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Introduction to Mobile Robotics SLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping


The SLAM Problem SLAM is the process by which a robot builds a map of the environment and, at the same time, uses this map to compute its location

• Localization: inferring location given a map • Mapping: inferring a map given a location • SLAM: learning a map and locating the robot simultaneously

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The SLAM Problem

• SLAM is a chicken-or-egg problem: A map is needed for localizing a robot A good pose estimate is needed to build a map • hus, SLAM is regarded as a hard problem in robotics

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The SLAM Problem • SLAM is considered one of the most fundamental problems for robots to become truly autonomous.

• A variety of different approaches to address the SLAM problem have been presented

• Probabilistic methods rule! • History of SLAM dates back to the mid-eighties (the stone-age of robotics)

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The SLAM Problem Given: • The robot’s controls • Relative observations

Wanted: • Map of features • Path of the robot 5


The SLAM Problem

• Absolute robot pose

• Absolute landmark positions

• But only relative measurements of landmarks 6


Mapping with Raw Odometry Video..

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SLAM Applications SLAM is central to a range of indoor, outdoor, in-air and underwater applications for both manned and autonomous vehicles. Examples:

•At home: vacuum cleaner, lawn mower •Air: surveillance with unmanned air vehicles •Underwater: reef monitoring •Underground: exploration of abandoned mines •Space: terrain mapping for localization 8


SLAM Applications Indoors

Undersea

Space

Underground

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Map Representations Examples: Subway map, city map, landmark-based map

Maps are topological and/or metric models of the environment 10


Map Representations • Grid maps or scans, 2d, 3d

[Lu & Milios, 97; Gutmann, 98: Thrun 98; Burgard, 99; Konolige & Gutmann, 00; Thrun, 00; Arras, 99; Haehnel, 01;…]

• Landmark-based

[Leonard et al., 98; Castelanos et al., 99: Dissanayake et al., 2001; Montemerlo et al., 2002;…

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Why is SLAM a hard problem? 1. Robot path and map are both unknown

2. Errors in map and pose estimates correlated 12


Why is SLAM a hard problem?

Robot pose uncertainty

• In the real world, the mapping between observations and landmarks is unknown (origin uncertainty of measurements)

• Data Association: picking wrong data associations can have catastrophic consequences (divergence) 13


SLAM: Simultaneous Localization And Mapping

• Full SLAM: p(x 0:t ,m | z1:t ,u1:t )

Estimates entire path and map!

• Online SLAM: p(x t ,m | z1:t ,u1:t ) =

∫ ∫ K ∫ p(x

1:t

,m | z1:t ,u1:t ) dx1dx 2 ...dx t−1

Integrations (marginalization) typically done recursively, one at a time

Estimates most recent pose and map!

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Graphical Model of Full SLAM

p ( x1:t , m | z1:t , u1:t ) 15


Graphical Model of Online SLAM

p ( xt , m | z1:t , u1:t ) = ∫ ∫ Κ

∫ p( x

1:t

, m | z1:t , u1:t ) dx1 dx2 ...dxt −1 16


Graphical Model: Models

Motion model Observation model 17


Remember? KF Algorithm 1.

Algorithm Kalman_filter(µt-1, Σt-1, ut, zt):

2. 3. 4.

Prediction: µ t = At µt −1 + Bt ut

5. 6. 7. 8.

Correction:

9.

Return µt, Σt

Σ t = At Σ t −1 AtT + Rt K t = Σ t CtT (Ct Σ t CtT + Qt ) −1 µ t = µ t + K t ( z t − Ct µ t ) Σ t = ( I − K t Ct ) Σ t

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EKF SLAM: State representation • Localization 3x1 pose vector 3x3 cov. matrix

• SLAM Landmarks are simply added to the state. Growing state vector and covariance matrix!

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EKF SLAM: State representation • Map with n landmarks: (3+2n)-dimensional Gaussian

Bel(xt,mt ) =

 x   σx2 σxy    2 σ σ y y    xy θ  σxθ σyθ     l1  , σxl1 σyl1 l2  σxl2 σyl2     M  M M  lN σxlN σylN

L σxlN   L σylN  1 2 L σθlN  1 2  L σl1lN  1 1 12 L σl2lN  2 12 2  M M M O M σθlN σl1lN σl2lN L σl2N 

σxθ σyθ σθ2 σθl σθl

σxl σxl σyl σyl σθl σθl σl2 σl l σl l σl2 1

2

• Can handle hundreds of dimensions 20


EKF SLAM: Building The Map • State Prediction Odometry:

Robot-landmark crosscovariance prediction:

(skipping time index k)

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EKF SLAM: Building The Map • Measurement Prediction Global-to-local frame transform h

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EKF SLAM: Building The Map • Observation (x,y)-point landmarks

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EKF SLAM: Building The Map • Data Association Associates predicted measurements with observation

?

(Gating)

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EKF SLAM: Building The Map • Filter Update The usual Kalman filter expressions

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EKF SLAM: Building The Map • Integrating New Landmarks State augmented by

landmark-to-landmark cross-covariance:

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EKF SLAM

Map

Correlation matrix 27


EKF SLAM

Map

Correlation matrix 28


EKF SLAM

Map

Correlation matrix 29


KF-SLAM Properties (Linear Case) • The determinant of any sub-matrix of the map covariance matrix decreases monotonically as successive observations are made • When a new landmark is initialized, its uncertainty is maximal

• Landmark uncertainty decreases monotonically with each new observation

[Dissanayake et al., 2001]

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KF-SLAM Properties (Linear Case) • In the limit, the landmark estimates become fully correlated

[Dissanayake et al., 2001]

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KF-SLAM Properties (Linear Case) • In the limit, the covariance associated with any single landmark location estimate is determined only by the initial covariance in the vehicle location estimate.

[Dissanayake et al., 2001]

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Victoria Park Data Set

[courtesy by E. Nebot]

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Victoria Park Data Set Vehicle

[courtesy by E. Nebot]

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Data Acquisition

[courtesy by E. Nebot]

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Estimated Trajectory

[courtesy by E. Nebot]

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EKF SLAM Application

[courtesy by J. Leonard]

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EKF SLAM Application

odometry

estimated trajectory [courtesy by John Leonard]

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SLAM Techniques for Generating Consistent Maps • EKF SLAM • FastSLAM (PF) • Network-Based SLAM • Hybrid Approaches (combination of NW+PF, NW+EKF)

• Topological SLAM (mainly place recognition)

• Scan Matching / Visual Odometry (only locally consistent maps) 39


EKF-SLAM: Complexity • Cost per step: quadratic in n, the number of landmarks: O(n2)

• Total cost to build a map with n landmarks: O(n3)

• Memory: O(n2) Approaches exist that make EKF-SLAM amortized O(n) / O(n2) / O(n2) D&C SLAM [Paz et al., 2006]

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EKF-SLAM: Summary • Convergence for linear case! • Can diverge if nonlinearities are large. And reality is nonlinear...

• Has been applied successfully in largescale environments

• Approximations reduce the computational complexity

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Data Association for SLAM Interpretation tree

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Data Association for SLAM Env. Dyn.

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Data Association for SLAM Geometric Constraints

Location independent constraints

Unary constraint: intrinsic property of feature e.g. type, color, size Binary constraint: relative measure between features e.g. relative position, angle

Location dependent constraints Rigidity constraint: "is the feature where I expect it given my position?" Visibility constraint: "is the feature visible from my position?" Extension constraint: "do the features overlap at my position?"

All decisions on a significance level Îą 44


Data Association for SLAM Interpretation Tree [Grimson 1987], [Drumheller 1987], [Castellanos 1996], [Lim 2000]

Algorithm • backtracking • depth-first • recursive • uses geometric constraints • exponential complexity • absence of feature: no info. • presence of feature: info. perhaps

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Data Association for SLAM

Pygmalion

a = 0.95 , p = 2

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Data Association for SLAM

Pygmalion

a = 0.95 , p = 3

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Data Association for SLAM

Pygmalion

texe: 633 ms PowerPC at 300 MHz

a = 0.95 , p = 4 a = 0.95 , p = 5 48


Approximations for SLAM • Local submaps [Leonard et al.99, Bosse et al. 02, Newman et al. 03]

• Sparse links (correlations) [Lu & Milios 97, Guivant & Nebot 01]

• Sparse extended information filters [Frese et al. 01, Thrun et al. 02]

• Thin junction tree filters [Paskin 03]

• Rao-Blackwellisation (FastSLAM) [Murphy 99, Montemerlo et al. 02, Eliazar et al. 03, Haehnel et al. 03] 49


LKM