Emmanuel Cruz Program Notes, April 30 2021

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Emmanuel J. Cruz, Tenor Master of Music in Vocal Performance Degree Recital Program Notes, Text, and Translations Franz Schubert (1797-1828) Schubert, born in Vienna, Austria in 1797, left behind a significant number of compositions in his 31 year life span. His large collection of compositions include approximately 600 Lieder (including his setting of Goethe’s poem “Der Erlkönig” and the song cycle Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise), nine symphonies (the 8th referred to as his “Unfinished Symphony”), chamber music, solo piano works, sacred music, chamber music, an opera Fierrabras, and incidental music.1 Schubert is considered to be one of the composers who bridged the Classical and Romantic periods of Western art music in the early 1800s.2 Lied eines Schiffers an die Dioskuren

Boatman's song to the Dioscuri

Dioskuren, Zwillingssterne, Die ihr leuchtet meinem Nachen, Mich beruhigt auf dem Meere Eure Milde, euer Wachen.

Dioscuri, twin stars, shining on my boat, your gentleness and vigilance comfort me on the ocean.

Wer auch fest in sich begründet, Unverzagt dem Sturm begegnet, Fühlt sich doch in euren Strahlen Doppelt mutig und gesegnet.

However firmly a man believes in himself, however fearlessly he meets the storm, he feels doubly valiant and blessed in your light.

Dieses Ruder, das ich schwinge, Meeresfluten zu zerteilen, Hänge ich, so ich geborgen, Auf an eures Tempels Säulen.

This oar which I ply to cleave the ocean’s waves, I shall hang, once I have landed safely, on the pillars of your temple. Translation © Richard Wigmore

Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835) Bellini was born in Sicily in 1801 to a family of musicians. He studied at the Naples Conservatory and while there, he started his compositional career. Bellini, along with Gioachino Rossini and Gaetano Donizetti, are the three composers who helped develop the bel canto style of art song and opera, characterized by legato singing and impeccable breath control. “Vaga 1

"Franz Schubert," Musopen, accessed April 12, 2021, https://musopen.org/music/composer/franz-schubert/) 2

"Franz Schubert," Franz Schubert- Bio, Albums, Pictures – Naxos Classical Music., accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.naxos.com/person/Franz_Schubert/21172.htm)


luna, che inargenti” is one song that was later collected into the Composizioni da Camera, a collection of 15 Bellini songs used by generations of singers both student and professional. Bellini composed nine operas in his lifetime, including La sonnambula, Norma, & I puritani.3 Vaga luna, che inargenti

Lovely moon, you who shed silver light

Vaga luna, che inargenti queste rive e questi fiori ed inspiri agli elementi il linguaggio dell'amor; testimonio or sei tu sola del mio fervido desir, ed a lei che m'innamora conta i palpiti e i sospir.

Lovely moon, you who shed silver light On these shores and on these flowers And breathe the language Of love to the elements, You are now the sole witness Of my ardent longing, And can recount my throbs and sighs To her who fills me with love.

Dille pur che lontananza il mio duol non può lenir, che se nutro una speranza, ella è sol nell'avvenir. Dille pur che giorno e sera conto l'ore del dolor, che una speme lusinghiera mi conforta nell'amor.

Tell her too that distance Cannot assuage my grief, That if I cherish a hope, It is only for the future. Tell her that, day and night, I count the hours of sorrow, That a flattering hope Comforts me in my love. Translation © Antonio Giuliano

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Ludwig van Beethoven continues to remain immensely popular nearly 200 years after his death, making him one of the most recognizable composers in history. Popular compositions include his Piano Sonata No. 8 (“Pathetique”), Piano Sonata No. 14 (“Moonlight”), his Fifth & Ninth Symphonies, the latter’s 4th movement containing the early choral symphony An Die Freude (“Ode to Joy”), Für Elise, and many other works. Beethoven, born in Bonn, Germany in 1770, helped bridge the Classical and Romantic periods of Western art music like his younger contemporary Franz Schubert. Beethoven’s oeuvre include his nine symphonies, art songs in German and Italian, chamber music, piano sonatas, and one opera, Fidelio. Beethoven began losing his hearing in his twenties but continued to compose despite his handicap. 4 “In questa


"Vincenzo Bellini," Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Vincenzo-Bellini) 4

"Ludwig Van Beethoven," Encyclopædia Britannica, March 22, 2021, |PAGE|, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ludwig-van-Beethoven)


tomba oscura” was composed by Beethoven and over 60 other composers as a musical challenge by the Italian poet Giuseppe Carpani, who wrote this poem and was living in Vienna at the time.5 In questa tomba oscura

In this dark tomb

In questa tomba oscura Lasciami riposar. Quando vivevo, ingrata, Dovevi a me pensar. Lascia che l'ombre ignude Godansi pace almen E non, e non bagnar mie ceneri D'inutile velen.

In this dark tomb let me lie. When I was alive, you ingrate, You should have thought of me At least leave naked spectres to enjoy their peace And do not bathe my ashes with futile venom. Translation © Emily Ezust

Henri Duparc (1848-1933) French composer Henri Duparc lived a long life, but unfortunately, he did not leave behind a large number of compositions. Duparc, a native of Paris, suffered from mental illness and abruptly stopped composing at age 37. He would then destroy his compositions, 17 of which remain.6 The poem that Duparc used for “L’Invitation au voyage” was written by French poet Charles Baudelaire in 1857, contained in a book of poems entitled Fleurs de Mal. Duparc composed the song in 1870 using several stanzas of the original Baudelaire poem, but the song was not published until 1872.7


In Questa Tomba Oscura, WoO133 (Beethoven) - from SIGCD139 - Hyperion Records - MP3 and Lossless Downloads, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.hyperionrecords.co.uk/dw.asp?dc=W17453_GBLLH0813930) 6

"Henri Duparc - Classical Music Composers," Philadelphia Chamber Music Society, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.pcmsconcerts.org/composer/henri-duparc) 7

"Charles Baudelaire," Poetry Foundation, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/charles-baudelaire)


L'invitation au voyage

Invitation to the journey

Mon enfant, ma sœur, Songe à la douceur D’aller là-bas vivre ensemble! Aimer à loisir, Aimer et mourir Au pays qui te ressemble! Les soleils mouillés De ces ciels brouillés Pour mon esprit ont les charmes Si mystérieux De tes traîtres yeux, Brillant à travers leurs larmes.

My child, my sister, Think how sweet To journey there and live together! To love as we please, To love and die In the land that is like you! The watery suns Of those hazy skies Hold for my spirit The same mysterious charms As your treacherous eyes Shining through their tears.

Là, tout n’est qu’ordre et beauté, Luxe, calme et volupté!

There - nothing but order and beauty dwell, Abundance, calm, and sensuous delight.

Vois sur ces canaux Dormir ces vaisseaux Dont l’humeur est vagabonde; C’est pour assouvir Ton moindre désir Qu’ils viennent du bout du monde. -Les soleils couchants Revêtent les champs, Les canaux, la ville entière, D’hyacinthe et d’or; Le monde s’endort Dans une chaude lumière.

See on those canals Those vessels sleeping, Vessels with a restless soul; To satisfy Your slightest desire They come from the ends of the earth. The setting suns Clothe the fields, Canals and all the town With hyacinth and gold; The world falls asleep In a warm light.

Là, tout n’est qu’ordre et beauté, Luxe, calme et volupté!

There - nothing but order and beauty dwell, Abundance, calm, and sensuous delight. Translation © Richard Stokes




L'herbe est molle au sommeil sous les frais peupliers, Aux pentes des sources moussues, Qui, dans les prés en fleur germant par mille issues, Se perdent sous les noirs halliers.

The grass is soft for sleep beneath the cool poplars On the banks of the mossy springs That flow in flowering meadows from a thousand sources, And vanish beneath dark thickets.

Repose, ô Phidylé! Midi sur les feuillages Rayonne, et t'invite au sommeil. Par le trèfle et le thym, seules, en plein soleil, Chantent les abeilles volages.

Rest, O Phidylé! Noon on the leaves Is gleaming, inviting you to sleep. By the clover and thyme, alone, in the bright sunlight, the fickle bees are humming.

Un chaud parfum circule au détour des sentiers, La rouge fleur des blés s'incline, Et les oiseaux, rasant de l'aile la colline, Cherchent l'ombre des églantiers.

A warm fragrance floats about the winding paths, The red flowers of the cornfield droop; And the birds, skimming the hillside with their wings, Seek the shade of the eglantine.

Mais, quand l'Astre, incliné sur sa courbe éclatante, Verra ses ardeurs s'apaiser, Que ton plus beau sourire et ton meilleur baiser Me récompensent de l'attente!

But when the sun, low on its dazzling curve, Sees its brilliance wane, Let your loveliest smile and finest kiss Reward me to for my waiting! Translation © Richard Stokes, from A French Song Companion (Oxford, 2000)

George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) Handel is considered to be one of the main composers of the Baroque period , along with Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach. Coincidentally, Bach and Handel were both born in Germany in the same exact year, but while Bach spent his entire life in Germany, Handel moved to Italy and then to England where he eventually became a naturalized British citizen and lived the rest of his life there, dying in London where he was given a state funeral in Westminster Abbey. Handel composed over 40 Italian operas, 25 oratorios in both English and Italian (his most famous, Messiah, containing the often performed and recognized “Hallelujah” Chorus), 120 cantatas, and a large amount of instrumental works including concerti grossi and sonatas. The three arias performed are from the following works: the 1744 oratorio Semele (“Where’er you


walk”), the 1739 oratorio Saul (“This but the smallest part of harmony”), and the 1738 opera Serse (“Ombra mai fu”).8 Where'er you walk

This but the smallest part of harmony

Where'er you walk Cool gales shall fan the glade Trees where you sit Shall crowd into a shade Trees where you sit Shall crowd into a shade

This but the smallest part of harmony, Great attribute of attributes divine, And centre of the rest, where all agree: Whose wondrous force what great effects proclaim! By Thee this universal frame From its Almighty Maker's hand In primitive perfection came, By Thee produc'd, in thee contain'd: No sooner did th'eternal word dispense Thy vast mysterious influence, Than chaos his old discord ceas'd. Nature began, of labour eas'd, Her latent beauties to disclose, A fair harmonious world arose; And though, by diabolic guile, Disorder lord it for a while, The time will come, When nature shall her pristine form regain, And harmony forever reign.

Where'er you tread The blushing flowers shall rise And all things flourish And all things flourish Where'er you turn your eyes Where'er you walk Cool gales shall fan the glade Trees where you sit Shall crowd into a shade Trees where you sit Shall crowd into a shade

Frondi tenere…Ombra mai fu

Tender and beautiful…Never was a shade

Frondi tenere e belle del mio platano amato per voi risplenda il fato. Tuoni, lampi, e procelle non v'oltraggino mai la cara pace, né giunga a profanarvi austro rapace.

Tender and beautiful fronds of my beloved plane tree, let Fate smile upon you. May thunder, lightning, and storms never disturb your dear peace, nor may you by blowing winds be profaned.

Ombra mai fu di vegetabile, cara ed amabile, soave più.

Never was a shade of any plant dearer and more lovely, or more sweet. Translation by Robert Glaubitz


"George Frideric Handel," Encyclopædia Britannica, April 10, 2021, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-Frideric-Handel)


H. Leslie Adams (b. 1932) American composer Harrison Leslie Adams, Jr. was born in Cleveland, Ohio. 9 Adams studied at Oberlin Conservatory, California State University, Long Beach, and the Ohio State University, and he has composed orchestral, and chamber works but has written mainly for the voice, including art songs, choral music, and an opera, Blake, written in 1986.10 “Prayer” and “The Heart of a Woman” are from Adams’ song cycle, Nightsongs, containing six songs with text by different African-American poets. “Prayer” and “The Heart of a Woman” contain poetry by Langston Hughes and Georgia Douglas Johnson, respectively. Prayer

The Heart of a Woman

I ask you this: Which way to go? I ask you this: Which sin to bear? Which crown to put Upon my hair? I do not know, Lord God, I do not know.

The heart of a woman goes forth with the dawn As a lone bird, soft winging, so restlessly on, Afar o’er life’s turrets and vales does it roam In the wake of those echoes the heart calls home. The heart of a woman falls back with the night, And enters some alien cage in its flight, And tries to forget it has dreamed of the stars While it breaks, breaks, breaks on the sheltering bars.

Florence Price (1887-1953) Price was born in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1887, the daughter of a schoolteacher/businesswoman and a dentist. Price learned how to play the piano from her mother, and she received her musical instruction at the New England Conservatory in Boston, a rarity for an African-American woman during the early 1900s. Price composed around 300 works, including chamber music, music for radio, symphonies, concerti, and vocal works. The poetry of “Night” was written by Louis C. Wallace. Despite facing adversity in her musical career due to her race and sex, her Symphony in E Minor was performed by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1933, the first time a composition by an African-American woman was performed by a major American symphony orchestra.11


"H. Leslie Adams: Biography," H. Leslie Adams | American Composer, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.hleslieadams.com/biography) 10

"About BLAKE," BLAKE, A Musical Drama by H. Leslie Adams, |PAGE|, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.blakeopera.org/about-blake) "Florence Beatrice Smith Price (1887–1953)," Encyclopedia of Arkansas, April 05, 2021, accessed April 12, 2021, https://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/entries/florence-beatrice-smithprice-1742/) 11


Night Night comes, a Madonna clad in scented blue. Rose red her mouth and deep her eyes, She lights her stars, and turns to where, Beneath her silver lamp the moon, Upon a couch of shadow lies A dreamy child, The wearied Day. Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes (1874-1944) Born in Havana, Cuba in 1874, Sánchez de Fuentes composed over 200 instrumental and vocal works, including the operas Yumurí, La dolorosa, and El náufrago, and the oratorio Navidad. Sánchez de Fuentes was also an author and wrote books based on the history of Cuban folk music, but he has received criticism for his negative views on Afro-Cuban music and its influence on Cuban music in general. He composed his most famous composition, the song “Tú” when he was 16 years old.12 Deseo (Canción cubana)

Desire (Cuban Song)

Tierra del sol donde nacío mi dulce amor Oye el cantar que al viento da mi eterno afán ¡Quién pudiera ser, brisa sutil para besarla mil veces y mil y luego dichoso morir!

Land of the sun where my sweet love was born Hear the singing that the wind gives My eternal eagerness Who could it be, gentle breeze To kiss her a thousand times and a thousand And then happily die! Translation by Emmanuel J. Cruz

Nilo Menéndez (1902-1987) Born in Cuba in 1902, Menéndez studied piano and would later accompany silent films. In 1924, Menéndez moved to New York City and would have a solo recital in Steinway Hall. Menéndez would compose songs that reflected various Cuban styles including the danzón and the bolero while mixing elements of jazz and the music of Claude Debussy in his compositions. His most famous composition, a bolero entitled “Aquellos ojos verdes,” was composed in 1929 and would be sung in Spanish and English with the title “Those Green Eyes” by singers like American crooners Nat King Cole and Bing Crosby and Cuban singer Ibrahim Ferrer. Menéndez also

Rebecca Henriques, "Performance Guide to the Songs of Eduardo Sánchez De Fuentes" (PhD diss., University of Miami, 2014), November 17, 2014, accessed April 12, 2021, https://scholarship.miami.edu/discovery/delivery?vid=01UOML_INST:ResearchRepository&rep Id=12355401700002976#13355506900002976) 12


worked in Hollywood as an orchestra director for record labels Pathé, Decca, Columbia and RCA Víctor and for film studios like 20th Century Fox, United Artists, and RKO. 13 Aquellos ojos verdes

Those green eyes

Aquellos ojos verdes De mirada serena Dejaron en mi alma Eterna fe de amar

Those green eyes with a calm gaze left in my soul an endless thirst for love.

Anhelos de caricias De besos y ternuras De todas las dulzuras Que han podido brindar

Longings for caresses, for kisses and tenderness, for all of the sweetness that they knew how to give.

Aquellos ojos verdes Serenos como un lago En cuyas quietas aguas Un día me miré

Those green eyes, calm like a lake, into whose still waters I looked one day.

No saben la tristeza Que en mi alma dejaron Aquellos ojos verdes Que nunca olvidaré

They do not know the sorrows that they left behind in my soul those green eyes that I will never forget. Translation courtesy of LyricsTranslate.com

Ernesto Lecuona (1895-1963) Born in the Cuban capital of Havana, Lecuona is considered to be one of the most prolific Cuban composers ever. Some have called Lecuona the “Cuban Gershwin” due to his extensive song output. Lecuona received piano instruction from his two older sisters, Ernestina and Elenita, and later went to Paris to study with Maurice Ravel. He composed over 600 works, a mix of piano compositions, film scores, ballets, and around 400 songs including “Siboney,” “Malagueña,” and “Noche azul.”14 Lecuona was nominated for an Academy Award in 1942 for his song “Siempre "Nilo Menéndez Barnet," Cubanos Famosos, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.cubanosfamosos.com/es/biografia/nilo-menendez-barnet) 13

Olga Perez Flora, "Ernesto Lecuona: His Life and His Songs," PhD diss., The Ohio State University, 2013, abstract, accessed April 12, 2021, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/apexprod/rws_etd/send_file/send?accession=osu1373372039&dispositio n=inline) 14


en mi corazón,” which had English lyrics written by Kim Gannon and both the English version of the song and film were entitled “Always in My Heart.” 15

Noche azul

Blue Night

Noche azul, Que en mi alma reflejó La pasión Que soñaba acariciar, Vuelve de nuevo A dar paz a mi corazón. ¿No ves que muero de dolor?

Blue night, That saw my spirit glow With the passion Of treasured dreams, Come to me again And bring peace to my heart. Can’t you see that I’m dying of love?

Ven noche azul, Ven otra vez A que me des tu luz. Mira que está mi corazón Ansioso de amar. Ven otra vez, Que yo sin ti No he de gozar La dicha de amor. Ven, que me muero de dolor. Noche azul.

Come, blue night, Come once more And show me your light. See, it is my heart That is so eager to love. Come once more, For without you I take no pleasure In the delights of love. Come, or I will die of love. Blue night. Translation © Olga Perez Flora

Ernesto Duarte Brito (1922-1988) Duarte Brito was born in Jovellanos, Cuba in 1922. He would work as a composer, arranger, conductor and record producer. Duarte Brito left Cuba in 1961 and settled in Madrid, Spain, where he died in 1988. His bolero “Como fué,” would become well known after being recorded by the famous Cuban bandleader and singer Benny Moré.16 In 1996, American guitarist and producer Ry Cooder assembled a group of elderly Cuban musicians to form the Buena Vista Social Club, an ensemble that recorded Cuban music prior to the rise of dictator Fidel Castro in

"The 15th Academy Awards: 1943," Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/1943) 15

The Díaz Ayala Cuban and Latin American Popular Music Encyclopedic Discography of Cuban Music (Miami, FL: Florida International University), pg. 93, accessed April 12, 2021, https://latinpop.fiu.edu/SECCION02D.pdf) 16


1959.17 A documentary about the recording of the ensemble’s self-titled album would receive an Oscar nomination for “Best Documentary” in 1999.18 One of the ensemble’s singers, Ibrahim Ferrer, recorded a version of “Como fué” in 1999 for his debut solo album. Cómo fue

How did it happen

Cómo fue, no sé decirte cómo fue, no sé explicarme qué pasó, pero de ti me enamoré,

How did it happen, I can't tell you how it happened, I can't figure out what went on, but I fell in love with you.

Fue una luz que iluminó todo mi ser, tu risa, como un manantial, llenó mi vida de inquietud.

It was a light that brightened up all my being, your laughter, like springwater filled my life with disquietude.

Fueron tus ojos o tu boca. fueron tus labios o tu voz, fue, a lo mejor, la impaciencia de tanto esperar tu llegada.

Was it your eyes or your mouth? Was it your lips or your voice? Was it, perhaps, the impatience of being so long waiting for you?

Mas no sé, no sé decirte cómo fue, no sé explicarme qué pasó, pero de ti me enamoré.

But I don't know, I can't tell you how it happened, I can't figure out what went on, but I fell in love with you. Translation courtesy of LyricsTranslate.com

Moisés Simons (1889-1945) Simons was a Cuban composer, pianist, and music director. Born in Havana, Simons was an organist at his church as a child and would later study composition. His works include operettas, instrumental works, songs, and film scores. Unlike Sanchéz de Fuentes, Simons respected the contributions of Afro-Cuban musicians and their work. Simons moved to France in the 1930s but returned to Cuba in 1942 during World War II. He later settled in Spain where he passed away in

Buena Vista Social Club, dir. Wim Wenders (United States; Cuba: Artisan Entertainment, 1999), DVD) 17

"The 72nd Academy Awards: 2000," Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, accessed April 12, 2021, https://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/2000) 18


1945. Simons composed the song “El Manisero” (“The Peanut Vendor”), which was one of the most recognizable songs ever written by a Cuban composer. 19 Marta


Linda flor de alborada que brotaste del suelo cuando la luz del cielo tu capullo besaba.

Beautiful flower of dawn That sprouted from the soil As the light of the sky Kissed your bud.

De las rosas encanto del pensil te ama tanto que ya loco de amor siente celos del ave del aire y del sol.

From the charming roses Of the beautiful garden that loves you a lot That already crazy in love It feels jealous of the birds Of the air and the sun.

Martha, capullito de rosa, Martha, del jardín linda flor, dime qué feliz mariposa en tu cáliz se posa a libar tu dulzor.

Martha, little rosebud Martha, beautiful flower of the garden. Tell me, what happy butterfly Perches on your chalice To drink your sweetness.

Martha, en tus claras pupilas brilla una aurora de amor, Martha, en tus ojos azules de inefable candor veo en ellos a Dios.

Martha, in your clear pupils Shines a dawn of love, Martha, in your blue eyes Of unspeakable candor In them I see God. Translation by Emmanuel J. Cruz


Giro, Radamés 2007. Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba. La Habana. vol 4, p147


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"George Frideric Handel." Encyclopædia Britannica. April 10, 2021. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-Frideric-Handel. Giuliano, Antonio. Lovely Moon, You Who Shed Silver Light (Anonymous, Set by (Vincenzo Bellini)) (The LiederNet Archive: Texts and Translations to Lieder, Mélodies, Canzoni, and Other Classical Vocal Music). Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.lieder.net/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=1536. Giro, Radamés 2007. Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba. La Habana. Vol. 4 Glaubitz, Robert. "Frondi Tenere.. Ombra Mai Fu (Translation)." Aria Database - Search the Database. Accessed April 12, 2021. http://www.ariadatabase.com/search.php?individualAria=1022. H. Leslie Adams, Composer & Pianist. Accessed April 12, 2021. http://chevalierdesaintgeorges.homestead.com/Adams.html#8. "H. Leslie Adams: Biography." H. Leslie Adams | American Composer. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.hleslieadams.com/biography. "Henri Duparc - Classical Music Composers." Philadelphia Chamber Music Society. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.pcmsconcerts.org/composer/henri-duparc. Henriques, Rebecca. "Performance Guide to the Songs of Eduardo Sánchez De Fuentes." PhD diss., University of Miami, 2014. November 17, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://scholarship.miami.edu/discovery/delivery?vid=01UOML_INST:ResearchRepository&rep Id=12355401700002976#13355506900002976. In Questa Tomba Oscura, WoO133 (Beethoven) - from SIGCD139 - Hyperion Records - MP3 and Lossless Downloads. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.hyperionrecords.co.uk/dw.asp?dc=W17453_GBLLH0813930. "Ludwig Van Beethoven." Encyclopædia Britannica. March 22, 2021. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ludwig-van-Beethoven. "Nilo Menéndez Barnet." Cubanos Famosos. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.cubanosfamosos.com/es/biografia/nilo-menendez-barnet. Stokes, Richard. "L'invitation Au Voyage: Song Texts, Lyrics & Translations." Oxford Lieder. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.oxfordlieder.co.uk/song/2632. "The 15th Academy Awards: 1943." Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/1943. "The 72nd Academy Awards: 2000." Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.oscars.org/oscars/ceremonies/2000.


The Díaz Ayala Cuban and Latin American Popular Music Encyclopedic Discography of Cuban Music. Miami, FL: Florida International University. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://latinpop.fiu.edu/SECCION02D.pdf. "Vincenzo Bellini." Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Vincenzo-Bellini. Wigmore, Richard. "Lied Eines Schiffers an Die Dioskuren: Song Texts, Lyrics & Translations." Oxford Lieder. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.oxfordlieder.co.uk/song/716.