Uitic 18th congress session 1 1 federico brugnoli presentation

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The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector: an approach to improve data integration, ecolabelling procedures and design tools Federico Brugnoli

15 November 2013


SYNESIS is a Consortium whose main shareholders are Italian and German private SMEs and public RTD Institutions: the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and the German Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG). Mission of the consortum is the transfer of know-how and technologies developed through research to industrial applications. It operates in several research projects and as a privileged partner of innovation oriented industries.

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Synesis – Competence areas Automation & Control • Simulation based advanced processes evaluation • Optimization of automation systems • Energy-efficiency oriented custom control solutions

Logistic and Production

• Development of custom tracking and RFID solutions • Support to integration and optimization of ICT systems • Methodologies of Planning and Control of production systems

Products Customisation

• New product development, rapid prototyping • Manufacturing of small-series of customised products • Technologies and dedicated industrial systems

Sustainability

• LCA (Product Footprint, Corporate Footprint) • Advanced consulting services for business sustainability • Process performance improvement


The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector: an approach to improve data integration, ecolabelling procedures and design tools


Background analysis – The context “sustainability”: 74 Bln results “sustainable business”: 214 millions “Use of the word that is inversely proportional to its implementation”* *Worldwatch Institute "State of the World 2013”

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Background analysis – Eco-label schemes

 Currently 441 ecolabels schemes in 197 countries covering 25 industry sectors have been globally identified.  105 schemes seems to be applicable directly to footwear, its raw materials and leather components. Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Background analysis – Eco-label analysis  Eco-label schemes which are applicable to the footwear products are almost 36 types.  92% of such label is majorly focused on partial environmental aspects (i.e. recyclability, material type etc.).  Only 8% specifically address the peculiar environmental challenges of the footwear industry

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


LCA methodology: adoption in the footwear sector  The introduction of LCA in this area allowes to introduce a criterion of in-depth scientific analysis.  Life-Cycle assessment is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave  Several ISO standards have been produced on the issue, allowing adoption on a global scale.

ISO 14044:2006

ISO TS 14067

ISO DIS 14046 Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013

ISO 14025:2006


Background analysis: general findings  Lack of a life-cycle perspective: quantification commonly excludes data which relate to upstream phases (i.e. raw material procurement) and to downstream phases (i.e. distribution and dismissal scenarios).

 Lack of quantitative indicators to the consumer: the environmental performance data reported to the consumer commonly highlights the product/company compliance to laws and rules, with a limited use of quantitative parameters.

The not explicit link between the environmental impact and the product does not allow eco-efficiency comparisons Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


LCA methodology : technical barriers  The footwear life-cycle is characterized by an highly flexible supply chain which can constantly be modified according to costs and technical requirements ranging from national to transcontinental scale.  Timing for data collection for a comprehensive LCA could be not aligned with the increasingly rapid releases of new collections, particularly in the fashion industry  In case of small companies (typical sectoral structure in some areas of the world), possible structural inadequacy for the LCA implementation.  Environmental profiles reuse is not allowed by international standards when changes occur in the footwear physical features or in the supply and dismissal chains Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


New PCR for leather footwear ISO 14025/TR  The Environmental Product Declaration, (EPD), is an eco-label scheme which is based on the LCA methodology in accordance with ISO 14025 (Type III Environmental Declarations).  Product Category Rules (PCRs) define the EPDs requirements for a product category by describing the harmonised rules for data collection, inventory, reporting, labelling  In September 2013 a PCR (2933) has been released for the leather-footwear EPD through an open consultation process between relevant stakeholders.

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


New PCR for leather footwear ISO 14025/TR

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


New PCR 2933: BOM + Production phases approach  The PCR 2933 defines a basic taxonomy for the footwear components by placing their inventory in the core processes module. Footwear components and production phases are identified and characterised  According to the standard, the LCA can be performed following an approach that is much similar to the one adopted to do the industrail costing of the shoe. This allows a greater integration with PDM tools which are commonly used by footwear companies.

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


New PCR 2933: Standardization of the EOL scenarios  The 2933 PCR proposes to identify standard scenarios for footwear disposal by requiring specific data in certain dismissal conditions (recycling, municipal waste/controlled incineration, uncontrolled dismissal in the open environment).  Uncontrolled dismissal scenarios have been included among the standard scenarios in order to introduce new assessments for the worse dismissal conditions.

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


New PCR 2933: Environmental Profiles reusability  The PCR 2933 supports the constant reuse of environmental studies particularly for the supply of new technical materials and sector-specific components (i.e. footbed)  Modular structure of the core process for PCR 2933 aims to encourage the creation of a specific sectoral database at international level to integrate data in existing LCAs  Modular structure can produce the transformation of the entire life-cycle assessment in terms of combination of different gate-to-gate assessments

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Theoretical models to reduce complexity in LCA  The whole product assessment can be decomposed into its constituent assessments. Such environmental profile are understood as environmental-impact reports in standard conditions.  Through such methodology the incremental contribution in the environmental impact from different phases or by different suppliers is made explicit to manufacturing company.

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


An application case  A preliminary application of such approach has been performed for two footwear models which integrate different component and leather types.  Assessment has been made compliant with the new EPD scheme

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Open issues

 When studies on different components have to be aggregated, each LCA need to be provided by adopting assumptions with the other involved PCRs.

 The assessment rules for the environmental impact calculation of the constituent materials can have a “cascade effect” on the eco-design policies of in the foreground products.

 A reliable comparisons of environmental performance requires a critical mass of studies on various footwear models in order to identify an average impact profile for a certain footwear model. Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


General Findings and Prospects  Preliminary results confirm that modular approach can properly identify both critical life cycle phases and critical components  The creation and adoption of environmental databases for components and process phases opens the way to and easy integration in current PDM tools.  It then becomes possible to concominantly perform Desig and Life Cycle Inventory of products. These are the basis for a concrete approach to ecodesign in the footwear sector Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 15 -11-2013


Thank you for your attention

federico.brugnoli@synesis-consortium.eu

Federico Brugnoli – The application of the EPD scheme within the footwear sector – 20 -11-2013