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Mechanical Engineering

Senior Design Presentation Day 2012 Friday April 27, 2012 1:00 - 4:00 PM Gampel Pavilion University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06269

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Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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The Senior Design Project Program A Note from Professor Tom Barber, Coordinator

The UConn Senior Design Project Program (Senior Design Project Course I and II) is a hallmark of success for the Department of Mechanical Engineering. In this two-semester course, senior students are mentored by department faculty and industry engineers as they work to solve real-life engineering problems for company sponsors. Students learn about the principles of design, how ethics affect engineering decisions, how professionals communicate ideas and the day-to-day implications of intellectual property. In the course of a year, the student teams synthesize design knowhow, judgment, technical skills, analysis, creativity and innovation to design, optimize and manufacture a prototype model, or to perform product simulations. Each Senior Design Program project meets the design criteria established by ABET, an engineering accreditation board, as a necessary component in a successful undergraduate engineering education. A mechanical engineering program must demonstrate that graduates have the ability to work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems and complete the design and the realization of such systems. Students begin by researching the problem, brainstorming a range of solutions, and traveling to the sponsor company site to learn more about how the company works and how the project fits in. They hold meetings, communicate regularly with their industrial and faculty mentors, and make presentations on their work. They conduct peer design reviews, submit formal written reports and demonstrate their final solution at Senior Design Demonstration Day. Senior Design Demonstration Day gives parents, friends and sponsors the chance to see projects at work, ask questions of students, and learn more about mechanical engineering at the University of Connecticut. This April 27th the University of Connecticut Gampel Pavilion will be filled with students, dressed to impress, explaining their projects to visitors, including a team of judges chosen from local engineering industries. The judges will review the projects and award first to third place cash prizes for excellence. A Professor’s Choice prize will also be awarded by faculty members to the team that most effectively applied fundamental principles to their project. Design Demonstration Day clearly demonstrates that UConn ME engineers are educated to lead, create and innovate. Many seniors have been offered jobs from their company sponsor before graduation, and four patents are pending from Senior Design projects completed in the last five years.

For additional information or future participation contact: Professor Thomas Barber Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut 191 Auditorium Road, Unit 3139 Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 Tel: (860) 486-5342 / Fax: (860) 486-5088 E-mail: barbertj@engr.uconn.edu


Message from the Department Head

We thank

We are very pleased to present you with this brochure summarizing the projects our seniors worked on all year long. Fourteen years ago we started a small industriallysponsored senior design projects course with 9 projects sponsored by 8 companies. The course has now grown to include 51 projects sponsored by 34 different companies and organizations. Every year our students are engaged in these diverse projects giving them the experience of working in teams with fellow students and interacting with industrial organizations. This program enables our students to learn about different industries and connect with companies for employment opportunities. At the same time, companies have a chance to identify potential employees by interacting with our students during their senior year.

Alstom ASML Boeing Capewell Components Carlyle-Johnson Covidien DHS Drexel University (NSF) DRS Eemax Habco Hamilton-Sundstrand Henkel Loctite KHS Legrand Wiremold Lenze SE Magnatech Museum of Connecticut Glass Nufern Otis Elevator Persimmon Phonon Corporation PlasPak Pratt & Whitney RBC Bearings Schick Wilkinson Sikorsky Stanley Access Technologies Synectic-Gaylord Tekrona Trumpf UTC Power Westinghouse Electric Zachry

We are extremely proud of our students’ achievements and grateful for the support and engagement of many industries in Connecticut and across the nation. We firmly believe that the experience gained by our students and the teamwork in pursuit of their senior design projects enriches their UConn education and prepares them well for their careers in the future. We invite you to inquire and learn about our students’ projects, and welcome your suggestions and feedback. We thank all those who support and contribute to this program. With my best wishes,

our sponsors

Office of Homeland Security UConn Mechanical Engineering Baki M. Cetegen United Technologies Chair Professor and Department Head Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 1: Designing a dilute phase pneumatic conveying system Sponsored by Alstom Sponsor Advisor: John Iovino Faculty Advisor Thomas Barber, William Birks III, Jonathan Wenger, Augustin Kopp and Robert McConnell

Alstom Power designs and manufactures mercury emission control systems for coal fired power plants. These systems are named Mer-cure and operate by pneumatically conveying pulverized activated carbon directly into the exhaust stream before the air heater. Mer-cure systems are installed in both new and existing power plants. Since the flow in the pipe system from the media dispenser is two phase, Alstom has had a difficult time determining the pressure drop over the entire system. What Alstom requires is an easy to use Excel spreadsheet that can predict the pressure drop of a given pipe configuration. The spreadsheet must accept total vertical length, total horizontal length, number of 90 degree bends, number of horizontal to vertical bends, etc. as inputs and must give a reasonable estimate of pressure drop from the inlet to the outlet. Factors for how each element effects pressure drop in the pipe line were determined by using multiple FLUENT models to represent a real world pipe system. Segments of the piping system were analyzed to determine their flow field characteristics and then a Discrete Particle Model [DPM] was applied to determine carbon particle agglomeration on the piping walls. The effect of the agglomeration produces increased losses to the piping system. Data from these models were compared to theoretical and empirical data to test validity. Data from multiple model configurations were then compiled and corresponding factors were used to design the spreadsheet tool factors.

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Team 2: Linear variable reluctance motor Sponsored by ASML Sponsor Advisor: Steve Roux Faculty Advisor Horea Ilies, Fabian Betancourt, Fernando Lucena, and Jonas Banhos

Next generation lithography systems utilize Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) light to print circuit features smaller than 20 nm. Such precision in the printing requires light uniformity, which is achieved by the use of a module called Unicom. This is a device that has several small motors that contain permanent magnets. In addition, because air easily absorbs EUV light, EUV systems must operate at near perfect vacuum. To achieve this, ASML introduces hydrogen at low pressures, which also helps clean the optics of the system. The problem with the current Unicom design is that hydrogen deteriorates the permanent magnets inside; therefore, ASML proposed the use of a linear variable reluctance motor, whose advantage is the absence of those magnets. The goal of this project was to optimize the linear variable reluctance motor to be used in ASML’s lithography systems. First, a simple mathematical analysis was done, which gave us a qualitative relationship between all the parameters involved in the motor, including the force output. Next a 2-D magnetic modeling software called FEMM was used to analyze the linear variable reluctance motor. All the different parameters such as gap distance, current and geometries were varied. The latest FEMM results showed that there were two possible configurations that work, one having the highest minimum force output on the translator, and the other one having the less variation between the maximum and minimum output force. The results from FEMM were successfully validated using FARADAY, a 3-D magnetic modeling software. Finally, two prototypes based on the magnetic analysis were created. These prototypes were tested, and the results were validated to those obtained with FEMM and FARADAY. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 3: Leak detection study for hermetically sealed objects Sponsored by ASML Sponsor Advisors: Steve Roux, Matthew Libson and David Taub Faculty Advisor Prof. Baki Cetegen, Donald Karg, John Turner and Bryan Lightbody

ASML performs a leak test process for hermetically sealed magnet cases in their TWINSCAN computer chip lithography machine. The cases protect the magnets from damage by hydrogen used to remove harmful carbon compounds on internal mirrors. The testing procedure involves moving the magnet case between two chambers once it has been filled with high-pressure Helium, the leak testing gas. The purpose of this project was to model and validate ASML’s laser welded magnet enclosure leak test procedure using parametric studies of filling and transfer times during transport between the two chambers used in the test. Analytical models of ASML’s test procedure have been developed, and three cases were studied. Cases A and C investigated the flow through the potential leak area in the case while it is inside the chambers. Case B was developed to examine the flow of Helium through the potential leak area in the case while it is exposed to atmosphere. These models were validated through physical experiments. To replicate the magnet case, a steel flange and gasket fitting with a known size orifice was used in the experiments. The experiments were conducted at ASML under the observation of the group and ASML engineers that are assigned to this task. The end result of this project presents analytical models of the testing procedure, as well as experimental validations.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 4: Fuel cell waste heat recovery Sponsored by Boeing Sponsor Advisor: Prof. Amir Faghri Faculty Advisor Prof. Amir Faghri, Hamidreza Shabgard, George Lapaan, Kofi Abaaho, Michael Allen, and Christopher Robak

Boeing is interested in development of a compact heat exchanger utilizing phase change materials (PCM) and heat pipes to be fitted on board their commercial aircraft. The heat exchanger, referred to as phase change material heat exchanger (PCMHX), will be used to reduce the outlet temperature from the exhaust of a high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Reducing the exhaust temperature reduces the power consumption of the plane’s climate control system, which in turn saves energy. The secondary objective of the PCMHX is to reroute the thermal energy captured from the PEMFC and use it to heat up water for onboard purposes. To accomplish this goal, the team designed a system that will capture as much thermal energy as possible from the PEMFC. A MATLAB code written by H. Shabgard and C. Robak (mentors) has been used to optimize the dimensions that would allow for maximum theoretical energy capture given the resources available. A scaled-down prototype has been fabricated using the results from the theoretical model. The fabricated system has been tested to measure the performance of the system. The experimental results are being compared to the theoretical model, which yielded an impressive 48% energy capture. The testing of the PCMHX is divided into three sections: Charging, Discharging, and simultaneous Charging and Discharging of the PCM within the PCMHX. Future modifications are being considered to further improve the performance of the current test rig.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 5: Air drop platform asymmetric impact analysis Sponsored by Capewell Components Sponsor Advisor: Stephen Parkinson

Donovan Walsh, Faculty Advisor Prof. Brice Cassenti, Timothy Fekete, and Justin Silluzio

Capewell Components, a world leader in life support and aerial delivery solutions, requested an asymmetric impact analysis of their recently developed MultiDrop Platform in order to ensure that the platform remains functional in the event of an edge or corner landing. The MultiDrop Platform was designed to be durable and reusable, thus reducing drop zone debris and operating cost. It was engineered for the rapid rigging and de-rigging of cargo in order to minimize the time soldiers are exposed at the drop zone. The design also incorporated steel hinges, which allow portions of the platform to fold in on themselves for compact storage and efficient transportation. Capewell requested an analytical tool that determines the stresses on the platform during impact. Due to economic constraints, the final solution is presented as a simple spreadsheet that does not incorporate any finite element software. The team focused on the loads experienced by the steel hinges because they are both critical to the performance of the platform and vulnerable to failure during impact. In order to analyze the hinges, the team used a contact force indentation model, which is a continuous-dynamics model of collision where bodies deform during impact. An equivalent mass represented the mass of the platform, cargo, and energy dissipating honeycomb material while the ground was treated as an infinite plain surface. This model allowed the team to calculate the contact force as well as the impact duration by treating the two bodies as a nonlinear mass-spring system. Ultimately, the reactions at the platform hinges were determined by combining the impact force and duration into a force pulse equation. The final solution was validated using LS-Dyna finite element software.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 6: Gearless mechanical transmission Sponsored by Carlyle Johnson Machine Co., LLC Sponsor Advisor: Christopher Yi Faculty Advisor Prof. Nejat Olgac, Kenneth Dancho, Jeffrey Kesten and Douglas Cappelli

Carlyle Johnson Machine Company has a patent for a device known as a Gearless Mechanical Transmission [GMT]. This device is a constant ratio rotational speed reducer, which uses ball bearings and lobed cam surfaces to affect its speed reduction. Some advantages of its design are it creates a large speed reduction with a very small device, it only needs a single stage to create this speed reduction, and it is more efficient than many other power transmission options due to the fact that it only contains rolling parts. The current GMT design is dynamically imbalanced, and thus generates unacceptable vibrations at high input rotation speeds. The goals of this project were to develop a dynamic model of the GMT, validate that dynamic model using test results, and develop and test possible solutions to dynamically balance the GMT. An additional goal was to optimize a preliminary balancing solution that had already been built. A dynamic model of the GMT was developed in Autodesk Inventor, which created an animated CAD model. Reaction forces were extracted from the animated motions. To validate the model, data were determined from an actual GMT using a supplied test stand. Displacement values determined at a certain location on the running GMT using an accelerometer were compared to deflection values generated by an FEA of a model of the test stand. Once the dynamic model was validated, the team then generated balancing solutions using their dynamic model. The most basic of these solutions involved adding mass to the input shaft of the GMT. Because of its simplicity, the team built and tested a solution of this type. The team also optimized the design of a preliminary solution supplied by Carlyle Johnson. This solution consisted of an offset disk mounted on the input shaft of the GMT. Carlyle Johnson provided the team with an Autodesk model of this part. The team first tested this solution to see how large an effect it had on the vibrations being generated. The team then used their dynamic model to adjust the dimensions of the disk to reduce the forces generated by the GMT. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 7: Intensive mixing reactor vessel for use in microwave polymerization technology

Sponsored by Covidien Sponsor Advisors: Seth Gleiman and Nadya Blecheva Faculty Advisor Prof. Ted Bergman, Stephen Rogers, Michael Blair and Andrew Crouch

Covidien, a manufacturer of medical products, produces sutures from various polymers to be used in medical procedures. The sutures are currently polymerized using a conventional direct heating method, which has been found to be inefficient. To eliminate the inefficiencies, Covidien is considering the use of microwave technology to heat the polymers. Microwave technology provides faster rate of heating, reduces temperature gradients, and eliminates unwanted side reactions in the polymer mixture. Team 7 was tasked with designing a mixing system for highly viscous polymers that will operate inside of the MARS microwave at the Covidien lab. The mixing device needs to ensure a homogenous temperature throughout the whole mixture. To accomplish this task, the team designed a two-part system utilizing an auger to create motion within the fluid and a static baffle system to disrupt the flow. Both the baffles and auger were manufactured with materials that could withstand the 250 째C operating temperature, yet strong enough to resist the shearing forces from the fluid. The reaction vessel is a Pyrex round bottom beaker and is held in place by a Teflon base to keep the vessel from rotating. The system is powered by an external DC motor and controlled via a LabView interface. The LabView program can stop the mixing once the viscosity reaches a maximum, a sign that the reaction is complete.

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Team 8: Design of security bollards Sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Sponsor Advisor: Michael Accorsi Justin Webster, Faculty Advisor Prof. Brice Cassenti, John Thomas and Daniel Desjardin

The Connecticut Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Aviation and Ports regulates and licenses 129 public and private aviation facilities in the state of Connecticut. Their mission is to ensure the most efficient, effective, convenient and safe usage of these facilities. This includes acting as a liaison between local and federal agencies, providing technical assistance, transportation planning, and infrastructure renewal (at state facilities). In the renewal of Bradley International Airport’s Terminal A, it was decided to retrofit with security bollards. These bollards will ensure that the entry of unauthorized vehicles will not occur. Special considerations had to be made for the design, placement, and mounting of these bollards. These considerations were to ensure adhesion to current laws and regulations such as the American Disabilities Act, be certifiable by the American Society for Testing and Materials, and to meet performance criterion. The bollard system was designed with only four inches mounting depth, yet can stop a laden pickup truck travelling in excess of 25 miles per hour. This is more impressive in the fact that less than 20 psi is dynamically transferred to the substrate from the footing. In addition, the bollard is of a removable design (shaft separable from the base), to allow for movement of equipment into the terminal when necessary. The minimal transfer of force is an important design feature, as the intended substrate is an overpass (viaduct). This performance was accomplished by utilizing complex non-linear finite element analysis and validating with scale testing. The resulting design offers Bradley International the protection and security required to safely operate Terminal A.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 9: Motor noise testing and optimization Sponsored by DRS Power Technology Inc. Sponsor Advisor: Andrew Judge Faculty Advisor Prof. Jiong Tang, Mike Capozziello, Dan Sloan and Steve Sadowski

DRS Power Technology Inc. designs, develops, and manufactures power systems, naval electric drive equipment, fuel cells, and industrial equipment. They are a leader in permanent magnet machine (PMM) design. PMMs have several known advantages, such as efficiency, weight, and reliability, but induced noise levels advantages are relatively unknown. Noise control however is vital for Navy applications. The team first conducted noise characterization tests for a standard AC induction motor, providing a report to DRS for comparison to previously obtained PMM data. An array of signal processing techniques and data acquisition software were used to obtain and analyze the data, including using 1/3 Octave Band analysis and Fast Fourier Transforms. Both structural and acoustic noise were investigated, with an emphasis on structural born noise. DRS used the report to investigate several ways to reduce noise in their permanent magnet machine. The team then completed several internal best practice documents that consisted of common noise sources and reduction techniques for rotating machinery. This will give DRS engineers knowledge into important design considerations in noise control. In addition to best practice documents, the team investigated the effect of potential noise reduction techniques on a generic AC induction motor. This is to enhance the team’s general understanding of electric motor noise and to provide possible insights that cannot be easily found or learned from literature on the subject. The team has found a considerable difference between the structural and acoustic noise profile between a PMM and an AC induction motor of similar function. Further insight could determine how this relationship changes under environmental stresses and scaling of the motors.

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Team 10: Electric tankless instant hot water heater Sponsored by Eemax Incorporated Sponsor Advisor: Jeff Hankins Faculty Advisor Prof Chih-Jen (Jackie) Sung, Roland Opeña, Emily Morris and Nicholas Visinski

The design developed an electric tankless instant hot water heater for Eemax, Inc. This breakthrough technology will instantly provide near-boiling water for residential applications. Today’s leading instant hot technologies utilize tanks and thus provide only a limited supply of 200 °F water for hot drinks, cooking, and sterilization. An existing competitive tanked instant hot water heater was vigorously tested to analyze efficiency and standby losses associated with the unit. It was found that efficiency dropped to single digits and there was a very limited supply of near-boiling water. The new design provides 99% efficiency and an unlimited supply of 200 °F water. It is truly the first of its kind. The design team faced multiple challenges during the completion of this interdisciplinary project. Initial designs were conceptualized, all of which ensured that no water under 200 °F would be dispensed from the faucet. The most viable option was chosen as the final design. This design incorporates the addition of a solenoid valve manifold to aid in draining water that is not fully heated and to prevent it from being dispensed. Team 10 has modified Eemax, Inc.’s existing code to control the solenoid valve operation. The circuit has been built to provide maximum power to the heating elements while minimizing effects such as overshoot in the system. A working prototype has been constructed, a patent is pending and full plans have been provided to Eemax, enabling Eemax, Inc. to take their design to production.

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Team 11: Green energy feasibility analysis Sponsored by The Museum of Connecticut Glass Sponsor Advisor: Noel Thomas Will Carnright, Jimmy Ricciardi, Faculty Advisor Prof. Yen-Lin Han and Brittany Grenus

The design team worked with the Museum of Connecticut Glass to determine the most economical method for using green energy sources to power the museum. 15,000 kWh per month (21 kW) are required to power the museum’s two buildings, annealing oven, and electric furnace. Several green technologies were researched, but based on the geographical location of the museum and the technological development of some green technologies, the analysis was confined to photovoltaics, solar thermal cells, bio-fuel, closed and open-loop heat pumps, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The team evaluated each technology and developed an optimization algorithm to determine the most economically feasible suite of technologies to power the museum. To run the optimization, the team chose a group of metrics on which to evaluate each technology. These metrics included the system cost, operational and maintenance costs, financial incentives from the government, power output, and lifetime of the technology. Using these metrics and the optimization algorithm, the team determined that the most economically feasible option for the museum is to use a combination of an open-loop heat pump and photovoltaics. The team also developed a second optimization algorithm to validate the results of the analysis, ensuring that the selected suite of technologies was the most economical solution for the Museum of Connecticut Glass.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 12: Tire cage failure analysis Sponsored by Habco Sponsor Advisor: David Plis Faculty Advisor Prof. Yen-Lin Han, Vincent Tanuis, Erich Gustenhoven and Ashley Pospisil

HABCO Incorporated designed and built tire cages for use on Black Hawk helicopters, which are to protect workers from shrapnel in case of an explosion during tire inflation. The cage has been prototyped, tested, and is in production. Through testing, the functionality of the cage has been determined to be safe for use. However, minimal analytical work was conducted on the cage prior to testing, and it hasn’t been optimized. The first objective of this project was to complete the needed analytical study on the existing cage. Using the finite element analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS to study the effects of a tire explosion on the cage allows the design to be modified easily with the goal of decreasing cost, and improving ergonomics while retaining the same level of safety as the existing model. Through the use of the computer aided design (CAD) software SolidWorks, a model of the cage was created. This model has also been tested in ANSYS to determine its accuracy. The second objective of the project was to create a tire cage to be used with truck tires as a back shop design such that the tire could be rolled in and out of the cage. Contained in the new design there was a tertiary goal to make the product as marketable as possible by reducing costs and improving ergonomics. FEA was used to help optimize critical elements of the design. A new door and latch was designed and integrated into the back shop cage as well as a base plate that allows for release of gas pressure. A prototype was manufactured by HABCO. The back shop tire cage design, CAD models and FEA will all be used by HABCO to continue to develop and improve their line of tire cages.

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Team 13: Light weight prototype plastic or composite air to air heat exchanger Sponsored by Hamilton-Sundstrand Sponsor Advisors: Greg Quinn and Ed Hodgson Faculty Advisor Prof. Wilson Chiu, Brian Dwyer, Evan Clarke and Robert Drozd

Hamilton Sundstrand is interested in the development of a light-weight plastic heat exchanger. The design team’s goal was to design, manufacture and test an air to air plastic heat exchanger. Hamilton Sundstrand has been involved in the U.S. Space Program since its initial inception. With both Hamilton Sundstrand and NASA looking toward an eventual Mars mission, the current weight of the space suit must be greatly decreased in order to account for the increase in gravity on Mars (compared to the Moon). For this reason Hamilton Sundstrand has asked the design team to design a heat exchanger from plastic via some form of rapid prototyping. The heat exchanger has been designed as a counterflow heat exchanger in order to meet the required heat transfer effectiveness. The design of the heat exchanger was optimized resulting in the final dimensions of 3.45” x 1.69” x 9”. The product was manufactured using laser sintering, which is a process that cures a plastic powder using a laser into a given geometry. This process allows the product to be structurally supported during the manufacturing process. Once the final product was in hand, the team tested the heat exchanger in order to validate the design specifications using a test rig designed by the team. The temperature was controlled using a temperature controlled isobath. The test rig recorded the inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures and was also used to note any leaks between passes in the heat exchanger that may exist due to the rapid prototyping process. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 14: Fuel pump performance evaluation Sponsored by Hamilton-Sundstrand Sponsor Advisors: Bill Rhoden and Rudy Korisi Faculty Advisor Prof. Michael Renfro, Owen Stout, Benjamin Skoff and Kevin DeRoy

Hamilton Sundstrand wishes to determine if an automotive Bosch Diesel pump can be adapted for use in aerospace applications such as in their Auxiliary Power Units (APU). For this to be possible, the pump must be capable of producing 500 pounds per hour of flow at gauge pressures of 1200-2000 psi. The company is interested in this because it could save thousands of dollars per fuel pump. A test stand has been supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand that includes the Bosch pump mounted in a closed loop system. This allowed the team to run benchmark tests to evaluate the capabilities of the given Bosch CP3 fuel pump. A Simulink model was constructed to simulate the system. The model primarily uses physical equations in the subject area of fluid dynamics to predict the performance of the pump given certain parameters. Actual test data collected from the rig was used in the model to accurately represent the behavior of the Bosch pump. The model is able to accurately predict the mass flow rate out of the Bosch pump, given power input and the RPM speed of the motor as parameters. Once a working Simulink model of the system was completed, the team was able to adjust parameters that describe the pump to study the effects on the system’s behavior. Modifications to the CP3 pump were then proposed to allow it to meet the specifications outlined by Hamilton Sundstrand. It was ultimately determined that increasing the orifice sizes of the fuel inlet and fuel outlet, as well as increasing the stroke of the piston stage could allow the desired flow rates to be achieved. The cast iron housing can be replaced with aluminum in order to reduce the weight of the pump approximately 42%. Hamilton Sundstrand will use the information provided by the team to further investigate the possibilities of using automotive fuel pumps for aerospace applications to potentially save on future manufacturing costs.

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Team 15: Valve simulation model optimization Sponsored by Hamilton-Sundstrand Sponsor Advisors: Greg DeFrancesco, Jeff Ernst and Paul Dorlando

Faculty Advisor Prof. Ted Bergman, Mitchell Pecevich, Stefan Ciancio and Thomas Robbins

Hamilton Sundstrand runs tests on different types of pneumatic valves, such as flow control valves and pressure regulating shut off valves. These tests recreate the functional operation of the valves within an aircraft. They involve running one of these valves through a cycle, closed to open to closed, and measuring the resulting characteristics within the valve, specifically pressure and valve position. The Air Management Systems department has created a model within MATLAB Simulink that simulates the results. The problem was that the model’s results were not an accurate simulation of the data. The design team performed tests and displayed their results in the form of a graph outputting valve position vs. the net force in the valve’s actuator. A MATLAB code was created that optimized the Simulink model’s constants in order to reduce the error resulting between the experimental and simulation results. The created code generates a series of randomly calibrated model constants, then checks the error. If the error was not low enough, the code would then create another set of constants, within the ranges of the model sets that had the lowest error from the previous step. This would continue until the error was low enough. A graphical user interface has been created for a user to choose input conditions and run the model with as accurate results as possible by using actual test data as reference, which is loaded based on user choice. The design team also ran tests of their own on a flow control valve at UConn to gain additional engineering experience and obtain additional test data for use in optimizing the model.

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Team 16: Reviving RS technologies torque tester Sponsored by Henkel Loctite Sponsor Advisor: Sandra Sabella Faculty Advisor Prof. Hanchen Huang, Nicholas Hague, Miles Krischtschun and Dennis Nicoletti

The LabMaster Professional Model 3200 (LM3200) is an electromechanical torque tester consisting of a data acquisition system and operating computer. Its function is to record a variety of transient and static properties of threaded fastener assemblies. It provides complete data recording of applied torque, angle of fastener rotation, clamp load, thread torque, and calculations of friction coefficients. Henkel Loctite uses this data logging system to record and analyze the strengths of various anaerobic thread lockers. This machine has been non-functional for an extended period of time and Henkel Loctite intends to reintroduce it into service at their research facility in Rocky Hill Connecticut. The project was to identify the root causes for the LM3200’s software and sensor issues and remediate them. The approach used in developing our solution had a hierarchy of areas to address in order to ensure all possibilities were addressed. This began with a mechanical evaluation, electrical evaluation, calibration checks, programing verification, problem identification, and solution testing/validation. After extensive testing had been done on the LM3200 it was determined that there were two root causes for the machine’s non-functionality. The primary cause lay in the control computer. Restrictive networking programs and excessive software rendered it unable to properly interface with the LM3200 data acquisition unit. The secondary issue that had disguised the primary issue, was two corrupted torque transducers. They not only failed to output torque signals but also crashed the operating software. These issues have been remediated by acquiring a new control computer that meets the system requirements and the acquisition of new and properly calibrated sensors. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 17: Investigation of degassing processes for a viscous liquid adhesive Sponsored by Henkel Loctite Sponsor Advisor: Bryan DesRoches Faculty Advisor Prof. Tai-Hsi Fan, Michael Barnes, Clifford Musto and David Bravo

The Loctite brand of Henkel Loctite is an industry leader in adhesive technology. One such technology is Liquid Optically Clear Adhesive (LOCA) used in the bonding of components of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) assemblies. The main benefit of this process over other processes is that LOCA removes any air gaps between the layers of LCD assembly so there is no refraction of the light, therefore leading a crystal clear image. One major issue with the LOCA application process is fully degassing the adhesive prior to application so that no gas bubbles form when the adhesive cures. If gas bubbles are present, the assembly must be scrapped or reworked, leading to increased costs for Henkel’s customers. The goal of this project was to shorten the required degassing time from 8 hours to 30 minutes. The current method requiring 8 hours entails vacuum chamber degassing at 100 Pascals of absolute pressure. In attempting to improve upon this, ultrasonic technology has been investigated both by itself and in conjunction with the vacuum chamber. Also under investigation were agitation methods and a microporous membrane contactor. Ultrasonic technology has been identified as the method with the most benefits, cutting total degassing time to approximately 25 minutes. Ultrasonic technology utilizes a probe vibrating at 20 kHz with an amplitude up to 120 ¾m partially submerged within the sample. This vibration initiates cavitation in waves propagating throughout the liquid. These cavities provide locations for gas to migrate out of solution and coalesce into bubbles. After being subjected to pulses of ultrasonic energy, the adhesive requires less than 5 percent of the time in the vacuum chamber otherwise needed. With a total degassing time of less than 30 minutes, the project goal has been met.

Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 18: Analysis of mixing efficiency in static mixers Sponsored by Plas Pak Sponsor Advisors: Brent Giansanti and Brian Dauphinais Faculty Advisor Prof. Thomas Barber, Casey Anton, Charles Kniffin, Philip Battaglia and Prof. Michael Renfro

Plas-Pak’s Ratio-Pak adhesive dispensing system allows for a wide array of ratio combinations. Plas-Pak Industries is interested in an analysis of their current static mixer followed by a redesign using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The new design needs to mix the same amount as the original, but over a shorter length. A static mixer uses nonmoving mixing elements to mix two fluids. As the fluids are pushed through the mixer, the mixing elements force the fluids to interact with each other causing them to mix. Static mixers attempt to fully mix the two fluids together for optimal performance. In accordance with Plas-Pak’s suggestions, the team used a two-part epoxy as the testing fluid in the CFD analyses. To ensure the validity of CFD analyses, the team first ran several validation cases using two CFD programs, SolidWorks Flow Simulation and ANSYS Fluent. The team began the cases with the most simplified version of the static mixer system, a pipeflow, which could be validated using analytical fluid dynamics. A small adjustment was then made to each of the following validation cases to better model the actual system. After seven cases, the team was able to validate that the final CFD analysis of the actual static mixer system was realistic and acceptable. A CFD analysis was then performed on one of the competitor’s mixers and a number of new static mixer designs. In order to numerically compare the mixing abilities of each design, the team created a variable that showed how mixed the epoxy was at a given point along the mixer. This variable was used to compare designs, allowing for a final new design to be chosen. This new design was then rapid prototyped and physical testing was performed.

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Team 19: Measuring and improving drop chutetime of consumer products Sponsored by KHS Sponsor Advisor: Roger Calabrese Faculty Advisor Marty Wood, James Prunesti, John Ieronimo and Jason Maynard

The design team worked with KHS, a worldwide packaging company, to build a drop test stand for their research department to improve the drop time of products tested on the stand. The drop test stand needed to be less labor intensive and more accurate than the current stand, which utilized a high speed camera to measure the drop time. The stand would implement two different drop mechanisms: a timing hopper and a sliding gate. These mechanisms would need to be interchanged easily for quick changeover between testing. The team designed a stand in Autodesk Inventor that used a six feet high by two feet long by two feet wide 8020 T-slot frame. Two sets of sliding rails were used to mount the chute and the sliding gate rig to the frame. Mounted to the frame below the chute and the sliding gate rig were one of two duckbills, which were fabricated by the team. The drop time was measured on the stand via lasers mounted to the frame just above the top of the chute, or the sliding gate and just above the top of the duckbill. The lasers hooked into a Rockwell PLC cabinet mounted on the side of the stand that was programmed to run each test and calculate the drop time. In order to improve the drop time of the products, a prototype of the design approved by KHS was made from spare parts that were retrofitted to the stand. It will be tested for its real world application and validated via ANSYS Fluent.

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Team 20: Design of an

automatic actuation kit for conference table connection center Sponsored by Legrand Wiremold Sponsor Advisor: Marc Galasso Faculty Advisor Marty Wood, Yevgeniy Urusov, Alexander Wood and Brandon Silver

Legrand Wiremold is developing a Rising Port Conference Table Connection Center. The Connection Center will be mounted in conference tables, and allows people sitting around the table to raise the unit up by pulling up on its lid, exposing connection points. These connection points include two power outlets, two Ethernet jacks, and five configurable ports that could be used for VGA, HDMI, audio, or other types of data connections. The user can then lower the unit if they wish to conduct a meeting where they don’t need the connections, and want a wide open, flat surface. Wiremold tasked the design team with designing a mechanized version of the Connection Center, and building a proof of concept. After evaluating several designs, the team decided to use a lead screw inside the unit, along with a DC motor mounted underneath to make the unit raise and lower. A switch will be mounted on the top, allowing the user to raise and lower the unit with the push of a button. The team has developed a design of the lead screw and retaining nut, analyzed it with Abaqus FEA for strength, and machined it out of Acetal, a hard plastic. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 21: Wireless interface for variable frequency drives Sponsored by Lenze SE Sponsor Advisor: Sandor Becz Craig Babcock II [EE], Thomas Deslauriers Jr [EE], Madeline Wilczewski [ME, Kyle Sherman [ME], William Reilly [ME], Faculty Advisor Prof. Hanchen Huang [not shown]

Lenze is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of Variable Frequency Drives (VFD). VFD’s are currently controlled via a tethered or integrated control panel. These drives are used in many commercial operations involving a large area that utilizes multiple drives. Because of this, programming the settings of the drives can be a very time consuming (and consequently, costly) task. Lenze would like to continue their innovation by creating a prototype that will communicate wirelessly with their VFDs from a remote device. In the developed design, a user will be able to control and monitor the VFD’s working conditions so it will be more appealing to their wide array of customers. From the central hub, the user can monitor and adjust the parameters of each individual VFD in the network using the Techlink software provided by Lenze. By allowing users to access the software with multiple VFDs, Lenze can provide their customers with a much more userfriendly interface than the physical keypad of the VFD. Our team used ZigBee wireless technology to connect a ZigBee transceiver to a laptop, which is then able to communicate wirelessly with the VFD. After this module is designed, built, and cased, it was tested to ensure that its quality meets the same standards of a Lenze VFD, using testing methods that were researched to find the most applicable results to industry environments.

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Team 22: Analysis of the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process Sponsored by Magnatech Sponsor Advisor: Garry McCabe Faculty Advisor Robert Gao, Erick Nass, Robert Folchi and Brittany Booth

The demand for mechanized orbital welding heads is increasing worldwide due to the decreasing amount of skilled welders. Mechanized welding heads can not only increase productivity and consistency, but also be operated by workers with minimal training. Magnatech has an existing orbital welding head, the Redhead 428A, with technical features and a price that are not competitive in today’s market. The Redhead 428A must be redesigned with improved features and a reduced price to increase Magnatech’s market competitivity. The current model is over-designed and has many custom parts making it expensive to manufacture. In order to reduce the cost, it is necessary to simplify the current system. Magnatech tasked the team with improving four major areas of the mechanized head: 1) the drive system, 2) the clamping system, 3) the mechanized follower, and 4) the spool of feeder wire. In order to meet Magnatech’s requests, the team created new designs that transform the Redhead into a profitable apparatus by simplifying the system, decreasing manufacturing and parts costs, and improving the ease of use. The drive system was modified to use less parts and make assembly and maintenance easier. The new design for the clamping system allows the operator to clamp the head onto the pipe in less than a minute without using tools. The new mechanical follower design keeps the electrode perpendicular to the tangent of the pipe by sliding linearly making the welds more consistent. Finally, the spool of feeder wire was moved from the rotor of the welding head to the top of the housing; this move allows for the use of a larger spool and thus, a reduction in cost. These design improvements make the final product economically more competitive to the customer while simplifying assembly and maintenance. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 23: Winding a low cost, high performance Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) coil Sponsored by Nufern Sponsor Advisor: Martin Seifert David Bonelli, Meghan Bartholomew, Faculty Advisor Nejat Olgac and Anthony Prainito

Fiber optic gyroscope companies seek to reduce the amount of error in the manufacturing process of their inertial measurement devices by reducing the amount of tension used in the winding process of the coil. Nufern and the design team have been developing a new technique to implement in the coil winding procedure; that is a dancerless winding. By removing the dancer and by monitoring the position of the 120 micron diameter cable between the two spools – via an original sensor developed specifically for this application – the tension can be calculated. Using this real-time calculation alongside a dynamic DC-Motor controller, a virtually flawless coil can be wound. Validation was proven through a mock-up coil winder which the design team applied and calibrated, and then further modified their approach. The development for a novel sensor was established due to the micro-sized cable. Furthermore, the team needed a sensor which could not only detect the position but one that is computational friendly, allowing for a maximum sample rate, in order to achieve the most accurate wind possible. Using an IR emitter at about 935nm wavelength and corresponding sensors, a profile is generated by the disruption in the IR field by the cable, allowing for the position of the cable to be determined. This dancer-less approach can be used in future winding procedures, increasing the accuracy of future inertial measurement devices. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 24: Analysis of microfluidics laboratory modules for undergraduate education Sponsored by Drexel University (National Science Foundation) Faculty Advisor Prof. Tai-Hsi Fan, Kevin Bertz, Stephen Steben and Serhiy Korostensky

This project is part of a three year National Science Foundation grant assigned to Drexel University to develop undergraduate laboratory modules that explore the field of Microfluidics. Microfluidics is the study of fluid mechanics through channels with dimensions on the micron scale. Due to their extremely small size, these channels tend to simplify mathematical calculations by eliminating external momentum effects such as gravity or centrifugal forces, so the viscous effects tend to dominate. Though research in the field of Microfluidics is expanding rapidly, the vast majority of the mechanical engineering field remains relatively uninformed on the subject. The laboratory modules would be an inexpensive way to introduce undergraduate students to the field, and showcase the physics demonstrated by microfluidic devices. The various concepts explored by the microfluidic devices include Pressure Driven Flow, Multiple Laminar Streams (Diffusive Mixing), Capillary Action, Droplet Generation, and Electrophoresis. For each of the different devices, the team carried out mathematical calculations and created computer models using FLUENT, a Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The team generated laboratory guides that utilize the analytical solutions and graphical representations of the fluid flow to explain what students should be seeing when they perform their experiments in the laboratory course.

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Team 25: High speed elevator shroud optimization Sponsored by Otis Sponsor Advisor: Patricia Dreisch Faculty Advisor Prof. Thomas Barber, Clifford Cobelli, Thuan Van Nguyen and Rijoy Augustine

This project requires the designing and optimizing of Otis elevator shrouds to increase the conventional speed without sacrificing ride quality. The design of the shroud, especially for a single-shaft hoist-way elevator on both leading and trailing ends. The elevator shroud should make elevators more aerodynamic and minimize the turbulent flow, aiding in Ride Quality improvements for both Noise level and vibration of the vehicle. Many designs for elevator shrouds were created, in Siemens’ NX 7, to compare against each other and a regular elevator. Using ANSYS FLUENT to see how the shroud affects velocity, pressure, and drag coefficient of the cab in the hoist-way. The team attacked the project by having the elevator shrouds go through simulations in 2D and 3D isolated flow to verify our results from ANSYS FLUENT with experimental data. Also, by bringing the 2D and 3D elevator shrouds into a hoist-way to receive more accurate results of how the elevator with the shroud is affected in a hoistway. Finally transient simulations were run to accurately predict how the elevator shroud affects the counterweight when it passes the cab from the unsteady flow. All of these simulations enabled the team to develop an optimized elevator shroud that reduces drag, velocity, and pressure on the cab at high speeds.

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Team 26: Belted drum machine Sponsored by Otis Sponsor Advisor: Harry Terry and Richard Fargo Faculty Advisor Prof. Zbigniew Bzymek, Brian Mamrosh, Michael Ritter and Arjol Kabilo

Otis Elevator is the world’s largest manufacturer of vertical transportation systems. Otis has been in business since 1852, when the company invented the first ever safety elevator. The earliest elevator machines are called drum machines, which operate by winding a steel cable around a drum with no overlaps. As buildings got taller, new approaches were developed, including using multiple steel cables seated on individual grooves and implementing a counterweight. In 2000, Otis revolutionized the elevator industry by introducing the Gen2 system, which uses polyurethane coated steel belts instead of traditional steel cables. These belts allow for a more compact machine design and greater power efficiency. They also help in diluting vibrations which leads to smoother and quieter operations. The current Gen2 system is used in high-rise applications of 6 stops or higher. Below this height, the best option is usually to install a hydraulic elevator. Otis Elevator has tasked the design team with developing a solution for this vacancy in the Gen2 lineup. A system was designed in which no counter-weight was needed and which combined aspects of the Gen2 system and the traditional drum machine. A drum system was designed in which the Gen2 belts actually wrap up over themselves as the new drum system is rotated, enabling the elevator car to travel up or down the hoist-way to its destination floor. The team developed mathematical models replicating each of the decision variables, i.e. weighted torque, cost, size, installation, manufacturing, and configuration variables to arrive at an optimal solution. Geometry for the drum design was created using Pro/E and evaluated using ANSYS FEA. Many challenges were met along the way causing the team to re-adjust the design and calling for more testing and validation. The final solution to the aforementioned variables consists of a modular design and an internal termination keeping installation, manufacturing, and operating costs low, while taking up as little valuable building space as possible, competing with traditional hydraulic elevators.

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Team 27: Substrate gripping system for vacuum environment robot Sponsored by Persimmon Tech. Corp. Sponsor Advisor: Martin Hosek Donald Conroy, Lucas Hernandez, Christine Jackman and Faculty Advisor Prof. Yen-Lin Han

Persimmon's keystone product line is comprised of wafer handling robots, used to transport monocrystalline silicon wafers throughout different tooling stations in a vacuum cluster system. Due to the precise nature of the wafer processing and the resulting products, the robot operates in a molecular-level vacuum and clean room environment. The material and design constraints placed on the robot by its operating environment have shaped the current state of wafer-handling robots. Typically, a vacuum-environment robot only constrains its payload passively, through the frictional force between the wafer and the robot end-effector. The throughput of the robot is limited by the inertial forces experienced by the wafer; excessive acceleration could cause relative slip between the wafer and endeffector, compromising both the precise alignment of the wafer and the cleanliness of the operating environment. Persimmon Technologies has tasked the design team with producing an edge-gripping end-effector capable of constraining a 300mm wafer against acceleration of 1g in any direction. The design must comply with several constraints relative to both the available size-envelope and the environment the product is used in. The design team and Persimmon have collaborated to generate a gripping system capable of satisfying these requirements. Two bistable steel bands, acting in parallel, are used to align and constrain the wafer against two hard stops located at the front of the end-effector. An electromechanical linear actuator is used to “flip� the flexures between their gripped and released states. The stability of the flexure bands in both states allows for zero energy consumption during and between gripping operations by the actuator. The design generated uses true wafer edge-gripping action, promises low power consumption and corresponding heat flux into the vacuum environment, and minimizes particulate contamination introduced in the wafer-processing procedure. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 28:

SAW oscillator mechanical shock compensation Sponsored by Phonon Corp. Sponsor Advisor: Dan Porga

Faculty Advisor Prof. Helena Silva (EE), Joshua Clairmont (EE), Patrick Churchill (EE), Michael Risbridger (EE), Robert Reiners (ME), Marc Raby (ME), Jason Krispel (ME), Faculty Advisor Prof. Robert Gao

The design team worked with Phonon Corporation to develop an electronic compensating circuit for induced mechanical shock in a voltage controlled SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) oscillator. When a voltage controlled SAW oscillator (VCSO) is subject to shock or vibration, this creates additional sideband noise around the peak frequency of 400 MHz. This new compensating circuit, packaged with the current VCSO, will provide near instantaneous compensation for sideband noise in the oscillator’s output signal when the device is shocked. This circuit is beneficial because a clear distinct output signal is desired for use in space, missile, and radio technologies. Testing was performed using two VCSOs, one affected by shock and the other unaffected, a phase-frequency detector to compare the phases between the two VCSOs, and an accelerometer to measure the data of the shock induced. The Mechanical Engineers designed a shock tower, which consists of an aluminum fixture and a 24 volt solenoid, which would shock the VCSO with minimal excess vibration. As the effects of the shock were recorded by the accelerometer and the PFD, a compensating circuit was designed. This circuit utilizes an output signal from an accelerometer which is attached directly to the VCSO. It manipulates this signal to an appropriate compensating signal and is then fed back into the tuning input pin on the VCSO. Using results from impulse and step voltage tests into the tuning pin, the circuit was adjusted to feed an inverted accelerometer signal back into the VCSO. This signal has been adjusted so that the voltage effects from the circuit directly oppose the shock effects (which created the accelerometer signal in the first place).

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Team 29: Tool for automated IBR splitting Sponsored by Pratt & Whitney (CSMC) Sponsor Advisor: Ammon Hepworth Faculty Advisor Prof. Horea Ilies, Matthew Hock, Justin Heckman, and Robert Akeman

Pratt & Whitney uses Integrally Bladed Rotors in compression stages of their gas turbine engines. Weight saving advancements and improved manufacturing techniques have enabled the construction of a bladed rotor where the airfoil blades and the rotor body are one and the same; hence the name, Integrally Bladed Rotor, or IBR. This component leads to more efficient and reliable engine operation, but it also leads to engineering complications with respect to structural analysis. In order to analyze the IBR it must first be broken into finite, discrete elements. This is performed by creating a mesh of 2-D shapes on one face of an object, and sweeping that mesh through the object to create 3-D elements. Since the structure of the IBR is one continuous specimen with a complex overall shape, it is not possible to pick one face and sweep a mesh throughout. Current Pratt & Whitney engineers accomplish the analysis by first breaking the IBR into sweepable volumes, which is a lengthy process. This design team has been tasked with automating this process. Pratt & Whitney uses Unigraphics NX to perform CAD engineering, which has the built-in ability to be modified using the Application Programming Interface. By utilizing this tool it is possible to write custom programs in various programming languages such as Java. The approach to solving this problem is to take the current, manual method of IBR breakup, follow the same basic steps, and modify the process to accept any variation of the IBR shape. This is important since many IBRs are created with the same basic shape, but varying dimensions and airfoil characteristics. This task has been accomplished by applying several generic functions which include: creating copies of bodies and sketches, finding distances, finding midpoints, revolving curves to create surfaces, splitting bodies along those surfaces. With these functions put together, and asking for user input twice, the program is able to take any variation of the IBR shape and break it into several, less complex elements. Each of these elements is able to be swept meshed, thus achieving Pratt & Whitney’s directive.

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Team 30: Design of a multipass prediffuser Sponsored by Pratt & Whitney (CAN) Sponsor Advisor: Andrew Cheung and William Sowa Matthew Daudish, Michael Sanca, Stephen Harmon and Faculty Advisor Prof. Thomas Barber

Pratt & Whitney, a United Technologies Company, is a global leader in the design, manufacture and service of gas turbine engines for both commercial and military aviation as well as power generation. The goal of this project was to design, optimize and test a multi-pass combustor pre-diffuser. The combustor pre-diffuser is a key engine component located between the compressor exit guide vanes and the combustor section. The prediffuser is designed to decrease the bulk flow velocity of the working fluid while also increasing its static pressure. It is thought that the addition of splitters to the diffuser can not only perform these functions more effectively, but it can also shorten the overall diffuser length, helping shave weight from the engine and possibly decreasing fuel consumption. The component design and optimization was performed collaboratively between Brigham Young University and the University of Connecticut Senior Design Teams. The University of Connecticut team primarily focused on performing the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Ansys Fluent. These results were shared with the Brigham Young University team to help optimize a design geometry that would maximize the diffuser’s static pressure recovery and diffuser effectiveness, while decreasing total pressure loss through the component. Computational results obtained at UCONN were then compared to experimental data to measure the validity of the computational design process. A finite element analysis was also performed on the final designs using Ansys Structural to ensure the structural robustness of the optimized design.

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Team 31: Improved clamp to increase damping of tube supports Sponsored by Pratt & Whitney (Externals) Sponsor Advisor: Joe Gambill, Max Ahmed and Jeanne Caplet Faculty Advisor Prof. Bi Zhang, Joseph Cerino, Scott Whynall and David Gambardella

Poor ergonomics and non-reusability lead Pratt & Whitney Externals to revise the style of p-clamps used to fix components, such as wire bundles and Inconel tubes, to the external structure of their commercial engines. While the new p-clamp designs incorporate several different styles of hinges and clearly solve the issues of concern, clamps must meet or exceed several design criteria related to durability over an infinite life-span and damping ratio specifications. The project goals include the design, fabrication and completion of both damping ratio and durability tests guided by ideas and tests previously standardized by Pratt and Whitney. The design team carried out tests of ten-million fatigue cycles and measured the damping ratio of several different ½� style p-clamps. To perform these experiments an electro dynamic shaker was used to providing the resonance frequency to the clamps in order to determine the damping ratio. In the durability test for infinite life cycle of the clamps, the electro dynamic shaker supplied the required high cycle fatigue to the Inconel tube and clamp. Based on damping ratio, durability results and cost of clamps, a best-choice clamp was recommended to Pratt & Whitney. Final data were validated through multiple test trials and compiled for the use of the Pratt & Whitney Externals division in future commercial aircraft design.

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Team 32: Torsional creep testing of stainless steel specimens for turbine blades Sponsored by Pratt & Whitney (TMC) Sponsor Advisor: Don Kastel Faculty Advisor Prof. Eric Jordan, Stephen DuPont, Ryan Perry, and Sean McFadden

As turbine blades run, they are exposed to very high temperatures along with various stresses and strains. The resulting problem is that the blades become untwisted over time. This alters the damping effects of the tip shroud, which causes the efficiency of the turbine engine to decrease. Once these blades have become untwisted, they either go back to the shop to be re-twisted, or they are scrapped. This is a problem because blades are grown as a single crystal and are very expensive. The specific turbine engine that is being focused upon for this project is the FT8 gas turbine engine that uses -3 single crystal blades. This is used for industrial power generation applications, where efficiency is very important. Pratt & Whitney’s predicted theoretical untwist angle is different from what is actually occurring in their engines. The design team’s task was to run purely torsional tests on both stainless steel specimens and the supplied turbine blades to supply Pratt with accurate creep data. This project was an extension of the project of last year’s design team, who constructed a test rig but were unable to run successful tests. A grip was manufactured to modify last year’s rig design to hold turbine blades and re-test the stainless steel specimens as well as actual turbine blades. The steel specimens of different cross sectional geometries provided insight into how the different geometries of a specimen affect creep as well as provided testing experience and validation which was valuable for the testing of actual turbine blades. Finite Element Analyses of both the stainless steel specimens and the turbine blades were run and these results were compared with the test results.

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Team 33: An assembly fixture

for single fractured outer race spherical plain bearings Sponsored by RBC Bearings Sponsor Advisor: John Cowles, Dave Ineson and Bradley Smith

Faculty Advisor Prof. Bi Zhang, James Rosenberger, Brian Paakkonen and Robert Steller III

RBC Bearing is a leading manufacturer of bearings for industrial, aerospace, and defense applications. Among the many products offered is the single fractured outer race spherical plain bearing (SPB). RBC invented the fractured design over forty years ago and currently uses a brute force assembly method wherein the inner race is pressed into the outer race. Though this method is effective RBC Bearings, always looking to improve their products and processes, has tasked UConn Senior Design Team 33 with analyzing the current method and designing a fixture to improve the assembly process by opening the outer race to allow the inner to be inserted. The design team’s task was divided into two phases. First, the team worked with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to study the current assembly process and its effect on the inner and outer races of the bearing. After developing the model, the team used the data to begin designing the improved fixture. With the help of FEA software, several different fixture designs were analyzed before it was determined that using a set of hydraulically powered clamps was the ideal solution. The prototype uses two heavy-duty clamps to grip the bearing near the fracture and is pivoted to open the bearing. The clamp contact surfaces are designed to maximize contact between the clamp and bearing. Further, the location about which the clamps pivot was determined to minimize the stress in the bearing due to opening. Additionally, the fixture was designed with adjustability in mind; with simple modifications, the fixture can adjust to accommodate bearings of different diameters. By developing a more robust assembly process RBC hopes to reduce assembly time and scrapped parts and provide a better product to their customer. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 34: Silicone mixer design Sponsored by Rogers Corporation Sponsor Advisor: Chad Waddell Faculty Advisor Prof. Zhuyin Ren, Christopher Taglianetti, Shreyash Patel and Douglas Palmer

The objective of this project was to design a dynamic mixing head for Rogers Corporation’s silicone production line. The existing mixer requires a lot of premixing in static mixers before the mixture enters the dynamic mixing head. The extensive premixing creates high backpressures and limits the potential of the flow out of the mixing head. Our new dynamic mixer eliminates the static mixers and solves the issue of high back pressures. It also reduces the induced shear heat in the mixing head using a cooling system. This design will be easy to take apart and clean in order to improve the efficiency of the production line.

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Team 35: Trimmer blade optimization Sponsored by Schick-Wilkinson Sponsor Advisor: Todd Zeigher Faculty Advisor Prof. Zbigniew Bzymek, Nicholas Bombard, Olayinka Jimoh-Adewale, and Christopher Quatroche

The design team’s goal was to develop a theoretical model for evaluating the performance of a hair trimmer for use in the Schick Quattro Trimmer and to use this model to create an improved prototype trimmer. The Schick Quattro trimmer is an all-in-one trimmer, edger and shaver, powered by a single AAA battery; one end of the product carries the disposable razor blade assembly, with the opposite end housing the trimmer assembly. In its current iteration the product performs well, but has received feedback from some consumers which has led Schick-Wilkinson Sword to sponsor this project. In particular customers have indicated that the trimmer has difficulty starting up when excessive soap scum has built up on the blades, pulls or stalls when cutting particularly coarse or thick hair, and that battery life can be too short. To develop our theoretical model and prototype we were requested to address these issues, while creating a design that has minimal manufacturing impact on the existing assembly. With these concerns in mind, our stated goal for the project is to “maximize the battery life, cutting force, and volume of hair cut per stroke of the Schick Quattro Trimmer without affecting the dimensions of the body of the trimmer.” Through analysis of the effect of blade geometry on cutting performance, relationship between the motor/cam assembly and the blades, and the effect of friction we were able to arrive at a design that improves significantly on the existing product, while only requiring a modification of two parts in the entire assembly. By opening up the space between the blades, modifying the blade geometry by increasing the effective “rake angle,” and adding a titanium nitride coating we were able to create a trimmer that cuts more efficiently, comfortably, and at a reduced energy cost. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 36: Titanium firewall redesign Sponsored by Sikorsky Sponsor Advisors: Mike Urban, Craig McBurney and Salay Stannard Faculty Advisor Prof. Chengyo Cao, Aaron Fogel, Dave Taricani and Evan Bellanceau

Sikorsky is a leader in the production of civil and military rotorcraft with a long history of innovation. Sikorsky implements a firewall assembly as a non-critical flight component that separates the operator of an aircraft from the engine in case a fire occurs. The design task was to evaluate the capability and feasibility of modern technology as applied to the firewall manufacturing process. Since their inception, firewalls have been manufactured utilizing the same cumbersome techniques: fasteners, rivets, and spot welds to mechanically fasten reinforcing structural formers, channels and angles to the thin web of the bulkhead. In aviation, weight, structural integrity, and cost are the “Big Three� concerns. The applicability of modern manufacturing technology, particularly direct laser deposition, is the key to overcoming shortcomings of the vintage process. The Connecticut state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, was used as the base for prototyping this technological application. The procedure was a three step process. First, the team evaluated the weight and load bearing capabilities of the mechanical fastening techniques and material used in the original firewall design via representative coupons. Then these same techniques were updated with modern materials, e.g. Titanium 6-4, 3). Finally, the modern material was used while designs are updated and optimized utilizing the direct laser deposition manufacturing process, courtesy of Joining Technologies. Through detailed use of SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS FEA software, combined with and verified by physical tensile and bending tests, cost per pound and load capabilities of the assemblies were delivered to Sikorsky. These deliverables show that laser additive manufacturing is a superior manufacturing method.

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Team 37: Titanium firewall repair Sponsored by Sikorsky Sponsor Advisor: Mike Urban Faculty Advisor Prof. Kazem Kazerounian, Kevin Bombero, Michael Gwara and Mateusz Zyla

In Sikorsky helicopters, Titanium firewalls act as thermal barriers. They shield the aircraft from the heat generated by the engine components and also buy time for a pilot to land in the event of a catastrophic engine failure. Currently, firewalls are constructed from sheets of titanium that are riveted together into the desired arrangement, however, each rivet hole can be a potential crack propagation site. To repair damage to the firewall from either cracks or foreign object damage, the affected area must be removed and reinforced. Sheets of thicker titanium are riveted over the damaged section, but the added rivets create additional sites for possible crack formation. Each time a riveted repair is performed, the strength of the firewall decreases and the weight of the aircraft increases. Therefore it would be advantageous if that the repair process could be improved. Laser beam welding is one solution with promising results. In a 2010-2011 MSE capstone project students proved the feasibility of laser welding commercially pure titanium. This year the project focuses on proving the mechanics of laser beam welding as well as devising a possible patch solution that could be used on Sikorsky rotorcraft. Since testing entire firewalls is not feasible, it was decided to use small coupons of uniform size to compare welds to rivets. The project focuses on testing on the static strength of riveted and welded titanium lap joint specimens. Many tests have been performed and compared to specimens of similar sized titanium. As validation to all tests, a limited number of tests of fatigue strength as well as a number of finite element analyses were performed. The results were fairly uniform showing that the laser weld repair exceeds the strength of riveting. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 38: Aluminum crack detection and monitoring Sponsored by Sikorsky Sponsor Advisor: Mike Urban

Faculty Advisor Prof. Eric Jordan, Jon Gresh, Dan Jaramillo and Josh Laurello

Sikorsky is in need of a method for the detection and monitoring of aluminum fatigue cracks. Existing technologies for detecting cracks have been looked into and are readily available, but have been found to be either too time consuming to use or too costly. The system needs to be able to detect fatigue micro cracks in the range of 0.025-0.040 inch and monitor them continuously until they reach 0.250 inch. The design team is working with 6061 series aluminum plates of sheet metal. The ideal system will have minimal human interaction, creating ease of use, and produce consistent and accurate results. The crack detection system looks to accurately detect the crack at its initial location and then efficiently monitor the growth of the crack. The team has looked into the possible invention of a completely new system, as well as the modification of existing systems to meet their goal. The method of crack detection and monitoring that was ultimately chosen was the compliance method. This method measures displacement versus load to determine crack length. In order to measure displacement, an extensometer that is sensitive enough is needed for use on the specimen. Once displacement is obtained and plotted versus load, the slope of the graph (known as the compliance) is recorded for future use in the determination of crack length. The overall change in slope, or compliance, is associated with the change in crack length. The team decided to choose the compliance method due to its overall ease of use, simple setup, and cost. The method also provides a resolution of 0.0012 inches and allows for a more automated process. In order to verify that the compliance method works the team conducted tests using a fatigue loading machine. Making use of the 6061 series aluminum sheet metal, dog bone specimens with semicircular notches were created and then used in conjunction with the machine. The loading machine introduces cracks on the specimens in the area of the semicircular notch. From there the extensometer collects data regarding the displacement of the specimen, and then the machine informs the team of the loading force experienced by the specimen as well as the number of cycles needed to reach a certain crack length. In order to verify that crack length reported by data acquisition system is correct, the team applies molding putty to the specimen in order to replicate the crack and then measure its length by hand with the use of a caliper. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 39: Load wheel optimization Sponsored by Stanley Access Technologies Sponsor Advisor: Michael Zabbo Callan Gruber, Faculty Advisor Prof Jiong Tang, Chad Chmura and Waleed Zawawi

The Stanley Access Technologies senior design team was tasked with devising a method to optimize the load wheels in an automatic sliding door. The load wheels are responsible for the support and sliding motion of the door. They are typically made of polyurethane rubber and roll along an aluminum track within the header of the door. The polyurethane material is very sensitive to changes in temperature. The wheels tend to deform due to the weight of the door, and harden in extreme cold temperatures, causing the door to operate erratically. Research was conducted, and it was concluded that the rolling resistance of a wheel is directly proportional to the amount of deformation under a load. Therefore, by reducing the rolling resistance of the load wheel, the deformation caused by the weight of the door is decreased. This decrease in deformation keeps the wheel from flat-spotting in long term operation. The team developed a test setup to analyze the performance of the wheels, independent of the sliding door assembly. Using a load cell, the test setup was able to accurately measure the rolling resistance of various types of load wheels under a number of conditions and achieve repeatable results. These varying conditions included different loads, temperatures, speeds, directions, and track surface materials. The test setup was fully automated on a single computer, which controlled the test, as well as gathering data from the measuring equipment. At the conclusion of this project the team was able to offer Stanley Access Technologies a working test setup that can be used on new design prototypes. The design improvements and alternative materials within these prototypes will be developed according to recommendations made by the team, based on results obtained from the testing of the current polyurethane wheels. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 40: Land and sea powered two person sailboat for disabled sailors Sponsored by Synectic-Gaylord Sponsor: Adam Lehman, Jeff Stein and Todd Munn Colin Silverio, Jonathan Tessman, Chris Van Stolk and Faculty Advisor Prof. Robert Jeffers [not shown]

Synectic Medical Product Development in collaboration with the Sports Therapy Division of Gaylord Hospital tasked the team with modifying a Sunbird 16 sailboat to the most thorough extent for ease of use by paraplegic sailors. This was to include designing a seating system that can effectively harness a handicapped sailor, modifying the steering system to work with the new seating layout while not overlooking athletes with limited hand use, and developing a sail plan for operation from a seated position. In order to determine possible configurations and solutions, the team began by interviewing several athletes, all with different capabilities. Research was conducted on existing adaptive products that could be utilized for this project. The final design implemented installation of two seats in the center of the boat, which allow motion in four directions. A steering system was designed to be utilized by the athlete in the rear of the boat, and is operational with either one hand or both. Raising of the boom was also necessary to provide head clearance, and an APU was to be added to the boat for ease of docking. The sail plan was set up so that the athlete in the front of the boat controls the jib sheet and halyards, while the rear controls the main sail. The boom was raised such that a limitation of 6’3� height will be applied. A trolling motor was chosen as the APU due to weight of the boat and power requirements. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 41: Segmented wheel design for autonomous ground robot

Sponsored by Tekrona, LLC Sponsor Advisor: Martin Hosek Faculty Advisor Prof. Ikjin Lee, Sahil Patel, Kyle Rowbotham and Joseph Quintiliani Rowbotham and Kyle Ryan

The goal of this project, sponsored by Tekrona, LLC, was to design a segmented wheel for an autonomous ground robot that has the ability to traverse uneven terrain while maintaining a level robot body. One of the main obstacles search and rescue robots have trouble overcoming is climbing stairs. Based on this, the team attempted to design a wheel and test it to see if it could climb up a few steps. At the retracted stage, the wheel diameter should be 15� and at full extension the diameter should be near 25�. The force acting on the segment from the stairs will be greater than the internal pressure force and will cause the segment to retract and the wheel to rotate over the step. The design effort started by brainstorming and generating ideas for segments and actuators. A PUGH chart was created and the ideas were compared. A few designs had to be removed due to cost and feasibility. After the guidance of our sponsor and the results of the PUGH chart we chose to use interlocking segments with pneumatic cylinders as the actuator for our final design. After the concepts were chosen, the team set to design the segment. The segment was designed and modeled in CAD using SolidWorks. This would make it easy to make any changes or update the design when needed. Using force calculations it was determined that with the pneumatic cylinders we are using we will need to use two actuators per segment at a maximum pressure of 250psi. The actuators were custom made by Bimba and the hub and hub plates were custom made in the machine shop.

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Team 42: Design and

manufacture a simplified interface for the laser bake stand Sponsored by Trumpf Sponsor Advisor: Robert Gerl Ajfar Choudhury, Jonathan Santos, Faculty Advisor Prof. YenLin Han and Gilber Garcia

Trumpf Inc. is a world leader in laser cutting/welding technology. One of the types of lasers used is the carbon dioxide TruCoax laser. These CO2 lasers utilize cylindrical electrodes in an internal vacuum cavity (5x10-6 mbar) to produce the necessary laser cutting power (>2kW). Inside this internal cavity are essential components whose effectiveness is dependent on the reduction of dust and metal particles left over after assembly. As a consequence of this Trumpf uses a process called baking where they heat and pump water vapor into the cavity with the Laser Bake Stand to evaporate any particles. An interface connects the bake stand to the laser block by using six screws that are located around the front face of the interface. These screws however are tedious to attach and require constant and timely maintenance. The task was to design a new simplified method of attaching the laser bake stand that reduces time of attachment and maintenance costs.

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Team 43: Design, manufacture and assembly of a device for measuring polarization of laser beam Sponsored by Trumpf Sponsor Advisors: Walter Kampitsch and Shadi Sumrain

Faculty Advisor Prof. George Lykotrafitis, Chris Deck, Bern Dibner and Eric Scheuing

TRUMPF Inc. is a worldwide leader in the manufacture of industrial laser cutting machinery of the utmost quality and precision, such as the TruLaser 1030. One critical factor in the precision of laser cutting machines is the quality of the polarization of the lasers used in such machines. TRUMPF Inc. uses high powered CO2 lasers in its laser cutting machines. These lasers have powers ranging up to 3,500 Watts and a wavelength of 10.6 µm. These lasers are circularly polarized and currently TRUMPF must disassemble the laser from the rest of the TruLaser 1030, or similar device, in order to measure its degree of circular polarization. The design team was asked to develop a measurement device that can be mounted in place of the cutting head of the TruLaser 1030, eliminating the requirement to disassemble the laser in order to measure the degree of circular polarization. Development of such a device would give TRUMF the ability to check each TruLaser 1030, or similar machine, at final assembly to ensure that it meets the stringent requirements of TRUMPF Inc. In order to accomplish this goal the process TRUMPF Inc. used to measure the disassembled linearly polarized lasers was modified and compacted. A detailed design was developed and fabricated for a device which splits the high power beam with a Zinc Selenide Brewster’s window. The window passes a majority of the power of the laser beam to a beam dump, while reflecting a portion of the beam into a sensor which measures the intensity of the beam as a function of the angle of rotation of the Brewster’s window about the axis formed by the beam. The device fabricated yields accurate and fast measurements of the degree of circular polarization of a laser beam and uses TRUMPF’s existing mounting interface to securely mount in place of the cutting head of the TruLaser 1030.

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Team 44: Acid dispensing system used in fuel cell manufacturing

Sponsored by UTC Power Sponsor Advisors: Don Jacques Faculty Advisor Prof. Ugur Pasaogullari, James Anderson, Brian Allan and Patrick Doyle

UTC Power, a division of United Technologies Corp., has tasked the team with the improvement of an acid dispensing process used in the manufacturing of the PC50, or PureCell 400, PAFC power plant (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell). The accurate and timely dispensing of phosphoric acid onto the anode and cathode layers of a fuel cell stack is a critical step in the manufacturing process. The team identified current system deficiencies, and moved forward by devising an improved acid dispensing scheme. As requested by the sponsor, the team first researched and reviewed options for replacement pumps to be used in the system. This resulted in the selection of the Ismatec Reglo-Z pump, a closed loop gear pump that offers reliability and cost improvements over the previously used pump. The project team also devised an integration plan for seamless transition into the new system. Sensing that alternative avenues existed to solve the accuracy and reliability concerns, the project team conducted further research and communication with contacts within the company. This resulted in devising a nonpump-based scheme which has been presented to the sponsor. The team designed and prototyped a plunger tube design, with special consideration given to material compatibility with the highly corrosive phosphoric acid. This, in conjunction with a team-designed manifold, results in the requested accuracy and cost improvements. The team compiled all results and submitted specifications and transition plans for both the pump scheme and recommended plunger tube designs to the sponsor.

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Team 45: Spent fuel pool flow modeling

Sponsored by Westinghouse Sponsor Advisors: Jeff Dederer and Jim Winters Faculty Advisor Prof. Amir Faghri, Abigail Farrell, Mark Cunningham and David Irons

Westinghouse asked this design team to develop a model of the flow in the spent fuel pool of the newly designed AP1000 nuclear power plant. This model should provide Westinghouse with a better understanding of the heat transfer from the spent fuel assemblies to the surrounding environment in a scenario where all electrical power has been lost from the plant. The AP1000 nuclear power plant currently has a revolutionary passive cooling system design that will enable Westinghouse to keep the spent fuel pool cooled for an extended period of time after power is lost. With no flow entering or exiting the spent fuel pool, the fuel assemblies will continue to generate heat and cause the water to boil away to prevent further cooling. The team has modeled the heat transfer from the spent fuel assemblies using three different concepts. An analytical mode, numerical model, and computational model were done simultaneously by the team and used to validate one another’s results. The analytical model assessed the relevant governing equations that were responsible for natural convection and boiling heat transfer in the pool. The team conducted a numerical comparison using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to monitor the temperature distribution throughout the pool and the exterior walls as a transient function using fundamentals of heat transfer. Using Solidworks, the geometry of the spent fuel pool was modeled and imported into ANSYS FLEUNT. The computational model was conducted in ANSYS FLUENT because it provides an analysis of the flow of heat transfer and fluid by natural convection and conduction. The three methods were used to validate one another and provide an approximation of the necessary heat flux at the spent fuel pool boundaries. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 46: Self powered spent fuel storage cask

Sponsored by Westinghouse Sponsor Advisors: Frank Vereb and Charles Kling Faculty Advisor Prof. Wilson Chiu, Daniel Oppenheim, Joshua Eichelberger and Michael Weber

In the wake of the disaster in Fukushima, Japan, the nuclear industry has focused intensely on the safe, passive storage of spent nuclear fuel. Once nuclear fuel has exceeded its life cycle in the reactor it is removed and placed in a spent fuel pool, immersed in water for 15 years, then moved to a permanent storage cask where natural air circulation removes the remaining decay heat. The cylindrical spent fuel canister fits inside the cask, leaving an annular gap for the air to flow through. Westinghouse has proposed a self-powered spent fuel storage cask (SFSC), and taskedthe design team with conducting a feasibility study on the system. The SFSC will replace the air in the cask with a completely passive water-based system. Liquid water enters the bottom of the cask, where the decay heat causes it to boil. Assumed saturated liquid enters the bottom of the cask and saturated vapor exits from the top, mass flow rate of the system was determined from the decay heat, and the governing equations were solved to provide an expression relating the height of the heat exchanger above the cask to heat decay. This governing equation contains two properties of steam that change with pressure, density and kinematic viscosity, and includes the pipe diameters for the liquid and steam legs. This allowed the design team to create plots of height versus decay heat for a multitude of system pressures with constant pipe diameters, and then create the same plots for a constant pressure with a multitude of pipe diameters. This governing expression was programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, which was used to obtain the parametric studies. An ANSYS model of the heat transfer and velocity fields of the system was developed to assist with model validation. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 47: Detailed

thermodynamic model of a control rod drive mechanism Sponsored by Westinghouse Sponsor Advisor: Greg Falvo Faculty Advisor Tianfeng Lu, Paris Thalassinos, Ryan Magee and Michael Kugler

There are two methods in which the nuclear reaction within a PWR is controlled: boron addition/dilution within the primary circulating water and control rods which are raised or lowered within the fuel core. The scope of this project is focused on the Westinghouse PWR Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Test Loop. The CRDM is a failsafe, electro-mechanical device which is used to control the elevation of the control rods within a nuclear reactor fuel core. The Westinghouse CRDM latch assembly has the ability to raise, lower, or maintain the control rods elevation within the reactor vessel. As a failsafe device, the CRDM can rapidly release the control rods into the reactor if power is lost to the assembly. The rapid insertion of control rods quickly reduces the nuclear reactions within the fuel. The objective of this project was to create a thermodynamic model of the Westinghouse CRDM Test Loop using ANSYS CFX. The model will be used to calculate the internal water temperatures within the CRDM Test Loop. A model of a CRDM test loop will provide Westinghouse with valuable knowledge of what is happening inside their CRDM Test Loop.

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Team 48: Evaluation of hoop stress in dental implants

Sponsored by Windham Lab Sponsor Advisor: Dennis Flanagan Faculty Advisor Prof. Kazem Kazerounian, Matthew Connor, Justin Phillips and Timothy Dyer

Dr. Dennis Flanagan of Windham Dental located in Willimantic, Connecticut, needs to understand the effects of vertical loading on dental implants. Dental implants are used as permanent tooth replacement and consist of the implant that threads into the patient’s bone, the abutment that sits in the implant, and the crown, or fake tooth that is molded to look like the patient’s teeth. These implants undergo load every time a person chews or bites down. This constant cyclic loading causes fatigue on the titanium implant. Dr. Flanagan was looking to understand the effect a strictly vertical load had on the fatigue of dental implants. To begin the project, analytical models were created using computer-aided design and run through a finite element analysis program to understand what was happening to an implant upon vertical loading. The stresses on the implant were computed and used to predict when a fatigue failure would occur for a specific loading. Computational results demonstrated that under vertical loading at a natural human biting force, the fatigue life for an implant is infinite. A test rig was then built in order to test the fatigue life of implants. Because a normal biting force yielded infinite life, for testing, the vertical load on the implant was increased to create a failure in an accelerated period of time. Due to the high cost of dental implants, a general geometry was designed and these mock implants were machined from titanium alloy for testing. By using the computational data to predict failure, and matching the prediction to the results of experimental testing, the computational results can be verified. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 49: Characterizing multiphase thermal-hydraulic system and component response Sponsored by Zachry Sponsor Advisor: Jeff Lundy Prof. Ugur Pasaogullari, Shane Williams, Danny Mitchell and Mark Plourde

The design team is working on a validation project of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s TRACE Code. The TRAC/ RELAP5 Advanced Computational Engine was programed to combine the capabilities of previous NRC codes in order to model new reactor designs. TRACE has a wide range of applications including the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents and the modeling of operational transients within pressurized and boiling water reactors. The team has studied and developed models of experimental facilities in order to validate the ability of the TRACE Code to properly characterize multiphase thermal-hydraulic system and component response. The satisfactory validation of the computer code is necessary for the team sponsor, Zachry Nuclear Engineering, to be able to perform safety related analyses in accordance with U.S. Code 10CFR50 Appendix B Quality Assurance requirements.

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Team 50: Development of

Ansys training modules for structural and thermal design Sponsored by UConn - Ansys Sponsor Advisor: Tom Barber Michael Yanofsky, Faculty Advisor Prof. Brice Cassenti, Perry Mattice and Sunday Oyeniya

Undergraduate students are increasingly using FEA software to help design, analyze and optimize their senior design projects. One of the main problems with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) codes is that, while their solutions offer insight to many complex thermal and structural analyses, the theory and learning curve for the software are a large hurdle for a novice to overcome. Some of the pitfalls of commercially available code tutorials include the lack of discussion on optimal modeling techniques, ways to estimate expected run time of a calculation, how to validate results for accuracy, and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the many FEA packages available on the market. Courses on FEA codes such as ANSYS and Abaqus are expensive and time consuming and are unsuitable for undergraduate students. In order to address these problems the team created a suite of 22 training modules that can be used to accelerate the training of those performing advanced structural and thermal design through FEA. The FEA code of choice was ANSYS Mechanical APDL, as its features are well suited for instructive purposes, however, three basic modules have been created in the ANSYS Workbench Static Structural package as well. The modules include samples of both linear and non-linear analyses in ANSYS, but the non-linear problems are solved in a linear fashion for simplicity. These modules involve problems that can be found in any strength of materials textbook and are designed to build confidence in the user in their modeling skills. Each module guides the user through the physics behind the module example, navigates through the features in ANSYS and then provides validation requirements in the form of mesh refinement study and comparison to theoretical results. The modules were disseminated to senior students for beta-testing and for generating user feedback. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Team 51: Enclosure for voltage regulator for agricultural motors in developing countries Sponsored by UConn - Entrepreneur

Matthew Kempson, Nishang Gupta and Faculty Advisor Prof. Yen-Lin Han

Poor rural farmers in developing countries such as India use electric motors to power irrigation pumps. The poor electric grid system leads to severely low voltage conditions in the rural areas, causing the farmers’ motors to burnout, and run less efficiently. A low cost and affordable voltage regulator is being designed to supply proper voltage to the farmers’ motors, decrease burnout costs, and increase motor efficiency, to save poor farmers hundreds of millions of dollars annually. The goal of this senior design project is to design the enclosure and cooling system to protect the voltage regulator from the extreme humidity and environmental temperatures that it would be exposed to on the agricultural fields. The main goal of the cooling system is to minimize electric energy required to adequately cool the voltage regulator, to maximize the efficiency gains this low cost voltage regulator can bring to the rural farmers. The problem solving approach was to first measure the heat generated by the voltage regulator to determine the amount of heat the cooling system needs to remove from the enclosure. After this key constraint was determined, the two most feasible methods for cooling (fans and heat pipes) were tested and analyzed for heat dissipation effectiveness. A turbulent pipe flow experiment was used to determine the optimal fan speed to achieve the required convection coefficient. A temperature rise test on the voltage regulator surface was conducted with and without a heat pipe to determine the heat dissipation impact of the heat pipe. Finally, to ensure that the enclosure adequately protected the voltage regulator from humidity and rain, a rain test was conducted to identify and fix potential leaks into the enclosure.

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2010-2011 Demonstration Day Awards

Cash prizes ($1,500, $1,000, $500) are awarded to outstanding ME senior design teams, as judged by a panel of engineers from industry. Faculty also award a Professor’s Choice prize ($1,000) to the team that most successfully applied the fundamental principles of Mechanical Engineering to their solution. Performance is determined by the team’s understanding of the project, approach to solving the problem, management of the effort, and achievements. First place (tie), Team 1: Manufacturing a Low Cost High Performance Fiber Optic Gyro Coil Sponsored by NUFERN Team Members: Sean Lynch, Andrew Severson, and Thuc Bui The fiber optic gyroscope requires coils to be 100% error free when each 125 micron diameter fiber is wound and placed onto the coil. The design team developed a closed-loop error detection system for automated fiber optic coil winding machines, using a vision system to actively detect errors. The team developed an algorithm that takes feedback from the camera, and turns it into error messages that control the operation of an automated winder. The team has developed a test winding rig to perform multiple experiments involving dry and “wet” coils, which are coated in epoxy to protect each layer of the coil. The epoxy made it nearly impossible for older cameras to detect errors. LED arrays capable of outputting UV and diffuse lighting were chosen to perform the experiments. The intensity and position of the light array was also fine-tuned to find the best image possible and run error tests from it. First place (tie), Team 27: Helicopter Sonar Unit Load/Upload Fixture Sponsored by Habco Team Members: John McBrien, Joesph Foster, and Joe Davis Improving on a Sikorsky previous design, the design team designed and manufactured the 7933 HELRAS load/unload fixture capable of raising and lowering a 380lb Sonar Unit from the Sikorsky S70B aircraft reel mechanism. This load/unload fixture was designed to incorporate collapsing features to allow for compact storage and loading door clearance aboard the Singapore Navy RSS Formidable #68 frigate. The project involved the design, manufacture, validation, and marketing of the hoist. Physical and environmental constraints were incorporated in the design to ensure that no damage to the HELRAS unit or surrounding hardware on the ship would occur. The range of motion of the hoist boom, the deck angle of the #68 frigate, and the normal and Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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tangential accelerations of the ship deck caused by sea state 3 conditions were calculated in designing the hoist. A material study determined the best-suited material for the hoist. Finite element analyses were used to verify preliminary design calculations. Third place, Team 20: The Effects of Heating in a Pressure-Time Dispensing System Sponsored by Henkel Team Members: Jason Ellis, Gina Cavallo, and Christina Alban Henkel Loctite produces a positive displacement and pressure time dispensing systems to dispense adhesives used for assembling medical devices. The design team developed a safe and controlled heating accessory for an automated pressure-time valve that connects to an existing pressure-time system and allows the valve to dispense consistent drop volumes between different batches of the same adhesive. The attachment raises and maintains the Loctite 3900 series adhesive to a temperature of 131°F, thereby decreasing the range of viscosity values for different batches and providing a consistent target drop size. The team also developed a method for measuring the adhesive temperature at the dispensing nozzle exit, as well as testing the heated system when subjected to environmental changes. Professor’s Award, Team 40: SOFC Performance Degradation: Ni Coarsening in the Ni-YSZ Anode Sponsored by DoE Team Member: Alex Cocco The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high-temperature operating fuel cell with potential application in small, portable, residential and auxiliary power systems. Susceptibility to performance degradation over long periods of operation has proven to be a major problem. In order to investigate SOFC performance degradation, accurate characterization of changes in the component microstructures over extended periods of operation is a necessity. For this design project, x-ray nanotomography was applied to study nickel coarsening in the SOFC anode. Nickel coarsening has been widely observed in the literature as a significant contributor to cell performance degradation. Aged anode samples were analyzed using x-ray nanotomography. Analytical models were then compared to the results of the analysis to better understand the fundamental physics that drive nickel coarsening in order to limit its effect on cell performance. Senior Design Project Program 2011-2012

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Thank you! Faculty Mentors Thomas J. Barber Theodore Bergman Zbigniew M. Bzymek Chengyu Cao Brice Cassenti Baki M. Cetegen Wilson K. S. Chiu Amir Faghri Tai-Hsi Fan Robert Gao Yen-Lin Han Hanchen Huang Horea Ilies Robert G. Jeffers Eric H. Jordan Kazem Kazerounian Ikjin Lee Tianfeng Lu George Lykotrafitis Nejat Olgac Ugur Pasaogullari Zhuyin Ren Michael W. Renfro Chih-Jen (Jackie) Sung Jiong Tang Marty Wood Bi Zhang

Assisting Staff Serge Doyon Peter Glaude Laurie Hockla Emily Jerome Tom Mealy Igor Parsadanov Kelly Tyler Jacqueline Veronese

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Guest Lecturers Mr. Brian Montanari, Habco Inc. ‘Lean Management’ Mr. Thomas Meyers, Pratt & Whitney, retired ‘Fatigue in the Real World’ Professor Robert G. Jeffers ‘Critical Path Method, PERT’ Mr. Rafael Rosado, UTC Fire and Safety ‘Patent Law and Intellectual Property’ Mr. Mark Austin, CT Society of Professional Engineers ‘Professionalism and Licensure’ Mr. Stephen Heath, Pratt & Whitney, retired ‘Project Management’ Mr. Thomas Pastor, P.E., Hartford Steam Boiler ‘An Introduction to Codes and Standards’ Mr. William Hally, Henkel-Loctite ‘Coefficient of Variance’ Dr. Greg Quinn, Hamilton-Sundstrand ‘Tolerance in Testing’

Senior Design

2012


Profile for Mechanical Engineering

2012 Senior Design Book  

UConn Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Book

2012 Senior Design Book  

UConn Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Book

Profile for uconnme
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