RESEARCH ROUNDUP UCSC DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
SPRING 2017 Delve into theÂ research published by faculty in the Social Sciences Division at UC Santa Cruz in spring quarter, 2017
By Melissa De Witte
ECONOMICS ROBERT FAIRLIE
Robert Fairlie co-authored one the first detailed studies to explore the transition from solo entrepreneur to an employer business. Fairlie found that contributing factors differ by race, ethnicity, and gender of the entrepreneur with immigrant and minority business owners taking the lead in job creation. “Immigrants have higher rates of hiring their first employee by the first two years than the native-born,” says Fairlie. Fairlie found that 44.8% of immigrant entrepreneurs are more likely to hire their first employee in the first year of business operations. Asian and Hispanic entrepreneurs are also more likely to grow their business operations through employees. While business assets can make a difference between solo entrepreneur and employee firms, it is the future potential resources of a firm that may be the most important factor in making the decision to hire staff. Fairlie found that startups holding intellectual property rights like a trademark, copyright, or patent are also more likely to hire an employee. -MDW Fairlie, Rob. (2017) “Taking the Leap: The Determinants of Entrepreneurs Hiring Their First Employee.” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy.
Photo by Bethany Legg (top) and Stefan Stefancik (bottom)
photo by Rakesh Nagula
ECONOMICS NIRVIKAR SINGH How developing economies promote financial inclusion is an issue Nirvikar Singh discusses in a report for the International Growth Centre, a research center based at the London School of Economics and Political Science in partnership with the University of Oxford. Singh lays out some of the basic concepts surrounding financial inclusion, including access to banking, digital payments and financial literacy, as well as markets for health insurance, crop insurance, agricultural credit, small firm finance, and the widely discussed microcredit/microfinance. Singh argues that financial inclusion is a complex and multidimensional concept. With a focus on India, Singh outlines several recent studies and draws lessons for policymaking and future research directions. “Important considerations that emerge from the overview are the significance of social and economic context, the need to consider behavioral biases connected to situations involving time and risk, the interaction of different dimensions of financial inclusion, the importance of details of policy design, and the limited understanding we still have of many of the factors underlying the functioning of financial markets,” writes Singh. -MDW Singh, Nirvikar. (2017) "Financial Inclusion: Concepts, Issues and Policies for India." International Growth Center.
Singh, who also holds the Aurora Chair in Sikh and Punjabi Studies, published an article that examines the difficulties of translating the Sikh sacred text into English. He also authored a chapter in Sikh Art from the Kapany Collection. -MDW Singh, Nirvikar (2017), "Portraits of the Sikh Gurus." The Sikh Foundation & Asian Cultural History Program, Smithsonian Institution).
Judit Moschkovich published two publications this quarter, one that examines how middle school students understand and describe graphs of motion about walking trips, as well as a study that uses her previous research findings to describe how math teachers can use math word problems to increase access for English learners. -MDW Moschkovich, Judit (2017) "Reading Graphs of Motion: How Multiple Textual Resources Mediate Student Interpretations of Horizontal Segments." Discourse Analytic Perspectives on STEM Education. Moschkovich, Judit (2017). "Adapting Instruction to Meet the Access and Equity Principle: Using Word Problems to Support Academic Literacy in Mathematics for English Learners". Access and Equity: Promoting High-Quality Mathematics in Grades 6-8. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
LATIN AMERICAN & LATINO STUDIES JESSICA TAFT “I think I’m maybe on my way to being an activist, but it is something that I would like to be and that I hope to be. But I’ll have to put a lot of work into it,” says Diana, a youth activist and interviewee in Jessica Taft’s latest article about how teenage girls’ view their journey into activism. Drawing on stories from Diana and other young political women in five North and South American cities, Taft shows how their narrative mirrors the “coming of age” trope and draws on popular narrative of adolescence as a period of selfdevelopment. Taft found that many politically-engaged young women portray their activism as “becoming” instead of “being,” a process Taft argues unwittingly dismisses and downplays their accomplishments.
construct themselves as radical teen superheroes,” Taft writes. “Like many other high-achieving girls and young women, girl activists do not want to appear to be too proud of themselves and their accomplishments. However, girl activists’ humility also unfortunately contributes to their continued invisibility within social movements. If they do not loudly proclaim their activist abilities, it is not likely that adults will realize their valuable contributions and impressive political organizing skills.” -MDW
Taft, Jessica. (2017) "Teenage girls’ narratives of becoming activists." Contemporary Social Science,
Taft also pointed out that these selfperceptions are also gendered. The gendered quality of girls’ narrative [in the study] is confirmed by findings that white male youth activists more often Photo by Roya Ann Miller
DAVID GORDON After President Trump repealed federal support of the Paris Agreement, cities across the country are signing on to fulfill America’s pledge. From Ann Arbor to Austin, Miami to Mountain View, Watsonville to Washington D.C, cities everywhere are joining together to take aggressive action on climate change. David Gordon’s latest paper is an important rubric to understanding how cities can effect a meaningful, bottom-up response to climate change. Cities can set targets, develop plans, measure emissions, and undertake concrete policy interventions. Gordon urges that they can do that effectively by using orchestration theory. “Orchestration offers a potent means of theorizing governance relationships in instances where governors lack coercive authority or the capacity to assert ‘hard control’ over those of whom they seek to govern,” writes Gordon.
Potential orchestrators can include city networks, private corporations, philanthropic groups, state governments, international organizations, environmental NGOs, and even international financial institutions. To understand and assess urban climate governance, Gordon lays out a framework that identifies how cities can galvanize their networks into action. “By stepping back to consider the politics and power dynamics of orchestration, and the competing efforts undertaken by various actors to exert orchestration power, our framework opens analysis to considering how experimentation might connect to prospects for system transformation.” -MDW
Gordon, David. (2017) "The orchestration of global urban climate governance: conducting power in the post-Paris climate regime." Environmental Politics.
Photo by Vlad Tchompalov
POLITICS SIKINA JINNAH How do emerging countries and developed nations negotiate climate action? 2017 Carnegie Fellow and politics professor Sikina Jinnah explores this question in a chapter about post-Kyoto climate negotiations at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) between the 2007 Bali conference and the 2015 Paris Agreement. Focusing on China and the US, Jinnah examines how responsibilities for domestic climate action are shared. Who contributed to the problem? Who is contributing to the problem now? Who can afford to fix it? As Jinnah illustrates, these are some of the complex questions at the core of any discussion for climate governance. For example, while China overtook the United States as the largest greenhouse gas emitter, its contribution to the problem historically remains low compared to industrialized nations. This perspective influences the assumptions of who should act on climate change, acutely so for developing countries with issues of equity, economic growth, and sovereignty coming into play. “The evolving notion of responsibility in the UNFCCC has far-reaching implications,” writes Jinnah. “The distributional effects of shouldered mitigation and adaptation costs in the new post-2020 climate agreement will have extensive impacts on rates of growth and technological innovation, shaping the green growth trajectories of developing economies for decades to come.” Jinnah uses these discussions to uncover the important ways emerging nations can create normative change. -MDW
Photos by Rick Bajornas for the UN show scenes from Climate Summit 2014 at at UN Headquarters in New York (top), Secretary-General briefs press on Paris Climate Agreement (middle) and the bottom photo by Manuel Elias shows briefing on Paris Agreement on Climate Change. (UN Photos)
Jinnah, Sikina. (2017) “Makers, Takers, Shakers, Shapers: Emerging Economies and Normative Engagement in Climate Governance.” Global Governance. .
PSYCHOLOGY CRAIG HANEY Craig Haney, an expert in the psychological effects of incarceration, was featured in a Newsweek magazine article about the impacts of solitary confinement. “The longer they’re in it, and especially if they’re not sure when they’re going to get out, a range of negative psychological reactions begin to mount,” Haney is quoted as saying in the article. -MDW
Skibba, Rabin. (April 18, 2017). "Solitary Confinement Screws Up the Brain Of Prisoners." Newsweek.
CAM LEAPER The New York Times featured Cam Leaper's work in the recent article, "How to Raise a Feminist Son." The piece points Leaper's 1998 study that found that mothers talk more to daughters than sons, and also leverages Leaper's expertise about longterm effects of gender differences. -MDW
Caine Miller, Claire. (June 1, 2017). "How to Raise a Feminist Son." New York Times.
BARBARA ROGOFF Barbara Rogoff and her colleagues produced a new video that was voted second out of the 171 videos in the National Science Foundation 2017 Video Showcase. The 3-minute video is about the sophisticated collaboration of Mexicanheritage and Indigenous American children and their families–showing a key way of learning in these communities, according to Rogoff and her doctoral students Andy Dayton and Itzel Aceves. These families fluidly engage together toward their goal, reflects Rogoff in the comments section of the video.
“Not only is collaboration important for their own learning; their sophisticated collaboration provides a model of learning together for other children, as well as for teachers, program designers, governments, and the public -- all of us,” says Rogoff in the video summary, about the ways Mexican and Mayan families work together. -MDW
The video reveals cultural differences in how families work together that appear even at a scale of fractions of seconds. Mayan mothers and their two children usually engaged all three together, whereas middleclass European-American mothers and children seldom collaborated all together. They usually focused on one-on-one interactions, with one person left out, or conflicted in their interactions, or did not engage each other at all.
Photo by Abigail Keenan
PSYCHOLOGY LEILA TAKAYAMA
Thanks to new technology, people have more choices about how to connect with people at a distance, Instead, you can Zoom, FaceTime, and Skype yourself into a doctor’s office, lecture hall or conference room. With telepresence robots (pictured), you can interact more than ever before. Telepresence robots can improve interpersonal communication if they physically mirror the same nonverbal cues, says UCSC psychology professor Leila Takayama and a team of researchers at University of Wisconsin in a new study about robot-mediated communication. Body language is an essential part of interpersonal communication and plays a key role in establishing social relationships. Being able to mimic body orientation or nod a head are an essential cue that can impact communication. If you are remotely checking in to a meeting, a telepresence robots can be a physical way for you to interact and engage nonverbally. Takayama and her co-authors tested for movement in robot-mediated communication and found that movement matters. “Individuals build positive perceptions of a distant partner communicating through a telepresence robot, which makes slight movements during the interaction,” writes Takayama about the study’s findings. “Even with limited cues available with the present telepresence robot systems, nonverbal behaviors play an important role in robot mediated communication.” -MDW
Takayama, Leila. (2017). Movement Matters: Effects of Motion and Mimicry on Perception of Similarity and Closeness in RobotMediated Communication. CHI '17 Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Top photo by Felix Russell Saw, and bottom: a telepresence robot by Briana, Last Name Unknown (Wikimedia Commons)
SOCIOLOGY BEN CROW
Water and poverty are intimately connected. Water can be both an escape from poverty but in some devastating circumstances, a descent into landlessness, joblessness and homelessness. Ben Crow examines the disparate ways poverty and water use interact, highlighting several complicated issues including the male bias of water management and deprivation initiated by infrastructure construction (for example, dams, canals, and irrigation systems can cause poverty through displacement and dispossession). “It does not have to happen,” Crow writes. “Evidence shows that protocols around infrastructure and efforts to mitigate inequality in the social and technical design or irrigation systems could reduce the toll.”
Ben Crow and Brent M. Swallow (2017). "Water and Poverty: Pathways of Escape and Descent." The Oxford Handbook of Water Politics and Policy, edited by Ken Conca and Erika Weinthal.
Photo by Freestocks
SOCIOLOGY MIRIAM GREENBERG Miriam Greenberg co-edited The City Is the Factory: New Solidarities and Spatial Strategies in an Urban Age (Cornell University Press, 2017), a volume about how streets and squares of cities across the world have become emblematic sites of contentious politics in the twenty-first century. Greenberg and her collaborators explore the ways cities can function like a factory, producing profit and also ideas, politics and justice. “We see examples of the city as factory in new place-based political alliances, as workers and the unemployed find common cause with "right to the city" struggles. Demands for jobs with justice are linked with demands for the urban commons—from affordable housing to a healthy environment, from immigrant rights to “urban citizenship” and the right to streets free from both violence and racially biased policing. The case studies and essays in The City Is the Factory provide descriptions and analysis of the form, substance, limits, and possibilities of these timely struggles.” The City is the Factory book cover was created by Julie Rogge, a designer in the Arts Division
LINDSEY DILLON Lindsey Dillon was interviewed for UC Berkeley's California Magazine on her work archiving public environmental data. In an administration that is abandoning environmental policies and agencies, Dillon is actively working to record public data that is at risk of being removed from public websites. “We live in a moment where we’re worried about this Orwellian disappearing of information,” she is quoted as saying. Dillon’s “data rescue” work was also profiled on the UCSC Newscenter. -MDW
VERONICA TERRIQUEZ Undocumented youth are a vital base of the immigrant rights movement. Their grassroots efforts helped pass important pieces of legislation, including the DREAM (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) Act and DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals), two bills that offer undocumented young adults the right to live, study, and work in the United States.
had inconsistent effects on political participation among the general population of Latinos, it also emphasizes the importance of civic organizations– particularly those that expose young people to formal political processes–in prompting political participation among undocumented immigrant and other Latino young adults,” Terriquez writes.
Curious about how this precarious population mobilizes politically, Veronica Terriquez surveyed Latino young adults in California to better understand how legal status and civic commitment interact.
Terriquez also underscores the the critical role civic organization play in influencing activism from adolescence into early adulthood. She likens it to “scaffolding” for later political participation. -MDW
Terriquez discovered civic organizations make a long-term impact for political engagement with this community. “While this study suggests that legal status
Terriquez, Veronica. (2017). "Legal Status, Civic Organizations, and Political Participation among Latino Young Adults." The Sociological Quarterly.
Photo by Nitish Meena
SOCIAL SCIENCES Parting is such sweet sorrow. Said no conventional strawberry farmer in California, ever. In 2016, the powerful soil fumigant methyl bromide–a chemical strawberry farmers relied on for decades–was finally phased out in California. In her latest report in California Agriculture, Julie Guthman explores how strawberry growers adapted berry production without it. Because of methyl bromide’s negative impact on the ozone layer, the Montreal Protocol mandated a global phase-out of methyl bromide as part of its 1987 pact to reduce ozone-depleting substances. But because it was the most effective chemical to control soil-borne pathogens and weeds, California farmers long continued its use thanks to what is known as a “critical use exemption.” Without methyl bromide, it was feared that consumer costs would escalate to cover higher production costs of its substitutes. Some worried that strawberry production would move out of California and into Mexico, where the phase out period was longer than in the US. But by the end of 2016, Guthman found that these pessimistic predictions did not materialize. Instead, production remained relatively steady and the price of berries actually dropped. Guthman also discovered that without methyl bromide, fumigant use still remained strong. Many farmers used chloropicrin, a chemical once used in combination with methyl bromide. Chloropicrin is a toxic air contaminant that now requires buffer zones between applications to protect nearby buildings and people from exposure. Some farmers moved production to rural areas that do not require a buffer zone.
In some cases, farmers transitioned to organic farming. But it was market opportunities–not fumigation restrictions– that inspired the switch. Even then, organic farming still requires disease and pesticide-free land or the capital it takes to last the three years to get land previously used for conventional production certified organic. A select few skirted this by purchasing property that was already certified organic or began production in rural areas that had never been farmed (such as a pasture). Problematically, the cost of organic and conventional farm land has risen as well. Strawberry growers have reported bidding wars over land suitable for berry production (on average, strawberry fields in California can produce 66,500 pounds per acre, the highest yield for the crop in the country). If a reduction in fumigant use is a goal, Guthman argues that policy-makers must address land access and the financial burden associated with switching to alternatives. Most substitutes to fumigation (including those in the experimental stage) are not only costlier, they require more land for crop rotations. In sum, insufficient access to land and capital can be a roadblock for any farmer wishing to transition away from fumigant use. “To the extent that lands costs, availability and lease restrictions impede fumigant reductions, policymakers need to consider strategies that will mitigate the financial risks for growers wishing to attempt nonchemical alternative or transition conventional land to organic production” writes Guthman. -MDW
Guthman, J. 2017. Land access and costs may drive strawberry growers’ increased use of fumigation. California Agriculture
Photo by Melissa De Witte
Previous editions of Research Roundup can be found on the Division of Social Sciences website, under Research:Â socialsciences.ucsc.edu
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Delve into the research published by faculty in the Social Sciences Division at UC Santa Cruz in spring quarter, 2017