Page 1

  !#"  $%&')(*+,-( . &/ 0)-1$2( 3465876465196:<;59>=@?-46ACBD4E:FB1BG6H ?-4659I=KJL:MG6HLB15N:MOPJL:<G69RQIACJ AC9E;8:TSUAC:M9V=MHL5W?P51XCX Y 96:Z?-9\[]34R5^5`_R=M;76Xa5@?-4RACBD4bAaJWG6JLG>=TXCXacdBAeSU5QfACJgSU4R5KBD4>=T96h<5%AC976AaSLBD4f:MO!SU465 5196h<AC9R5i:MOP=j;8:ZklAC96hjkM546AaBXa5W=MJAaS =T7676HL:<=MBD465J1[imn9V:<G6HoSLHL5=pSU;59qS?P5gJr4>=MXaXs96:MS Jr7t51BAaOucvSL465wSncl7x5y:MO*?z=k<5y;8:MSLAC:<9@Aa9{kM:<XakM5Q\|t=M96Q^:<G6H}HL5JrG6XaSLJ}?-AaXCX~x5i=M7R76XCAaB=M~6Xa5 SL:Jr:<G696Q%:<HSU:WXaACh<4qS[ 3465jSLHL5=pSU;59qSi?€5@=MQ6:<7RSg=MJLJrG6;851JySU46=TSiSU4R5j?z=k<5vAaJi76Hr:<7>=Mhq=pSU5QAa9IJL:M;85 ;5Q6AaG6;%|M?-AaSL4Hr5Jr7t51B1S,SU:?-46ACBD4WSU4R5}Jr:<G6HrB5M|l:<HsSL465-:<~6JL51HrkM5H|l:<H~x:MSU4‚|F=THL5;:ƒkq„ Aa96h6[s346AaJ€?-AaXCX…AC9qSUHr:FQRG6B5†=M9v=MJ‡cF;;51SUH‡c~t5`Sn?P5159@SU465!JL:<G6HrB5 =M9RQNSU465†:<~6JL51HrkM5H[ ˆ XaSU4R:<G6h<4i?€5!Jr4>=MXaXRG6Jr5}SL46ACJJL=M;85zO‰:MHL;8=MXCAaJL;ŠO‰:<HsXaACh<4qSsSL46ACJAaJ2=M9=M7676Hr:Z_FAa;N=TSLAC:<9‚| =MJ!?P5 Y 96:Z?‹O‰HL:<;ŒSL465i76HrAC96B1AC76Xa5w:MO,Hr5X=pSUAaklAeSncvSU4>=TS!SU4651HL5iAaJ†96:v7RHL51O‰51HLHr5QO‰HU=T;85 :MOŽHr51O‰51HL59RB58XaACh<4qS€Q6:F51Jz96:MSz96551Q@=i;851Q6ACG6;Aa9N?-46ACBD4vSL:i76HL:M7>=Mhq=TSL5Z‘’|6=M96QjSL4>=TS =MXaXSU4>=TS†;N=pSLSU51HLJ}ACJ}SU4658“D”`•e–M—˜u™M”};:MSUAa:<9K:TOsSU465yJL:<G6HrB5g=T96Q^SU4R5i:<~6Jr5HrkM5H1[š!5`k{„ 51HrSU4R5XC51JLJ1|t=TJ}Xa:<96h=MJSU4R5›kM5XC:lBAeSUAa5JAC9qkM:<XakM5Q=THL5 96:MSSL:F:BXa:<JL5SU:WXaACh<4qS-JL7x551Q6J| :<GRHHL5JrG6XaS-?-AaXCX‚~x5 œ{G6AaSL5 =MBB1G6HU=TSL5›O‰:MHXCAChM4{S[ %ž*Ÿ- ‡ž ¡¢P££¤¦¥Ž§@¥Ž¨y¥Ž©‚ª«¬®­%¯!°*± ²l¯!°z³z´›µ«·¶-¶€¸z²…¶-¶,³z´ µ¹«¶P°-°€² ³}ºP» ¼ GR767t:MJL5WSU4>=TSy=@JL:<G6HrB58ACJ ;8:ZklAC9Rh@?-AeSU4½k<5Xa:FB1AaSnc¾T¿†SU:Z?P=MHLQRJi=M9E:<~6JL51HrkM5HyAa9d= ;5Q6AaG6;ÀAa9v?-46ACBD4@SU465?P=k<5yJr7t515QKACJ-Áƒ[,mÂOÃSU4R5›O‰Hr5œ{G659RB1c@:MOÄSU465 JL:MG6HLB15wAaJ}ÅÄ|6AC9 =oSUAa;85zÆ*AaS?-AaXCXR46=ZkM5†51;8AeSLSU51QÅxÆ*?P=k<51J|6~6GFS€Aa9gSU465-HL51h<AC:M9Aa9gO‰HL:<9qS,:MOxSU465}JL:<GRHLB5 SL465Jr5w?-ACXaX\4>=k<5w~t515951;8AeSLSL5Q@AC9qSU:8=8QRACJrSU=M96B15jÁzǾM¿r‘¦Æ’[z34{G6J}SU465 ?P=ZkM5Xa596hMSL4 AaJ È6ÉRÊ ÁPÇÅxÆ ¾M¿r‘¦Æ :<H È>ÉRÊ ÁPÇÅ ¾T¿L‘ Ë mn9V=8SLAC;5›Æ!=NJ‡SD=TSLAC:<9>=THrc@:<~6Jr5H‡k<5H?-AaXCXŽHL51B5Aek<5ySL465y?P=k<5J Aa9=jQ6AaJrSD=T96B5yÁ’Æ’| ?-46AaBD4%?-AaXCXt~t5›ÁDÆrÌ È É ?P=k<5Xa596hTSU46J1|xJr:SL465 :<~6Jr5HrkM5Q^O‰Hr5œ{G65196B1cv?-AaXCX\~x5 Å…É Ê Å‚Á1Ì6ÍÁPÇd¾M¿r‘ ?-4659%SU465 JL:MG6HLB15›;:Zk<51J}SL:ƒ?P=MHrQ6JSU465 :<~6Jr5H‡k<5H†=TS}=gJL7x551Q^¾T¿`[ ΁ÏZЃ„DÏ


Doppler Effect - moving source

Ñ*Aah<G6Hr5i΁ÏZÐR[eÏ<҆34R5W?P=k<51JwJr76HL5=MQ6AC9Rhv:<GRSO‰HL:M;Ó=j;:ZkFAa96hvJL:MG6HLB15M|JL4R:ƒ?-Aa96hvSU465 ?P=k<5Xa596hTSU46J}B:<;76Hr5JLJr5QKAC9vO‰HL:<9qS-:MOÄSU465 Jr:<G6HLB15M|>5’_FSL596QR5Q~x546Aa96Q@AaS[ š!:TSU5NSL4>=TSgÁ465Hr5vACJ›SU465jJr7t515Q·:MOSL465N?P=ZkM5@AC9dSL465j;5Q6AaG6;ÔAC9d?-46AaBD4ISU465 Jr:<G6HLB15 ACJ;:ƒklAa96h6[ š!:Z?JrG6767x:<JL5SU4>=TS SL4658:M~6JL51Hrk<51HiACJ ;:ZkFAa96h@?-AaSU4E=%kM5Xa:FB1AaSncV¾pÕy=?P=ZcVO‰Hr:<; SL465wJr:<G6HrB5pÖ1[P×E5yB=M9KSU=MB Y XC5 SU46AaJ!B=MJL5wQ6ACHr5B`SUXacjAC9@SU465wJU=M;5›?P=cK=MJ}?€5wSLHL5=TSU51Q SL465@;8:ZklAC96hJr:<G6HrB5M[mÂO†SL465@:<~6Jr5HrkM5H;8:ZkM5Jg?-AaSL4b=JL7x551Qb¾pÕ=Z?P=cO‰HL:<;SU465 Jr:<G6HLB15½96:TSU5NSL465vJLAah<9IB:M9{kM59qSUAa:<9IØ ~x:MSU4Jr:<G6HLB15@=M96Q·:<~6Jr5H‡k<5HgJr7t515Q6JW4>=kM5 ~x5519%;5=TJLG6Hr5Q%=MXC:M96hySU4R5Q6ACHr5B1SLAC:<9v:TOÃSLHU=k<51X:MOŽSU465JrACh<96=MXÙ|{O‰HL:<;SU4R5JL:<G6HrB5SU: SL465!:M~6JL51Hrk<51HD‘’|FSU4R59NAa9N=SUAa;85zÆ*SU465}9{G6;i~x5H,:MO‚?P=k<5J€?-46ACBD48HL5=TBD48SU4R5!:<~RJL5H‡k<51H =MHr5SU46:<Jr5€Aa9y=-Q6AaJrSD=T96B5€Á’ÆǾTÕrƒ|MJL:-SU4R5€9{G6;i~x5HÃ:MOF?z=k<51Js:<~6Jr5H‡k<5QyACJ€ÍÁDÆǾpÕUÆr‘LÌ È | ÚnÛwÜ݇Þ`ß,àޒá1܅âÙãƒäæåFâÙãƒÜåÍÞ`àP܂Þ`åFâÍãpÜtçƒèÙ܇éäæê`ëpåR݇Þ1åÜ‚äíìpîtÜ\åÍëƒçTÜrèÍäæàzçTêåÜ‚ê`ß,âÍãƒÜ‚îãƒê1ïíÜ\åðZåâÍÜrà Þ,é1܇ïæêZݦäíâ‰ðñò`óDôZîãƒäõÝÂã!îäæïæïqö`äæé`ÜÄâÍãƒÜåÍê`ëƒèÂݦÜsÞ,é1܇ïæêZݦäíâ‰ðñò`óDôâÍãpÜ*î\ÞUé`ÜLåtހé`ÜrïíêZ݇ä÷â‰ð-øtñ›ò`ó’ôƒÞ’ßpù ú èÙäí߃öPâÙãƒÜê ú åÍ܇èÙé`ÜrèxâÙêèÍÜLå‰âLôƒåêPâÙãpÞDâŽßƒêDî û<üTýKû*þ ø\ñyø ò ó‡ÿ Waves spread out behind, compressed in front of, moving source

Doppler.mcd

1

25/03/99 12:14

΁ÏZЃ„




h<AeklAC96hW=M9@:<~RJL5H‡k<51Q^O‰HL51œlGR596B`c

xÅ É Ê Å ÁPÇÁ ¾TÕD‘ ?-4659%SU465 :<~6Jr5H‡k<5H}ACJ;:ZklAC96h=?z=cjO‰Hr:<;ÀSL465 JL:<G6HrB5›=TS!=gJL7x551Q^¾pÕ[ mÂSACJWBXa5=MHiSL4>=TSW?€5^B=T9fB=MXCB1G6X=TSL5jSU465v?P=k<5Xa596hTSU4]Jr51S8G67f~qcSL465K;:ZklAC96h Jr:<G6HLB15M|…=M9RQ%SL4659@SU465 5 ‚51B1S}SU46AaJ4>=MJ}=TS}=W;8:ZklAC96hg:M~6JL51Hrk<51H|…JL: ?-4R59^~x:MSL4@SL465 JL:<GRHLB5w=M96Q@SU4R5›:M~6JL51Hrk<51H†=THL5 ;8:ZklAC9Rh Å É Ê ÅsÍÁ€ÇI¾TÕD‘LÌ6ÁPÇI¾T¿L‘ SD= Y AC9Rh8=g7x:<JLAeSUAek<5ok<51XC:lBAeSncv=MJ-~x5AC9Rh8=TXC:<96hiSL465 JL:<GRHLB5’„n:<~RJL5H‡k<51H†Q6AaJrSD=T96B5T[ 



 

 "!$#%&#

>Ñ :<HW5`_R=M;76Xa5M|zB1:<96JLAaQ65H8=½SLHU=MAa9f4R:F:MSL5H:MO†O‰Hr5œ{G65196B1c Ï ^:M9]=M9fAC9qSU51HLBAeSnc SLHU=MAa9WSLHU=k<51XCXaAC96h›=TS!Ï Y ; T4\[ÄmÂO\SU465-SUHL=MAC9ACJ,=M7R76HL:q=TBD46AC96hR|{SL465-O‰HL5œ{G65196B1c?-46AaBD4 AaJ465=MHrQ%?-AaXCXt~t5 Å ÉRÊ Ï qÌ6 †Ç Ï IÏ ’Ì ’‘ Ê Ï Ë ×#4>=pS-AaOÃc<:<G\|6SL465 :<~6Jr5HrkM5H1|x?€5Hr5w;:ZkFAa96hiSU:Z?P=MHLQRJ†=gJrSU=TSUAa:<9>=MH‡cNSLHU=MAa9 Å ÉRÊ Ï I #Ï IÏ DÌ ’‘rÌ Ê Ï Jr46:Z?-AC96hSU46=TS@SU4651HL5VACJ@=JLXaACh<4qSvXC=MB Y :MOwJrcl;;85`SUH‡c<|!?-4R59SL465k<51XC:lBAaSncbACJÏ 7x5HrB59qS!:MOÃSU465 JL:MG696Q@k<5Xa:FB1AaSncM[ &'(*),+

&(

.-

&'/(1032 2 (

2 2 (

4(10

4(5 /6 (7

8691),+

:

&'/(;0

<2 2 (>=

&(10

4(5 6 (7

2 2 (

46'1),+/

4(

 

#%8?"@"A3BDCFEHGJILKNMLK OQP CFRSMTM UV@KTK

mn9f=MJrSLHL:<9R:<;yc<|,HL51QfJr46AaOuSLJ=MHL5vB159qSUHL=MX-AC9·Q651SL5Hr;8Aa96AC96hSL465@;8:TSUAC:M9:MO†:M~ r5B`SUJ| 51AaSU4R5H2SU465oHL=TSU5!:MOHr5B51JLJrAC:<9v:MO\HL5;:MSL5!hq=TX=p_FAC51J€:MH€SU4R5†HL:TSD=TSLAC:<9:MO~6Aa9>=MH‡c8J‡SD=MHrJ[ W

 

;$XD <@ZYX@4[ #\P CQVNK"]

3465 k<51XC:lBAeSnc@:MO=TSL:<;J}Aa9@46:MS!hq=MJL51J!hMAak<51J o:M7676XC51H-~6HL:q=TQ6596Aa96h:MO*SL465wJr7t51B1SLHU=MX XaAC9651J:MOs=pSU:<;ACB!5;ACJLJrAC:<9‚[ _^

΁ÏZЃ„

`2


a\ b&dc@#%&  < dBe  ?&f&#8! d;gh \ i"[S

×#46519dHr5X=pSUAaklAaJrSUAaBy5 ‚51B1SUJw=MHr5Aa96BXaG6Q651Q\|ŽAaS ACJ :<9RXac^SL465HL5XC=TSUAek<5ikM5XC:lBAeSnc:MOP=M7F„ 76Hr:q=MBD4%¾8?-46AaBD4K;8=TSrSU5HrJ|6Xa5=MQRAC96hgSU:=M9@:<~RJL5H‡k<51Q^O‰HL51œlGR596B`c Å…É Ê Å Ï-Ï ÇI¾F¾FÌMÌMÁÁ Ë mÂS}ACJ}=M9KAC9qSU51HL51JrSUAa96h5`_F5HrBACJr5wSL:8Jr46:Z? SU4>=pS!SL465wHr5XC=TSUAekFAaJrSLACB=M9RQK96:M9F„nHr5X=pSUAaklAaJrSUAaB 5’_R7RHL5JrJLAa:<96J!O‰:MH}Å É Ì<Å:<96XecvQ6A ‚51H~{c@SL5HL;J-AC9qk<:MXaklAC96hgSL465 JLœ{G>=MHr5y:MOľFÌMÁp[ ˆ J-O=MH =MJ-HL=MQ>=MHJr7t515Q@SUHU=T76J-h<:6|RSL465 BX=TJLJLAaB=MX5’_F76HL51JLJLAa:<9%JLG B51J 

k m jll

n=

o

bp

΁ÏZЃ„

ts

rq

1B24 Waves Optics and Acoustics Lecture 19 of 33 (UCL)  

1B24 Waves Optics and Acoustics Lecture 19 of 33 (UCL), astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, general relativity, quantum mechanics, physics,...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you