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S. Asli Özgün-Koca, Michael Meagher, & Michael Todd Edwards

design tasks that allow students to explore mathematical concepts. The data show that, initially, preservice teachers’ mathematical focus is on content and their own ability to solve problems. By and large, preservice teachers have been successful in doing mathematics in traditional environments. As they make the shift to being mathematics teachers, they begin to develop pedagogical knowledge and become interested in hands-on activities and inquiry-based learning. However, for many, there may remain a feeling that advanced technologies “do too much.” The data shows that they do not see advanced technologies as part of an inquiry-based approach. Preservice teachers can certainly develop their technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge separately, but integrating these types of knowledge through the development of their TPK, TCK and TPACK gives them a more holistic view of their teaching and helps them transition from learners of mathematics to teachers of mathematics. Our data show that close attention must be paid to the relationship between the university classroom and the field placement; ideally, every preservice teacher would see that what they learn in the university classroom has an impact on their work in the field. Field placements are where preservice teachers face the reality of a classroom and experience first-hand that how they design tasks affects student learning. Our conclusions suggest several directions for further research. Perhaps the most obvious of these is the need for further investigation of what happens when participants complete their preservice training and become full time teachers: What are the crucial influences on the development of TPACK? Our past research (Özgün-Koca, Meagher, & Edwards, in press) suggests that experiencing success in the classroom and reflection, through journal writing or interviews, are vital elements in continuing the development of TPACK. Other potential influences to consider include access to technology, availability of materials to support inquiry-based instruction, and the existence of a supportive professional environment. Another area for further research is studying the effect, on preservice teachers’ attitudes and practices, of seeing exemplary inquiry-based instruction in a technology-rich environment. There is not enough data in this study to support strong claims, but our data does suggest that students found it difficult to appreciate the possibilities of advanced technologies in instruction without experiencing exemplary use in an authentic classroom situation. Such experience is highly dependent on field placement, although use of remote

video technology could be employed to make an exemplary experience available to an entire class. Using advanced technologies in methods classes puts preservice teachers in the position of being learners. This allows them to pay explicit attention to developing their TCK, which in turn encourages them to reflect on their PCK and CK. Thinking about, and engaging with, advanced technologies gives preservice teachers a vantage point from which to examine their beliefs about, and attitudes towards, what it means for their students to be successful. References Ball, D. L., Lubienski, S. T., & Mewborn, D. S. (2001). Research on teaching mathematics: The unsolved problem of teachers’ mathematical knowledge. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed., pp. 433-456). New York: Macmillan. Borko, H., & Putnam, R. T. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673-708). New York: Macmillan Dunham, P. H. (2000). Hand-held calculators in mathematics education: A research perspective. In E. Laughbaum (Ed.), Hand-held technology in mathematics and science education: A collection of papers (pp. 39-47). Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 131–152. Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T., & Voegtle, K. H. (2006). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108, 1017–1054. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. Niess, M. L. (2005). Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 509–523. Niess, M. L. (2006). Guest Editorial: Preparing teachers to teach mathematics with technology. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 6, 195–203. Niess, M. L. (2007, January). Professional development that supports and follows mathematics teachers in teaching with spreadsheets. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators (AMTE) Eleventh Annual Conference, Irvine, CA. Özgün-Koca, A., Meagher, M., & Edwards, M. T. (In Press). A teacher's journey with a new generation handheld: Decisions, struggles, and accomplishments. School, Science and Mathematics.