USFWS Photo/Steve Martarano
N°6 | OCTOBER 2017
INTELLIGENT WATER MANAGEMENT FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT In the face of the contrasting cycles of water shortage and floods, effects of climate change; the expansion of aquaculture and the increase in water demand as a result of population growth, intelligent water management is a priority. This must enable us to make the best possible decisions for socio-economic and environmental development. For this reason, we must necessarily include technology in three essential areas of this process: information, infrastructure and institutions.
Carlos Flores, Ph.D in Hidrological Sciences at UC Davis | UC Davis Chile’s Coordinator of Agronomy and Environment Program
AN INTEGRATED OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE OF WATER
Finally it is essential for institutions to have programs to strengthen water governance (for example, methods of organizational mindfulness).
In information, water telemetry enables an updated and automatic control of the water volumes entering and leaving a determined system.
The future of the efficient use of water should be based on a “water management portfolio system”. This should establish a set of alternatives to better manage the supply and quality of water and flood control.
In infrastructure, beyond costly reservoirs
In the case of California, depending on the
TACKLES KEY ISSUES IN THE FACE OF HIGH CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN AGRICULTURE
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are the groundwater banks that allow the joint use of surface waters and groundwaters. These have a series of benefits: low cost, minimum environmental impact, no evaporation losses and they can be used in periods of drought.
SEARCHING FOR THE FUTURE’S BIOPRODUCTS IN THE VALLEYS OF ARICA AND PARINACOTA
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water scenario, there are supply portfolios (such as joint use, reuse of industrial wastewater, transfer of water between basins, subsidies and taxes) and quality of water portfolios (ban the use of pollutants and control discharges of wastewater, amongst others). Whereas flood control measures are for the preparation, response and recovery such as designed flood plains, reservoir operations and flood insurances.
micro-reservoirs and to design flood plains.
What do we require in Chile? To invest in the generation of basic information for resource management -such a water balance, water and carbon footprints- and the development of a water management portfolio. We also need to expand the infrastructure by building low cost constructions for the accumulation of water, such as groundwater banks or local
California is an international leader in water management. UC Davis Chile seeks to transfer to Chile this experience and advanced technological capabilities from California, through the coordination of actors and the design and implementation of concrete projects.
GETTING TO KNOW A UC DAVIS ALUMNI:
A RESEARCHER THROUGH AND THROUGH HIGHLIGHTS:
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-VIDEOS ABOUT UC DAVIS CHILE’S RESEARCH LINES -FIRST INTERNATIONAL VITICULTURE AND ENOLOGY SEMINAR OF SOUTHERN CHILE
Finally, we need to strengthen the public-private water institutions to optimize irrigation in agriculture. Moreover we need to improve the control of water resources integrally with the innovation and the extension carried out by research centers, universities and companies related to water resources.
THE DIRECTOR OF SUSTAINABILITY AT UC DAVIS HAD A BUSY SCHEDULE IN SANTIAGO AND TALCA HIGHLIGHTS:
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HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VITICULTURE AT UC DAVIS COLLABORATING WITH UC DAVIS CHILE’S PROJECTS
JIM FARRAR, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program for UC ANR.
Round table: Doctors Carlos Flores, Samuel Ortega, Alejandro del Pozo and Jim Farrar.
tackles key issues in the face of high climate variability in agriculture EXPERTS IN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT, IRRIGATION, CROP ADAPTATION AND INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATED IN THE 2017 VERSION OF THIS SEMINAR, INCLUDING JIM FARRAR, DIRECTOR OF THE STATEWIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
issues related to climate change met up: integrated pest management, irrigation, crop adaptation and integrated water management.
Participants at the inauguration ceremony in Santiago, included Alan Bennett, Executive Director of UC Davis Chile; María José Etchegaray, Executive Director of the Foundation for Agricultural Innovation (FIA), UC Davis Chile and the University of Talca held the second version of a Ministry of Agriculture’s agency; Juan Ladrón de Guevara, Executive Climate Smart Agro, an annual platform that presents high impact Director of the Agency for Sustainability and Climate Change and science and technology for agro-climatic adaptation in Chile. This year Samuel Ortega, Director of the Research Program for the Adaptation the seminar was held on two dates and in two different cities: of Agriculture to Climate Change (A2C2) and the Center for Research Tuesday, August 29th in Talca and Thursday, August 31st in Santiago. and Transfer in Irrigation and Agroclimatology (CITRA) of the University of Talca. Climate Smart Agro responds to the need to reduce the knowledge gap between supply and demand of solutions to the increase climatic Given the complexity of the global hydrological scenario, the seminars vulnerability of agricultural production. Its mission is to promote a ended with doctor Carlos Flores, UC Davis Chile’s Coordinator of technologically advanced, versatile and efficient agriculture in face of Agronomy and Environment Program and his talk “New science and the environmental supply. For this reason, this year experts on key technology for intelligent water management.”
“The University of California’s Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR) has academics throughout California working on continually improving agriculture and natural resource management, including responding to climate change. Adapting to climate change will require experts from many different disciplines to address the many and varied impacts on soil, irrigation, fertility, crop selection, production practice, and integrated pest management.”
SAMUEL ORTEGA, Director of A2C2 and CITRA, University of Talca.
“We have to conduct cutting-edge research, but also applied research including technological transfer to train farmers and to validate the technology. We were able to do this thanks to a good work plan to evaluate how to reach people better with our message.”
ALEJANDRO DEL POZO, Principal Investigator of the A2C2 Crop Adaptation Line, University of Talca.
“Our challenge is to study the adaptation of crops to adverse conditions, essentially to water stress, in order to prepare more tolerant varieties. In short, for the plant to perform a high level of discrimination of its water use.”
FOCUSED ACTION SEARCHING FOR THE
FUTURE’S BIOPRODUCTS IN THE VALLEYS OF ARICA AND PARINACOTA
Amidst ancestral crops such as corn or oregano, a number of microorganisms are hidden. They could help other plants protect themselves against insects or pathogens (bio-controllers). The first steps are taken by UC Davis Chile and UTA last April.
these. Moreover the consumers in general want to have food without pesticides or with as little as possible. There has been a complete turn-around in agriculture,” adds Doctor Boehmwald. In April of this year the first phase of “biodiscovery” of this project began: they identified the sites from which they wished to take samples. “Afterwards we contacted the communities to discuss the project and how to share the benefits with them should there be any development deriving from the project,” details Boehmwald. The biotechnologist adds that the entire project is governed by the Convention on Biological Biodiversity. The researches are searching in valleys such as Lluta, Poconchile, Molino, Belén, Codpa and Socoroma (in the photo).
Atacama is the driest and the most ancient desert in the world. In the Region of Arica and Parinacota, every now and then, the desert flowers and displays its valleys. 600 years ago, its inhabitants developed agricultural practices which have remained practically unchanged with little or no use of pesticides. There, ancestral crops are grown, such as alfalfa, corn, potatoes, white corn and oregano. Surrounding and within these crops inhabit a series of microorganisms (microbiota), some of which have enable the crops to survive in time and in adverse conditions. UC Davis Chile and the University of Tarapaca (UTA) are developing a project to search for those microbial genetic resources for their use in agriculture. In these areas, the “microbiome (the genetic material of the microbiota) has remained broad and diverse and therefore it is interesting to recover and return these microorganisms to agriculture,” comments Freddy Boehmwald, UC Davis Chile’s Bioproduct Development Coordinator. By “returning microorganisms to agriculture”, Doctor Boehmwald refers to generating agricultural bioproducts –of natural origin and highly biodegradable– based on microorganisms which have beneficial relationships with the crop. This could be biocontrol: biological agents that protect crops against insects, fungi, bacteria, virus, weeds and nematodes, capable of replacing pesticides. There are also biostimulants, generally bacteria with the ability to either directly or indirectly, stimulate the growth of plants. Finally there are the biofertilizers which, directly or indirectly, facilitate the availability of determined nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorous and water. The aim of bioproducts is to replace or supplement the chemicals which have been used for decades in agriculture, in order to generate more sustainable systems. “The use of chemical resources has reached a point of exhaustion and many pests are resistant to
The researchers of UTA and UC Davis Chile started to take samples from the selected valleys and crops, such as corn and alfalfa in Molino and oregano in Socoroma. The aim of this phase is to generate two collections of microorganisms: they are looking to obtain better functions as biocontrollers and as biostimulators. They search on the surface of the roots (epiphytes) and inside the plant (endophytes). Next, the researchers cultivate the microorganisms in the laboratory to carry out a number of functional tests. For example, if the microorganism has the capacity to fix nitrogen or to solubilize phosphorus, it is a candidate for a biostimulator and if the microorganism can control other pathogenic fungi or bacteria, it will be a candidate for a biocontroller. Also, they should compete against the best microorganisms already available in the market… and they must outdo them (benchmarking) to prove their outstanding capacity. They do this in order to maximize the results.
SCIENCE OF EXCELLENCE IN THE EXTREME NORTH “The project is a notable effort to recover and highlight microbiological richness which has not being given much importance considering its enormous potential. We are integrating the regional community to make them aware of the microorganisms,” comments Doctor German Sepulveda, UTA’s Principal Researcher of the project, who already has vast experience in biodiscoveries. He adds that the project has also enabled the training of its technical teams and finalized the implementation of the laboratory.
Freddy Boehmwald, Ph.D. Principal Investigator
Denise Cifuentes, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher (Santiago)
Patricio Muñoz, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher (Arica)
Jairo Pereira Research Assistant
German Sepulveda, Ph.D. Principal Investigator
Wilson Huanca, Ph.D. Assistant Researcher
Steffani Cardenas Research Assistant
Mabel Arismendi Research Assistant
Each sample generates an impressive quantity of information which will be transformed into ‘labels’ (database indexing) which allows its traceability to “conduct research more efficiently and to make decisions,” outlines Boehmwald: where it was extracted, from what part of the plant, its genetic and functional information, the results of fertility and pesticides tests, as well as the chemical analysis of the soil, etc. Here the support of a bioinformatician is vital. This phase of biodiscovery should finish in early 2018 and should then be followed by “validation and production”: the best candidates are grown in a higher volume (scaling) and are tested directly on the plants during approximately two seasons to see if they work. Finally the project would come to the stage of packing the best microorganisms in one product. For example, one or several bacteria (a microbial consortia), could be encapsulated by coating them to keep them alive. It is like when we consume probiotics, but for the plant. The final objective is to “generate bioproducts for industrial and productive agriculture,” concludes Boehmwald.
GETTING TO KNOW A UC DAVIS ALUMNI DANIEL GARRIDO:
A RESEARCHER THROUGH AND THROUGH
Ten years ago, during his doctorate at UC Davis, Daniel Garrido began to research the dynamics of the microbial communities that our diets generate. At that time in maternal milk and today at the Pontificia Universidad Católica related to the effect of drastic weight loss and use of sweeteners. Professor Garrido is one of the first members of the Fellowship Program of UC Davis Chile. After some time working as an engineer in molecular biotechnology, Daniel Garrido decided that he wished to do a doctorate. His first option was UC Davis and Fulbright supported his dream with a scholarship: in 2007 he left for California to study Food Science, specializing in biotechnology. “The experience of studying abroad is priceless with regards to how you learn and develop. Davis also provides a pleasant, welcoming and modern environment, which is close to everything in California. You have the support amongst Chileans and other students, which is essential when you are far away. Moreover you are inserted into a highly productive research medium with many resources, which is very motivating. Finally the teaching is important. I had classes with outstanding professors and performed assistantships in English which was very enriching,” recalls Garrido of his more than six years in UC Davis, which included a post-doctorate with the well-known professor David Mills. Garrido believes that it is fundamental to make use of the “opportunities and facilities”. In his case, he focused much of his energies in Davis on conducting research on maternal milk, functional foods and probiotic bacteria. “I enjoyed the liberty of making several publications and performing interesting jobs,” he comments. At the end of 2012 he returned to Chile. “The challenge was to adapt rapidly to the local environment, acknowledging its advantages and disadvantages compared to having studied abroad. The students and professors are different, as well as the resources. It is like starting from scratch in many aspects and reconnecting
with the country,” he says. In 2013 he entered as assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocesses in Pontificia Universidad Católica. “I believe that I have been able to contribute in teaching where I have had good models in my training and in research by developing an independent line of research in accordance with my own interests,” he adds. Related to his research line, Garrido is studying the interactions of intestinal microbiome and the effect of diet and how to make use this interaction with health solutions. “For example, we evaluate the effect of infantile prebiotics on microbial interactions. We perform these simulations in bioreactors, creating conditions which simulate the intestine. We also develop mathematical models which predict the composition of a simple microbiome. One of the applications of this research could be the development of probiotics with a greater anti-inflammatory capacity,” he explains. Garrido is also collaborating with a clinic to understand the impact of obesity treatments and of sweeteners on microbial communities, by means of mass sequencing and bioinformatics. In 2016 Doctor Garrido joined the Scientific and Industry Advisory Board of UC Davis Chile representing the Pontificia Universidad Católica. And this year he was nominated one of the first five members of the “Fellowship Program” of UC Davis Chile, an initiative which seeks to shape and strengthen a network of researchers and professionals associated with the center.
HIGHLIGHTS VIDEOS ABOUT UC DAVIS CHILE’S RESEARCH
UC Davis Chile released short videos to introduce us in four of its applied research lines. “Getting to know the hidden enemies”, “Proof of identity”, “Informed irrigation to optimize production” and “Quality with values” dynamically show the collaborative work of the innovation center with Concha Toro and VSPT Wine Group vineyars, the universities Andrés Bello and of Talca, and UC Davis. We invite you to suscribe to our YouTube channel, by clicking here: https://goo.gl/8PohwY FIRST INTERNATIONAL VITICULTURE AND ENOLOGY SEMINAR OF SOUTHERN CHILE On the launching last July 25th, Pablo Herrera, Santa Berta vinyard’s Manager; Sergio Aravena, Corfo’s Deputy Director of Technological Diffusion and Environment for Innovation; Claudia Carbonell, Office of Agro Studies and Policies’ Director (Odepa); Pablo Zamora, UC Davis Chile’s Associate Director; Mauricio Cañoles, UC Davis Chile’s Program and Consulting Development Manager; Iván Matus, INIA’s Deputy Director of Research and Development; Guillermo Wells, UdeC’s Dean of the Faculty of Agronomy, and Susan Olate, Manager of CEV del Sur.
Just three months ago we had the launch of the Viticulture and Enology Extension Center of Southern Chile (CEV del Sur) and this institution is already finishing the last details for the First International Viticulture and Enology Seminar of Southern Chile. The activity will be on November 16th, in Chillán, 258 miles South Santiago. The seminar will include national speakers -from the University of Concepción (UdeC) and the Chilean National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA)- and extension specialists in viticulture from the Cooperative Extension System of the University of California: Larry Bettiga, from Monterey county, winner of the 2017 Extension Distinction Award presented by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture (ASEV); Mark Battany (San Luis Obispo county); Glenn McGourty (Mendocino), Lynn Wunderlich (Sierra Central) and Carmen Gisperts (Riverside). The CEV del Sur is an initiative led by UC Davis Chile together with INIA Quilamapu and the Faculty of Agronomy from the UdeC. It is a Corfo project (an agency from the Ministry of Economy) and has a budget of US$1,4 millions for its three first years. Its headquarters are located in Chillán. This project gives personalized extension services to small and medium wine producers in the valleys of Tutuvén (south of the Maule Region), Itata and Biobío (Biobío Region) and Malleco (North of The Araucanía). Its aim is to facilitate a greater access to know-how and wine technologies, as well as capacity building in order to improve the quality and competiveness of the wine produced in this area in the South of Chile. More information: email@example.com
5 THE DIRECTOR OF SUSTAINABILITY AT UC DAVIS
HAD A BUSY SCHEDULE IN SANTIAGO AND TALCA Camille Kirk participated in the International Sustainable Campus Network Meeting (in Talca), in a dialogue on water governance and met sustainability managers of the vineyards Concha y Toro and VSPT Wine Group.
Kirk shared experiences on best practices with the sustainability managers from UC Davis Chile’s business partners, Concha y Toro and VSPT Wine Group: Valentina Lira and Barbara Wolff, together with their teams.
UC Davis is the most sustainable university in the world as was established by the most recent GreenMetric. One important part of this achievement lies in the hands of Camille Kirk, Director of Sustainability of UC Davis, who visited us in September.
For this purpose, Kirk was also the protagonist in the dialogue, “Integrated water governance: California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act”. This activity grouped in one conversation representatives of the public, trade and academic sectors linked to water management. On behalf of UC Davis Chile doctors Alan Bennett, Executive Director and the hydrologist Carlos Flores also took part. The dialogue was organized jointly between UC Davis Chile and the United States Embassy in Chile, through the American Academy of Science and Technology.
Green Metric is a ranking created in 2010 by the University of Indonesia. It measures five extensive areas: energy and climate change (such as the use energies and greenhouse gas emissions); generation, recycling and waste management; conservation and reuse of water; transport and education (courses and publications related to sustainability).
On October,2nd the Education Section of El Mercurio published an interesting interview with Kirk. To read it, click here: https://goo.gl/wLsKnu
Camille Kirk together with Ivan Coydan, Director of the Sustainable Campus Network and of University Social Responsibility at the University of Talca.
Given her experience on the subject, Camille Kirk was the main speaker of the “Third InternationaI SustainabIe Campus Network Meeting (RCS); Sustainability and Territory”, an event held at the University of Talca. RCS aims for universities to be “zero waste and self-supplied by clean energies….an example of sustainability for every organization in society.”
Kirk -who holds a Geography degree from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)- also has vast experience in water management at UC Davis. In fact, in 2014 she created the first “Plan of Action” for water in response to a severe drought that hit California (Drought Response Action Plan).
Camille Kirk in a meeting with the sustainability managers from Concha Toro and VSPT Wine Group vineyards.
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VITICULTURE AT UC DAVIS COLLABORATING WITH UC DAVIS CHILE’S PROJECTS David Block, Head of the Department of Viticulture and Enology at UC Davis, is a doctor in chemical engineering, holds the Ernest Gallo Endowed Chair and specializes in the optimization of the winemaking process, including fermentation based on data mining and sensing. Another of his major subjects is sustainability: he played a key role in the creation of the first experimental wine cellar with LEED Platinum certification at the UC Davis Robert Mondavi Institute. Block came to share his knowledge about these areas with UC Davis Chile’s business partner, the vineyard Concha y Toro and with the wine industry: he gave the talk “New tendencies and opportunities in wine cellars” to Wines of Chile.
as to capture the CO2 generated in processes like fermentation. The “Revista del Campo” from El Mercurio interviewed doctor Block and published a detailed note about the experimental winery. To read it, click on the link: https://goo.gl/8gHPT6
At present the experimental winery has solar panels and is equipped with systems to clean rain water by reverse osmosis and to remove chemicals for reutilizing the water used to wash the tanks. The final objective is for all the water for the cellar to come from the rain, and the energy from the sun, as well David Block (center, right) with Wines of Chile’s representatives.
Av. Andrés Bello 2299, Of. 1102, Providencia, Santiago de Chile Phone: +569 4475 4718 firstname.lastname@example.org
We invite you to read the last edition of our newsletter. The opinion column is by our hydrologist, Carlos Flores, where he reflects on the...
Published on Oct 20, 2017
We invite you to read the last edition of our newsletter. The opinion column is by our hydrologist, Carlos Flores, where he reflects on the...