Issuu on Google+

Footwear carbon footprint evaluation and action plan – An integral approach towards sustainability Maria José Ferreira, CTCP Research and Quality Director Vera Pinto and José Rodrigues, CTCP Researcher 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Contents Objective GHG emissions synthetic chronology and evaluation Portuguese footwear industry carbon footprint first estimate Some case studies GHG emissions per pair European Projects IND_ECO and LIFE CO2SHOE Low cost investment measures for energy efficiency Annex - Methodology to calculate GHG emissions

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Objective Establish and implement eco-efficiency strategies to face climate changes/global warming by carbon inventory and management Global warming may result from human activities that increase the Green Houses Gases (GHG) emissions Climate extreme phenomena impact on humans and economies becoming a priority issue resulting in politics and measures Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 GHG emissions synthetic chronology and evaluation 1992, Rio de Janeiro, United Nations Conference First International Treat 1994, UNFCCC

Subscribing – national programmes Developed – reduce emissions (= 1990)

1997, Kyoto Protocol – 2005, entry into force Due for annex 1 countries - Includes flexible mechanisms (CDM, JI, ET) UNFCCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changes CCM – Clean Development Mechanism, JI – Joint Implementation, ET – Emissions Trading http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php. Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 GHG emissions synthetic chronology and evaluation 2002, 2008, European Union member states set goals for 2020: 1. Reduce the emissions of global GHG 20% ( 1990) 2. Increase use of renewables in 20% 3. Reduce energy consumption 20 % = increase energy efficiency 4. Reduce the emissions from buildings, transports, agriculture and wastes in 10% (2005) Portugal, Kyoto protocol signatory, implements programs to manage its attributed MTonCO2e units and Kyoto and EU targets Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 GHG emissions synthetic chronology and evaluation In this framework GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC, SF6 Industrial activities contribute to countries economies plus GHG Measure and quantify to manage/reduce emissions WBCSD + WRI GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Report Standard (PCARS) Main concepts and requirements incorporated in ISO 14064 – 1:2006 Greenhouse gases Part 1 Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorcarbons (HFC), Perfluorcarbons (PFC), Sulfur hexafloride (SF6), WBCSD – World Business Council for Sustainable Development, WRI - World Resources Initiative http://www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/faq. Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Portuguese footwear industry carbon footprint first estimate1 Based on GHG PCARS + Guidebook for National GHG Inventories + Adaptations according APA2

Date: Organizational limits: 2009 Partially updated Control approach 2012

Operational limits: 1 – Direct emissions 2 – Indirect emissions due to electricity 3 – Indirect emissions other

1

Projecto SIAAC - Ambiente co-financiado, Inventário de Carbono do Sector do Calçado, 2011.

2

IPPC – United Nations Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change – 2006 APA – Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente – Environment National Portuguese Agency Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Portuguese footwear industry carbon footprint first estimate 39 footwear companies (children, woman, man, casual, fashion, safety) 11% of the industry workers 12% of the pairs produced ~64 million pairs produced in 2009

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Operational limits DIRECT EMISSIONS (DE)

INDIRECT EMISSIONS (IE) OTHER IE

. Mobile Combustion

. Electric energy consumption

Cars, Trucks, Forklifts, Other

. Activity transport Transport of raw materials to companies, Transport of final product, Business travel

. Production process VOCs emissions

. Emergency generators . Refrigeration systems .Stationary combustion (own production of heat, vapor or electricity): Boilers, Ovens, Heaters, Other

. Waste treatment . Effluent treatment . Water consume . Raw materials

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT Emission source

1 - DE 2 - IE

3 - IE Other

Total Emissions CO2e (ton) LL

HL

Bibliography

Fossil combustibles

24 435.15

42 761.52

36 075.23 – Int. J. LCA

Process (NMVOC)

4 364.20

4 959.32

8 926.77 – EMEP/Corinair

Electricity use

17 480.54

26 220.81

22 923.19 – Int. J. LCA

Water use

146.65 – Int. J. LCA

Packaging

5 912.99 – EcoShoes Project (92,9 g CO2e per pair)

Effluents

50.20 – Int. J. LCA

Industrial waste

70.45 – Int. J L.CA (assuming 100% landfilling)

Product transport TOTAL

5 382.08 (PT estimation) 57 842.26

85 504.02

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

79 487.56


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Percent distribution of total estimated GHG emissions 3. IE 3. 3. IEo IE

3.3 -IE IEo 3. IE

2. IE

1. DE

1. DE 2. IE

LL Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

HL


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 1 - DE, Total GHG emissions as CO2e contribution % 10%

15%

Step 2. Calculation of total emissions of CO2e in kg

85%

Lower limit

80%

Higher limit

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

Combustibles NMVOC


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 2 - ID electricity, GHG emission per gas

CH4 0.06%

CO2 99.33%

Other

N 2O

0.67%

0.61%

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 3 – ID other: Total estimated GHG emissions per source 1.27%

46.55% 51.14%

Packaging 0.61%

Solid wastes 0.43% Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

Water used Liquid efluents Product transport


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 3 – ID other: Product transportation GHG emissions Destiny country

Export %

Estimate:

France

24.6

. weight based on pairs

Germany

18.2

average weight & n. of

UK

9.0

pairs

Holand

10.8

. average distance to

Spain

8.5

main countries capitals

Others

29.0

and ports

European – transportation by truck, remaining – by boat Others: > 100 countries, 50 % European Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Portuguese Footwear Industry estimated main GHG emissions Indicator in kgCO2e/pair Total GEE emissions Emissions associated to energy (DE combustibles & IE electricity) Emissions associated to the final product transport

LL

HL

0.91

1.34

Action

Approximate to 0,66

1.08

0,08

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

LL or below Alternative transport


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 PT sinthetic tool, http://projectos.apiccaps.com

Tool calculates emissions associated to energy: 1. Electricity 2. Use of combustibles

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Some case studies GHG emissions per pair Case Study

KgCO2e/pair

Year

Ecoshoes generic (Brasil) – total emissions

2.02

--

Ecoshoes alternative (Brasil) – total emissions

1.25

--

EEPEX project (Adidas®) – energy consumption

~1.4*

2008

Nike® – total emissions + materials

18.14

2009

Puma® – energy consumption

0.95

2008

Timberland® – total emissions

< 2.49

2009

“Portuguese Footwear” – total emissions

< 1.34

2009

“Portuguese Footwear” – energy consumption

< 1.08

2009

* Our estimation based in KW/h consumption www.paklim.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/06/adidas-DPP-%E2%80%93-Case-Studies-English-version.pdf.; www.eepex.iti.lk/eepex/resources/prsantations/final-presentations-from-sp-forum/Energy%20Consumtion%20Benchmarks%20by%20Industries.pdf.; NIKE®, INC. 2009. Corporate Responsibility Report. FY 07, 08, 09.; PUMA®. 2007/2008. Puma Vision Sustainability Report 2007/2008. Germany; RIBEIRO, Fabiana A. 2009. Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida na Indústria Calçadista do Rio Grande do Sul. Dissertação para a obtenção do título de mestre em engenharia e tecnologia dos materiais. Pontíficia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre, Brasil.; TIMBERLAND®. 2009. Timberland Climate Strategy. It’s the shoes we craft and the outdoors we craft them for. Timberland® 2009 Report. Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 IND_ECO European Project

Supported by: Intelligent Energy – Europe The Power to Innovate

Ind-Eco Contract IEE/11/949/SI2.615946 - Industry alliance for reducing energy consumption and CO2 Emission Partners from 6 European countries from footwear & leather sectors, 16 partners Identify efficient technical solutions and financial support actions with the objective of reducing CO2 emissions Increase awareness, knowledge and organisational skills of companies on energy efficiency www.ind-ecoefficiency.eu Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT Intelligent Energy – Europe The Power to Innovate

 European Project IND_ECO Indicator

PORTUGAL

SPAIN

ROMANIA BULGARIA EUROPE

Minimum (kWh/pair)

0.8

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

kg CO2e/pair

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Average (kWh/pair)

2.0

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.1

kg CO2e/pair

1.0

0.8

1.3

1.1

1.0

Maximum (kWh/pair)

5.2

4.7

6.4

4.8

6.4

kg CO2e/pair

2.5

2.0

3.7

2.2

3.7

N. Companies

59

28

26

30

143

Data 2012. Focus: electricity consumption for footwear production. Preliminary results Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 European project LIFE CO2SHOE The main objectives of this complementary new project are: 1. Develop a complete carbon footprint calculation tool for the footwear sector for the measurement of GHG emissions produced by pair of shoes in an objective way in line with new standards1 2. Promote low-carbon processes and favour eco-design within footwear industry Focus on Spain, Italy, Portugal and Poland. Following EU Namely ISO/TR 14069:2013 Greenhouse gases -- Quantification and reporting -- Guidance for the application of ISO 14064-1 1

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Low cost investment measures for energy efficiency (1)  Electrical energy contracts Energy provider selection & regular tariffs analysis Contracted potency correlated with the used Reactive energy control and minimization (e.g. install systems to monitor and act in quasi real time, substitute magnetic ballasts by electronics) Produce in lower cost periods (e.g. automatic cutting) Detailed consumption analysis to identify potential improvements Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Low cost investment measures for energy efficiency (2)  Compressed air Compressor (s), dryer, reservoir and distribution net selection and planning Evaluate old equipments substitution (> 10 years) Pressure adjusted to needs (7 to 6 bar = 8% economy) Cold air in + Use/Recovery of heat air produced Variable-speed driver (VSD) to regulate motor speed Staff training and systems maintenance (e.g. leaks) Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Low cost investment measures for energy efficiency (3)  Equipments, motors, ventilation, aspiration Select high efficiency motors (HEM) – possible 10% to 15% economy till 5kW (e.g. IE3 for new equipments or in motor substitution) Avoid over dimensioned systems. Turn off if not in use Belts with teeth of flat Ventilation/aspiration – circular tubes, unique section, no curves Variable-speed driver, Staff training and systems maintenance Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Low cost investment measures for energy efficiency (4)  Illumination Natural light where possible, light colors inside Preferably LEDs or Fluorescent compact lamps Fluorescent lamps T8 or T5, retrofit kits for reparations High pression sodium or metallic iodine lamps substitute high pressure mercury lamps Changing magnetic ballasts for electronic (classes A1 or A2) Automatic systems (e.g. photocells, motion sensors) Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Product transport GHG emissions 2 scenarios

Truck + Boat

Train + Boat

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013

Boat + Boat


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Annex - Methodology to calculate GHG emissions 1 - DE, transports mobile combustion Step 1. Conversion of fuel volume (l) to weight (tons) Step 2. Energetic conversion to Gigajoules (ex. Diesel 1 ton – 42.60 GJ) Step 3. Calculation of emissions by type of GHG (CH4, CO2, N2O) – Emission factor by type of GHG

Step 4. Calculation of total emissions of CO2e in kg GWPGHG – Global Warming Potential of GHG

Name – Title and Date

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Annex - Methodology to calculate GHG emissions 1 - DE, transports mobile combustion Example of EFGHG kg/TJ, 2008

Gasoline Diesel

Global Warming Potential of GHG GHG

GWR (CO2e)

CO2

1

CH4

21

CO2

69200

74000

N2O

310

CH4

19.26

3.38

HFC

140-11.700

N2 O

4.47

2.48

PFC

6.500-9.200

SF6

23.900

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Annex - Methodology to calculate GHG emissions 1 - DE, process emissions (non-methane volatile organic compounds) Step 1. Calculation of emissions of NMVOC

Step 2. Conversion of NMVOC to CO2

Assuming 85% of the emissions of NMVOC are C and C converted to CO2

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

 Annex - Methodology to calculate GHG emissions (1) 2 - IE, electricity used Step 1. Calculation of emissions Activity data

Electricity consumption (GWh) Emission factor for electricity (ton/GWh)

Step 2. Calculation of total emissions of CO2e in kg

Emissions calculated per GHG and converted to CO2e multiplying by GWP

EF are country & year specific

CO2 CH4

annual average 3 years 353 380 0.0103 0.0106

ton/GWh, 2008

N 2O CO2e

annual average 3 years 0.0065 0.0067 355 382

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


FOOTWEAR CARBON FOOTPRINT

Thank you, Maria José Ferreira, mjose.ferreira@ctcp.pt

Maria José Ferreira, Vera Pinto and José Rodigues, CTCP Research and Quality Department – 15.10.2013


Uitic 18th congress session 1 3 maria ferreira presentation