science 93

 = 10 students

Germany France Italy Slovakia United Kingdom Poland Netherlands Finland Greece Slovenia

         

100

26

200

300


Facts and Figures

Number of students at CU and number of students at its faculties

49, 236

Number of students Number of international students studying in foreign language 2,879 Number of PhD students 7,428 Number of alumni 8,274

Catholic Theological Faculty

0  113754

Protestant Theological Faculty

7  117553

Hussite Theological Faculty

0  181

Faculty of Law First Faculty of Medicine

5

911

  569  666

264  231

Third Faculty of Medicine

364  298

Faculty of Medicine in Plzeň

405 

251

Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové

404

244

Faculty of Arts Faculty of Science Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Faculty of Education Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Faculty of Humanities

4,124

753

Second Faculty of Medicine

Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové

■ Number of students in 2016 ■ Number of alumni in 2016 ■ Number of international students    studying in foreign language in 2016

5,267 1,807 2,124 2,096 1,782

65  304

1,708

20

1,261

6,382

3         932

4,802

42  437 25  331 74  398 117  376

2,290 920

5,356 976

4,631 2,069 2,580

27

source: Annual report of CU 2016


Research at CU

Nobel Prize Winner Jaroslav Heyrovský Started His Career at Charles University Jaroslav Heyrovský began his studies in chemistry, physics and mathematics at the Faculty of Arts in Prague and then moved to University College, London. His teachers included Sir William Ramsay and Professor Frederick G. Donnan. Heyrovský pursued his interest in chemistry during World War I when he served in a military hospital as a chemist. His academic career started at Charles University as an assistant at the Institute of Inorganic and Chemistry under Professor Bohuslav Brauner. Heyrovský, the first Professor of Physical Chemistry in Czechoslovakia, discovered the polarographic method in 1922. A few years later, cooperation with the Japanese chemist Shikata led to the development of the polarograph. Thus, Heyrovský played a large part in the development of physical chemistry and chemical disciplines. In 1959 he won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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Research at CU

17× Future success of Charles University is embedded in the present. We have decided to reveal 17 faculties and 17 scientific stories. Not only will you find out what is needed to become successful but also what inspires scientists and why they enjoy working at their faculty so much. Deans of each of the faculties have aided in the selection. QUOTE Could you tell us your favourite motivational quote or a passage from your favourite book?

ROLE MODEL Who is your favourite scientist role model? If there is, what day from his/her career would you like to spend with him/her?

INSPIRATION What inspires you in your current work place and why would you recommend your faculty to other colleagues in your field?

PREFERENCE Which part of your scientific research or pedagogical work do you like the most?

Decision Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman – How do you avoid making mistakes in judgment during your research.

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Marek Šmíd Catholic Theological Faculty

Marek Šmíd is a Church historian, mainly focusing on the international politics of the Vatican in the 20th century and its relations with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. He’s a researcher of the grant project of the Czech Science Foundation “Holy See and the Czech Lands, 1914 to 1918”. QUOTE  During my university studies in Italy I had a poster on my door with a quote by Albert Einstein that stuck deep in my memory: “I want to know God’s thoughts – the rest are mere details.“ ROLE MODEL  My role models are current Church historians. I admire them for their humility, modesty and studiousness. It’s amazing when their personality is as inspiring as their research work, stemming from the purity of their hearts. Therefore, I really appreciate affectionate, communicative and dedicated colleagues such as professors Pavel Marek and Róbert Letz.

Founded in

1348

Every moment spent with them is a gift for which I’m deeply grateful. INSPIRATION  At present, workplaces primarily support the professional growth of individuals. But in addition, the Catholic Theological Faculty develops internal human life, which gives sense to professional growth. How can anyone understand the world if he doesn’t understand himself? PREFERENCE  I like the quiet gloom of archives and also the light of the classrooms. I like to discuss things with students. I’m interested in their views and

experiences. Without passing knowledge on to students or the scientific public, research would be pointless, and without research challenges education would only be the formal re-telling of what was written before. Decision  We’re growing with our research, experiences, knowledge and contacts. We mature with our texts. Looking back, we can overcome ourselves and learn from our imperfections. It’s a worthy experience that helps us move forward and holds the mirror up to us to recognize our limits.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Catholic Theological Faculty focuses on education and research in theology, philosophy, canon and confessional law, applied ethics, church and general history and history of the Christian art all on an international basis. Drawing from the tradition of these fields of study, the faculty takes part in discussions with experts and society in general and inspires them with the Christian approach to mankind and the world.” Professor Vojtěch Novotný

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Tabita Landová Protestant Theological Faculty

Tabita Landová works at the Department of Practical Theology. She studies the liturgy and homiletics of the Protestant churches. Her current research project supported by the Czech science foundation focuses on the Bohemian Brethren in the 16th century. quote  I often remember the saying “tradition is not the worship of ashes but the passing on of fire.” This is very true in terms of the effects of the Bible. For 20 centuries, the scriptures have inspired people and provided new views of reality, caused changes in human lives and been a source of hope. ROLE MODEL   I was seriously influenced by the late professor of practical theology Pavel Filipi. He had a very good knowledge of Czech Churches, was able to see deeply into various ecumenical issues and had a gift for speaking clearly and intelligibly.

Founded in

1919

Inspiration  The Protestant theological faculty is a good and functional workplace, providing opportunities for free research, academic growth and international contacts. Relations are based on mutual confidence, not only among colleagues but also between teachers and students. A well-equipped library with numerous accessible items is an attraction even for visitors. Preference  I like to discover new things – I read old texts from new perspectives, and I also like to find new possibilities for understanding current Church practice in the light of tradition. I’m finishing a book on the oldest preserved postil of the Unity of the Brethren, and

I’m amazed by the tireless efforts of the Czech Brethren to constantly renew their religious life. At the same time looking for the thing that united them with other believers in other confessions. This task is still at hand. decision  Intuitive views and imagination are important parts of any research, especially when making new hypotheses. These hypotheses must be verified thorough heuristics and hermeneutics. Of course, you also have to be aware of the fact that theology is a special branch of study: the central point is the faith in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And that, of course, is something that can’t be verified.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Protestant Theological Faculty provides courses in theology and social work. In theology, we focus on the traditions of the Reformation, with special attention to the study and interpretation of the Bible in the Church and general cultural tradition. In this, the faculty cooperates with the Czech Academy of Sciences and international partners in Heidelberg. Social work studies focus on the Christian point of view and the spiritual needs of people in difficult situations.” Associate Professor Jiří Mrázek

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Ivan Kohout Hussite Theological Faculty

Ivan Kohout is a researcher of Jewish religion and synagogue singer. He works at the Hussite Theological Faculty, and focuses his attention mostly on the book Zohar and relevant literature. Currently, he studies cantorial singing at the renowned Abraham Geiger Kolleg in Berlin. quote  Many that live deserve death. And some that die deserve life. Can you give it to them? Then do not be too eager to deal out death in judgement. For even the very wise cannot see all ends. (John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring) role model  One of my role models in science is Professor Vladimír Sadek, who was able to perceive the world around him as a never-ending series of wonders. This is very in line with the Jewish mysticism,

founded in

1919

which was his main subject, and his scientific reflection of Jewish mysticism is therefore based on his personal experience. I would like to be with him when he could, in the period of détente, visit Israel and meet Gershom Scholem. Inspiration  Our faculty develops skills that open the possibility to benefit from the wisdom of Jewish texts. I find them inspiring in their large-mindedness, and I’m also inspired by the challenge of the Jewish religion to improve and enhance

the area we live in. I’d recommend my faculty for its religious openness and good interpersonal relations. Preference  In research, exegesis based on grammar. In education, courses of synagogue music. decision  Right now, I try to limit the impact on the secondary literature on my initial judgment. Therefore, I only use the secondary literature once the idea is generally formed.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Hussite Theological Faculty focuses on research and education in theology, religion and Jewish studies. Further more the faculty educates experts from helping professions, special social and charity workers and social pedagogy. It participates in research of migration in the global world. It closely collaborates with the Church, NGOs and state administration.“ Associate Professor Kamila Veverková

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Jakub Drápal Faculty of Law

Jakub Drápal focuses on penology and the prison system. Study of law in Prague and criminology in Cambridge led him to the empiric study of the Czech penal system. Now, he spends most of his time on data analysis, and hopes it will improve the system of criminal procedures in the Czech Republic. quote  From everyone who has been given much, much will be demanded; and from the one who has been entrusted with much, much more will be asked. (Luke 12:48) role model  I am inspired by Professor Julian Roberts from Oxford, who combines thorough sentencing theory with the aim of improving practice, for which he’s trying to set fair and attainable rules. My perfect day would then consist of discussions on the specifics of sentencing in the post-Communist continental legal systems.

founded in

1348

inspiration  In the past few years, the Faculty of Law has been opening its doors to international cooperation. Law is generally a national matter, and to some extent, it should be studied and investigated from the national point of view. However, if any­one considers cotutelle, I believe the right time has come. Faculty of Law encourages short-term and long-term visits abroad, which is essential for PhD studies in my opinion.

decision  By long pondering, thinking and discussing. I carried most of my projects in my head for months or even years, but then was time to start working on them. Over time, I make notes on how to solve this or that, and several projects are abandoned; those that are realized may be changed several times before completion. I like to discuss theoretical issues.

Preference  When I work on data analysis for a long time and finally see the results. It’s most exciting when I really don’t know what the data will say.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Law has clever students who from time to time win international competitions, and experienced academics who help the students achieve these. They also advise the government and talk about the law in the media. Something is always going on here including lectures by important guests, debates and workshops. The faculty focuses on Czech law, but every year more than 100 students go study abroad. And we’ve got a paternoster elevator!” Professor Jan Kuklík

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Petr Bušek first Faculty of Medicine

Petr Bušek is a scientist, physician and teacher of medical biochemistry. His research focus are proteases (enzymes that cleave proteins mostly) in the area of brain tumors with the aim to identify their pathogenetic roles and discover ways of their therapeutic targeting. He is a winner of the Scientia Fund Award and the Josef Hlávka Award. quote  Different “mantras” pop up into my head in different situations, but similarly as in sport the most frequent one is: “When you can’t keep going, go faster.” role model  I can’t name a single person. There are many “stories” in research that I find inspiring. Usually they have several key players whose success is based on cooperation. When it comes to discoveries of basic principles and mechanisms, it is James Dewey Watson and Francis Crick, who explained the structure of DNA. As for discoveries that were quickly applied in medicine, I recall Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Best who isolated insulin. The moment these researchers found out their bold hypothesis was right, or when they

founded in

1348

saw the direct impact of their discovery, are the high points of their scientific endeavours for me. But the path that led to their success was often long – though very inspiring – and was marked by failures and roadblocks. I would be more attracted by the complicated journey on this path than by just a single day. inspiration  In my work I appreciate the possibility of contact and cooperation with experts from various fields – from clinical medicine to theoretical fields, from the Czech Republic and abroad. The First Faculty of Medicine is a very good platform in this regard.

Preference  In research, these are the periods when available data supports our hypothesis and can be summarized into a compact output. In teaching, it is discovering connections and developing knowledge of mechanisms of functioning of the world that surrounds us when preparing for lessons. And it’s also finding out the best ways to pass the knowledge in the interaction with students. decision  I always try to critically analyze impulsive, intuitive and inspiring ideas and find their weak points in discussion with my colleagues. And I only try to put these ideas into action once they are modified according to these analyses and discussions.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The First Faculty of Medicine is the direct successor to the oldest medical school in the Central Europe. In the pre-graduate and doctoral programmes, it provides the education in Czech and English for students from all parts of the world and graduates are successful both home and abroad. The faculty offers excellent expertise and technological equipment for biomedical science and is an active “corporate citizen” in the discussion on healthcare and prevention.“ Professor Aleksi Šedo

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Petra Laššuthová second Faculty of Medicine

Petra Laššuthová works in the Department of Paediatric Neurology at the Second Faculty of Medicine. She focuses on the explanation of genetic causes of rare hereditary neurological diseases. A winner of the Josef Hlávka Award and Ervín Adam Award. quote  Max Weber’s lecture “Science as a Vocation” is personally important for my understanding of science. One of the ideas is that a passion for the subject is necessary. At the same time, I agree with C. S. Lewis who said that passion should take the form of “silent involvement” – long-term, modest, but constant. role model  I like to read the obituaries in Nature magazine, always describing the story of an important scientist. I’m interested in people who are stubborn – focused on the subject of the research. Their ideas were often formed in discussions

founded in

1953

with colleagues. This is the environment I would like to work in – to discuss not only specific lab results or organizational issues but also more general questions or trends in science. inspiration  The institutional research support at the faculty is very good. We don’t have to rely on temporary contracts within the grant system but there is a continued support from the faculty management. For me, this is the biggest advantage as it enables continuous work on selected topics.

Preference  Those moments when the discovery is made - at least partial question is answered - are the source of addiction and motivation. But this is probably true for every human acitivity - we are driven by success. decision  I don’t know how to detect the errors, but I heavily rely on group discussions. There are a few colleagues in the lab, I can have open discussions with. It is quite rare to have such relationships and these are really substantial and dear to me.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Second Faculty of Medicine is one of the most sought after and highly rewarded medical faculties. It is unique as it enriches education and research with the added bonus of developmental aspects in all accredited programs (general medicine, physiotherapy, nursing). Moreover valued for its friendly atmosphere and interactive teaching, based on small numbers of students per teacher.” Professor Vladimír Komárek

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Andrea Štofková third Faculty of Medicine

Andrea Štofková works at the Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology at the Third Faculty of Medicine, and focuses on the research of neuroinflammatory mechanisms of diseases of retina and central nervous system diseases. In 2014, she was awarded the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Foreign Researchers to conduct research in Japan. quote  It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop. (Confucius) role model  I don’t have a particular role model per se, but my favorite scientist is Johann Evangelist Purkinje. Thanks to his multiple expertises, he left his mark in various systems of the human body, as well as in the general science. He had great observing skills, and didn’t hesitate to experiment on himself. If I could go back in time to his era, I certainly would like to see the way they did the experiments without the possibilities of modern technology.

founded in

1953

inspiration  I really appreciate the support of the Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology at the Third Faculty of Medicine. After my return from the long post-doctoral stay in Japan, they enabled me to use my experiences from abroad, and gradually build a new lab with advanced methodologies. Preference  In my work, I most enjoy the moments when I manage to confirm my hypothesis. And even if I don’t, my work takes me to unknown places, enables me to describe undiscovered context. If a new mechanism or way of treatment is

discovered, new possibilities open up in other areas, and our branch can move on. decision  My system of work is based on a thorough sequence of experiments. Only when these long-accumulated results are known, we make conclusions and confirm the hypotheses, or create new ones for further research. But to answer your question: it’s an intense process of thinking, and errors in judgment can only be avoided by long-term concentration on work and in-depth discussions on the issues at hand.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Third Faculty of Medicine provides education for future medical doctors in its masters programme and other healthcare professionals in its bachelor programmes. The lessons take the modern form of problem-oriented study, while research focuses primarily on cardiovascular research, neuroscience, metabolism and diabetes, traumatology and oncology.” Professor Petr Widimský

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Václav Liška Faculty of Medicine in Plzeň

Václav Liška is a surgeon specializing in hepato pancreato biliary surgery, surgical oncology and experimental surgery. His research primarily focuses on liver regeneration using experimental models of various damages to the liver parenchyma. quote  In hoc signo vinces – In this sign you will conquer. The phrase has a deep Christian meaning, and it’s also the motto of our town, Pilsen. For me, it’s mainly about persistence, continuity and fidelity. role model  Professor Eduard Albert, Czech surgeon and professor at the University of Vienna and Innsbruck. He’s very important to our university as he gave his name to the areal of the university and Prague’s district. It would have been nice to have attended some of his operations in which he was leading the field.

founded in

1945

inspiration  The surgery clinic of our faculty is a very inspirational environment. The head of the clinic, Professor Vladislav Třeška, built a unique institution of hepato pancreato biliary surgery, which meets all European standards. I’m very glad I became a member of this team. A key feat for me is the building of the Biomedical Centre. Preference  It’s difficult to evaluate it, but the work of a teacher is really satisfying. And I don’t just mean the work with undergraduate students during lectures

and practical classes, but also the student research activities and the work with postgraduate students and young colleagues. decision  Good research requires intuition and imagination. Unfortunately, that also means the risk of errors, or, to put it better, the wrong way of doing things. But that’s how it is with research. Everything must be assessed critically and we must accept that sometimes the conclusions will prove we're wrong. Hypotheses are made to be rebutted.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Medicine in Plzeň is an excellent scientific, research and educational institution and an integral part of university environment in Plzeň. There are more than 2,200 students at the faculty which offers them as many opportunities for development as possible. This year the faculty is starting the construction of a new campus in the area of theoretical institutes which, when it is completed, will be a real university town. “ Professor Jindřich Fínek

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Research at CU

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Research at CU

Darina Kohoutová Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové

Darina Kohoutová is a gastroenterologist with experience from international leading centres (University College London, Imperial College, Royal Marsden Hospital, London; Gemelli University Hospital, Rome). In the clinical and research setting, she is interested in the problematics of Barrett’s oesophagus and pancreatobiliary disorders. She won national and international prizes for research in the field of intestinal microbiome. quote  It’s easy to play any musical instrument: all you have to do is touch the right key at the right time and the instrument will play itself. (Johann Sebastian Bach) role model  My parents have a book entitled “Stubborn Marie”, a biography of Marie Curie-Skłodowska. I read it several times as a child, and I admire the main character for her diligence and humility, which enabled her, together with her talent, to succeed outside her home country. I’d like to be with her on the day when she finally announced, together with her husband Pierre Curie, the discovery of the radioactive element polonium.

founded in

1945

Inspiration  In my postgraduate research, I’ve been always inspired by superb level of education, excellent analytic abilities and predictive skills of my teachers. From the clinical and research point of view the Hradec school of the founders of the current gastroenterological hospital can be well compared with the top international university environment. Preference  Planning and development of the collaboration with the new national and international teams.

decision  I always try to analyze all parts of the research repeatedly. If the research is interdisciplinary, I discuss each step with other experts, as their opinions widen my perspective and enable me to understand the issues better. Whenever I analyze the results for the first time, however delighted I am, I always try and remember the wise statement of Jan Amos Komenský: “it is reasonable to avoid any judgment before the matter is understood fully, words and deeds should be avoided especially.”

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové is the oldest college in Eastern Bohemia, providing courses in general and dental medicine and 22 doctoral programmes in Czech and English. The research focuses on serious medical problems related to aging and diseases of civilization.” Professor Miroslav Červinka

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Martina Čečková Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové

Martina Čečková is a pharmacologist focused on the transfer of substances from mother to foetus through the placenta and on the resistance mechanisms of tumour cells. She works at the Faculty of Pharmacy, attended fellowships at Medizinische Universität in Vienna and the University of Manchester and achieved several scientific awards. quote  Oscar Wilde’s “When it rains look for rainbows, when it’s dark look for stars”. And a few simple words – kindness, honesty, bravery and sense of humour. role model  For example the primatologist Jane Gooddall, a woman who made amazing discoveries through her enthusiasm, purposefulness, patience and intuition. She simply observed, inquisitively, silently and constantly, making her work her hobby and giving it a life meaning. I would especially like to have seen the moment when David Greybeard overcame his concerns and taboo and let Jane take a look into his chimpanzee family.

founded in

1969

Inspiration  I like the interconnection of the clinical and pre-clinical branches of pharmaceutical research. Under the same roof, we synthesize new agents, test biological efficiency in vitro and in vivo, and provide very sensitive chemical analysis, for example, pharmacokinetic experiments. Most our departments are superbly equipped and maintain a high level of expertise. The research teams include recognized experts with large network of international contacts and cooperation. Preference  I like the stage at which the research suddenly starts making sense, our knowledge connects and turns into a piece of a jigsaw puzzle and this gives birth to further questions and challenges.

And as the daughter of a teaching family, I always realize how much I enjoy passing knowledge on to students when the exam period is over and lectures begin. decision  I try to think in advance of complex problems and experiments, and I give myself enough time for rational analysis. I often manage to connect the information subconsciously, getting the best idea while running in the forest, playing with my kids or when waking up in the morning. However, I don’t know what Mr. Kahneman would say about it.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové is the most important centre for pharmaceutical education and research in Czech Republic. It teaches experts who provide effective and safe pharmacotherapy as well as staff in medical bioanalytics for the analysis of biological matter. We cooperate in our research with many international universities and pharmaceutical companies.” Professor Tomáš Šimůnek

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Michal Láznička Faculty of Arts

Michal Láznička is a doctoral student of linguistics. He focuses on variations in grammar among healthy people and those with linguistic disorders. In his research he tries to use knowledge from different language corpuses and experiments. quote  It’s not a quote from a book, but I often remember an aphorism attributed to the statistician George Box: “all models are wrong; some models are useful.” I believe it’s a statement that is valid not only for data analysis. role model  Our research community isn’t exactly large, so I’ve had the opportunity to meet the best linguists of our time, for example the American Slavist Laura Janda. Looking back at history, it would certainly have been very interesting to at-

founded in

1348

tend a lecture by the French surgeon Paul Broca presenting one of the most famous cases of aphasiology.

Preference  The most satisfying part of my work is to make hypotheses and then to turn them into experiments.

Inspiration  At the Faculty of Arts I work in the Department of Linguistics and the Department of Near Eastern and African Studies. Both are rather small and the conditions are good both in professional and personal terms. Both also provide an excellent background for research and education at the highest level.

decision  I try to follow all the principles of good research practice. And I believe that discussions with colleagues are extremely important, as they often reveal potential problems.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Arts, founded as one of the four original faculties of the Prague University in 1348, is a traditional centre of the Czech education, and, in terms of performance, the most important institution for the humanities in the Czech Republic. More than 8,000 students study in over 70 branches. Among those who have attended the faculty in the past are Jan Hus, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Edvard Beneš, Jan Patočka and Albert Einstein.” Associate Professor Michal Pullmann

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Jakub Trubač Faculty of Science

Jakub Trubač is in charge of the Centre for Research into Radiogenic and Stable Isotopes at the Faculty of Science. He focuses on structural geology, medicine and geochemistry, especially processes in bio/geochemistry, geochemical variability and petrogenesis of rocks and organic matter. He twice won the Award of the Dean of the Faculty of Science. quote  “The only solid ground of our world are the rocks.” František V. Holub used this statement as the motto in his textbook, and I believe it is the pure truth. Like it or not, geology is an important pillar of the our material world and the starting point of everything, including us!

inspiration  In 2015 I was asked to establish an analytic centre at the Faculty of Science at Albertov. The equipment at the centre is world class, so I’d like to attract all my passionate colleagues to explore and enjoy the potential of the lab wherever their subject may be.

role model  Associate Professor Holub was a great teacher of mine, but unfortunately he has sadly passed away. I used to be thrilled attending field research with him because he was so brilliant in linking the observed facts with the broader and challenging geological context.

Preference  There is still a lot to discover and with new analytic devices and lower detection limits we can recognize more details in natural processes that weren’t detectable before. And I am always so excited when our enthusiastic team manage to publish the results of

founded in

1920

our lab research in international scientific magazines. decision  Human intuition is an amazing tool and many scientists are able to make excellent use of it. I’ve been in science for quite a time and have discovered that apart from intuition, you can also use experience to avoid errors in judgment. Thanks to your gained experience, you develop your abilities during research, learn patiently from your mistakes, and finally, most importantly, have fun exploring unlimited world of geology.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Science teaches about 4,800 students who are directly involved in high-level research in biological, chemical, geographical and geological subjects, and environmental sciences. The faculty's teams cooperate closely with partners at the Czech Academy of Sciences and other institutions in the country, and at universities and research institutes all over the world. We also popularize science for the general public.“ Professor Jiří Zima

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Michal Pešta Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

Michal Pešta is a Czechoslovak mathematician and expert in stochastics. He focuses on the behavior and control of randomness. In addition to theoretical problems of mathematical statistics, he’s also involved in application of mathematics in insurance business and oncology. A winner of Bernard Bolzano Foundation Award. quote  The sign on the hell’s gate in Dante’s Divine Comedy, saying “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here”, isn’t exactly motivating at the first sight, but it has stimulated me nevertheless. That’s because I believe that when you enter a problem that’s a priori difficult, it’s good to convince yourself that you can hardly succeed in avoiding the task at hand altogether. This, however, is in contradiction with a typical virtue of a good mathematician – laziness. Too active people usually don’t find the most effective or the shortest way (or they don’t find any way at all), as their hardworking nature makes them prone to struggling.

from Pythagoras to Jaroslav Hájek. I wouldn’t object to having a beer with Hájek on a sunny day. It might be in front of the cave of Pythagoras on Samos, and we could discuss the modern stochastic problems.

word “mathematical” is very important here). In the educational part, the important moments are those when a student overcomes his or her limits and continues working independently, above and beyond the level you’ve tried to lead him/her to.

Inspiration  The achievements of my colleagues. Even though many of them are globally renowned, they are really helpful and truly human. I’d recommend our facul­ty or department to my colleagues in the field because they’d find a broad spectrum of work on many levels, and also superb quality, yet often presented with certain understatement.

role model  I don’t have a specific role model in science, only a rich cuvée of scientific idols throughout the history,

Preference  In my research, I like theoretical mathematical statistics (those who understand the subject know that the

decision  We mathematicians have a big advantage: if we make an error in judgment during the research, there’s a wonderful device that will fix it for us. It’s a proof, a proof of a hypothesis. Mathematics is a purely exact science. This is magic, magic that no other science offers. You may (wrongly) assume that Kahneman’s second system of slow thinking dominates with mathematicians. But the best discoveries are often caused by both systems in balance, or even by the prevalence of “quick” intuitive thinking.

founded in

1952

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Mathematics and Physics offers a rich educational and research programme. Its section of mathematics, physics and informatics generate up to 6 % of the research carried out in the Czech Republic. The faculty is involved in hundreds of grant projects, including the prestigious ERC projects. It educates successful researchers and analysts, teachers, IT professionals, financiers and entrepreneurs.” Professor Jan Kratochvíl

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Stanislav Štěpáník Faculty of Education

Stanislav Štěpáník works at the Department of Czech Language and his main area of interest is the didactics of the Czech language. Currently he’s a researcher in the Primus project – Didactics of the Czech Language in the Current Education Context. He’s also a secondary school teacher. quote  I don’t have a real motivational slogan, but there are lots of statements that form my everyday life. One of them has resonated in my mind since its author, Professor Iveta Radičová, was the Prime Minister of Slovakia: “An insult can’t hurt the addressee, it’s a self-disgrace of the insulter.” In tense situations, these words really calm me down and set me free. role model  I’m secretly in love with Professor Liptáková and Professor Kesselová from the University of Prešov, and enjoy the opportunity to work with them and meet them informally. They are immensely friendly, open and, most of

founded in

1946

all, modest ladies. Talking to them, you would never guess that they are among the best European experts in the didactics of mother tongue. And they were classmates at primary school. I certainly would have liked to be their classmate at the next desk. Inspiration  I really value the fact that the Faculty of Education has chosen the development of didactics as a top priority. I’m convinced that this is the key role of the Faculty of Education, and one of its biggest strengths.

Preference  I feel very much at home in lower- and upper-secondary school education – that’s why I still keep teaching at upper-secondary school, even if only for a few lessons. Primarily, I see myself as a teacher. It’s fascinating to work with the young generation and to help form it. I also strongly believe that a didactician should be in permanent contact with the teaching practice. decision  I try to work with the best people around. They should be way better than me. And this is why I keep great researchers in my team, both from our country and from abroad.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Education provides courses for future teachers in all types of schools and for other experts in education, educational psychology and didactics, and also enhances the education of existing teachers. This focus determines the mission of the faculty.” Professor Michal Nedělka

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Zuzana Havránková Faculty of Social Sciences

At the age of 32, Zuzana Havránková ranks among the ten most cited Czech economists according to the international RePEc database. She focuses on energy and environmental economics, but also on banking, finance, and international trade. Her research has been awarded by the World Bank, the Minister for Education of the Czech Republic, and the governors of the Czech and Slovak National Bank. She has four children. quote  When I worked in the U.S. after my first year at university, my boss had a sign on his desk saying: “Dream big, work hard, plan well, smile always, and good things will happen.” It works. role model  I admire the historian Deidre McCloskey. Her trilogy on the roots of the industrial revolution is one of the most important achievements in the social sciences in the past century. I’d like to have spent a day with her writing these books.

founded in

1990

Inspiration  The Faculty of Social Sciences is known to link a lot of disciplines and branches of knowledge. Some of them, such as economics, are quite similar to “hard” science -– using a lot of mathematics and statistics – while others favour the narrative approach. It all results in an inspiring and free research environment, supported by the approach of Dean Tejkalová and head of the Institute of Economic Studies, Martin Gregor. Preference  I like working with data and its analysis, especially when I can use a brand new data set I’ve collected myself. It’s great to find out something new – you’re still learning while doing research.

decision  Kahneman and Tversky described systematic errors in judgment made by experts and others. In research, such an error usually takes the form of publication selectivity, i.e., you choose intuitive, and statistically important results, for publication. One of the most quoted researchers of our time, John Ioannidis, has demonstrated that because of this, most published research is problematic for use in real life. To avoid this, it’s important to use statistical methods that test for selectivity. That’s what I try to do.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The objective of the Faculty of Social Sciences is to develop educational and research-analytic activities and provide the education in the key social sciences: economics, communication studies, international territorial studies, political science and sociology.” Alice Němcová Tejkalová, PhD

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Tomáš Malý faculty of Physical Education and Sport

Tomáš Malý focuses on the adaptation and maladaptation processes in sportspeople. His work was awarded on important international symposia (Nagoya, Moscow). He interlinks his research with clinical conditions, and offers his experience and knowledge to the most successful Czech football team, AC Sparta Prague. quote  It’s difficult to pick up a single quote. People who know me know that I’m fond of motivation quotes. Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. (Albert Einstein) Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it. (Dalai Lama) role model  From my field, I’d pick up Jens Bangsbo, professor of physiology and sport science at the University of Copenhagen. He inspires me because he managed to connect theory and practice in sport science successfully. I met him personally several times, so I don’t really have to wish a single day. But if I could pick just anyone, I’d go for John Nash, winner of the Nobel Prize for economy.

founded in

1959

I’m inspired by his work in game theory, namely his solution of the equilibrium in non-cooperative games. Inspiration  I’m inspired by every new day, it’s a challenge for me. There’s a great potential at work, hidden in people and in material equipment alike. It’s a good choice for anyone who likes challenges and dynamic environment, and who wants to invest in the right way. All in all, we talk a lot about strategy in sports; it’s based on the Greek strategos, and means “plan to reach the goal”. In sport talk: anyone who wants to succeed and be the best must have good strategy for every goal, and that requires continuous education.

Preference  The most favorite phase is the formulation of the scientific problem and setting of hypotheses based on principles and criteria for their formulation and operation. I also like the making of the methodological design of the research, and final writing of a paper to a good scientific magazine. decision  In the world of science, I try to verify the errors in judgment according to mathematical procedures, but we must also take into account the effect size or benefit.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “Faculty of Physical Education and Sport has been part of Charles University since 1959 following its predecessor, the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, founded in 1953. We focus on the education of experts in nonmedical branches of study, physical education and sport. An important focus for the faculty is research in close cooperation with national and international partners for the further generation of teachers, researchers and related professions which have broad social impact.” Associate Professor Eva Kohlíková

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Pavel Mücke faculty of Humanities

Pavel Mücke is a historian focusing on modern and contemporary history. He is mainly inspired by human stories studied through oral history. He was a member of the executive committee of the International Oral History Association. quote  “He who can, does. He who cannot, teaches.” George Bernard Shaw

the Manuscripts were false, even though the public had fiercely believed otherwise.

role model  I don’t have a single role model – I always try to see the best in everyone. But if I had to pick someone, it would be Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk at the time he and his colleagues finally convinced the Czech public, by the sheer strength of his scientific arguments, that

Inspiration  I’m especially inspired by a creative, liberal, industrious yet friendly and supportive atmosphere. And I’d like to recommend our faculty because of our understanding and enlightened management that gives voice to creative and active people, students and teachers alike.

founded in

2000

Preference  In my research work I prefer basic research. In education, lectures followed by discussions. decision  Teamwork and team discussion are good tools to avoid potential mistakes. In this way I can use our “collective brain”.

Faculty through eyes of the dean “The Faculty of Humanities pursues a broad range of subjects concerning mankind and human society. It is a multi-disciplinary institution connecting philosophy and humanities with science and human medicine. The faculty focuses on research in philosophy, social sciences and humanities, and supports basic and applied research projects in these subjects.” Marie Pětová, PhD

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Forum, Special Issue 1/2018 Charles University Magazine Publisher Charles University EDITOR’S OFFICE Charles University Media Ovocný trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1 Czech Republic RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTENT Professor Martin Kovář Vice-Rector for Public Affairs EDITORS Petra Köpplová, Lucie Kettnerová English Copy-Editing Nic Mitchell, Mark Whitehead CONTACT US +42(0) 224 491 248 Forum@cuni.cz GRAPHIC DESIGN Filip Blažek, Eliška Kudrnovská Designiq Photos René Volfík and Luboš Wišniewski Issued at April 2018 Registration MK ČR E 22422 ISSN 1211-1732

List of Illustrations

Cover René Volfík  /  p. 1, 2 Czech News Agency (CTK) /  p. 7 Thinkstock  /  p. 9 Thinkstock  /  p. 13 Wikimedia Commons  /  p. 14 The City of Prague Museum, inventory number 010.494 /  p. 19 Rijksmuseum  /  p. 22 Institute of the History of Charles University and Archive of Charles University, photo 00237 /  p. 24–25 Vladimír Šigut /  p. 28 Czech News Agency (CTK) /  p. 30, 32, 38, 40, 42, 46, 50, 52, 54, 60 and 62 René Volfík /  p. 34, 36, 44, 48, 56 and 58 Luboš Wišniewski


Dobřenský de Nigro Ponte · 1687 Emmanuel de Boye · 1688 Jan Kryštof Schambogen · 1689 Václav Sattenwolff · 1690 Jan Jindřich Proxa · 1691 Václav Sattenwolf · 1692 Jan Kryštof Schambogen · 1693 Ondřej Müntzer · 1694 Jan Antonín Cassinis de Bugella · 1695 Jan Dubský · 1696–1697 Jan Jindřich Turba · 1698 Ferdinand Rudolf Waldhauser · 1699 Jan František Löw z Erlsfeldu · 1700 Kašpar Knittel · 1701 Jan Jindřich Turba · 1702 Tomáš Schmidl · 1703 Jan František Löw z Erlsfeldu · 1704 Jáchym Stechau · 1705 Jan Kašpar Ignác Wolwert de Neffe · 1706 Jiří Kinský · 1707 Jan Kašpar Ignác Voigt · 1708 Jan Miller · 1709–1710 Václav Jan z Kriegelsteinu · 1711 Jan Miller · 1712 Jan František Löw z Erlsfeldu · 1713 Jakub Stessl · 1714–1715 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1716 František Fragstein · 1717 Jan František Löw z Erlsfeldu · 1718–1719 Heřman Oppersdorf · 1720 Jan Adam Besnecker · 1721 Jakub Stessl · 1722 Leonard Ferdinand Meisner · 1723 František Retz · 1724 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1725–1726 Jan Nonnert · 1727 Ferdinand Leonard Meisner · 1728 Jan Seidel · 1729 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1730–1731 Julius Zwicker · 1732 Ferdinand Leonard Meisner · 1733 Jan Seidel · 1734 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1735 Jan Seidel · 1736 Jan Jakub Gelhausen · 1737 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1738 Jan Heilman · 1739–1740 Václav Xaver Neumann z Puchholtze · 1741–1743 Jiří Peter · 1744 Jakub Smith z Balroe · 1745 František Xaver Heissler · 1746 Jindřich Petr Proichhausen · 1747 Leopold Grimm · 1748 Antonín Václav Rings · 1749 Leopold Grimm · 1750 Mikuláš Ignác Königsmann · 1751 Bernard Weber · 1752 Jan Ignác Mayer z Mayersbachu · 1753 Bernard Weber · 1754 Josef Azzoni · 1755–1756 Baltazar Lindner · 1757 Jan Antonín Scrinci · 1758 Jan Tille · 1759 Jan Nepomuk Václav Dvořák z Boru · 1760 Jan Tille, od 17. 6. 1760 Jan Antonín Scrinci · 1761 Jan Antonín Josef Scrinci · 1762 Jan Matyáš Schweiberer · 1763 Ignác Kajetán Veit · 1664 Ignác Kajetán Veit · 1765–1766 František Xav. Wissinger · 1767 František Du Toy · 1768 Jáchym Pleiner · 1769 František Václav Štěpán z Kronefelsu · 1770 Petr Janovka · 1771 Josef Wignet · 1772–1773 František Wissinger (poslední jezuitský rektor) · 1774 František Václav Stephan · 1775–1776 Pavel Seddeler · 1777 František Du Toy · 1778 Antonín František Veselý · 1779 Ferdinand Woldřich · 1780–1781 Tomáš Jan Hrdlička · 1782 Leonard Antonín Verbeck · 1783–1784 Karl Jindřich Seibt · 1785 Josef Antonín Schuster · 1786 Cosmas Schmalfus · 1787 Tadeáš Bayer · 1788 Jan Diesbach · 1789 Ferdinand Woldřich · 1790 Karel Rafael Ungar · 1791 Václav Vojtěch Forsat · 1792 Jan Diesbach · 1793 Josef ryt. z Bretfeldu · 1794 Jiljí Chládek · 1795 Jan Křtitel Zauschner · 1796 Antonín Strnad · 1797 Josef ryt. z Bretfeldu · 1798 Kašpar Royko · 1799 Josef Bohumír Mikan · 1800 Stanislav Vydra · 1801 Jan Nepomuk šl. Vignet · 1802 Vavřinec Chrysostomus Pfrogner · 1803 Antonín Michelič · 1804 Jan Goskho ze Sachsenthalu · 1805 Josef ryt. z Bretfeldu · 1806 František Xaver Hain · 1807 Ignác Matuschka · 1808 Václav Lenhart · 1809 Josef sv. p. z Bretfeldu · 1810 Karel František Fischer · 1811 Josef Rottenberger · 1812 Milo Jan Nepomuk Grün · 1813 Josef sv. p. z Bretfeldu na Kronenburgu · 1814 František Pitroff · 1815 František Müller · 1816 Alois Martin David · 1817 Josef sv. p. z Bretfeldu na Kronenburgu · 1818 Karel František Fischer · 1819 Josef Rottenberger · 1820 František Mikuláš Titze · 1821 Michael Schuster · 1822 František Seraf Wilhelm · 1823 Ignác Nádherný · 1824 Josef Antonín Köhler · 1825 Martin Adolf Kopetz · 1826 Benedikt Jan Nepomuk Pfeiffer · 1827 Jan Theobald Held · 1828 Ladislav Jandera · 1829 Jan Nepomuk Kaňka · 1830 František Tippmann · 1831 Vincenc Julius Krombholz · 1832 Kassián Hallaschka · 1833 Tomáš Karel Härdtl · 1834 Maxmilián Millauer · 1835 František Wünsch · 1836 Josef Leonard Knoll · 1837 Karel Václav Wolfram · 1838 Vilém Václavíček · 1839 Antonín Jan Jungmann · 1840 Josef Jakub Jungmann · 1841 Antonín Karel Mudroch · 1842 Mikuláš Tomek · 1843 Jan Nepomuk Fischer · 1844 Jeroným Josef Zeidler · 1845 Leopold Hasner, ryt. z Arthy · 1846 Jeroným Josef Zeidler · 1847–1848 Josef Reisich · 1849 Josef Hoffmeister · 1850 František Seraf. Češík · 1850–1851 Matyáš Popel · 1851–1852 Vincenc František Kostelecký · 1852–1853 Jiří Norbert Schnabel · 1853–1854 Jan Nepomuk Ignác Rotter · 1854–1855 František Jan Piťha · 1855–1856 Jeroným Josef Zeidler · 1856–1857 Jan Chlupp · 1857–1858 Gabriel Güntner · 1858–1859 Antonín Jaksch · 1859–1860 August Reuss · 1860–1861 František Eduard Tuna · 1861–1862 Jan Křtitel Smutek · 1862–1863 Josef Löschner · 1863–1864 Jan Jindřich Löwe · 1864–1865 František Xaver Schneider · 1865–1866 Vincenc Náhlovský · 1866–1867 Josef Halla · 1867–1868 Vincenc František Kosteletzký · 1868–1869 Jan Bedřich Schulte · 1869–1870 Eduard Petr · 1870–1871 Emanuel Seidl · 1871–1872 Karl Adolf Konstantin Höfler · 1872–1873 Jan Nepomuk Schier · 1873–1874 František Sal. Antonín Mayer · 1874–1875 Josef Hasner, ryt. z Arthy · 1875–1876 Bedřich Stein · 1876–1877 Karel Czyhlarz · 1877–1878 Antonín Reinwarth · 1878–1879 Jan Streng · 1879–1880 Ernst Mach · 1880–1881 Hugo ryt. KremerAuenrode · 1881–1882 Josef Schindler · 1882–1920 German Charles-Ferdinand University · 1882–1883 Ewald Hering · 1883–1884 Ernst Mach (během funkčního období jej vystřídal Ferdinand Lippich) · 1884–1885 Friedrich Rulf · 1885–1886 Wenzel Frind · 1886–1887 Carl Gussenbauer · 1887–1888 Moritz Willkomm · 1888–1889 Dominik Ullmann · 1889–1890 Joseph Sprinzl · 1890–1891 Philipp Knoll · 1891– 1892 Johann Kelle · 1892–1893 Emil Sax · 1893–1894 Gustav Karl Laube · 1894–1895 Joseph Schindler · 1895–1896 Karl Hugo Huppert · 1896–1897 Anton Marty · 1897–1898 Josef Ulbrich · 1898–1899 Anton Kurz · 1899–1900 Karl Holzinger Ritter von Weidich · 1900–1901 Hans Chiari · 1901–1902 Friedrich Frh. von Wieser · 1902–1903 Adolf Bachmann · 1903–1904 Karel Rabl (zvolený rektor Virgil Grimmich zemřel 13. 8. 1903) · 1904–1905 Alois Rzach · 1905–1906 Josef Rieber · 1906–1907 Emil Pfersche · 1907–1908 August Sauer · 1908–1909 Rudolf Ritter Jaksch von Wartenhorst · 1909–1910 Josef Zaus · 1910–1911 Max Grünert · 1911–1912 Heinrich Rauchberg · 1912–1913 Robert Ritter Lendlmayr von Lendenfeld (zemřel 3. 6. 1913, v úřadě pokračoval prorektor Heinrich Rauchberg) · 1913–1914 Richard Ritter von Zeynek · 1914–1915 Heinrich Swoboda · 1915–1916 Adolf Zycha · 1916–1917 Ottokar Weber · 1917–1918 Anton Elschnig · 1920–1945 German University in Prague, since 1. 9. 1939 German Charles University in Prague · 1918–1919 August Naegle · 1920–1921 Franz Wähner · 1921–1922 Robert Mayr-Harting · 1922–1923 Samuel Steinherz · 1923–1924 Karl Kreibich · 1924–1925 Josef Jatsch · 1925–1926 Karl Cori · 1926–1927 Otto Peterka · 1927–1928 Heinrich Rietsch · 1928–1929 Otto Grosser · 1929–1930 August Naegle · 1930–1931 Karl Cori · 1931–1933 Mariano San Nicolò · 1933–1934 Gerhard Gesemann · 1934–1935 Otto Grosser · 1935–1936 Karl Hilgenreiner · 1936–1937 Michael Stark · 1937–1938 Rudolf Schranil · 1938–1940 Ernst Otto · 1940–1942 Wilhelm Saure · 1942–1944 Alfred Buntru · 1944 Friedrich Klausing · 1944–1945 Kurt Albrecht · 1882–1920 Czech Charles-Ferdinand University · 1882–1883 Václav Vladivoj Tomek · 1883–1884 Antonín Randa · 1884–1885 Jan Streng · 1885– 1886 Václav Vladivoj Tomek · 1886–1887 Emil Ott · 1887–1888 Vilém Weiss · 1888–1889 František J. Studnička · 1889–1890 Matouš Talíř · 1890– 1891 Vladimír Tomsa · 1891–1892 Antonín Frič · 1892–1893 Jiří Pražák · 1893–1894 František X. Kryštůfek · 1894–1895 Arnold Spina · 1895–1896 Karel Vrba · 1896–1897 Jaromír Hanel · 1897–1898 Eugen Kadeřávek · 1898–1899 Josef Reinsberg · 1889–1900 Jan Gebauer · 1900–1901 Josef Stupecký · 1901–1902 Jan Sýkora · 1902–1903 Ivan Horbaczewski · 1903–1904 Čeněk Strouhal · 1904–1905 František Stroch · 1905–1906 Antonín Vřešťál · 1906–1907 Jaroslav Hlava · 1907–1908 Jaroslav Goll · 1908–1909 Leopold Heyrovský · 1909–1910 Josef Král · 1910–1911 Jan Jánošík · 1911–1912 Jaromír Čelakovský · 1912–1913 František Vejdovský · 1913–1914 František Mareš · 1914–1915 Kamil Henner · 1915–1916 Rudolf Dvořák · 1916–1917 Vítězslav Janovský · 1917–1918 Gabriel Pecháček · 1918–1919 Karel Hermann-Otavský · since 1920 Charles University · 1919–1920 Josef Zubatý · 1920–1921 František Mareš · 1921–1922 Bohumil Němec · 1922–1923 Cyril Horáček · 1923–1924 František Pastrnek · 1924–1925 Otakar Kukula · 1925–1926 Karel Petr · 1926–1927 Josef V   ančura · 1927–1928 Lubor Niederle · 1928–1929 Vladimír Slavík · 1929– 1930 Jindřich Matiegka · 1930–1931 August Miřička · 1931–1932 Josef Pekař · 1932–1933 Rudolf Kimla · 1933–1934 Karel Domin · 1934–1935 Josef Drachovský · 1935–1936 Gustav Friedrich · 1936–1937 Karel Weigner · 1937–1938 František Slavík · 1938–1939 Vilém Funk · 1939–1940 Bedřich Hrozný · 1945–1946 Jan Bělehrádek · 1946–1947 Bohumil Bydžovský · 1947–1948 Karel Engliš · 1948–1954 Jan Mukařovský · 1954–1958 Miroslav Katětov · 1958–1966 Jaroslav Procházka · 1966–1969 Oldřich Starý · 1969–1970 Josef Charvát · 1970–1976 Bedřich Švestka · 1976–1990 Zdeněk Češka · 1990–1994 Radim Palouš · 1994–1999 Karel Malý · 2000–2006 Ivan Wilhelm · 2006–2014 Václav Hampl · od 2014 Tomáš Zima


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Forum 670 - Special Issue of Forum Magazine  

Celebrating the 670th Anniversary of the Foundation of Charles University

Forum 670 - Special Issue of Forum Magazine  

Celebrating the 670th Anniversary of the Foundation of Charles University

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