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NE WS FOR THE UNI V ERSIT Y OF K ENTUCK Y COLLEGE OF PHARMAC Y COMMUNIT Y

MEET DEAN KIP GUY

LEARNING, LEGACIES, AND HIS LABOR OF LOVE Education for the Next Generation Revolutionizing Addiction Therapy

ISSUE 1 | SEPTEMBER 2016

Kip Guy (Dean) Photo: Shaun Ring


A MESSAGE FROM INTERIM DEAN KELLY SMITH

IT’S BEEN AN HONOR SERVING EACH OF YOU The quest for knowledge is what propels each of us in our daily journey, whether it be a new laboratory technique, a potential research collaboration, a new set of practice guidelines, or a new medication reimbursement model. Each of us at the College of Pharmacy is employed to learn and discover, which is truly a privilege. I have enjoyed that privilege to an even greater degree by serving as your Interim Dean. Immeasurable are the lessons that I have learned during this past year, and they all point to one central theme— the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy is a family that each of us should be honored to be a part of. We continue to build upon the excellence created by the legends that once called this place home, the passion for the College that gets in your blood and stays there, and the pride we feel when one of our family members is recognized for a job well done. So fortunate are we to have learned, practiced, investigated, and taught in such an environment. This University has given me the opportunity to grow from a drug information specialist, to a residency program director, to a scholar and teacher, to an administrator, to a professional organization leader. Each of us likely has a similar story to tell, and we are excited to share such opportunities to learn and grow with those who will walk through our doors in the years to come.

Photo: Shaun Ring

I thank you for the opportunity to serve each of you, and I am now honored to welcome Dr. Kip Guy as our new Dean. His commitment to inquiry, innovation, meeting the needs of the underserved, diverse life experiences, and all that we identify with our profession and our science will make him a great fit for the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. He understands our passion for horses, basketball, and yes, even a certain caramel colored beverage. He is indeed already a member of our family. A few years ago, I listened to our own Dr. Pat McNamara advise our students that, “You should always be learning.” Today, I teach our students the importance of lifelong learning through reflecting, aligning career opportunities with their strengths, and creating a plan to continually develop as pharmacists. I eagerly anticipate all that each of us will learn on our professional journey in the years to come. May you #alwaysbelearning.

Kelly M. Smith (PharmD, FASHP, FCCP)


The Active Ingredient is a new publication of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Named by pharmacy student Adrianne Lindsey Chandler (PharmD, 2020), The Active Ingredient is designed to inform stakeholders about the activities and achievements of our College‘s ”active ingredients“—our students, faculty, staff, and alumni. The Active Ingredient welcomes article submissions from students, faculty, staff, alumni, and friends of the College. To submit an article for consideration, please contact Amanda Plakosh at amanda.plakosh@uky.edu. Editor & Writer Amanda Plakosh Invited authors as noted

INSIDE

Photography Ray Billingsley Sarah Elizabeth Bush Amanda Plakosh Shaun Ring Designers Black & White, Inc.

02 Meet Dean Kip Guy Learning, Legacies & His Labor of Love

OFFICE OF THE DEAN

06 Honoring Lifetime Achievements

Senior Associate Dean Patrick McNamara, PhD

08 2016 Commencement Doctors, Masters, and Trailblazers Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10 Breaking the Cycle: Cures for Cocaine Addiction and Overdose 12 Revolutionizing Addiction Therapy 15 Pharmaceutical Sciences (PS) Department Achievements Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science 16 Dr. Kenneth Record Named 2015 Paul Parker Award Recipient 18 Pharmacy Practice and Science (PPS) Department Achievements Educational Advances 19 International Studies 20 Education for the Next Generation 24 Community Service Learning 26 Student Perspectives 31 2016 Annual Report 35 Service and Sponsorship Opportunities

Interim Dean Kelly Smith, PharmD

Associate Dean of Educational Advancement Frank Romanelli, PharmD, MPH Associate Dean of Research Linda Dwoskin, PhD Interim Assistant Dean of Enrollment Management Craig Martin, PharmD, MBA Interim Assistant Dean of Student Affairs Stacy Taylor, PharmD, MHA Chair of Pharmacy Practice and Science David Burgess, PharmD Chair of Pharmaceutical Sciences Joe Chappell, PhD

CONNECT WITH US pharmacy.uky.edu linkedin.com/groups/1411607 facebook.com/ukcop twitter.com/uk_cop

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 1


MEET DEAN KIP GUY

&

LEARNING, LEGACIES HIS LABOR OF LOVE  fter losing his aunt to a devastating disease, A Kip Guy was moved to fight for the lives of patients in need of an advocate. As the new Dean of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, he will inspire the next generation of Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists to do the same.

Photo: Shaun Ring 2 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT


MEET DEAN KIP GUY

Thirty years ago, Kip Guy made two relatively minor choices that would set the direction of his entire life. He chose his first higher education institution—Reed College in Portland, Oregon—and his undergraduate field of study—Chemistry. He didn’t realize it at the time, but those two choices would lead him to a soul-satisfying career serving populations in dire need of an advocate and a life filled with extraordinary joy.

Photo: Dr. Bob Guy

From the Farm to Pharmacy Not long after Kip’s birth in Alabama, evolving career demands led young Kip’s family to set up house in Germany and England, Mississippi and Ohio, and a few places in between. He found friends and interesting things to do and see in each new locale, but he never felt more at home or inspired than on the family farm in Jack’s Creek, Tennessee. Kip loved to spend time outdoors, wandering through fields and wading in the pond on the family’s 750-acre farm. An inquisitive child, Kip spent many hot summer afternoons stealthily observing the behaviors of animals and insects he encountered and searching for patterns in plant life. While Kip was in high school, his aunt, Gerry Barnette, was diagnosed with breast cancer. With few effective treatments for breast cancer at the time, her prognosis was not good. The prospect of losing his Aunt Gerry sparked something in Kip, and her illness would become a pivotal event in Kip’s life and career. As the years passed and his aunt battled the disease, he started to think about the natural world that he had spent so much time observing as a child on the family farm in Tennessee and he began connecting those observations to the loathsome cancer that would eventually take his aunt’s life. Kip decided to pursue a career dedicated to developing drugs to treat diseases like breast cancer that were taking the lives of women, children, and other underserved populations. Crossing the Country for a Cure With his career aspirations in mind, Kip headed west to pursue an undergraduate degree in Chemistry at Reed College in Portland, Oregon and a graduate degree in Organic Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. At Scripps, his love of nature, his enjoyment of chemistry, and his passion for fighting breast cancer converged while conducting research on the synthesis of Taxol®, the most promising breast cancer pharmacotherapy at the time. Taxol® had long been derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.

Five-year old Kip on his family’s farm in Jack’s Creek, Tennessee.

The process killed these slow-growing trees, and ultimately endangered the species. Kip worked to find a method to produce a semi-synthetic Taxol® that would be an effective treatment for breast cancer and prevent the destruction of old-growth yew forests. He also learned about critical issues with the administration of Taxol® from a nurse that worked in the oncology group at the Green Hospital at Scripps. The nurse was concerned that patients receiving Taxol® often developed serious infusion reactions as a result of the vehicle in which the drug was suspended. Premedication protocols and extended infusion times decreased the risk of infusion reactions, but these complicated the drug’s administration and were unpleasant for patients. The nurse asked for a better alternative. This simple plea inspired Kip to develop a water soluble version of Taxol® that could be given quickly without an accompanying infusion reaction, and established Kip’s career long practice of defining research directions with the goal of addressing specific clinical and pharmaceutical challenges. “That nurse in oncology changed my worldview about drug discovery. She showed me that it’s not just about the potency of a drug, but the gestalt of a drug—the patient, route, schedule, side effects, primary effects. She taught me the importance of pharmacy and pharmaceutics.”

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 3


MEET DEAN KIP GUY

After fellowship training at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Kip began his independent career as an assistant professor in the Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), home to one of the best funded pharmaceutical research programs and highest ranked pharmacy schools in the United States. At UCSF, Kip taught Endocrine and Immunologic Agents and a number of other courses while pursuing two major lines of research: developing new strategies for targeting the signaling systems for testosterone and estrogen, which are major drivers in prostate and breast cancer; and discovering new therapeutic leads for neglected infectious diseases of the developing world, especially those affecting Africa. Kip’s laboratory was one of the leaders in developing inhibitors of protein interactions as therapeutic targets. Over the course of eight years, Kip earned professor status and founded and directed several University centers for drug discovery. During his time at UCSF, Kip became more and more focused on extremely neglected diseases and those that affect poor, rural children. Having spent so much of his childhood in rural Tennessee, he personally understood the need to provide better care for these children. Now, as a pharmacy educator and pharmaceutical researcher, he had the ability to affect change for kids not unlike those he played with as a child. The Opportunity of a Lifetime Kip loved his position at UCSF, but left in 2005 after being presented with the opportunity of a lifetime back in his home state of Tennessee. St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis recruited Kip to create a new department dedicated to developing treatments for catastrophic pediatric disease, which dovetailed perfectly with his work in cancer and malaria, the leading causes of disease-based deaths of children in the U.S. and the developing world, respectively. While at St. Jude, Kip oversaw the development of a highly interdisciplinary and interprofessional department that worked collaboratively with essentially every other department at St. Jude to carry out drug discovery and development. Under his leadership, the department participated in projects that resulted in initiating more than eight clinical trials with repurposed drugs in brain, solid, and liquid tumors. At the same time, he personally led an international team that discovered and developed a novel drug for the treatment of malaria that is currently 4 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

Photo: Provided by Kip Guy

While in South Africa at the H3D Symposium, Kip enjoys sightseeing with his with good friend Kelly Chibale (Founder and Director of the University of Capetown Drug Discovery and Development Centre).

in Phase 1 trials. The experience of working daily in diverse teams that included physicians, pharmacists, and scientists cemented his belief that improving outcomes for patients requires tearing down interprofessional barriers and focusing research in areas likely to affect real world problems.

“

My success as a researcher has been defined by two strategies: rooting my research in the realworld problems of the clinic, and executing my research by leading interdisciplinary and interprofessional teams who focus on solving those problems. The changing landscape of pharmacy and medicine requires that we focus on leveraging our information to better serve patients at lower cost.


MEET DEAN KIP GUY

Exponential Change Through Education Kip has spent nearly two decades focused on the development of therapies for orphan diseases. His efforts have led to the development of new treatments for malaria, sleeping sickness, retinoblastoma, rare leukemias, and ependymoma. Despite the tremendous progress made, he realized that there are still countless orphan disease treatments to be discovered and unspoken— for populations suffering from treatable and curable diseases that need research and practice advocates. He felt a calling to broaden the impact of his work by moving from pure research leadership to a mandate including education and service. By contributing to the training of our nation’s next generation of pharmacists, pharmaceutical researchers, pharmaceutical company executives, policy developers, and patient advocates, he could multiply the impact on underserved populations. “As I move into educational administration, I am excited about helping others pull down barriers to working together effectively, the same way that I have in the research arena, thereby helping them learn how to best achieve their goals of improving patient’s lives.” For the Love of Family While untraditional among pharmaceutical researchers, Kip’s first life-defining choice—choosing to study chemistry—was the single decision that enabled his discovery of treatments that have improved the quality of life and extended life for many. You may be wondering why the second choice—choosing to study at Reed College—played such a pivotal role in the direction of Kip’s life. There are countless well regarded, accredited schools in the United States that offer undergraduate degrees in chemistry. Choosing Reed College made all the difference in Kip’s life because of who he met there. Kip established meaningful personal and professional contacts at Reed, but none more important than Caitlin Allen, the woman that would become his wife. Caitlin, a pediatric clinical psychologist who specializes in neurodevelopmental disorders, has not only been his partner in life and biggest cheerleader, she has also been his greatest professional supporter. The couple’s shared interest in serving those who are largely ignored by the

conventional pharmaceutical industry helped to focus Kip’s career on developing pharmaceutical treatments for orphan diseases and deepened Caitlin’s interest in providing complementary treatments for children coping with chronic and acute illnesses and other challenges, especially autism. Kip, Caitlin (Cait), and their two children, 17-year old son Ciaran and 8-year old daughter Siobhan (Vonnie) are excited for their move to Lexington this fall. Cait is an enthusiastic equestrian and her Trakehner mare, Tanzbrise, will be relocating with the family. Ciaran is enrolled as an undergrad at the University of Kentucky and Vonnie is looking forward to meeting new friends in the third grade at Cassidy Elementary. They are not strangers to the Bluegrass, having attended the Rolex 3-day and Pony Club nationals in Lexington. They are looking forward to living so close to the Kentucky Horse Park, the Red River Gorge, and a certain distillery in Frankfort. Kip will officially take on his new role as the 6th dean of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy on October 1, 2016. § This is Part 1 of a multi-part series on Dean Kip Guy and his vision for the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Look for the next installment in this series in a future edition of The Active Ingredient.

PADUCAH TO PIKEVILLE: 2017 TOUR OF KENTUCKY In the spring of 2017, Dean Kip Guy will visit UK College of Pharmacy alumni, preceptors, and friends in Paducah, Pikeville, and many cities in between. Information about meeting opportunities and concurrent continuing education offerings will be shared on the College’s website and social media pages. If you would like to meet Kip in your corner of Kentucky, contact Amber Bowling (amber.bowling@uky.edu) to make arrangements.

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 5


HALL OF DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI

HONORING LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENTS UK College of Pharmacy Inducts Graduates in the Hall of Distinguished Alumni By Amber Bowling

In 2014, the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy created the Hall of Distinguished Alumni to honor and recognize the remarkable accomplishments of our graduates who have left an indelible mark on health care, industry, and academia. This lifetime achievement award is presented each year to deserving UK College of Pharmacy alumni. The College has recognized graduate program (PhD) alumni with a lifetime achievement award since 2006. However, there was not a similar program for the College’s bachelor’s and doctor of pharmacy alumni. The Hall of Distinguished Alumni allows the College to recognize all College graduates. Previous recipients of the outstanding graduate program alumni award are now members of the Hall of Distinguished Alumni.

In the spring of 2016, three dynamic alumni were inducted into this esteemed group of graduates: Duane Kirking, PharmD, PhD; Gary Martin, PhD; and John Piecoro, MS, PharmD. This past March, a celebration was held to honor and recognize the impact that each of these recipients has had on the profession of pharmacy. We are grateful to all three of our newest members of the Hall of Distinguished Alumni for their many contributions and representation of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. §

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HALL OF DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI INDUCTEES 2016 Duane Kirking (PharmD, PhD) Gary Martin (PhD) John Piecoro (MS, PharmD) 2015 Bob Blouin (PharmD) Mary H. H. Ensom (PharmD) Robert P. Rapp (PharmD) Salomon A. Stavchansky (PhD) 2013 Russ Mumper (PhD) 2012 David Allen (PhD) 2011 Philip Mayer (PhD) 2010 Mark Gillespie (PhD) 2009 Joseph Fleishaker (PhD) 2007 Munir Hussain (PhD) 2006 Kim Brouwer (PhD)


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HALL OF DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI

UKCOP GRADUATES INDUCTED INTO THE HALL OF DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI DUANE M. KIRKING was recognized for his dedication to improving the quality and costeffectiveness of medications and pharmacy services throughout his four decades of leadership in research, teaching, and professional organizations. Dr. Kirking was nominated by Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Professor and Director at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. GARY MARTIN was recognized for his extraordinary achievements and innovation in the area of NMR spectroscopy. Martin’s work has led to the development of new analysis methods and detection capabilities that make discoveries not only possible, but expeditious. Dr. Martin was nominated by Antony J. Williams, PhD at the National Center for Computational Toxicology (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). JOHN PIECORO, Professor Emeritus of the College of Pharmacy, was recognized for his dedication to pediatric clinical pharmacy and his contributions to research in the areas of antibiotics for pediatric infections, intravenous nutrition formulae for infants, and medicalsurgical supplies and devices. Dr. Piecoro was nominated by William G. Byrd, PharmD.

Photo: Amanda Plakosh

If you would like to nominate a UK College of Pharmacy alumnus for inclusion in the Hall of Distinguished Alumni, please contact Amber Bowling (859/218-1305 or amber.bowling@uky.edu). The deadline for nominations is December 1, 2016. SEPTEMBER 2016 | 7


2016 COMMENCEMENT

Photo: Ray Billingsley

CONGRATULATIONS CLASS OF

2016

On May 6, 2016, the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy celebrated the achievements of eight distinguished graduate students and 126 outstanding PharmD graduates at the 2016 Commencement Ceremony held at the Singletary Center. The auditorium was filled with supporters—family and friends, faculty, and colleagues from the Kentucky Pharmacists Association (KPhA), Kentucky Society of Health-System Pharmacists (KSHP), and the Kentucky Board of Pharmacy—who were all eager to welcome our graduates officially to the profession as they took their oath.

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2016 COMMENCEMENT

DOCTORS, MASTERS, AND

TRAILBLAZERS Six students earned both a Master of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (MSPS) and a PharmD. These six graduates are the first to complete this dual-degree program. Sarah Boden Sarah’s research focused on investigating the pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic relationship of the rate of drug onset and abuse liability with intranasally administered oxycodone. She is currently working on publishing the data. Sarah is continuing her education at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine.

THE CLASS OF 2016 BY THE NUMBERS

8 126

Earned a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (PhD) Earned a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (PharmD)

Ryan Chan Ryan’s research focused on developing a preclinical 3D spheroid model of non-small cell lung cancer incorporating components of the tumor microenvironment. Ryan has contributed two papers to the literature. After graduation, Ryan joined the Walgreens team in Louisville, KY.

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Earned a Master of Public Administration (MPA)

Ekim Ekinci Ekim‘s research focused on understanding factors that affect adherence of patients with schizophrenia to atypical antipsychotics. She discovered her passion for teaching through her studies and had the opportunity to give lectures to a variety of audiences, including first-year pharmacy students. Ekim is currently working on two papers to contribute to the literature. She is currently a pharmacy resident at Houston Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX.

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Earned a Master of Public Health (MPH)

Megan Heath Megan’s research focused on the effect of nicotine co-administration on alcohol-induced reactive hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence in an adolescent model of an alcohol use disorder. Megan is currently a PY1 pharmacy resident at St. Elizabeth Healthcare in Edgewood, KY. Catherine Herren Katie’s research focused on the impact of Medicaid managed care in Kentucky on patient medication adherence, and the impact of the rescheduling of hydrocodone-containing products in Kentucky. She will be contributing two papers to the literature. Katie accepted a postdoctoral fellowship at Eli Lilly and Company where she is currently serving as Visiting Scientist Fellow and Oncology Research Scientist.

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Earned a Master of Business Administration (MBA)

Earned a Master of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (MSPS)

Earned a Gerontology Certificate

23

Completed the Advanced Pharmacotherapy Gateway

64

Placed in a Residency or Postgraduate Training Program

Brandon Kulengowski Brandon’s research focused on antibiotic treatment for multi-drug resistant gram-negative organisms. He has contributed two papers to the literature and is currently working on two more. Brandon is pursuing a PhD in Infectious Disease at the University of Kentucky. SEPTEMBER 2016 | 9


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

BREAKING THE CYCLE Cures for Cocaine Addiction and Overdose By Allison Perry (UKNOW, University of Kentucky News)

Dr. Chang-Guo Zhan and his team are developing two treatments— a monthly dose therapy for cocaine addiction and an overdose treatment for emergency use.

Dr. Chang-Guo Zhan (Professor) Photo: Amanda Plakosh

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DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy Professor Chang-Guo Zhan, teamed with fellow UK faculty members Fang Zheng and Sharon Walsh, and Professor Mei-Chuan Ko from Wake Forest University, recently received $6 million in funding over five years to further develop a potential treatment for cocaine abuse. The project is funded via the National Institute on Drug Abuse Translational Avant-Garde Award and will help push a promising new therapy for overdose and addiction closer to clinical trials. “Dr. Zhan’s groundbreaking work in this field cannot be overstated,” said Interim Dean Kelly M. Smith. “There currently is no FDA-approved treatment for cocaine overdose or cocaine addiction, and Dr. Zhan and his research team are trying to change that. Developing such therapies would be a major breakthrough for health care.” Previously, Zhan’s team designed and tested CocH1, an enzyme that specifically breaks down cocaine in the bloodstream without producing harmful byproducts in the body. In this new project, the team will evaluate a novel enzyme called CocH-LAF for its ability to neutralize cocaine in the bloodstream using molecular modeling technology. Thus far, the new enzyme has been tested for its efficacy, and has demonstrated a significantly improved efficiency against cocaine compared to CocH1. In addition, it has a longer biological half-life, meaning the treatment will eliminate the cocaine from the bloodstream much quicker than the previous version. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health has reported that approximately 1.9 million Americans were using cocaine in 2008. In Kentucky, 70 or more people died from cocaine overdose in 2013 and 2014, up significantly from 24 cocaine-related deaths in 2011. Taking cocaine can result in severe health issues, including cardiovascular issues (disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks), neurological effects (strokes, seizures, headaches, and coma) and gastrointestinal complications (abdominal pain and nausea). Currently there are no marketed treatments for cocaine overdose or addiction. Zhan will serve as principal investigator, but will work closely with Zheng, Walsh, and Ko on the project. §

Photo: Amanda Plakosh

Dr. Zhan mentors Kai Ding, a graduate student in the Zhan laboratory, as he prepares samples for testing.

Dr. Zhan was honored at a ceremony hosted by Dr. Eli Capilouto. Photo: Benjamin Corwin, REVEAL Research Communications

ZHAN NAMED UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY RESEARCH PROFESSOR  r. Chang—Guo Zhan, Professor, University of D Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, has been named a 2016-2017 University of Kentucky University Research Professor. Since 1976, the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees has honored faculty members for their research achievements. “We are so proud of all that Dr. Zhan has achieved, and we continue to be amazed by his prolific works in the field of cocaine abuse” said Kelly Smith, Interim Dean of the College of Pharmacy. “Dr. Zhan has been an inspiration and role model to students, faculty, and staff alike. The College of Pharmacy family is fortunate that Dr. Zhan has chosen UK as his research home, and we look forward to the continuing innovations his laboratory will bring to pharmaceutical science.”

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DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

REVOLUTIONIZING ADDICTION THERAPY

Dr. Linda Dwoskin has dedicated her career to helping young people and adults overcome methamphetamine and other addictions with the assistance of novel pharmaceuticals. Dr. Linda Dwoskin (Professor)

Photo: Amanda Plakosh

Methamphetamine (meth) addiction is devastating. Long-term users experience hallucinations, psychosis, and paranoia. They suffer the physical degradation of their bodies—meth mouth, muscle spasms, dangerous weight loss, and wounds caused by the user scratching through or cutting into their skin to release the ‘crank bugs’ they believe are crawling under the surface of their bodies. Relationships with friends and family are destroyed as they become absent, unstable, and violent and commit crimes, oftentimes with their loved ones as victims, in an effort to sustain their habit. Overcoming an addiction with willpower alone can feel like a nearly insurmountable challenge, but is truly impossible for meth users, many of whom were not yet

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teenagers when they tried meth for the first time while in middle school. Users seeking recovery have few options. Behavioral therapies, the only accepted therapy option for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction, can be slow and ultimately ineffective with a relapse rate of up to 60 percent. Good news may be on the horizon. Dr. Linda Dwoskin and her team at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy are working to develop the first approved pharmaceutical therapy for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction.


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

We spoke to Dr. Dwoskin to learn more about her pioneering research.

What initially sparked your passion for helping people suffering from drug addiction? LD: As long as I can remember, I have been interested in the brain and behavior, pursuing a BS in Psychology as an outcome. During my undergraduate studies, the research that intrigued me most was how drugs of abuse hijack the brain as the drug user becomes singularly focused and highly motivated to obtain the drug. I wanted to know what changes in the brain to make a person addicted. Methamphetamine is particularly difficult as those addicted seem to their friends and families as though they become someone else as a result of their extreme motivation to obtain the drug, engaging in violent behavior and prostitution, stealing from their family members and strangers, losing control, going off the deep end, often ending up in hospital emergency rooms with convulsions or psychiatric breaks. The addicted individual suffers greatly, as do their friends and families. Soon after I became a faculty member in the College of Pharmacy, our team initiated our studies on methamphetamine. The goal of this work is to discover a pharmacotherapy to treat those addicted to methamphetamine, as there are no FDA-approved treatments for this debilitating disease.

Tell us about the work you are doing to develop a treatment for methamphetamine addiction. LD: The discovery work to identify a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine abuse began while working with a natural product, lobeline that is obtained from a plant (Lobelia inflata) that grows up and down the eastern seaboard and was used historically by Native Americans in their ceremonies. Lobeline interacted with a transporter protein (the vesicular monoamine transporter) in brain neurons that are responsible for the experience of euphoria and reward induced by methamphetamine. Methamphetamine acts at this same transporter protein, but not in the exact same manner as lobeline. Through our research, we found that lobeline inhibited the neurochemical effects of methamphetamine. Importantly, lobeline also inhibited rats’ willingness to work for methamphetamine in an animal model of methamphetamine abuse. This preclinical work led to the initial clinical trials investigating lobeline as a treatment. However, lobeline had properties that were not optimal with respect to its development and use clinically. We began an iterative drug discovery program modifying the lobeline molecule and optimizing it as a potential treatment. Currently, we are closing in on late stage preclinical work to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the more optimal analogs and to develop a formulation to help the analog reach the brain following oral administration.

It must take a strong and dedicated team to achieve all you have. LD: Yes. My long-term collaborators on this project are Michael Bardo (Department of Psychology UK) and Peter Crooks (College of Pharmacy of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, former UKCOP faculty member). During the later stages of the preclinical work, Bjoern Bauer, Mark Leggas, and Patrick Marsac have been added as collaborators. Their contributions are invaluable as the project matures and moves towards clinical trials. Our team includes dynamic graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and technical support staff who engage on a daily basis in the research.

Photo: Amanda Plakosh

Justin Nickell, PhD, is a long time member of the team focused on the discovery and preclinical development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Dr. Nickell is a University of Kentucky graduate, Research Assistant Professor at the University of Kentucky, and member of Dr. Dwoskin’s research team.

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DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

HUMAN TRIALS Photo: Provided by Dr. William Stoops

Interdisciplinary Collaborations Dr. Stoops is an assistant professor in the Department of Behavioral Science in the College of Medicine at the University of Kentucky.

If things progress as desired, it won’t be long before Dr. Linda Dwoskin turns to long-term friend and colleague at the University of Kentucky, Dr. William “Bill” Stoops, to discuss human trials. Dr. Stoops has spent more than a decade studying human behavioral pharmacology (the study of the way drugs influence human behaviors and emotions). He conducts studies that enroll active, non-treatment seeking cocaine and methamphetamine users at the UK College of Medicine Laboratory of Human Behavioral Pharmacology (LHBP). Along with his colleagues at the LHBP, Dr. Stoops oversees studies that evaluate the effects of controlled stimulant doses when combined with controlled doses of potential anti-addiction medications (typically repurposing drugs that have been approved by the FDA for other indications), to study the safety and initial effectiveness of the potential treatments. Dr. Stoops has learned that habitual drug use can change the brain and behavior, with individuals who have developed a stimulant use disorder experiencing serious difficulty when it comes to choosing between taking a drug or engaging in some other, more prosocial behavior. Having spent years interviewing individuals with stimulant use disorders for studies, he knows the impact methamphetamine can have on individuals. “Methamphetamine users tend to have a more severe profile of behavior. They are more likely to use other drugs, have medical or psychological problems and 14 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

may be more risky in general. I recall one contact in particular that told us vibrant stories about the risky things he did to get methamphetamine while addicted and actively using. He admitted to putting himself into very dangerous situations to get methamphetamine,” said Dr. Stoops. A number of medications have been tested for treating methamphetamine use disorder. Some that have been tested may block the effects of methamphetamine in the brain and prevent the positive feelings it produces, thereby causing users to stop using. Naltrexone, a medication for the treatment of opioid and alcohol abuse, may be one such drug and has shown promise in a number of trials. Bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation agent, has shown some promise in lighter methamphetamine users. Unfortunately, neither of these drugs work for everyone. That’s why Dr. Stoops excitedly looks forward to the day that he and Dr. Dwoskin will begin studying her newly discovered pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine addiction in humans. “It will take a lot of effort, time and a lot of money to get these novel drugs to and through trials, but it is so important,” says Dr. Stoops. “At the University of Kentucky, we have the researchers and the facilities needed to develop and study medications for drug use disorders— from discovery of the molecule to evaluation in the clinic. We are one of few institutions in the world with these resources, the organization-wide passion for solving a problem that affects us throughout the country and in our own backyard, and the willingness to dedicate dollars to address this serious societal and economic issue that others won’t touch due to their belief that their efforts won’t be profitable.” § To learn more about Dr. Dwoskin’s work and follow the progress her team is making, follow the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) NIDANotes series, Narrative of Discovery: In Search of a Medication to Treat Methamphetamine Addiction at www.drugabuse.gov.


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

ACHIEVEMENTS PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES (PS) DEPARTMENT

JUNE 2015–JUNE 2016 HONORS AND AWARDS

PROMOTIONS

Dr. Chang-Guo Zhan University of Kentucky University Research Professor 2016-2017

Gregory Graf Assistant Dean for Translational Research

Dr. James Pauly Robert Blouin Award for Outstanding Contributions to Graduate Education Dr. Penni Black Robert Blouin Award for Outstanding Contributions to Graduate Education Robert Blouin Award for Outstanding Contributions to Professional Education Dr. Patrick McNamara Robert Blouin Award for Outstanding Contributions to Professional Education

FELLOWSHIPS Julie Calahan United States Pharmacopeial Global Fellowship Award Madeline Krentz American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Foundation Graduate Student Fellowship Lin Ao American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education Pre-Doctoral Fellowship in Pharmaceutical Sciences

GRANT AND FUNDING HIGHLIGHTS Dr. Chang-Guo Zhan Dr. Zhan and colleagues won a $6 million grant to advance new therapies for cocaine overdose and addiction to clinical trials. This project is funded through the very prestigious National Institute on Drug Abuse Translational AvantGarde Award. Dr. Robert Yokel Dr. Yokel received National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding to study the safety of nanomaterials. His research team will study potential health impacts of nano-sized cerium oxide, a nanomaterial proposed for a wide array of applications.

NEW FACULTY MEMBERS Dr. Vincent Venditto Assistant Professor Dr. Patrick Marsac Associate Professor Dr. Chee Ng Associate Professor

Tyler Bucci American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education Gateway Research Scholarship

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DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY PRACTICE & SCIENCE

2015 PAUL PARKER DR. KENNETH RECORD NAMED

AWARD RECIPIENT Dr. Kenneth Record —UK College of Pharmacy alumnus, R63 in the UK HealthCare Pharmacy Residency program, and Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy—was named the 2015 recipient of the Paul F. Parker Award. After earning his Bachelor’s degree in pharmacy from the College in 1973, he was piqued by the emerging clinical pharmacy world—particularly what was occurring at the UK Chandler Medical Center. Under the direction and mentorship of Drs. Paul Parker and Robert Rapp, he completed a combined Doctor of Pharmacy and pharmacy residency in 1978. For most of his career, he has focused his clinical practice in Acute Care Surgery/Trauma with an emphasis on residency training, surgical infectious diseases, and surgical critical care. He has also dedicated himself to bringing his clinical experience to the classroom. Dr. Record has a passion for expanding the role of the clinical pharmacist and creating opportunities for residents to gain clinical experience. He has been a Board Certified Pharmacotherapy Specialist for 21 years and enthusiastically supports board certification of pharmacists. His current interests include clinical pharmacy education and student assessment. Dr. Record accepted the award at the Paul Parker Luncheon held during the ASHP Midyear Meeting. 16 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

During his acceptance speech, Dr. Record recounted how Paul Parker recruited him into the residency program, and his experiences working for Paul who encouraged him to pursue his musical passions while continuing his pharmacy residency. The highlight of the luncheon was Dr. Record’s mandolin performance of “Mammas, Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to be PharmDs”, which included new lyrics composed in honor of Paul Parker. Dr. Record is a recipient of a number of prestigious awards including the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Innovations in Teaching Award in 2001 and the UK College of Pharmacy Michael J. Lach Faculty Award for Innovative Teaching Practices in 2006. §

Traditions

Each pharmacist entering the pharmacy residency program at UK is given a resident or “R” number upon entrance into the program and is honored at a special ceremony at the end of their residency. In keeping with tradition, graduates of the program are lightheartedly passed a handmade wooden suppository by their mentor. This award is a source of pride for all UK pharmacy residents and serves as a symbol of their accomplishments. More than 450 R numbers and two honorary R numbers have been awarded since the inception of the program.


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY PRACTICE & SCIENCE

The Paul F. Parker Award is given annually to a past resident of the University of Kentucky Pharmacy Residency Program or to an individual intimately associated with the success of the program. This award recognizes an individual who has displayed sustained contribution to the profession in practice, teaching or research; a commitment to high ideals and excellence in their chosen field; leadership and innovation; and a passion to encourage the personal and professional growth of others.

Dr. Kenneth Record (Associate Professor)

Photo: Amanda Plakosh

Mammas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to be PharmDs

Lyrics adapted by Kenneth Record to the tune of Mammas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to be Cowboys as performed by Willie Nelson

PharmDs ain’t easy to love and they’re harder to hold They’d rather give you Dilantin® than aspirin or gold White coats and beepers and old faded neckties and each night begins a new day If you don’t understand him and they don’t die young, they’ll probably just fade away

Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Don’t let them be Fosters and drive them old Jeeps Let them be doctors and lawyers and creeps Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Cause they never stay home and they’re always alone Even with someone they love

Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Don’t let them be Bob Rapps and drive them old trucks Let them be doctors and lawyers and such Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Cause they never stay home and they’re always alone Even with someone they love

Every “R” knows the best place to train is at UKCMC That place in Kentucky where boomerangs fly And clinical dreams are not pies in the sky Drug information, review medications, and each dose delivered by one A computer to aid you, to guide you, to help you get all of your patient care done

PharmDs like rounding 500s and acting like doctors Serum drug levels and midyears and girls of the night (Wait, what?) Them that don’t know them don’t like them And them that do sometimes don’t know how to take them They ain’t wrong, they’re just different But their minds won’t let you do things to make you think they’re right

Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Don’t let them be Parkers with visions galore And crisis disasters will knock your door Mammas, don’t let your babies grow up to be PharmDs Cause they never stay home and they’re always alone Even with someone they love SEPTEMBER 2016 | 17


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY PRACTICE & SCIENCE

ACHIEVEMENTS PHARMACY PRACTICE AND SCIENCE (PPS) DEPARTMENT

JUNE 2015–JUNE 2016 HONORS AND AWARDS

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, AND ELECTIONS

Dr. Robert Kuhn Honored for 30 years of service with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

Dr. David Feola Appointed Director of Graduate Studies for the College of Pharmacy

Dr. Craig Martin Board of Directors for the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

Dr. Trish Freeman Cardinal Health Generation Rx Champion Award

Dr. Mandy Jones Named Fellow of UK Center for Interprofessional Health Education

Dr. Kelly Smith Promoted to Professor ASHP Board of Directors

Dr. Melanie Dicks Michael J. Lach Award

Dr. Melody Ryan Named Fellow of UK Center for Interprofessional Health Education

Dr. Val Adams AACP Research Fellows Program

Dr. Holly Divine Michael J. Lach Award Dr. Melanie Dicks University of Kentucky Teachers Who Made a Difference Award Dr. David Feola Teacher of the Year PY3 Class Dr. Trenika Mitchell Teacher of the Year PY1 Class

President of APhA-APRS and Board of Trustees Member Dr. Stacy Taylor Named Fellow of UK Center for Interprofessional Health Education Dr. Craig Martin Appointed to the Kentucky State Board of Pharmacy

Dr. Kenneth Roberts Kappa Psi Pharmaceutical Fraternity Leader and Legend Award

Dr. Trish Freeman Elected Kentucky Pharmacists Association (KPhA) President APhA Fellow

NEW FACULTY MEMBERS

Dr. Timothy Clifford Promoted to Adjunct Associate Professor

Dr. Clark Kebodeaux Clinical Assistant Professor Dr. Tyler Stevens Clinical Assistant Professor

Dr. Aaron Cook Promoted to Adjunct Associate Professor Dr. Jeremy Flynn Promoted to Adjunct Associate Professor Dr. Tracy Macaulay Promoted to Adjunct Associate Professor

18 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

Dr. Jimmi Hatton Named Director of ACCP Research and Scholarship Certificate Program Dr. Anne Policastri ASHP Fellow AACP Academic Leadership Fellows Program Dr. Daniela Moga Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health Program (BIRCWH)

GRANT AND FUNDING HIGHLIGHTS Dr. Jeff Talbert Dr. Talbert received funding to support his Maternal and Infant Initiative (MIHI) project, Improving Adult and Child Health in Kentucky through Data Analysis. The purpose of the Medicaid Analytic Support Project is to support evaluation and improvements in the effectiveness and quality of services delivered to Medicaid and KCHIP beneficiaries.


INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

Benjamin Gatlin (PharmD, 2018) Rachael Stone (Pre-Pharmacy) Photo: Provided by Melody Ryan

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES When Melody Ryan was a student at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy (UKCOP), she dreamed of studying abroad, but it was not an option for her. International study programs were not offered at the time, and even if they had been offered, she would not have been able to participate. Like many students, she was working her way through school, putting in as much as 30 hours each week as a pharmacy technician. Dr. Ryan’s students are grateful that she not only worked her way through the PharmD program, but chose the UKCOP as her professional home. Dr. Ryan launched the UK College of Pharmacy International Studies Program in 2007 to offer Pre-Pharmacy and PharmD candidates at the College the opportunities she dreamed of as a student. The program she launched offers students four options for international studies. Through this program, the College also welcomes students from other nations through exchange programs with schools in Manchester, England and Tokyo, Japan. UK College of Pharmacy students organize social events to help the exchange students feel welcome and at home and to show them the best of Lexington and American culture. Dr. Ryan logs countless hours and miles to support this program, but that is not all. She and her husband established the Melody and Stephen Ryan Travel Abroad Scholarship to help students overcome financial barriers to international experiences. Their annual gift of $5,000 helps up to five students cover international travel and living expenses. Financial challenges are the numberone barrier to student participation in the international

studies program, so every dollar donated in support of the program is greatly appreciated. § This extraordinarily successful program offers students four options for international studies.

International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience China, Ecuador, England, Poland, Scotland, and Thailand

Short-term Medical Outreach Ecuador

Global Classroom

Faculty Led Study

China

England and Japan

Alumni and friends that would like to participate in and support the international studies program are invited to participate in one of three annual trips to Ecuador. Pharmacists are needed to guide students as they support operations at clinics in resource-limited areas during these 10-day trips. If you would like to participate, please contact Melody Ryan at melody. ryan@uky.edu or at 859/257-8790. SEPTEMBER 2016 | 19


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

Dr. Frank Romanelli (Professor) Photo: Amanda Plakosh

EDUCATION FOR THE NEXT GENERATION In 1996, two PhD students at Stanford University began developing BackRub, the search engine that would eventually become Google. Executives at Apple were considering the acquisition of NeXT Inc. in the hopes that it would bring founder Steve Jobs back to the organization and breathe new life into the struggling company. The newly launched Palm Pilot made it possible to electronically capture and reference information on a mobile device for the first time, but the internet and the personal computer were luxuries that were available to just a small segment of the population. That same year, the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy redesigned its curriculum to better serve students for the way they learn and access information. It has been 20 years since the 1996 curriculum refresh and a lot has changed. Google is now a world-renowned 20 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

search engine used to conduct more than 2 trillion searches each year. The Palm Pilot and the shared computer lab have been replaced with personal, fully mobile, always connected devices. Technology advancements have changed the way students learn and engage with their educators. The University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy is changing its curriculum to meet students where they are. Four years ago, Dr. Frank Romanelli formed a cross-functional team of educators, pharmacy professionals, college administrators, tech whizzes, and educational experts with the goal of developing a new approach to teaching pharmacy. Students will experience the new hybrid, problem-based, experiential curriculum they developed this fall. In engineering the new curriculum, both content and the methods of delivery of material were considered paramount.


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

A Closer Look at UKCOP’s New Way of Learning AREAS OF STUDY Physiology Pathophysiology Medicinal Chemistry Pharmacology Therapeutics

OLD CURRICULUM

NEW CURRICULUM

Year 1

Year 1

Year 2

Year 2

Year 3

Year 3

Students will now be simultaneously exposed to the sciences centered around a disease.

Putting it All Together For decades, physiology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, therapeutics, and pathophysiology have been taught sequentially. Students were taught the physiology of disease states like diabetes and osteoporosis in year one, then were called upon to recall those facts two full years later when studying therapeutics for those diseases. This approach frustrated students and educators alike. More often than not, students had to relearn year one material, which slowed down the educational process and reduced the amount of time that could be spent dedicated to case-based, clinical, and experiential learning. Flipping the Script In 1996, accessing information was a challenge. Class time was spent feverishly jotting down notes from the professor’s lecture. Students spent hours in the library, searching the stacks for up-to-date references, and many late nights with eyes locked on the pages of a textbook or publication. Today, with modest financial resources and just enough tech know-how, anyone can access a world of information at any time, from any location, and in rapid sequence. In the re-engineered curriculum, students will be provided information in easily digestible videos, visual presentations, and audio lectures. The increased accessibility and understandability of information frees students to put what they are learning into practice and will ideally allow faculty class time to be used for more enriching and engaging activities.

With the new curriculum, students will have increased access to online videos, visual presentations, and audio lectures for at-home learning.

This fall, students and professors are flipping the traditional education script. Rather than gathering information in class, then putting that information to use in at-home assignments, students will be introduced to key concepts by watching or listening to mini-lectures from home, then participate in specially designed hands-on or problem-based learning exercises in the classroom and in practice settings. Students will spend more time practicing with standardized patients, in group learning scenarios, and participating in true community service learning.

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 21


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

ADVANCING THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY

Several new courses have been added to prepare students for the challenges of our evolving health care systems and the changes in pharmacy practice that we expect will occur over the course of their careers. These include: Clinical Reasoning, coordinated by Dr. Dan Wermeling, will teach students how to think like pharmacists. The philosophy-based course will place an emphasis on asking the right questions and on developing contemporary thinkers who approach problems critically. Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, coordinated by Dr. Mandy Jones, will introduce students to diagnostic approaches involved in the care of basic and commonly encountered community-based disease states. Students will learn how to diagnose and treat common ailments that may not require the intervention of a physician or other provider (e.g. head lice, mild burns, strep throat, poison ivy, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease [GERD], uncomplicated otitis media [middle ear infection]). Leadership in Pharmacy, coordinated by Dr. Kenneth Roberts, is designed to help students develop the soft skills they will need to be effective patient care providers and successful team members and leaders in the workplace.

(Left to Right)

Sarah Stump (PharmD, 2016) Rahul Kalathiya (PharmD, 2016) Danielle Corbett (PharmD, 2016) Photo: Shaun Ring 22 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

The new curriculum will also place an emphasis on scholarship with two courses devoted to understanding the research process and nuances involved in the planning and execution of a project or investigation.

The College hopes the new curriculum will better position students to assume personal accountability for learning, help students better understand holistic aspects of Pharmacy, prepare students to practice at the top of their license, and adapt their practice as our healthcare system continues to evolve. Student understanding of the didactic curriculum and the practice of pharmacy will be measured at two points in the student’s academic career: at the end of professional year 2 (PY2) and at the end of professional year 3 (PY3). At the end of PY2, students will take a mile marker exam that tests their knowledge of basic pharmacy concepts taught in the first two years of their pharmacy education. These exams, like all testing, will be conducted using ExamSoft®, a software tool that will allow faculty members to easily determine areas of opportunity for struggling students. Another mile marker exam at the end of PY3—a practice-focused exam—will serve as a progression gate before students move onto Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations. § Alumni and friends interested in helping support the College’s new educational efforts are invited to reach out to Dr. Romanelli at froma2@uky.edu to discuss various opportunities for involvement including serving on the Curriculum Committee, sharing experiential training sites, precepting, and serving as mentors for student projects.

Photo: Shaun Ring

TECHNOLOGY By Todd Sizemore, Director of IT and Facilities

For the first time this fall, PY1 faculty and students will use new hardware and software solutions to facilitate learning and evaluation in the new curriculum. Faculty members will use standardized technology to make video and other visual content available to students on-demand. Students will use College-issued iPads to review content and prepare for learning before class, thereby freeing class time for interaction and deeper analysis. The iPads will also be used for testing and grading, an experience that will be facilitated with ExamSoft® software. Committing to technology standards has the added advantage of freeing faculty members from the burden of creating over-simplified versions of educational materials to ensure compatibility with all hardware and software variations. Now, instead of dealing with technical issues, they are free to concentrate on creating experiences that add value in the classroom. The College has upgraded audiovisual equipment in its classrooms, group learning rooms, and the patient care laboratory to allow students and faculty members to project from their iPads to wireless display and projection devices in the rooms. The use of this technology is especially valuable in the Patient Care Laboratory, where students will participate in small group learning activities in addition to faculty-led instruction. With the push of a button, students will have the ability to toggle between small group work and whole class presentations, facilitating the sharing of ideas in both learning settings. §

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 23


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

(Left)

Dr. Melanie Dicks (Assistant Professor) (Right)

Fernon Espy Photo: Amanda Plakosh

COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING Ask any nonprofit what they need more of for their clients, and they will tell you they need resources. Ask any pharmacy student what they want less of in the classroom, and they will tell you lectures. Ask both what they want from life, and they will tell you they want to do good things for the people in their communities. What if there were a way for UK College of Pharmacy students and local nonprofits to work together for the benefit of the greater community, while fulfilling their respective educational and organizational requirements? This is the question that Dr. Melanie Dicks, Assistant Professor at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, asked herself when she took on the monumental task of revamping the College’s Community Service Learning component of the PatientCentered Care Experience (PaCE) curriculum. PaCE, formerly known as the Patient Care Laboratory, has long been part of the College’s pharmacy curriculum. The 24 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

course guides students through the development of the professional skills and attitudes needed to provide excellent patient-centered pharmacy care. Dr. Dicks had a vision for taking this program to the next level. She imagined a program that would allow students to develop employability skills (project management, communications, teamwork, leadership) and practice professional healthcare provision skills while serving populations in need. Having served as a Clinical Pharmacist at Bluegrass Community Health Center and a provider of healthcare services through other nonprofits in central Kentucky for 10 years, it was easy for Dr. Dicks to imagine the positive impact a collaboration between UKCOP and local nonprofits would have on the lives of individuals and families and the wonderful ways the collaboration would enhance her students’ educational experiences. “I am quite excited about our student pharmacists getting out of the COP, beyond the four walls, and taking what they learn in the classroom out into our communities in


EDUCATIONAL ADVANCES

need and making a difference in their lives, which I’m confident will in turn make a significant difference in the lives of our student pharmacists,” said Dr. Dicks. “The great results from this program are going to be unimaginable!” Through this new Community Service Learning component, PharmD students will partner with one of 14 different community partners. Over the course of six semesters, each student, along with nine teammates and their team mentor, will establish a relationship with a community partner, conduct a needs assessment for the organization and the population served, ideate and develop a program to serve that population, carry out the program, and then disseminate the outcomes in a creative or high profile way, such as presenting to the partner’s Board of Directors or creating a YouTube video that highlights the work done and the positive impacts. Program reception has been overwhelmingly positive. Prospective partners are excited for the opportunity to better serve their clients, develop our next generation of pharmacists, and even do a bit of pre-recruiting as they observe the students they will consider hiring for professional positions in just a few years.

Students are also excited for this revamped curriculum. This curriculum takes students out of the classroom and puts them in the community, working to address causes they are personally passionate about. This exemplary program—one of the first of its kind in the nation—will give UKCOP students an advantage over other PharmD graduates competing for jobs in a tightening field. Compared to their peers, graduates of this program will have enhanced professional skills, a broader network of professional contacts and references, and deeper insight into the inner workings of organizations. Students that participate in this program and graduate with a dual-degree will be especially well positioned to lead government healthcare agencies and pharmaceutical and healthcare enterprises that serve through those agencies. §

These are just a few of the partners students will work with in the coming years:

Kentucky Science Center “The welcomes every opportunity to

connect our guests with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (S.T.E.M.) careers and realworld applications. Through this partnership, countless children will see the chemistry of medicine in action, drawing parallels to their everyday lives and, possibly, their future fields of study and careers. GIL REYES SENIOR MANAGER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS, KENTUCKY SCIENCE CENTER

Lexington VA Medical Center SEPTEMBER 2016 | 25


STUDENT PERSPECTIVES

STUDENT PERSPECTIVES

We invited PharmD and PhD students to share their thoughts on the student experience at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. These are their stories.

20/20 VISION By Noor Naffakh (PharmD, 2020)

1

PROFESSIONAL YEAR

On behalf of the Class of 2020 I would like to say, “Thank goodness for summer.” It’s a time to relax and prepare for the journey we will be entering for the next four years, and the rest of our lives. By the time summer ends, everyone must think it passed by too soon, and that they did nothing throughout. Looking back more closely, however, all the little events and experiences come together to form a bigger picture. From kayaking in the Pacific at La Jolla Beach, to fasting the month of Ramadan, volunteering at the hospital pharmacy, and running a summer camp with fifty fully energized kids, summer had been quite busy for me. When I got the notice to attend early orientation, I didn’t know what to expect. Upon entering the atrium, an array of new faces came into focus as everyone awaited the program to begin. Soon after, students were meeting, learning about one another through a game of bingo, and shopping for the latest in pharmacy fashion and lab apparel. After only a short while of talking with classmates, I came to realize that the Class of 2020 contains many diverse backgrounds in education and experiences that will be brought to the table. Fast-forward that day, after meeting new people, getting an iPad, a book to read, four Canvas modules to work on, and an overview of four years of schooling in a nutshell, I’m sure everyone felt a little overwhelmed. But after getting into Jon Palferman’s Brain Storms, and learning to do new pharmaceutical calculations, I realized

26 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

The class of 2020 attended an early orientation event at the college this summer.

that the best way to feel ready for the journey ahead is to jump right in. Although it is not going to be easy, we are all going to encounter some very exciting, sometimes challenging, innovative, and new experiences. I’m especially excited about the fact that diagnostics are going to be incorporated into the new curriculum. The Class of 2020 is going to be the first one of its kind, and we will be the ones paving the way for the future of pharmacy. Wouldn’t it be great if the Class of 2020 won the race to unlocking the secret of Parkinson’s? §


2

PROFESSIONAL YEAR

By Blake Barlow (Class President, PharmD, 2019)

 HAMPAGNE C LIFESTYLE ON AN INTERN’S BUDGET

While the title of this article is clearly written tongue-incheek, my classmates truly are operating at the highest levels of success as student pharmacists, despite having a very tight budget and an even tighter schedule. Their activities this summer were no exception. Natalie Conley volunteered at a summer camp hosted by the Kids Cancer Alliance. For two weeks, she helped children with cancer and their siblings have fun and feel a sense of normalcy through activities including swimming, archery, and boating. Jake Matano, Vice Regent of UK’s Kappa Psi Upsilon chapter, was selectively invited to attend a national Kappa Psi Leadership Symposium in New Mexico. He was immersed in three days of leadership strengthening courses and found more ways to support his brothers’ success at home. Dillon Leisure flew all the way to Guatemala, where in five days’ time he and his team from Caring Partners International saw 1,860 patients. They assisted with diabetes management education, medication therapy consults and dispensing, and dental and optometry necessities. Jaclyn Ochsner, Tori Wilhoit, and Matthew Travis represented the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy (UKCOP) and the American Pharmacists Association Academy of Student Pharmacists (APhAASP) in Washington, D.C., where they met with Kentucky Senator McConnell and Representative Yarmuth to advocate for their support of the Pharmacy and Medically Underserved Areas Enhancement Act (H.R. 592/ S. 314).

I had the distinct honor to represent the UKCOP at the Oklahoma University College of Pharmacy’s Health Summer Symposium on Leadership, sponsored by CVS. Over the course of five days, I had the privilege to network with pharmacy students from around the country as we attended valuable sessions aimed at both self and organizational improvements. Many other students devoted time to UK’s groundbreaking research, ensuring that UK stays at the forefront of pharmaceutical exploration and innovation. I may be biased, but I think the Class of 2019 has some of the most driven and successful students the College has ever seen. Besides having tremendous extracurricular prosperity, the Class of 2019 also completed its first true foray into the world of community pharmacy. The focus of our first Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) summer rotation was on a higher level of pharmacy practice than we had previously, thus strengthening our development as future pharmacists. This year’s preceptors felt so strongly about my classmates’ performance that they wrote to the College of Pharmacy, saying things such as, “This student has set the bar very high for the students who follow,” “They demonstrated a great desire to learn and to go above and beyond,” and “I would hire the student today! They just get ‘it’.” As you might have gathered, I am incredibly proud of what the Class of 2019 has done and what they continue to do. There are no better individuals to count as my peers, and I cannot wait to see how they will continue to define and shape the practice of pharmacy. §

Jordan Potter was formally recognized as the recipient of the national McKee Scholarship award for academic excellence. SEPTEMBER 2016 | 27


STUDENT PERSPECTIVES

HALFWAY THERE

3

PROFESSIONAL YEAR

By Thom Platt (Class President, PhD, PharmD, 2018)

My class, the Class of 2018, has been quite busy this summer. We enthusiastically tackled our second Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPE) rotation, where we had an opportunity to work in hospital pharmacies across the state for four weeks. These experiences were wildly varied from one person to the next. For example, Carrie Burt had her rotation at the University of Kentucky Albert B. Chandler Hospital, a large medical center that cares for hundreds of patients daily. This is in stark contrast to Justin McCann’s rotation at Meadowview Regional Hospital, a small, local hospital, caring for a few dozen patients at a time. These rotations have been enlightening and educational for us all. Around these rotations many students have been involved in various research projects. Brittany Coleman is researching cardiovascular complications associated with sepsis. Kevin Chen is studying the neuropathy associated with alcohol and tobacco exposure. David Li is working with Dr. Doug Oyler on establishing better pain management protocols for ICU patients. Others spent their time as interns across the country: Samuel Fu spent his internship with the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in Rockville, Maryland, providing drug information support on recently approved medications to the USP in order to update current Medicare Model Guidelines. Stephen Howell received an internship with Walmart, where he examined current processes to determine inefficiencies in pharmacy operations in order to develop and implement new processes to reduce the cost of filling prescriptions. The rest of my classmates spent their summers working as interns, volunteering locally or far away places like Ecuador, or simply enjoying their last summer off.

28 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

We are at the point in our careers at the University of Kentucky where we have the advantage of a unique perspective. We’re halfway through our education, having completed two years of coursework, quickly growing into the professionals we set out to become. Now, as we enter our final year of the didactic curriculum, we’re looking forward to the last times we’ll ever have certain experiences. This year will bring us our last classroom lecture. Our last set of blocks. Our last final exams. We are excited to bring in the new pharmacy class, teaching them the ropes, getting them involved in organizations, and making new friendships. We are looking forward to rounding out our education with our final therapeutics courses. Finally, we’re perhaps most excited about choosing our fourth year Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations. At this stage of our education, we are grateful for the opportunities we’ve been allowed. Grateful for our successes, our failures, and the ability to grow and learn from both. We can look back from where we came, and use those experiences to guide us in our next steps ahead. §


STUDENT PERSPECTIVES

FRESH OPPORTUNITIES AND ADVENTURES By Tristan Moorman (Class President, PharmD, 2017)

On behalf of the Class of 2017, I would like to thank alumni, faculty, and support staff for the time, mentoring, and financial support you have given our class over the past three years. Without your unwavering support, the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy (UKCOP) would not be a top college of pharmacy today. With your assistance, our class has been able to achieve new heights within and outside of the college. Currently, the Class of 2017 has embarked on our Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations and the countdown to graduation has begun! Our class members have taken rotations in various clinical and community pharmacy settings throughout Kentucky and some non-traditional pharmacy rotations in the U.S. and across the globe! This semester, my classmates are gaining experience at Humana, PharMerica, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Pharmacists Association (APhA).

and Poland. These help us grow professionally and personally as well!

4

PROFESSIONAL YEAR

As one of the students who was grateful to be afforded the opportunity to start my APPE rotations at Eli Lilly and to now be conducting research in Edinburgh, Scotland, I personally want to say thank you to my professors and the graduates that passed through these programs before me for all of the opportunities you have given me at UKCOP. ยง

Six lucky students (myself included) were given the opportunity to expand their clinical pharmacy knowledge and utilize their communication skills through an industry rotation at Eli Lilly and Company. During our rotation, we conducted research on novel drug therapies and helped design strategies to introduce new medicinal therapies to healthcare providers on six continents. We presented our research to several Directors and Vice Presidents of Lilly. Some of us have traveled outside the U.S. for our APPE rotations. Eleven PY4 students travelled abroad within the first two rotation blocks, and several will get their passports stamped in the coming months. These international rotations are a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to expand our pharmacy knowledge while learning about culture and healthcare in China, Great Britain, Scotland,

While on rotation in Europe, PY4 student Wesley Rowe visited the Colosseum in Rome, Italy.

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 29


STUDENT PERSPECTIVES

MY GRADUATE SCHOOL STUDENT EXPERIENCE AT THE UKCOP By Joseph Eckenrode (PhD, 4th Year)

I moved to Lexington, Kentucky from Cincinnati, Ohio three years ago to pursue education and research opportunities in the pharmaceutical sciences. The University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy (UKCOP) Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD program has given me the opportunities I sought. I am now entering into my 4th year of study with my dissertation project focused on the development of less toxic chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer and Ewing sarcoma. Currently, my lab is testing a library of compounds derived from the natural product mithramycin. The goal is to design assays that distinguish compounds with cytotoxic effects against these cancers from those that also cause undesirable or nonspecific toxicities. The results of these tests will then be used to select a lead analog of mithramycin for further clinical development. As I look forward to graduation, I find myself looking back on my experiences at the UK College of Pharmacy. Since joining the Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD program, I have gained an appreciation for, and experience in, applying classroom knowledge to bench-side research. I now know how to conduct appropriate and meaningful experiments, while continuing to maintain focus on the long-term goals of my dissertation project. Beyond technical training, my softer skills, including communication skills, have improved greatly thanks to opportunities provided through the program. I appreciate this because I know that my future success is dependent upon communicating not only with fellow scientists in the lab, but effectively communicating the bottom-line to the general public and decision makers. I have appreciated the way UKCOP provided opportunities for training and development that integrate pharmaceutical research (my program) with the PharmD program. This has given me the opportunity

30 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

to collaborate with and learn from an excellent, diverse group of faculty and students.

PhD STUDENTS

After graduation, I would like to continue my work in the pharmaceutical industry, working in pre-clinical development, preferably with a focus in oncology. §

WHAT SHOULD WE CALL GRAD SCHOOL? By Ashley Arlinghaus (PhD, 3rd Year)

It’s hard to believe how fast the past two years have flown by. It seems like just yesterday I was a first year attending the annual welcoming picnic hosted by our Director of Graduate Studies. It marked the beginning of a new chapter for many students. Most people in my class were new to Kentucky, and many of those people were new to the United States. Despite the uncertainties that come with moving to a new city, we all came together at the welcoming picnic to begin our journey through graduate school. Several changes have occurred since my first year: we are gaining a new neighbor (shout-out to Research Building 2), and amidst the grumblings of some commuters, we lost some of the already scarce parking. We recently welcomed a new Director of Graduate Studies (Dr. Dave Feola) and now a new dean (Dr. Kip Guy), and we unexpectedly lost beloved faculty and staff members, Dr. Paul Bummer and Rodney Armstrong. Most importantly, the graduate students have grown as scientists—the result of long hours conducting experiments, presenting at conferences, and publishing in journals. As third years, my classmates and I will begin preparing for our qualifying exams (the graduate students’ halfway point to determine whether or not they can continue to pursue their PhDs), and though the task is daunting, I am confident that everyone will make it through to officially become PhD candidates. §


2016 ANNUAL REPORT

2016 ANNUAL REPORT

As a College of a public University, we derive our strength from all that contribute their time, talents, and financial resources in support of the mission of the College. The University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy is committed to providing vital information about the College’s strategy, operations, partnerships, and outcomes to all stakeholders: students, parents, staff, faculty, alumni, donors, corporate partners, community partners, professional associations, and regulating bodies. We invite all stakeholders to tour our facilities, view and share their thoughts on our strategic plan, participate in academic and social activities, and stay abreast of activities at the College through our communications and annual reports.

KEY STATISTICS

OUR STUDENTS

537

Professional Students

126 Students (Class of 2016) 139 Students (Class of 2017) 132 Students (Class of 2018) 140 Students (Class of 2019)

63

Graduate Students

21

Postdoctoral Scholars

First Generation Professional Students 39 Students (Class of 2019)

32 Students (Class of 2020)

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 31


2016 ANNUAL REPORT

OUR TEAM

418

Voluntary Faculty Members (Preceptors)

98

112

Faculty Members

Staff Members

62 Full-Time

103 Full-Time

36 Part-Time

9 Part-Time

OUR REPUTATION

PHARMACY SCHOOL IN THE NATION

No. 6 pharmacy program as ranked by U.S. News and World Report

U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT

OUR IMPACT

100

125

30+

Patents in 10 years 2005-2015

Licenses to Industry 2015

Companies 1980-Present

Between 2005 and 2015, 99 UK College of Pharmacy faculty members and researchers were awarded 100 patents for discoveries made during their time at the College of Pharmacy.

UK currently has a total of 125 active licenses with our startup companies and business and industry.

Since 1980, more than 30 companies have been born from research conducted by University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy faculty and research personnel.

32 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT


2016 ANNUAL REPORT

OUR OUTCOMES University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy licensure exam pass rates were consistently higher than the national average between 2003 and 2015. NORTH AMERICAN PHARMACIST LICENSURE EXAMINATION (NAPLEX) PASS RATE 2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

UK Pass Rate*

99.0

100

100

100

99.0

100

100

99.0

99.2

99.2

98.4

96.9

94.6

National Pass Rate

93.9

97.4

92.9

94.5

97.2

95.5

97.5

95.3

96.6

97.2

95.4

94.4

92.6

MULTISTATE PHARMACY JURISPRUDENCE EXAMINATION (MPJE) PASS RATE 2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

UK Pass Rate*

96.8

INA

98.3

97.1

97.5

100

99.4

98.2

100

98.5

94.6

99.2

98.5

National Pass Rate

84.5

INA

88.5

87.3

91.4

91.8

95.5

94.8

96.0

93.0

93.9

93.9

93.9

* Aggregate first-time passing rate

OUR RESEARCH FISCAL YEAR

PRIMARY RESEARCH FUNDING

COLLABORATIVE FUNDING

2009

$ 7,951,569

$19,907,819

2010

$11,182,530

$22,334,763

2011

$11,118,558

$27,302,393

2012

$10,034,675

$20,777,058

2013

$12,205,315

$19,483,673

2014

$13,884,876

$26,001,817

2015

$12,014,329

$26,515,145

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY GRANT PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS BY FISCAL YEAR

In FY 2015, UK College of Pharmacy faculty produced:

145

Total Publications 138 Journal Articles 7 Book Chapters

97

103

97

94

2009

2010

2011

2012

118

2013

130

110

2014

2015

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 33


2016 ANNUAL REPORT

OUR RESOURCES 2%

$300,600.00 Scholarships & Awards

2% $351,934.15 Miscellaneous*

5% $702,215.41 Current Operating Expenses

20%

51% $7,710,350.00 Faculty Salaries

$2,952,870.50 Benefits

3% $426,583.03 Teaching Assistants 17%

$2,579,547.76 Staff Salaries

* Research Assistants: $39,678.07 Resident Statistician Support: $23,000.00 Travel: $134,950.00 Printing: $80,170.00 Communications: $74,136.08

ENDOWMENT MARKET VALUE $12,000,000 $10,757,873 $10,195,829

$10,000,000

$10,577,290

$8,893,897 $8,000,000

Donors provided the College with over $1 million in private philanthropy in 2015.

$6,413,611 $6,000,000 $4,436,671

$5,013,553

$5,105,885

CY09

CY10

$4,000,000

$2,000,000

0

CY08

CY11

CY12

CY13

CY14

CY15

This annual report includes historical data captured in the Spring/Summer of calendar year 2016. 34 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT

517


UKCOP DONORS UKCOP MEET THE DEAN

HOW TO GET INVOLVED

The University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy is humbled by the generosity of our alumni and friends. We thank each of our donors for supporting the College’s education, research, and service missions through their contributions of financial support, volunteer service, and gifts in kind. These offerings not only ensure the College has the strength to weather any challenge; they ensure that the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy will continue to be a model of educational and professional excellence and a trove of opportunity for students and researchers for generations to come.

SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES

Time Commitment

Mock Interviews

Admissions Committees

Calling all actors! Play the role of an interviewer on PY3 Mock Interview Day. This experience helps students prepare to enter the professional workforce.

You can help choose the next generation of PharmDs and PhDs. Serve on the admissions committee to select the next class of UKCOP students.

Committees meets up to 5 times per year; Some prep work will be required before each meeting.

1 Day; Mid-late March

Convocations We want to learn from your experiences. Speakers are invited to address students and faculty on technical and professional pharmacy topics. 1—1.5 hours; Any M-F lunch hour while school is in session Preceptors Guide students through real world experiences. Precept students on location during their IPPE and APPE rotations. Varies

Admissions Interview Day Admissions interviews help UKCOP identify applicants that will become successful students. Meet prospective students and guide them through the admissions interview process.

6 hours

Project Mentors Mentor PharmD students as they explore the pharmacy profession through hands-on and problem-based learning exercises and projects. Varies

SEPTEMBER 2016 | 35


UKCOP DONORS

SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES

Financial Commitment

Annual Scholarship Golf Outing

Scholarship and Awards Dinner

You can help make earning a PharmD affordable for a student in need. Support students by being a part of the College’s most impactful scholarship fundraising effort.

You can help make earning a PharmD affordable for a student in need and recognize our profession’s rising stars by sponsoring the annual Scholarship and Awards Dinner.

 hoose the sponsorship level that is right C for you ($250-$5,000)

Up to $10,000

Mock Interviews

Scholarships

Provide breakfast and lunch for students and interviewers on PY3 Mock Interview Day.

Honor those that came before with a scholarship for future students. Alumni and friends can create a scholarship in honor of a revered friend, family member, or colleague, or in support of a specific program or initiative.

Up to $1,500

Final Exam Breakfast Who has time to cook when there is studying to be done? Provide breakfast for students during final exams week.

Sponsor defined

Up to $2,000

Back to School Events Breaking bread builds bonds. Help our students build bonds that will last a lifetime by sponsoring a back-toschool event.

Up to $2,500

White Coat Ceremony Welcome students to the profession with UK College of Pharmacy white coats. Up to $3,000 Spring Weekend Tailgate at Keeneland Connect students and alumni by supporting this all inclusive event that showcases the best of equestrian Kentucky.

Up to $5,000 Photo: Phebus Photography

Alumni and friends contribute to the College in a number of ways. If you would like to share your time, talents, or resources in support of students and the mission of the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, please reach out to Alumni Coordinator, Amber Bowling (859/218-1305 or amber.bowling@uky.edu). 36 | THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT


150

1870-2020

YEARS OF PHARMACY EDUCATION The University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy has been dedicated to advancing the practice of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences since 1870, when it began as the Louisville College of Pharmacy. As we approach our sesquicentennial anniversary, we look back on 150 years of pharmacy education and healthcare innovation, and fondly remember the friends and colleagues whose contributions have made the College the esteemed institution it is today.

Thank you for being part of our history and our brilliant future.


NON-PROFIT ORG. US POSTAGE PAID LEXINGTON, KY PERMIT NO. 51

789 South Limestone Lexington, KY 40536-0596

&

ALUMNI CALENDAR OF EVENTS SEPTEMBER

19

Alumni & Friends Scholarship Golf Outing Champion Trace, Lexington, KY

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

NOVEMBER

21

DECEMBER

Foster Leadership Day UK College of Pharmacy Biopharm Complex, Lexington, KY

04

Drug Discovery and Development Symposium William T. Young Library, Lexington, KY

08

Fall Weekend & UK Homecoming UK vs Vanderbilt Football Game Tailgate Event Commonwealth Stadium, Lexington, KY

OCTOBER

FRIENDS 15

AAPS Annual Meeting and Exposition Alumni & Friends Reception Denver, Colorado

06

ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting Paul Parker Luncheon and Alumni & Friends Reception Las Vegas, Nevada

pharmacy.uky.edu/events Photo: Sarah Elizabeth Bush


The Active Ingredient | September 2016